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					Facilitating spoken language
 development in the regular
          classroom
                   September 28th & 29th
                   Winnipeg, MB

                   Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C)

                   Audiologist/Certified Auditory Verbal
                   Therapist
Typical Language Development




                    Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                              28/29 2009
HOW MUCH DO CHILDREN SAY IN A DAY?

Child        Age          Total # words        # Types




Katrin       17 months

Carsten      3yrs 6 mo

Gabi         5 yrs 4 mo

Frederik     8 yrs 7 mo
                                          Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                    28/29 2009
HOW MUCH DO CHILDREN SAY IN A DAY?

Child        Age        Total # words            # Types

Katrin       17 months        13,800             1,860
Nicole       20 months        11,700
Andreas      2 yrs 1 mo       20,200             2,210
Carsten      3 yrs 6 mo       37,700             4,790
Gabi         5 yrs 4 mo       30,600             2,490
Frederik     8 yrs 7 mo       24,700             3,960
Roman        9 yrs 2 mo       24,400             3,630
Markus       11 yrs 4 mo      37,200             5,020
Christiane   12 yrs 2 mo      22,600             3,580
Axel         14 yrs 10 mo     22,900             3,040
                                 Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                           28/29 2009
Overall findings:


   Average of 20 to 30 thousand words spoken
    by each child in a day, from 3 years of age
   Daily vocabulary of around 3,000 words
   Speed at which they speak ranges from 46.2
    wpm to187.5 wpm.
   100 wpm at 3 yrs and average of 150 wpm
    by kindergarten.

                                Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                          28/29 2009
“The acquisition of a first language
is the most complex skill anyone ever
learns. And this task
needs to be virtually complete
by the time a child reaches school
age.”

(Prof. David Crystal)
                          Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                    28/29 2009
Pre school language development

   Consider overall development

   Language growth reflects social, emotional,
    cognitive and behavioural development

   Critical period for vocabulary and
    conceptual development – coincides with
    neural plasticity
                                   Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                             28/29 2009
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

   Key concepts

   First year of life

   Pre school language development

   Language growth K – Gr 3
                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
Language: key concepts:


   PRAGMATICS – what language is used for.
   SEMANTICS – meaning of the utterance.
   SYNTAX – rule system or grammar.
   PHONOLOGY – rules governing how the
    sounds of a language may be combined.


                              Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                        28/29 2009
What is language – Key concepts:

   Receptive language – what we understand
    – this develops first

   Expressive language – what we use

   Speech – the sound system used to produce
    spoken language


                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
  The literacy pyramid:

Writing


Reading

Expressive
Language


Receptive
language

   “When I was born, I was so surprised I couldn’t talk for a year and a
   half” (Gracie Allen)
                                                    Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                              28/29 2009
Literacy Development is Based on

 Phonemic Awareness
 Phonics
 Reading Fluency
 Vocabulary development
 Comprehension



                           Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                     28/29 2009
“Literacy begins with speaking and
listening. Adults are so familiar with
these faculties we rarely
acknowledge them as complex,
learned skills, except when
visiting a foreign country.”

(Colin Grigg)
                               WHY?
                                   Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                             28/29 2009
What is language?

   Language is a code

   We are continually
    cracking the language code

   How do we, as adults do this?


                                 Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
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Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
Children are actively learning language

   Must have joint attention (shared focus)
   Must have representational ability (words stand for
    things)
   Must carry out semantic mapping (work out what a
    word stands for)
   Must identify words in stream of speech
   Must store and retrieve words
   Must learn that sharing ideas requires
    combinations of words
   Must learn rules for combining words (grammar)

                                     Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                               28/29 2009
“The beautiful thing about learning is
nobody can take it away form you”
(B.B.King)




                             Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                       28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
PRINCIPLES OF EARLY LANGUAGE
LEARNING



   Language is learned through interaction




                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
Another Principle:

   Human beings are predisposed to learn
    language early in life – children are
    actively learning their native language




                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
More principles of early language
learning:


   Patterns are learned       “…blow…”
    through hearing many
    repetitions, rather than
    explicit teaching:




                                    Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                              28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
Two more principles….


Language is learned in use

&

All systems are learned together
(words, meanings,
syntax and speech sounds)
                            Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                      28/29 2009
All systems learned together

The ingredients:   …….

(words,
grammar,
sounds)


The end product:
(spoken
language)
                         Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                   28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
“What we have to learn to do, we learn by
doing” (Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.)




                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
Learning to swim:


   Need to be in the water to learn to swim…

   Need to be actively involved

   Need assistance to acquire skills


                                   Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                             28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
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Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
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Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
How we keep kids afloat..


   Repeat, repeat, repeat…
   Slow down our own speech
   Emphasize important (key) words
   Break down sentences
   Use objects, pictures and gestures to help convey
    meaning

                     PARENTESE
                                      Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
Role of caregiver involves..

 Helping the child, as the inexperienced
 conversational partner, to want to share
 thoughts, ideas and feelings with
 confidence and joy. Assisting the child in
 taking conversational turns provides the
 framework upon which typical language
 acquisition develops.
                            Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                      28/29 2009
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

   Key concepts

   First year of life

   Pre school language development

   Language growth K – Gr 3
                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
First year

“ A child’s first word has behind it a history
  of listening, observing and experimenting
  with sounds and highly selective
  imitations of people”

(M Whitehead, 2002: Developing Language
  and Literacy with Young Children)

                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
Perceiving sounds

   Perceiving does not = understanding

   Perceiving leads to understanding

   Perceiving = Sound-receiving:
    “How far back do we have to go?”


                                Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                          28/29 2009
Auditory abilities in newborns

    Structures of the ear are fully formed in
    utero by 5 months. Babies show:
o   Close to adult sensitivity to sounds
o   Head turn to sound source (2 days)
o   Prefer human to non human sounds (2
    weeks)
o   Recognize mothers voice (1 day)
o   Ability to discriminate fine speech contrasts
                                   Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                             28/29 2009
Listening skills – what are they?

   Auditory detection
   Auditory attention
   Auditory recognition
   Auditory discrimination
   Auditory memory
   Auditory sequencing


                              Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                        28/29 2009
More auditory skills:

   Auditory comprehension
   Auditory integration
   Auditory feedback
   Auditory application

“We have two ears and one mouth so that
 we can listen twice as much as we
 speak.” (Epictetus)
                             Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                       28/29 2009
More seriously:

“ A child‟s first word has behind it a history
  of listening, observing and experimenting
  with sounds and highly selective
  imitations of people.”

(M. Whitehead, 2002: Developing Language
  and Literacy in Young Children)

                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
Key concept – Hearing Age

 Hearing age is calculated in order to
 guide our expectations, assessment and
 intervention.

 Hearing age is the difference between the
 child‟s chronological age and the amount
 of time hearing and learning to listen.

                            Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                      28/29 2009
Hearing age

 A child is identified at birth with a mild
 hearing loss. The child is appropriately
 aided at 3 months of age and the family
 choose to use spoken language.

 At two years of age this child‟s hearing
 age is 21 months.

                              Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                        28/29 2009
Hearing age


A child is identified at 20 months of age with a
profound hearing loss. Powerful hearing aids give no
benefit and the child receives a cochlear implant at
30 months of age. Spoken language is chosen.

At five years of age the child‟s hearing age is 30
months.

His listening and spoken language skills will be
similar to those of a child at two and a half years of
age                                  Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                    28/29 2009
Activity



 Work out the hearing age of the
 children in your handouts



                       Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                 28/29 2009
ACTIVITY


 As you watch the video clips, make a note
 of:

 …the ways in which adults help children
 develop early listening and language
 skills.

                            Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                      28/29 2009
First year comprehension:

   2 to 4 months – response to different tones
    (soothing/playful/angry)
   6 to 9 months – responds to familiar
    utterances in context (Here‟s daddy/Say bye-
    bye)
   By 12 months – identification of up to 20
    word meanings, without visual clues.
   Talk embedded in the here and now
                                 Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                           28/29 2009
Making sounds

   Birth to 8 weeks – „reflexive/vegetative‟
    noises
   2 to 4 months – „cooing‟ – vowel like sounds
    with consonant like sounds.
   4 to 6 months – Vocal play – more definite
    and controlled; pitch glides.
   6 to 8 months – reduplicated babble
   8 to 10 months – variegated babble
                                 Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                           28/29 2009
Babbling and early speech..

   Avoid clusters of consonants (spr.str)

   Vowels occur before consonants

   Friction sounds replaced by stops

   Characterized by use of stops and nasals
                                  Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                            28/29 2009
    First words – 9 to 18 months


   Variegated babble still evident into second year.
   More rhythmical and melodic expressive jargon
    or „scribble talk‟.
   Appearance of „proto words‟
   First true words are heard
   Homophones are used – words sound the same
    so meaning is derived from context
   Over-generalization – all men are „daddy‟ Aud (C) Sept
                                      Petra Smith M.Sc.
                                             28/29 2009
ACTIVITY


 As you watch the video clips, make a note
 of:

 …the ways in which adults help children
 develop early listening and language
 skills.

                            Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                      28/29 2009
18 to 24 months

   Comprehension is not reliant upon context
   Can talk about outside here and now
   Understanding of simple directions grows
   2 word sentences begin
   Vocabulary grows
   Negatives are used
   Questions emerge (yes/no; where? whadat?)

                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
18 to 24 months..

   Brief conversations can be held – 2 or 3
    turns usually, about familiar or context based
    content.

   Responses are still limited however, often
    leaving the adult feeling as though they are
    „talking to the wall‟!

                                  Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                            28/29 2009
ACTIVITY


 As you watch the video clips, make a note
 of:

 …the ways in which adults help children
 develop early listening and language
 skills.

                            Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                      28/29 2009
The Third Year

   Three, four and five word sentences emerge.
   Sentences become more grammatically
    correct.
   By three
             -helping/auxilliary verbs (can/will)
             -verb „to be‟ – „am‟ „are‟ „is‟
   Expect many errors with these verb forms
                                 Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                           28/29 2009
The Third Year

   Articles „a‟ „the‟ are used (“That a kitty”)
   Negatives „can‟t and „don‟t‟ appear.
   Pronouns develop (“Me want cookie”)
   Children begin to ask “Why…?”
   Early conceptual understanding is evident –
    in/out; big/little; top/bottom; etc..
   A number of turns are now taken in a
    conversation initiated by the child.
                                  Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                            28/29 2009
3 to 5 Years

   Complex sentences are used to link two
    ideas (I had a cookie and Toby had two).
   „because‟ and „when‟ are used to link
    sentences.
   Verbs such as „think‟ wish‟ „pretend‟ used.
   Grammar is more complex.
   Normal developmental errors abound (eg:
    past tense)
                                  Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                            28/29 2009
    The development of stories

   Pretending with toys
   Treating pictures as real objects
   Pretending with an invisible object
   Conversational narrative
   Making a story with toys
   Making a story with toys and a book
   Planning, drawing and telling a story
   Enjoying a story from a book
   Acting out a story
   Retelling and discussing with no support materialAud (C) Sept
                                          Petra Smith M.Sc.
                                                   28/29 2009
Story telling at 3

   Stories (narratives) become a regular part of the
    child‟s conversation.

   Short stories of 1 or 2 sentences occur

   They are usually about their own experiences, or
    based on known stories.

   The child may be unwilling to „share the turns‟

                                       Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                 28/29 2009
Story telling at 4

   Stories are longer – up to 4 or 5 complex
    sentences, usually about past events.
   The story contains –:
    an introduction (“You know what happened to my dog?”)
    background (“Well, he was out in the yard..”)
    information (“…and he made this big hole”)
    ending (“..and he buried my toy tractor!”)
                                         Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                   28/29 2009
Story telling at 5

   More details are now provided (“My dog Sam likes to
    play in the yard while I have my supper”)

   An evaluation or judgement may be made at
    the end (“I didn‟t play with that tractor any more. I don‟t know how
    Sam knew that!”)

   Imagined stories are more involved – there
    are no boundaries!
   Predictions and problem solving may be
    involved.
                                                 Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                           28/29 2009
Julian Astle (Dir. CentreForum): Why
the under 5s should be our priority



“….it is in the early years, rather than
at the age of 18, that the battle for
Social justice and social mobility will
ultimately be won or lost”


                             Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                       28/29 2009
K to Gr 3

Age 6 – Social and linguistic horizons are
 rapidly broadening and students are
 immersed in a sea of idiomatic and
 increasingly abstract language.
Child: “What do you want to eat ?”

Dad: “I‟d like some sausages please”

Child: “We haven‟t got any sausages”
                               Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                         28/29 2009
Dad: “Have you got any steak?”

Child: “Yes, we‟ve got steak.” (Turns to go)


Dad: “Hey, hold on, you can‟t rush off like that. If a
 customer asks for steak you have to ask him
 “How would you like your steak?” That‟s very
 important if you‟re going to be a waitress”

Child: “How would you like your steak?”


                                     Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                               28/29 2009
Dad: “I‟ll have mine well done.”

Child: (trotting off to the kitchen): “OK, we‟ll do the
 best we can!”.



                                      Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                                28/29 2009
High level language

   By 7 years of age, children are used to the
    idea that with language, things “are not
    always what they seem”
   To “kick the bucket” doesn‟t always mean “to
    kick the bucket!”
   By 8 they are experimenting and composing
    their own jokes
                                 Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                           28/29 2009
Lifelong learning




What does “high doh” mean?




                      Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                28/29 2009
Put into context…



“On the day of the reception they
  were all at high doh at the office”



                          Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                    28/29 2009
“What did mummy broom say to the
baby broom?”

“Go to sweep”



                        Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                  28/29 2009
What‟s five Q and five Q?



             Ten Q.

         You‟re welcome!


                        Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                  28/29 2009
What is at the end of everything?




       The letter „g‟



                        Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                  28/29 2009
What animal can jump higher than a
house?




 Any animal. Houses can‟t jump.


                       Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                 28/29 2009
Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
          28/29 2009
ACTIVITY


 As you watch the video clips, make a note
 of:

 …the ways in which adults help children
 develop early listening and language
 skills.

                            Petra Smith M.Sc. Aud (C) Sept
                                      28/29 2009