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Inhalant Abuse in Kentucky

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					  Inhalant Abuse in
      Kentucky
Broad Issues for Consideration by the
  SPF- SIG Strategic Planning and
         Related Committees

            Developed by:
      SPF SIG Data Analysis Committee
Onset

          usually occurs between late
 First use
  childhood and early adolescence.

 Accessibility, low cost, and
  inconspicuousness often make inhalants
  one of the first substances abused.
Onset (cont.)
   Inhalant abuse is considered a „gateway‟ drug, and is
    connected to the use of multiple illicit drugs and IV
    drug use.

   Adolescents in juvenile detention facilities appear to be
    at particularly high risk of starting inhalant use early and
    using multiple drugs.

        Source: Wu, Pilowsky, Schlenger, 2004
National Comparison

   According to the National 2003 Youth Risk Behavior
    Surveillance Survey, 12.1% of high school students
    have sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol
    spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high at
    least once in their lifetime, compared to 14% of
    Kentucky high school students .
2004 Kentucky Incentives for
Prevention (KIP) Survey
   On how many occasions (if any) have you sniffed glue, breathed
    the contents of an aerosol spray can, or inhaled other gases or
    sprays, in order to get high in your lifetime?


   1-2 occasions:
      7% of 6th graders
      9% of 8th graders
      8% of 10th graders
      6% of 12th graders
2004 Kentucky Incentives for
Prevention (KIP) Survey
   On how many occasions (if any) have you sniffed glue, breathed
    the contents of an aerosol spray can, or inhaled other gases or
    sprays, in order to get high in the past 12 months?


   1-2 occasions
      3% of 6th graders
      6% of 8th graders
      4% of 10th graders
      3% of 12th graders
2004 Kentucky Incentives for
Prevention (KIP) Survey
   On how many occasions (if any) have you sniffed glue, breathed
    the contents of an aerosol spray can, or inhaled other gases or
    sprays, in order to get high in the past 30 days?


 1-2    occasions
     2% of 6th graders
     4% of 8th graders
     2% of 10th graders
     1% of 12th graders
Inhalant Administration
   There are more than a thousand different household and
    commercial products that comprise the term “inhalants.” These
    products can be intentionally abused by sniffing or “huffing”(the
    act of inhaling through one‟s mouth.)
   Products like rubber cement or correction fluid are sniffed or
    huffed directly from their containers. Alternately, users may
    sniff fumes from plastic bags over the head, or sniff a cloth
    saturated with the substance.
   Other modes of administration include direct inhalation from an
    aerosol can or a balloon filled with nitrous oxide and inhaling
    intoxicated vapors from a heated substance.
Common Inhalants

 The   most commonly used inhalants are:

    Glue
    ShoePolish
    Gasoline



                          Source: McGarvey et al., 1999
Other Commonly Abused Products
   Adhesives
      Model airplane glue, rubber cement, household glue.
   Aerosols
      Spray paint, hair spray, air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector.
   Anesthetics
      Nitrous oxide, ether, chloroform.
   Cleaning agents
      Dry cleaning fluid, spot remover, degreaser.
   Food products
      Vegetable cooking spray, dessert topping spray (whipped cream), “whippets” nitrous oxide).
   Gases
      Nitrous oxide, butane, propane, helium.
   Solvents and gases
      Nail polish remover, paint thinner, paint remover, typing correction fluid and thinner, toxic
        markers, pure toluene, toluol, cigar lighter fluid, gasoline, carburetor cleaner, octane booster.



     Source: National Inhalant Prevention Coalition.
Kentucky Admissions to Drug
Treatment

 29 admissions for inhalant abuse in 2001
 30 admissions for inhalant abuse in 2002
 46 admissions for inhalant abuse in 2003




      Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy, State of Kentucky Profile of Drug Indicators, August 2004.
Demographics of Users

 Several studies have  found that, nationally,
  among all American racial/ethnic groups,
  African Americans are least likely to use
  inhalants, while American Indians are most
  likely to use inhalants.


                 Source: Wu, Pilowsky, Schlenger, 2004
Withdrawal
   Continued inhalant use causes tolerance to the inhalant, and
    physical withdrawal symptoms may develop within several hours
    to a few days after discontinuation.
   Withdrawal symptoms include:
       Sweating
       Rapid pulse
       Hand tremors
       Insomnia
       Nausea
       Vomiting
       Physical agitation
       Anxiety
       Hallucinations
       Grand Mal Seizures
Street Terms for Inhalants
   Air blast                             Kick
    Ames (amyl nitrite)                    Laughing gas (nitrous oxide)
    Amys (amyl nitrite)                    Medusa
    Aroma of men (isobutyl nitrite)        Moon gas
    Bagging (using inhalants)              Oz
    Bolt (isobutyl nitrite)                Pearls (amyl nitrite)
    Boppers (amyl nitrite)                 Poor man's pot
    Buzz bomb (nitrous oxide)              Poppers (isobutyl nitrite, amyl
    Climax (isobutyl nitrite)              nitrite)
    Discorama                              Quicksilver (isobutyl nitrite)
    Glading (using inhalant)               Rush (isobutyl nitrite)
    Gluey (one who sniffs or inhales       Shoot the breeze (nitrous oxide)
    glue)                                  Snappers (isobutyl nitrite)
    Hardware (isobutyl nitrite)            Snorting (using inhalant)
    Hippie crack                           Thrust (isobutyl nitrite)
    Honey oil                              Toncho (octane booster)
    Huff                                   Whippets (nitrous oxide)
    Huffing (sniffing an inhalant)         Whiteout (isobutyl nitrite)
                                          Source: Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse.
Signs of Use
        Slurred speech
        Drunk, dizzy, or dazed appearance
        Unusual breath odor
        Chemical smell on clothing
        Paint stains on clothing, body or face
        Red eyes
        Runny nose
        Spots or sores around the mouth
        Loss of appetite
        Excitability or irritability

             Source: Tips for Teens: The Truth About Inhalants, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
              Administration (SAMHSA), 2000
Effects
   Effects of inhalant abuse are similar to drunkenness.

   Inhalation causes the body to become starved of
    oxygen, forcing the heart to beat more rapidly in an
    attempt to increase the flow of blood to the brain.

   Stimulation, loss of inhibition, and distorted perception
    of reality and spatial relations may be experienced by
    the user.

       Source: ONDCP Inhalant Fact Sheet, 2001
Effects (cont.)

   Other effects of inhalant use include short-term
    memory loss, hearing loss, limb spasms, permanent
    brain damage, bone marrow damage, liver and kidney
    damage, death, and possible fetal effects similar to fetal
    alcohol syndrome.

   Inhalant use is associated with delinquency, depression,
    and suicidal behavior.
                             Source: Wu, Pilowsky, Schlenger, 2004
Effects (cont.)
 Following the initial reaction (sometimes referred to as
  a “head rush”), a sense of lethargy may arise as the
  body attempts to restabilize the flow of blood to the
  brain.
 Repeated intoxication over a few hours is possible
  because of the chemical‟s short acting, rapid onset
  effect.
 Many users experience headaches, nausea or vomiting,
  slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, and
  wheezing.

    Source: ONDCP Inhalant Fact Sheet, 2001
Behavioral Consequences
   There is a correlation between inhalant abuse and problems in
    school such as failing grades, memory loss, learning problems,
    chronic absences, and general apathy.

   Inhalant users tend to be disruptive, deviant, or delinquent due
    to the early onset of use, lack of physical and emotional maturity,
    and the physical consequences that occur from extended use.

        Source: ONDCP Inhalant Fact Sheet, 2001
Issues
 According  to a study by Wu et al., 2004,
 inhalants are one of the least researched or
 discussed groups of abused substances.

 A University of Kentucky study found that
 9 out of 10 parents do not believe that
 their child would use an inhalant.

				
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