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					                 C O N V ERGE
                 TRANSPORT TELEMATICS
                 SU P P O R T & C O N S E N S U S




   Telematics Applications Programme - Transport Sector


                   CONVERGE Project TR 1101




     KEY USER NEEDS FOR TRANSPORT
                 TELEMATICS SERVICES


                             Deliverable D4.1.2




CONVERGE Project Co-ordinator                  Nature: Report
Paul Kompfner, ERTICO s.c.                     Distribution: On-demand
Tel. +32 2 400 07 00                           Type: Project Deliverable
Fax +32 2 400 07 01
e-mail p.kompfner@mail.ertico.com              Prepared 23 December 1998
Key User Needs for Transport Telematics Services




                       Reviewed projects per TAP-T area are:

Traveller Intermodality and Public Transport: ADEPT II, AUSIAS, CAPITALS,
CARPLUS, CONCERT, CROMATICA, ENTERPRICE, EUROSCOPE, EUROSPIN,
EUROTRACS, INFOPOLIS, ICARE, INFOTEN, PROMISE, QUARTET+, SAMPO,
SCRIPT, TABASCO, TITAN, VADE-MECUM

Freight Intermodality: CAPITALS, COREM, ENTERPRICE, INTACT, INTERPORT,
MULTITRACK, SURFF, TRACAR, TRIS, WELCOME, WISDOM

Travel and Traffic Information / Driver Information: CLEOPATRA, EPISODE, FORCE
1&2, PROMISE

Automatic Debiting and Toll Collection: ADEPT II, CAPITALS, CONCERT,
ENTERPRICE, EUROSCOPE, ICARE, INTERPORT, MOVE-IT, QUARTET PLUS,
VASCO, CARD-ME

Network and Traffic Management: AUSIAS, CAPITALS, CLEOPATRA, COSMOS,
DACCORD, ENTERPRICE, ESCORT, EUROSCOPE, FORCE, HANNIBAL,
INFOTEN, IN-RESPONSE, QUARTET- PLUS, SITE, TABASCO, VADE MECUM

Vehicle Control: AC ASSIST, CHAUFFEUR, SAVE, UDC, VASCO

Air Transport and GNSS: AATMS, AIRPORT G, ATHOS, CINCAT, DAFUSA, EOLIA,
EURONAV, FAR AWAY, GNSS-1, MAGNET-A, MAGNET-B, MANTEA, PRO-ATN,
SUPRA, TELSACS

Rail Transport: CITHER/INTER, EUROPE-TRIS, MARCO, MORANE, ROSIN,
WELCOM

Maritime and Inland Waterway Transport: COREM, ECHO, INTERPORT, MAGNET,
MULTITRACK, POSEIDON, SHIDESS, WISDOM




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Key User Needs for Transport Telematics Services



                                          AATMS

AATMS (Airborne Air Traffic Management System) is defining the requirements for
an Advanced Flight Management System (AFMS) required for commercial aircraft
operations in the context of an Advanced Air Traffic Management System (AATMS)
of the future. The deliverable contains a long list of detailed functional requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• safer and more efficient operations of commercial aircraft

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Advanced Flight Management System (AFMS)

Data collection
Results are mainly derived from results of other projects as well as from the more general
literature.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                     needs
                       Examples of functional requirements are:
                       • communication and surveillance
                               ◊ the FMS shall be able to exchange data between the
                                  aircraft and ground-based systems
                               ◊ it must be able to cope with many different ATM
                                  environments
                               ◊ it shall support sophisticated controller assisting tools like
                                  Arrival and Departure Manager, Ground Movement
                                  Manager or Tactical Flow Manager
                       • navigation
                               ◊ it is assumed that GNSS-1 (GPS and GLONASS) will
                                  be in common use in civil aircraft alongside ground based
                                  navigation aids that will survive according to the dates in
                                  the ICAO plan. Therefore, the FMS shall be capable of
                                  using GNSS for navigation and DGNSS to improve
                                  navigation performance.
                       • trajectory planning, negotiation and guidance
                               ◊ flight planning: the FMS shall have the capability of
                                  optimising the trajectory for the aircraft performance. It
                                  shall have the capability to geometrically define climb or
                                  descent trajectories and speeds for all phases of flight
                                  including departure, climb, cruise, descent, approach and
                                  missed approach.
                               ◊ negotiation: provide facilities for pilot review of the



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                                 trajectory immediately prior to transmission to ATC and
                                 downlink the complete trajectory to ATC for approval.
                              ◊ guidance: the FMS shall be capable of providing four-
                                 dimensional guidance and control of the aircraft using the
                                 autopilot and autothrottle. It shall provide the possibility
                                 to select the level of automatic flight (i.e. manual flight,
                                 selected flight or managed flight).
                    •   pilot interface
                              ◊ the operation of the FMS is intended to be as intuitive
                                 and self-explanatory as possible. The data entry systems
                                 shall aim to be readily understandable to the pilot under
                                 all conditions. The FMS interface shall use fault-tolerant
                                 data entry formats.
                    •   performance, monitoring and alerting
                              ◊ the FMS shall be able to calculate and display the flight
                                 progress. It shall provide the pilot with an indication of
                                 position accuracy and/or discrepancy on the display. It
                                 shall alert the crew in case of a deviation from the cleared
                                 4D flight path.
                    •   database
                              ◊ the FMS NavDB shall be capable of temporarily storing
                                 at least 40 additional navaids, 6 additional airports and 40
                                 additional waypoints.
                    •   aircraft system interface
                              ◊ transfer of local wind information, local temperature
                                 information, …




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                                        AC-ASSIST

AC-ASSIST (Anti-Collision Autonomous Support and Safety Intervention System) is
investigating ways to enhance the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems that are
expected on the market shortly by including emergency intervention. ACC systems
typically rely on a single microwave or laser sensor and apply low levels of braking;
the ACC-ASSIST extensions integrate computer vision systems for identification of
lanes/itineraries and additional obstacle detection (single detectors have too high
error rates for emergency barking). The deliverable contains a thorough analysis of
user feedback on prototypes indicating strong user support for emergency
intervention in a wide range of critical situations.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• enhancements to adaptive cruise control (motorway traffic)

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• collision warning (audible, visual or haptic signals)
• longitudinal driver support (including intervention in brake and throttle)
• emergency longitudinal intervention

Data collection
The project is completely focused on feedback from (40) drivers using test vehicles. A
literature study was undertaken as well.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                     needs
car drivers             • subjective perception of criticality is based on headway and less
                           on target braking deceleration; therefore, a subjectively “safe”
                           distance must be kept by the systems
                        • minimum reaction time of drivers is 1 to 1.6 s
                        • support is most needed to reduce time required to come to
                           maximum braking pressure
                        • distance control makes driving more relaxing
                        • distance warning only is less useful
                        • emergency intervention is very useful (unrestricted braking)
                        • distance control with emergency intervention is most favoured
                           concept (mean willingness to pay = about 2 000 DM)
                        • drivers prefer slight but early braking of kinaesthetic warning
                           rather than visual or rather stressing auditory signal
                        • stationary vehicles (and not just preceding moving objects) also
                           need to be detected with a maximum sensor range of 150 m
                           acceptable
                        • reliability and robustness of the system needs to be improved;



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                        technical and liability concerns may delay market introduction




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                                        ADEPT II

ADEPT II (Automatic Debiting and Electronic Payment for Transport) is linking the
use of smart cards for in-vehicle use (multi-lane tolling, parking management, urban
congestion pricing and in-vehicle information) to public transport payment and access
control, two applications not covered in ADEPT. The deliverable is not on user needs
for these services, but (mistakingly) looks at needs from the demonstration sites vis-a-
vis the project.

What problems are addressed
• integrated smart cards covering maximum number of transport applications

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• multi-lane tolling
• parking management
• urban congestion pricing
• in-vehicle information
• public transport payment
• access control

Data collection
The results are mainly based on a two-day user forum as well as on the literature.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
             users/stakeholders                                     needs
demonstrators                                   looks at needs from the demonstration sites
                                                vis-a-vis the project - therefore missed the
                                                point:
                                                • technology, design and strategy input and
                                                   advice
                                                • assistance and guidelines in designing an
                                                   evaluation methodology
                                                • interactions of players and applications
                                                • interactions with other related industries
                                                • long-term strategy for a common Euro
                                                   standard
                                                • dissemination of information




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                                         AUSIAS

AUSIAS (ATT in Urban Sites with Integration and Standardisation) is a single-site
(Valencia) multi-application project demonstrating the value of integrating and
standardising different ATT applications used in European cities. A distinction is
made between professional users (service providers) and end-users but user needs are
organised per application. There is not a lot of new information and in general the
applications do not seem to be very advanced.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• integration of urban ATT applications

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• adaptive network signal control
• data exchange
• bus priority
• public transport scheduling and fleet maintenance
• user information (drivers, public transport)
• parking management and information
• traffic modelling
• incident management

Data collection
An activity analysis has been undertaken as well as in-depth interviews.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
             users/stakeholders                                      needs
professional users (service providers) and      • there is a need to adapt control plans to
end-users                                          traffic situation
                                                • loop and camera information exchange
                                                • automatic bus priority
                                                • public transport scheduling incorporating
                                                   support for foreseeable incidents
                                                • public transport fleet maintenance
                                                • real-time user information (drivers, public
                                                   transport)
                                                • parking management and information: free
                                                   spaces, availability of public transport
                                                • traffic modelling allowing forecasting
                                                • incident management: expert system
                                                   indicating actions to be initiated for all
                                                   possible types of incidents




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                                        CAPITALS

The CAPITALS (Capitals’ project for integrated telematics applications on a large
scale) project is validating a wide range of ATT applications in cities. Sub-projects in
Madrid, Rome and Brussels are clearly implementation-oriented.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• traffic problems in cities

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• multimodal information
• parking metering (demand management)
• VMS

Data collection
Most input comes from infrastructure operators and service providers that are active within
the project. The deliverables also use the results of other studies in which users were
interviewed directly as well as the more general literature.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
         users/stakeholders                                        needs
road and public transport operators      • multimodal information requirements are:
                                                 ◊ road traffic: incident, accident,
                                                     roadworks, event, local traffic condition,
                                                     general traffic indicator, VMS
                                                     messages, temporary closures of ring
                                                     roads and expressways, journey times
                                                 ◊ public transport: incidents, closures,
                                                     strikes, journey times
                                                 ◊ car parks: occupancy rates, closures
                                                 ◊ pollution: air quality, local measurements
                                                 ◊ weather
parking operators                        • technical features for parking meters should
                                            include:
                                                 ◊ means and forms of payment: different
                                                     coins and cards will be accepted
                                                 ◊ tariffs and forms of use: total flexibility
                                                     for tariffs programming (plain or
                                                     progressive), information to users, etc.
                                                 ◊ operation of the equipment: issuing of
                                                     receipts, communications (GSM and
                                                     information to operator, etc.
                                                 ◊ security and maintenance aspects:



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                                          weather, physical and theft protection
                                        ◊ power supply: batteries and possibility
                                          of using solar energy
                                        ◊ breakdowns: repair time, possible faults
                                          by equipment, etc.
drivers                            • VMS-based information should allow:
                                        ◊ an improvement of the safety conditions
                                          (allow the motorist to slow down in
                                          time)
                                        ◊ to benefit from "pertinent" and reliable
                                          traffic information allowing them to
                                          make more efficient driving decisions
                                          (route to be altered)
                                        ◊ improved locating of traffic jams
                                        ◊ to benefit from psychologically soothing
                                          information helping them to fully
                                          apprehend their situation in the traffic
                                        ◊ to avoid wasting time in tunnels,
                                          especially when the pollution conditions
                                          are severe
                                        ◊ to avoid wasting time when the traffic is
                                          too dense, in order to get faster to their
                                          destination, consequently to experiment
                                          smoother traffic conditions: less
                                          congestion, less collation
                                        ◊ explanation of the names or numbers of
                                          motorways used
                                        ◊ if one compares the "congestion" and/or
                                          "travel time" displays, 3/4 of road users
                                          tested were happy with the choice of
                                          combined         message       information.
                                          However, faced with deciding between
                                          "traffic jam" or "journey time"
                                          information, they preferred the "journey
                                          time" strategy.
road operators                     • VMS-based information should allow:
                                        ◊ better tools to maintain a satisfying
                                          traffic level and to preserve the safety of
                                          the end-users
                                        ◊ an assistance by informing automatically
                                          the end-users of sudden changes in the
                                          traffic conditions due to incidents, tunnel
                                          closures or pollution



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                                          CARPLUS

CARPLUS (Integration of Car-pooling among the Union Cities) is promoting car-
pooling applications in European urban and peri-urban areas (Madrid, Rome, Les Ulis
and Stuttgart). The deliverable identifies user needs per site in a rather unstructured
way.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• reducing traffic problems by increasing car occupancy

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• promotion of carpooling (matching software)

Data collection
At all sites, there has been a large-scale use of questionnaires.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                     needs
drivers                • positive and negative motivations for car-pooling are:
                               ◊ positive motivations: saving time, saving money,
                                   friendliness, concerned about environment, desire for
                                   social usefulness
                               ◊ negative motivations: loss of privacy, loss of freedom, fear
                                   of the unknown person, fear of sexual harassment, worry
                                   about a return problem, fear about unbalanced exchanger
                       • motivations for carpooling are:
                               ◊ a large public transport strike
                               ◊ HOV lane
                               ◊ excessive pollution situations: restrictions for alone drivers
                               ◊ facilities for parking (reserved, priority, low prices)
                               ◊ subsidies to car-poolers
                               ◊ a good organisation of car-pooling providing: list of
                                   matching partners, friendly meetings helping partners to
                                   meet each other, help or guarantee for riding home,
                                   system for taking in charge inter-partners compensations
                       • greatest incentives are money saving, easing difficulties to park,
                          reduction in stress and socialising
                       • extra incentives are very effective: HOV lanes, parking facilities,
                          financial incentives
                       • in most sites, about 2-5 % of drivers wanted to step into a
                          carpooling scheme




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                                      CHAUFFEUR

CHAUFFEUR is essentially developing electronic tow-bar applications for trucks
allowing lower cost operations as well as more efficient use of the road space. User
needs are derived based on knowledge of project partners and a questionnaire sent to
road carriers.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• reducing costs of goods transport by road
• (reducing traffic jams)

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• electronic towbar, automated platooning

Data collection
User needs are derived based on knowledge of project partners, direct interviews with
users and a questionnaire sent to road carriers, as well as the more general literature.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
               users/stakeholders                                    needs
fleet operators and freight forwarders          • individual benefits outweigh investment
                                                   and operational costs
                                                • high technical reliability
                                                • higher productivity
                                                • ready infrastructure
professional drivers                            • high safety
                                                • comfort
                                                • economy
road operators                                  • high safety
                                                • no negative consequences for traffic flow
                                                • clear definition of liability
                                                • definition of driving conditions (in what
                                                   conditions are CHAUFFEUR operations
                                                   not allowed for safety reasons)
political requirements                          • savings in infrastructure expenditure
                                                   (building of suitable meeting areas to
                                                   couple trucks may be expensive)
                                                • positive environmental impacts
                                                • sustainable transport




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                                         CINCAT

CINCAT (Capacity Increase through Computer Assistance Tools) is developing a set
of air traffic management tools designed to provide an increase in airspace capacity
in the en-route phase of flight within Europe. The deliverable describes high-level as
well as very detailed functional requirements for the set of CINCAT tools that
contribute to the European objective of having unified ATC systems in Europe.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• safer and more efficient air transport

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Trajectory Predictor
• Conflict Probe
• Flight Path Monitor
• Cooperative Tools such as a filtering device, an activity predictor, an extrapolation tool
  and a surveillance device
• (applications developed to a pre-operational phase and expected to be included in
  commercial ATC systems by 2000)

Data collection
The deliverable describes high-level as well as very detailed functional requirements based
on the experience of project partners.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
   users/stakeholders                                     needs
airlines, controllers, air • general requirements are:
traffic service                   ◊ see what an aircraft is expected to do, controllers shall
providers, …                         be able to request display of the currently predicted
                                     route of an aircraft
                                  ◊ if an aircraft deviates significantly from what it is
                                     expected to do, this shall be indicated to the controller
                                  ◊ controllers shall be presented with a display of the
                                     currently identified problems relevant to them,
                                     including the latest times they should be solved,
                                     indication of the type of problem and the aircraft
                                     involved in the potential conflict
                                  ◊ on request, controllers shall be able to view and
                                     amend the group of aircraft that are associated with a
                                     particular problem
                                  ◊ on request, controllers shall be able to view the group
                                     of aircraft that form the AIS of an aircraft
                                  ◊ controllers shall be able to request details of potential



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                                  conflicts, between two aircraft, and potential
                                  infringements of reserved airspace or terrain
                              ◊ controllers shall be automatically notified when aircraft
                                  reach marked reminder points along their predicted
                                  trajectories
                       • apart from this, a large number of specific functional
                         requirements are identified




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                                    CITHER/INTER

CITHER/INTER (Integration of Networking Technologies for harmonising the
European Railways) is developing the principles of a multi-service, multimedia, multi-
rate and multi-vendor communications network in the interest of harmonising
European railways. The emphasis of the deliverable is on establishing the architecture
of an International Railway Telecommunication Network (IRTN), which is a circuit
switched network configured to support ISDN services, primarily voice traffic
(equivalent to any telecom operators’).

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• establishing a communications network that can be sold/shared by external users

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• circuit switched network configured to support ISDN services

Data collection
Requirements are identified based on discussions within the project. High level requirements
are based on the European Transport Policy.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
users/stakeholders                                      needs
railway operators /    • coordinating timetables between operators including those
freight operators /       operating across national borders, using IT technology to support
telecom operators         the extended use of databases and for real-time monitoring of
                          transports
                       • realising new through-ticketing (for passenger transport) and
                          offering services (for freight transport) accessible both for
                          customers and for the providers of transport services. IT
                          technology must be able:
                               ◊ to offer extended and reliable access to the information
                                  concerning available services and their characteristics
                               ◊ to support the interactive systems available for transport
                                  customers
                               ◊ to facilitate the automation of pricing and payment
                                  systems
                               ◊ to support the organisation of multi-modal terminals
                       • to clearly define the “customers” for the telecommunication
                          services (passenger transport operation, freight transport
                          operation, infrastructure operation and management, corporate
                          management)
                       • to clarify the position to these customers, in terms of defining a
                          commercial behaviour concerning the provision of



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                      telecommunication services
                    • to find customers outside the railway system in order to increase
                      the cost-efficiency of the telecommunication infrastructure of
                      railways
                    • provide new, specific services for enabling the international
                      interoperability of databases and of information applications of
                      railways. At the same time these services must be compatible and
                      interoperable with similar services of other transport modes
                      (aviation, route transport, urban transport)
                    • satisfy the increased demand for interoperability with public
                      telecom operators, aiming at the participation of railway telecom
                      operators to the competition for public services provision
                    • satisfy the increased demand for integration of multi-media
                      transmission facilities for selected customers (forwarders,
                      multimodal-terminals)
                    • autonomous or independent organisation of commercial branches
                      with the mission to increase the cost-efficiency of telecom
                      infrastructure. Mainly, these branches formed joint-venture
                      associations with the national or international public providers




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                                      CLEOPATRA

CLEOPATRA deals with a number of specific algorithms (path flow estimation,
journey time prediction, algorithms for prediction of incidents effects and strategies
for dynamic route guidance) in nine cities. The emphasis of the user needs analysis is
therefore on which cities are interested in which algorithms and all are found to be of
wide interest. Apart from this (which is described as the needs of public authorities),
there are some more general end user requirements for in-vehicle route guidance and
VMS.

What problems are addressed
• traffic problems on urban networks

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Path Flow Estimator (PFE)
• Journey Time Prediction (JTP)
• Prediction of Incidents Effects (PIE)
• Routeing Strategies for Variable Message and Direction Signs
• Message Selection for Variable Message Signs
• Incident Management Strategies for In-Vehicle Information Systems
• Routeing Strategies for In-Vehicle Information Systems
• Information and Message Selection for In-Vehicle Information Systems
• Integration of In-Vehicle Information Systems and Variable Message Signs
• Integration of Urban Traffic Control, In-Vehicle Information Systems and/or Variable
  Message

Data collection
A questionnaire has been used to the key players, and other relevant information is extracted
from the literature.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                   needs
Public authorities and • Path Flow Estimator (PFE)
DRG operators           • Journey Time Prediction (JTP)
                        • Prediction of Incidents Effects (PIE)
                        • Routeing Strategies for Variable Message and Direction Signs
                        • Message Selection for Variable Message Signs
                        • Incident Management Strategies for In-Vehicle Information
                           Systems
                        • Routeing Strategies for In-Vehicle Information Systems
                        • Information and Message Selection for In-Vehicle Information
                           Systems
                        • Integration of In-Vehicle Information Systems and Variable



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                         Message Signs
                      • Integration of Urban Traffic Control, In-Vehicle Information
                         Systems and/or Variable Message Signs
End users             In-Vehicle Route Guidance information:
                      • it should be based on real-time information
                      • have knowledge of the full network, including minor roads;
                      • guide right to the destination
                      • be able to recover position if an incorrect turn is made, and;
                      • provide guidance within other cities
                      • familiar drivers need specific details about traffic conditions at
                         the local level (i.e. street name) and prefer to assess the
                         implications of the information themselves (no prescriptive
                         advice without information)
                      • when in unfamiliar networks, drivers require strategic
                         information (i.e. main routes) and would welcome prescriptive
                         advice, even without supporting information.
                      General requirements for Variable Message Signs:
                      • VMS information are for notification of road works, accidents
                         and congestion problems, and to a lesser extent for information
                         about weather conditions (e.g. fog)
                       • information on general traffic conditions is required to enable
                          journey time estimation
                      • messages which include an estimate of delay and information
                         about the cause of the delay are particularly useful and
                         persuasive
                      • when a diversion is possible, drivers are less concerned with
                         knowing the extent or duration of a problem, they wish to know
                         only that a problem exists and can therefore tailor their response
                         to individual travel goals
                      • similarly to in-vehicle route guidance above, familiar drivers
                         need specific details, whereas unfamiliar drivers would find
                         strategic information to be of more use (not easily allowed by
                         format of VMS information)
                      • there is also a demand for parking information to be provided
                         by VMS




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                                         CONCERT

CONCERT (Cooperation for Novel City Electronic Regulating Tools) demonstrates
implementations of pricing/restraint and multimodal travel information applications,
altogether spread over 8 sites.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• demand management in cities

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• see needs

Data collection
A wide range of questionnaires was used in all eight cities participating in the project.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
             users/stakeholders                                  needs
                                                • Card-based Integrated Payment
                                                • Card-based Access Control
                                                • Road Use Charging
                                                • VMS Traveller Information
                                                • Terminal-based Traveller Information




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                                          COREM

COREM (Cooperative REsource Management for the transport of load units) is
developing demonstrators supporting intra-company and inter-company resource
management to optimise container transport. After a detailed review of
methodologies for user needs analysis, user needs are identified based on a detailed
(and interesting) work analysis at different sites in Greece, Germany and Belgium.
The focus is on a simplified environment mainly involving transport companies and
ports. However, the synthesis of these individual requirements at project level seems
difficult and is rather weak. Given the very specific systems that exist, the question
remains what can be done at the European level. A good overview, from a European
perspective, of key players and how they interact is lacking.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• optimising management of container transport in transport companies and ports

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• cooperation within a truck operating company
• cooperation between a port and truck operator
• creation of a container tracking system within ports
• creation of a ferry reservation system

Data collection
User needs are identified based on a detailed work analysis at different sites in Greece,
Germany and Belgium.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
    users/stakeholders                                     needs
transport company            General
operators, port operators • collective information
                             • continuous updating and availability of data
                             • global view of the situation offered to every partner
                             • modes of collective control
                             • support for regulation and feedback
                             • access to information related to the working current
                                 situation
                             Intra-cooperation
                             • data-related
                                      ◊ general data-base
                                      ◊ reference of the order
                                      ◊ reference of the transport
                                      ◊ status of the transport
                                      ◊ status of the operations



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                                  ◊ list of transports
                          • functions-related
                                  ◊ provide to users a common access to shared data
                                  ◊ propose a common and shared view of the global
                                    situation; the interface has to propose visual
                                    information, and be easily understandable so that
                                    through consulting it any user is able to know if the
                                    coming resources are compatible with his/her needs
                                  ◊ real-time updating of the information only allowed
                                    to the author (owner)
                                  ◊ ensure direct exchanges or communications (e-
                                    mail, video conference) with the customers, drivers,
                                    port operators and other dispatch centres; another
                                    solution could be the exchange of signals (pre-
                                    defined and then decoded and interpreted by the
                                    dispatchers' computer system)
                                  ◊ the system should allow the dispatcher to consult a
                                    database with references of previous contracts
                                  ◊ the system has to offer a function allowing the
                                    agents to simulate various kinds of scheduling, in
                                    order to assess their quality, and to look for the
                                    best trade-off between costs and benefits
                                  ◊ support the updating of the situation, bringing
                                    continuously news regarding modifications, delays,
                                    breakdowns, new plans
                                  ◊ in order to reduce the effect of interruption (usually
                                    actions forgotten or information not updated), the
                                    system should provide a reminder function, so that
                                    the dispatcher could write down what has to be
                                    done and be regularly informed of this (bipper or
                                    flashing icon)
                                  ◊ agents should be able to plan a transport, and then
                                    introduce information related to his planning in a
                                    global shared support
                          • socio-organisation-related
                                  ◊ clear identification of user roles
                                  ◊ clear identification of tasks
                                  ◊ adapt to similar way of working
                          Inter-cooperation
                          • data-related
                                  ◊ list of expected transports
                                  ◊ list of port operations
                          • functions-related



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                                 ◊ the system has to be connected to transport
                                    companies and port operators in order to offer
                                    updated information related to the transports
                                    scheduled to the port, and to the scheduled port
                                    operations
                                 ◊ the users have to be allowed to introduce new
                                    information (while rescheduling operations for
                                    example)
                                 ◊ simulation is needed to anticipate overloaded
                                    periods and to optimise resource management
                          • socio-organisation-related
                                 ◊ shared task identification and distribution
                                 ◊ confidentiality - determination of what information
                                    can be accessed by whom




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                                        COSMOS

COSMOS (COngestion management Strategies and MethOds in urban Sites) aims to
develop new procedures for reducing and if possible preventing congestion and
excessive delays caused by incidents through automatic incident detection, network
signal control and VMS-based re-routing (integrated in SCOOT, MOTION and
UTOPIA). Project is closely related to INCOME; demonstration sites are London,
Turin, Gothenburg and Piraeus.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• oversaturation of the road network

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• network management

Data collection
A questionnaire is used containing 22 very high-level questions (“from how many
inhabitants” to “do you operate VMS” and “what is your maximum red time”, is answered
by about 100 cities). The results are different per city.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
     users/stakeholders                                      needs
General                          • improve travel efficiency
                                 • improve safety
                                 • reduce emissions and pollution
                                 • reduce energy consumption
                                 • promote economic vitality
                                 • improve accessibility
                                 • restrain car travel
                                 • encourage modal change
                                 • public transport priority and improvements
                                 • demand management techniques
                                 • greater integration of strategies within UTMS (signalling,
                                    public transport, green waves, emergency vehicles, …)
                                 • traffic-dependent signalling
                                 • distinction between congestion due to oversaturation
                                    and incidents
                                 • procedures for rerouting and to move congestion to
                                    other parts of the network




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                                     CROMATICA

CROMATICA stands for CROwd Management with Telematic Imaging and
Communications Assistance.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• crowd management in public transport facilities

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• detection of potentially dangerous situations in crowded conditions application
• fall on the track application
• intrusion detection application
• abnormal motion and stationarity in corridor application
• level of density on platforms application
• routine data collection application
• transportable video-transmission system application

Data collection
The analysis is based on the extensive use of questionnaires, previous surveys undertaken by
the project partners as well as the more general literature.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
           users/stakeholders                                      needs
consolidation of requirements of metro,     Information is needed on:
railways and airports managers and          • halls
operators                                            ◊ abnormal crowd movements
                                                     ◊ congestion in semi open areas
                                                     ◊ individual delinquency
                                                     ◊ intrusion in forbidden areas
                                            • platforms
                                                     ◊ abnormal crowd movements
                                                     ◊ congestion in restricted areas
                                                     ◊ fall on tracks
                                                     ◊ individual delinquency
                                                     ◊ intrusion in forbidden areas
                                            • corridors
                                                     ◊ abnormal crowd movements
                                                     ◊ unusual movement in passageways
                                                     ◊ congestion in restricted areas
                                                     ◊ individual delinquency
                                                     ◊ intrusion in forbidden areas
                                            • stairs, escalators, lifts
                                                     ◊ unusual movement in passageways



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                                             ◊ congestion in restricted areas
                                             ◊ individual delinquency




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                                     D’ACCORD

DACCORD is demonstrating the effectiveness of coordinated and integrated inter-
urban traffic control based on an open architecture, in three test sites. User needs are
analysed at quite a high level for the following user groups: policy makers, network
operators, system operators and drivers. Apart from this, some more specific user
needs are identified for the separate demonstrators, in terms of key supporting
elements.

What problems are addressed
• congestion on inter-urban motorways

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• data checking / traffic monitoring
• travel time estimation and forecasting
• Human Machine Interface
• connection between TCCs
• motorway to motorway control
• ramp metering
• integrated and coordinated control

Data collection
No interviews, views of DACCORD partners.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                    needs
policy makers           • offer maximum benefit to society as a whole (optimise transport
(strategic level)           system such as performance, safety, accessibility)
                        • offer minimal detriment to society as a whole (minimal
                            disruptive effects)
                        • coordinated control measures that positively influence traffic
                            conditions
                        • consideration of the opinions of directly affected users
                        • concertation mechanisms for resolution of regional conflicts
                        • quantification of positive impact and guidelines for deployment
                            (=> provide attributes in system to measure impact)
                        • transferability of coordinated control systems (=> common
                            architecture)
                        • improve road safety
                        • reduce number of incidents
                        • reduce environmental pollution
                        • reduce global travel time
network operators       • have a tool for optimising road use



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(tactical level)      •   have a tool to effectively deal with disruptions at reasonable
                          cost
                      •   low maintenance costs, positive effect on number and
                          qualification of required staff
                      •   high reliability, low vulnerability
                      •   good system architecture: extensibility and flexibility
                      •   improvement of travel time estimation
                      •   support for on-board traffic information services (such as
                          Visionaute)
system operators      •   have a tool that gives a quick and accurate overview of the
                          traffic situation
                      •   have a tool to foresee developments
                      •   have a tool to assess the impact of DTM (Dynamic Traffic
                          Management) measures
                      •   good HMI allowing monitoring and intervention
                      •   high level of automation – low level of manual intervention
                      •   good system documentation
                      •   coordinated control that “trigger” minimal violations of drivers
                      •   real-time collected data screening (algorithms for detection of
                          false data, algorithms for reconstitution of missing data)
                      •   traffic forecasting for travel time estimation: travel times
                          currently displayed are observed travel times, not forecasted
                          travel times; suitable prediction algorithm will be selected,
                          tested and implemented to improve algorithm that is currently
                          used;
                      •   motorway to motorway control and ramp metering
                          implementation (off-line simulation, feasibility study, on-site
                          equipment, experiments and implementation)
                      •   improvement of network simulation tools
drivers               •   have the best possible service
                      •   have the best possible information on un-optimal services so as
                          to reschedule or re-optimise their use of the road
                      •   avoid conflicts between average driver strategy (coordinated
                          control) and individual driver strategy (=> travel time of
                          rerouted drivers has to be shorter than non-followers)
                      •   extension of traffic information tools
                      •   drivers prefer travel time announcements on VMS to queue
                          lengths (but the latter are considered better from safety
                          perspective)
                      •   reduce travel distance
                      •   reduce fuel consumption
                      •   tourist information for travel planning
                      •   reduce driving stress



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                       •    timely emergency service
                       •    public transport information (main lines, ticketing and pricing,
                            delays, …)
                       •    real-time traffic state information
                       •    information on location and availability of parking spaces
                       •    general tourist information
                       •    information on location of places of major interest and how to
                            get there
specific user needs for •   Human Machine Interface
demonstrator            •   connection between TCCs
                        •   motorway to motorway control
                        •   ramp metering
                        •   integrated and coordinated control
                        •   on-line advanced traffic monitoring and data checking
                        •   on-line short-term traffic forecasting (for instance, based on an
                            OD prediction model)
                       •    connection city-motorway
                       •    on-line travel time estimation and forecasting
                       •    network-level integrated and coordinated control




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                                      ENTERPRICE

ENTERPRICE (Enhanced Network for Traffic Services and Information Provided by
Regional Information Centres in Europe) is developing Europe-wide Mobility and
Traffic Information Centres (MOTICs) generating multimodal data that are
subsequently disseminated using multimedia systems. The deliverable (3.1) gives an
overview of requirements for traffic management and user information services. With
a few exceptions, deliverable 5.1 is the same as 3.1. The deliverable (4.1) gives an
overview of general (system) requirements. The deliverable (6.1) refers to deliverable
3.1 and only contains an annex listing retained ITS services based on a user needs
analysis (developed in 3.1). It seems that in 3.1 relevant services, equipment support
and operator support are investigated. In 6.1, most attention goes to investigating
existing “similar initiatives” (information service centres), often not very ambitious in
terms of ITS. The whole ENTERPRICE exercise does not look very sophisticated as a
MOTIC typically requires a mix of manually-operated stand-alone applications (fax,
digital map, …) and it is unclear how different information sources will be integrated.
The deliverable (7.1) covers a different (exclusively Swiss) domain, road pricing, and
reviews some key user requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• better traffic and travel management/information

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• MOTIC - Mobility and Traffic Information Centres
• Road Truck Pricing in Switzerland

Data collection
Requirements seem to have been identified based on internal (project) discussions. These
often involve a review of tasks (task analysis).

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                     needs
MOTIC operators        • general requirements for traffic management are:
                               ◊ to use space compatibly with social and environmental
                                  conditions (conflict of land use between the cities and their
                                  vicinity)
                               ◊ improvement of availability and accessibility (refers to the
                                  necessary car traffic and environmental friendly transport
                                  modes)
                               ◊ to influence the modal split to reduce motorised road
                                  traffic
                               ◊ promoting public transport (passengers and goods)
                               ◊ to promote pedestrian and bicycle traffic



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                             ◊ to operate traffic compatibly with safety, legal, social and
                                 environmental conditions
                             ◊ to operate traffic economically
                    •   general requirements for traffic/travel information are:
                             ◊ ensured realisation of the system and reliable operation of
                                 the traffic information system
                    •   examples of information content are:
                             ◊ for parking management: parking occupancy prediction,
                                 dynamic parking information, network parking guidance
                             ◊ for public transport management: passenger information on
                                 planned service, passenger information on actual service,
                                 customised trip preparation help
                             ◊ for traffic information: individual route computation, route
                                 presentation, roadworks, accidents, restrictions, local
                                 warnings, traffic conditions, weather conditions,
                                 environmental conditions, special events, P+R information
                             ◊ for travel information: transport mode selection / planning,
                                 mixed mode trip planning, tourist information, parking
                                 facilities, modal interchange points
                    •   more specific requirements are:
                             ◊ reliable databases as information will be transmitted
                                 automatically
                             ◊ fast update rates (15 sec to 30 min)
                             ◊ 24 hours operation
                    •   requirements for public access terminals are:
                             ◊ interactive touch-screen operation
                             ◊ help function available to ease the operation by non-
                                 experienced users
                             ◊ printing facilities available
                             ◊ ergonomic terminals, suitable for use by handicapped
                                 persons
                             ◊ easily legible and multilingual information
                             ◊ data protection; information is provided by one source
                                 only, intervention and manipulation of data by individuals is
                                 impossible
                             ◊ pleasant environment; data are graphically supported
                             ◊ adaptable display; contrast and brightness are adjustable
                    •   the integration of data from different traffic modes
                    •   the system for the analysis of traffic information
                    •   the integration of knowledge-based and conventional models
                    •   a unified referencing based on a digital card
                    •   the use of European (pre-)standard formats (ALERT/C,
                        TRAVIN, TRAILS, SOCRATES-ADP, ...)



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                    • the graphical representation of the road map and the different static
                       and dynamic attributes
                    • information and mass data management: for a further processing all
                       incoming data has to be represented and managed in the system in
                       a unified geographic reference
                    • cooperative management: responsibility overlapping or border-
                       overlapping agreements with the urban areas as well as the
                       neighbouring regions concerning the exchange of information
                    • model application: among others the current traffic situation report,
                       scenario analysis, traffic analysis, network availability, expected
                       traffic situation due to future events, access to historic information
                       from the strategic shell
                    • information processing: current and prediction information for
                       selected section and network areas, pre-trip information
                    • information filtering and message combination: with regard to
                       predefined filtering and combination criteria the information is
                       combined and / or filtered
general             Information and advising on:
                    • transportation services and infrastructure (static)
                             ◊ schedule information of local, regional and long distance
                                 public transportation, of waterway transportation, and air
                                 traffic
                             ◊ tariff information of local, regional and long distance public
                                 transportation, and of waterway transportation
                             ◊ bicycle and car carriage in public transportation
                             ◊ locations and tariffs for luggage storage, taxi, parking
                                 facilities, Park&Rides and freight movements
                             ◊ road characteristics
                    • current traffic information (dynamic)
                             ◊ disturbances in road traffic
                             ◊ actual arrival and departure times in local and long-
                                 distance public transportation and air traffic
                             ◊ current parking-occupancy and prognosis
                    • route recommendation
                             ◊ individual route computation in individual vehicle traffic
                             ◊ individual route computation in public transportation
                             ◊ inter-modal trip planning
                    • further location and tariff information
                             ◊ sights (tourist information, etc.)
                             ◊ events, cultural calendar
                             ◊ car-Sharing
                             ◊ car rentals
                             ◊ agencies for arranging lifts



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                                ◊ automobile clubs
                                ◊ rent and repair service for bicycles
                                ◊ hotels and lodges
                      •   sale and reservation / booking
                                ◊ tickets (single, multiple, temporary and combined tickets)
                                    for local, regional and long distance public transportation,
                                    waterway transportation, events, hotels and lodges
                                ◊ refunds of not used tickets (long distance traffic)
                                ◊ schedules (print, disk, CD-ROM)
                      •   complementary services
                              ◊ to receive and to forward complaints
                              ◊ lost and found
Road Truck Pricing    •   evidence - road users can contest road fees
(Distance-related     •   equity
Heavy Vehicles Toll   •   data protection
is to be introduced   •   flexibility
on 1-1-2001) I                  ◊ possibility to change the amount of the fees without
Switzerland                         changes in the technical devices
                                ◊ possibility to broadly divide the fee area into subareas with
                                    different tariffs without requiring extensive additional work
                                ◊ for foreign vehicles, use systems and means of payment
                                    commonly used
                                ◊ changes in the methods applied to guarantee data security
                                    should require the least amount of work possible
                      •   financial aspects
                                ◊ acquisition costs as a whole should be minimised,
                                    considering their possible additional use
                                ◊ the different actors involved should be ensured the same
                                    financial conditions
                                ◊ prevent the utilisation of monopolistic conditions for the
                                    achievement of financial advantages
                                ◊ security
                                ◊ possibilities for the users to interfere in the system should
                                    be limited as far as possible
                                ◊ considering possible manipulative intrusions, the availability
                                    and integrity of the data on fees should be adapted to the
                                    expense that the damages owing to loss or falsification of
                                    the data could entail
                                ◊ in the case of any error or falsification detected in the fee
                                    data, the possibility must be considered of using as
                                    substitutes the data recorded outside the RTP system
                                ◊ possibility to check all important data and their correct
                                    transmission



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                            ◊ possibility when the driver himself declares important data
                               for the registry of fees, to verify them in the easiest way
                    • accuracy
                            ◊ a similar accuracy in the registry of fees should be pursued
                               for all vehicles
                            ◊ manipulations that could alter the distance measurement
                               values should be excluded
                    • traffic safety
                            ◊ the influence of fee registration on traffic should be
                               minimised
                            ◊ the devices situated in vehicles should not require any
                               handling while driving
                            ◊ the fee registration processes should not involve a
                               substantial prolongation of the limits of dispatch times at
                               the border check-points
                            ◊ the controls of moving traffic should be performed so that
                               they do not influence the driving behaviour of the
                               controlled driver
                            ◊ user-friendliness
                            ◊ possibility for the user of installing the fee registration
                               system so that it operates without his intervention in normal
                               service
                            ◊ possibility for the user to see the actual amount of the fee
                            ◊ the driver should be given the possibility of comparing the
                               distance registered with the data on the odometer
                            ◊ possibility to make joint use of the existing payment
                               systems for clearing the fee
                            ◊ interoperability
                            ◊ the existing standards and draft standards should be
                               considered whenever applicable
                            ◊ the components of the system to be configured so that they
                               may be combined with the components of existing or
                               forthcoming systems
                    • multifunctionality
                            ◊ devices situated within the vehicle to be configured so that
                               the maximum possible number of their components may be
                               used for other traffic telematics services
                            ◊ clearing should be performed in such a way that it may
                               also be used for other fees relevant in road traffic




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                                       EOLIA

EOLIA (European pre-Operational data Link Applications) is developing software to
evaluate Communications, Navigation and Surveillance/Air traffic Management
(CNS/ATM) for air traffic control data link services, eventually to be implemented in
European airspace.

Only covers system requirements.




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                                         ESCORT

ESCORT is developing interactive systems for control of traffic intersections, in the
form of a toolkit of utility modules from which an urban traffic controller can make a
selection to plug in his controllers. These modules include: (1) automatic incident
detection using video, (2) video-based local control and (3) vehicle enforcement
systems. An open standard interfacing module (SIM), essentially for plugging into the
controller, is also provided.

What problems are addressed
• difficulty to expand existing traffic control systems to new applications due to existence of
  many proprietary systems.

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• automatic incident detection using video
• video-based local control
• vehicle enforcement.

Data collection
• a questionnaire has been used, some direct interviews were held and exsiting boards of
   user groups were consulted.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
                                  Urban Traffic Control (UTC)
               users/stakeholders                                    needs
local authorities, traffic managers and          • standardisation and easy upgrade
operators, traffic engineers                     • better information on traffic status
                                                 • open architecture
                                                 • AID
                                                 • microregulation
                                                 • AMI (Abstract Model of the
                                                   Intersection)
                                                 • VBC (Video-Based local Control)
                                                 • adaptive control
                                                 • priority to a specific axe

                               Video-Based local Control (VBC)
               users/stakeholders                                 needs
local authorities, traffic managers and         • microregulation
operators, traffic engineers                    • open architecture
                                                • friendly GUI
                                                • adaptive control




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                                               • cost effectiveness
                                               • standardisation and easy upgrade

                              Automatic Incident Detection (AID)
               users/stakeholders                                  Needs
local authorities, traffic managers and         • detection of blocking
operators, traffic engineers                    • detection of an isolated stopping vehicle
                                                • queue spillback
                                                • waiting time for turn-left above a given
                                                   threshold
                                                • standardisation and easy upgrade
                                                • friendly GUI
                                                • cost-effectiveness
                                                • open architecture

                                   Enforcement System (ES)
               users/stakeholders                                    Needs
local authorities, traffic managers and        •   red light violation detection
operators, traffic engineers                   •   speed violation detection
                                               •   continuous surveillance
                                               •   cost-effectiveness
                                               •   firnedly GUI
                                               •   standardisation and easy upgrade
                                               •   open architecture

                               Standard Interfacing Module (SIM)
               users/stakeholders                                    Needs
local authorities, traffic managers and           • generality
operators, traffic engineers                      • configurability
                                                  • scalability
                                                  • flexiilkity
                                                  • evolution of the model




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                                        EURONAV

The project will analyse in detail innovative GNSS-2 architectures with particular
emphasis on integration of positioning with other services such as data
communication and accurate time distribution. One result of the project will be a
better understanding of GNSS-2, enabling the European institutions to decide on the
European contribution to GNSS-2.

What problems are addressed
• many radio navigation systems are currently in operation, but most are terrestrial-based;
  therefore, they are limited by line of sight and offer only two-dimensional position.

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• GNSS2, an internationally controlled civil radio navigation system.

Data collection


User needs (separate box for different applications)
              users/stakeholders                                    Needs
Land mobile (pedestrian, vehicular road and • accuracy, availability, integrity, continuity
rail), waterborne, air and professional users      of service time to alert, update rate,
(surveying, agriculture and forestry, ..)          coverage, opportunities for
                                                   communications integrated with
                                                   navigation service, whether
                                                   communication rates are required and
                                                   whether certification is required is given
                                                   for the relevant applications in the
                                                   following domain:
                                                   ◊ pedestrian
                                                   ◊ road traffic
                                                   ◊ rail
                                                   ◊ marine
                                                   ◊ air
                                                   ◊ radio navigation plan
                                                   ◊ survey
                                                • institutional and financial requirements
                                                    are:
                                                    ◊ certification
                                                    ◊ cost recovery
                                                    ◊ ownership and control
                                                    ◊ logistics.




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                                      EUROPE-TRIS

EUROPE-TRIS focuses on three specific applications that will help railway operators
in planning national and pan-European railway services. These are: TCM (Traffic
Capacity Management), TTC (Timetable TeleConferencing) and F-TTM (Freight-
Timetable TeleMarketing). The user needs analysis corroborates that these
applications are relevant and provides some useful information as to how the
applications should work.

What problems are addressed
• better use of capacity of European rail connections

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
TRIS is made of three sub-systems:
• TCM: Traffic Capacity Management
• TTC: Timetable TeleConferencing
• F-TTM: Freight-Timetable TeleMarketing

Data collection
Open and not too heavy questionnaires and personal interviews have been used.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                       needs
• infrastructure        TCM
  operations            • clearly define the criteria and priorities used in track capacity
  (management)             management (examples of possible conflicts are freight
• timetable planning       operators vs night passenger services, and, fast and slow trains)
  departments           • TCM should be able to manage not only “isolated” train paths,
• railway front-line       but also packages or “meshed” (time clock phased) timetables
  production units         (e.g. services repeating at regular intervals and having
  (infrastructure)         connection links among them)
• transport operators • the transport operators require to plan access-to-infrastructure
  (planning                at early stages of timetable design
  management and        • the allocation of capacity has to take into account economical
  production units)        and statistical factors (e.g. foreseen quality of services and price
• intermodal               differentials for regulating the market)
  companies             • the procedures for access-to-infrastructure are to be aided by
                           telematic means between the infrastructure provider and
                           transport operators.
                        TTC
                        • the process of timetable design requires shorter times and
                           greater flexibility
                        • it is useful to increase the check milestones and improve the



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                         standard of products released at the end of the conferences; the
                         traditional conference organisation results in logistic constraints
                         and does not allow real-time links with timetable planning
                         systems
                      • the various railways have installed or are installing computer-
                         aided design systems for timetable planning; there are needs for
                         enhancing some functions and better integration of the various
                         units of rail undertakings
                      • freight transport results in practice can penalise passenger
                         transport
                      • it is useful to improve communication links between national
                         timetable systems, in order to improve data integrity, reduce
                         working times and better synchronise the overall process
                      F-TTM
                      • it is necessary to improve data exchange and procedures among
                         traffic co-ordination centres of bordering railways; language
                         remains a serious problem
                      • developing need is real-time train tracking at trans-European
                         level; still faced with local and partial solutions
                      • contingency planning requires well-defined procedures between
                         final client and rail system; particularly for trans-national traffic
                      • the response times of rail undertakings are constrained very
                         much in dynamic resource management
                      • increasing application of client management criteria is being
                         expected (transport request time/price/quality of service)
                      • freight planning requires a lot of updating (e.g. monthly basis)
                         and should take into account the real capacity of plants (i.e.
                         classification yards)
                      • the inter-modal information chain must be improved, the quality
                         of container tracking on European rails is not uniform, but in
                         various countries is below standard, does not satisfy client
                         needs and is below the road transport service
                      • it is necessary to improve the integration among systems,
                         standards and telematic data links among the railways




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                                      EUROSCOPE

EUROSCOPE (Efficient Urban tRansport Operation Services Co-Operation of Port
Cities in Europe) (Cologne, Southampton, Piraeus, Rotterdam, Strasbourg, Genova,
Hamburg, Cork, Brandenburg) is a POLIS initiative examining and demonstrating
ATT applications responding to user needs in cities.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• sustainable cities

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• informed traveller
• logistics applications and communications systems
• network management

Data collection
User needs are collected based on detailed questionaires.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
             users/stakeholders                                       needs
                                                • integrated network management
                                                   strategies in cities using CCTV cameras,
                                                   VMS and incident detection systems
                                                • for VMS in ports, the highest demand is
                                                   for:
                                                         ◊ exact departure times
                                                         ◊ departure gates
                                                         ◊ how to reach the port
                                                         ◊ available parking spaces (in case
                                                            of service delays)
                                                         ◊ malfunctioning of
                                                            loading/unloading equipment
                                                         ◊ traffic conditions around the
                                                            commercial port
                                                • for RDS-TMC information in passenger
                                                   ports, the highest demand is for:
                                                         ◊ exact arrival times
                                                         ◊ arrival gates
                                                         ◊ how to leave the port
                                                • most drivers would change their route to
                                                   leave the port based on the information
                                                   provided




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                                        EUROSPIN

EUROSPIN is developing and demonstrating seamless public travel information
services across transport modes and geographical boundaries. EUROSPIN is using
telematics links between different islands of automation to create a pool of
information serving different locations and transport sectors. Websites will be
provided that offer third-party public transport information to visitors of the sites in
the form of timetables or routeplans.

What problems are addressed
• lack of transport information services supporting door to door trips.

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• intermodal websites.

Data collection
• literature survey
• user groups at each demonstration site.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
             users/stakeholders                                      needs
young professionals, students, businesses,      • information requirements are:
elderly and disabled people                     • origin and destination
                                                • arrival/departure times
                                                • “via” information
                                                • modal information
                                                • descriptions of connections
                                                • cost information
                                                • facilities and interchange itineraries
                                                • real-time information is needed
                                                • the information must be accurate, reliable
                                                   and available at the level of detail needed
                                                   by the end-user
                                                • the human-machine interface should not
                                                   be neglected or needlessly designed out
                                                   of ATT systems; end users often gain
                                                   added value or reassurance by being able
                                                   to deal with other people
                                                • access points to the information systems
                                                   should give adequate coverage and be of
                                                   the needed quality; interactive terminals
                                                   with the home are considered to be of
                                                   high importance



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                                          • compatibility is needed between systems;
                                            there is a need for harmonisation of
                                            databases, data elements and messages
                                          • automation of the data retrieval process is
                                            needed, with the information presented in
                                            a simple but relevant format
                                          • there is a need to improve familiarity with
                                            the systems, for example through
                                            standard presentation formats




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                                       EUROTRACS

EUROTRACS (European Travelers Care Services) is developing optimal basic
concepts with a view to developing standards for (1) train-airplane intermodal travel
information and guidance systems, (2) for train-airplane luggage transportation
systems (these two areas are covered in separate reports). The reports cover very
through user analyses for both systems, looking into the existing situation and systems
and analysing the results of extensive questionnaires.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• lack of information and luggage support for long-distance travellers (plane-train)

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• information for long-distance travellers covering different stages of travel (plane, train)
• luggage transportation for long-distance travellers covering different stages of travel
  (plane, train)

Data collection
The reports cover very through user analyses for both systems, looking into the existing
situation and systems and analysing the results of a wide range of interviews.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                      needs
travellers             Needs for travel information are:
                       • homogenisation of signs easing location and not creating a
                           psychological break in the chain of transport
                       • relays centralising information on all the modes
                       • systematic and personal information delivered with the tickets,
                           and interactive with media (pillars), at all moments of the journey,
                           as relays to outside sign posting
                       • The question is therefore to optimise the existing signs in terms of
                          “shapes” but especially of frequency, and to consider the
                          potential of new global and interactive tools (electronic chip card,
                          server, pager, pillars ...) that complete this apparatus.
                       This potential expresses itself mainly on:
                       • combined tickets air plane + PT
                       • upstream taking in charge of the satellite elements of the trip
                          (luggage and traveller check in at PT station)
                       • information and coordination in intermodality
                       • personalised media readable on pillars, universal for all trips
                       Requirements for baggage services:
                       • easing the possibility for travellers to take their baggage during
                          their plane journey



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                    • taking in charge baggage before the journey starts encouraging
                       travellers to use rail to get to the airport
                    • door-to-door service has most supporters because this avoids the
                       problems of the interfaces in the journey - travellers are prepared
                       to pay up to DM 50 for a baggage service from home to the
                       destination in Germany, and even more in France. However, such
                       a service must include flexible modules (place and time of
                       collection) which give travellers a measure of flexibility and
                       control.
                    • the principle is: the fewer the interfaces a baggage service offers
                       the customer, the more acceptable the service
                    • a suitable provider of a baggage service should in any event be a
                       well-known international company with core competencies in
                       multimodal baggage transport, and above all one familiar with the
                       special security requirements for air travel. Deutsche Bahn AG or
                       Deutsche Post AG would have to enhance their competencies
                       and communicate these vigorously (image upgrading) to win the
                       confidence (now missing) of customers in any future baggage
                       service
                     • currently however home-baggage collection seems to be at a
                        very early stage of advancement and thus still too expensive




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                                        FARAWAY


FARAWAY (Fusion of radAR and ADS data through two-WAY data link) is
investigating the improvements in operational performance that are possible through
the use of ADS/TWDL and through appropriate fusion of ground-generated
surveillance data (radar) with ADS data transferred to the ground. Detailed general
and operational system requirements are identified mainly based on interviews and
questionnaires with operators.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• better use of limited airspace

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• integration of ADS and radar

Data collection
Requirements are identified based on discussions within the project as well as on detailed
interviews with three airlines.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
users/stakeholders     needs
operators              general requirements are:
                       • safety
                               ◊ system quality factors: availability, continuity of service,
                                  integrity, reliability, performance requirements
                               ◊ system security
                               ◊ capacity
                       • operational requirements: ground
                               ◊ service providers perspective about ADC
                               ◊ ATC automation: trajectory prediction, position monitoring,
                                  conformance monitoring, conflict prediction and detection,
                                  tracking, conflict resolution, wind estimation, flight
                                  management, infrastructure cost
                               ◊ human machine interface-controller: general requirements,
                                  display capability
                       • operational requirements: air
                               ◊ present operational constraints and future expectations
                               ◊ operational applications: cockpit display of traffic information,
                                  aircraft-based collision avoidance, conflict detection and
                                  resolution, main results of questionnaire campaign




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                                             GNSS

GNSS essentially studies what ATT applications (road, rail, waterborne and air
transport), require or could rely on a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), as
well as what level of quality of GNSS information these applications need. The latter
is defined in terms of different RNP (Required Navigation Performance) parameters.
As such, the user requirements report is more focused on potential applications that
can make use of a given technology.

What problems are addressed
• positioning of vehicles/trains/vessels/aircraft

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• satellite navigation

Data collection
Only for rail, possible applications are identified using a questionnaire (2 respondents).
There has been extensive use of the literature as well as of the knowledge of project
partners.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                    needs
road                    applications that can rely on GNSS are:
                        traffic control and management
                        a) traffic information
                        b) travel demand management
                        c) traffic control
                        safety and security
                        a) incident management.
                        b) emergency management
                        c) hazardous good incident notification
                        d) stolen vehicle location
                        e) public travel security
                        f) valuable cargo location
                        g) accident reporting
                        information
                        a) pre trip travel information
                        b) on trip information (travel & traffic information services)
                        c) on trip information (collective transport services)
                        navigation
                        a) navigation and route guidance
                        fleet management
                        a) collective transportation management



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                      b) commercial freight and fleet management
                      c) commercial vehicle electronic clearance
                      d) automated roadside safety inspection
                      e) intermodal transport and terminal management
                      f) transport process monitoring
                      collision avoidance
                      a) longitudinal collision avoidance
                      b) lateral collision avoidance
                      c) intersection collision avoidance
                      d) pre crash restraint deployment
                      tolling
                      a) electronic tolling
                      b) enforcement
                      c) asset management
rail                  • train location - all weather conditions
                      • distinguishing between tracks
                      • driverless trains - for stopping in stations
                      • driverless trains - between stations
                      • level crossing barrier operation
                      • broken train detection and protection
                      • passenger and management information systems
air                   • en-route/terminal (all phases of flight; distinction between
                          oceanic and domestic areas)
                      • approach and landing
                      • surface movement guidance and control systems (SMGCS)
waterborne            Essential - Safety of Life applications
                      • on-board navigation (voyage planning, voyage performance and
                          monitoring; precise track keeping and manoeuvring)
                      • search and rescue (man-over-board, global maritime distress
                          and safety system and communications)
                      • fairway services (hydrography, VTS (Vessel Traffic
                          Surveillance), coastal engineering, fairway maintenance and
                          dredging)
                      Essential - Economic applications:
                      • navigation (least cost routing, avoidance of weather disruptions,
                          fuel efficiency)
                      • fisheries industry
                      • pleasure craft
                      • ship/port management and interface (cargo and container
                          control)
                      Non-essential applications:
                      • ship-specific data (monitoring of heading, draft, trim and hull




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                        deformation)
                      • automation (berthing, collision avoidance and shallow water
                        monitoring)




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                                       HANNIBAL

HANNIBAL is developing applications to support network and traffic management on
the transalpine corridor between Italy and France. User needs distinguish between
end users (car and truck drivers), road operators (decision makers, operators in
traffic centres) and intermediate users. While some of these are at a high level, others
refer to the need for specific applications (information provision, data exchange, …)
as well as to how these applications should be performed.

What problems are addressed
• heavy congestion on the Alps crossings between France and Italy due to weather
  problems and/or holiday flows
• information currently only in local language (despite high % of foreign drivers)
• virtually no co-operation mechanisms in place

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• prototype cross-border data exchange system
• coordinated traffic management, essentially re-routing (set-up decision structure, develop
  strategies, develop action plans)
• coordinated user information (VMS, public and private radio, user info services of
  private motorway companies, ...)
• traffic forecasting, decision support tools, automatic incident detection
• tolling (feasibility study - only briefly covered in this report)

Data collection
User needs are mainly identified using the knowledge of managers of traffic centres
(interviews).

User needs (separate box for different applications)
Users/stakeholders?     User needs?
End users
• car drivers           • information needs: description of difficulties (kind, location,
                           extent, effect on traffic, foreseeable duration and alternative
                           roads) and cost of toll plazas ahead
                        • information needs to be fast, correct and precise (including need
                           to follow-up development of incidents over time) or users loose
                           confidence quickly
                        • further development of pre-trip information services, for instance
                           based on Internet
                        • tolling: speed, safety and comfort (no ticket handling) of toll
                           transactions
                        • on VMS-based display of travel time (results of SIRIUS in
                           Paris): displaying travel time on Paris Boulevard Périphérique



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                            has been received very favourably by 97% of the users; 84% of
                            the users think that this type of information is understandable
                            and 75% believes that it improves their comfort
• truck drivers          information needs: idem + number of lorries already parked on
                         each of the special parking areas when the tunnels are closed
                         (available space)
Road operators
• decision makers        •   avoid traffic jams
                         •   guarantee user satisfaction
                         •   maximise use of existing road capacity
                         •   minimise operational costs
                         •   optimise communications amongst operators
                         •   reduce environmental pollution
                         •   influence driver behaviour
                         •   improve timeliness of information to users
                         •   improve road safety
                         •   prevent incidents
                         •   improve effectiveness of emergency services.
                         •   tolling: support high traffic flows (1500 vehicles per lane) at
                             speeds up to 180 km/hour, provide support for non-equipped
                             users, minimise risk of fraud, minimise risk of failure, ensure
                             continuity of toll collection in the case of malfunctioning
• operators in traffic   •   information needs: forecast duration of tunnels closures due to
  centres                    snowfall, knowledge of the number of heavy goods vehicles
                             parked on special areas enabling to estimate how much longer it
                             will take after the crisis is over to go back to a normal situation,
                             traffic counting stations at entry and exits of main junctions to
                             monitor effect of rerouting advice, cameras at vulnerable points
                             of the network
                         •   man-machine interface: different maps presenting (1) real-time
                             traffic situation, (2) predicted traffic situation in one hour and
                             two hours time as well as (3) all current traffic management
                             actions; manual data introduction by operators should be as
                             simple as possible to reduce scope for errors (use of mouse
                             rather than keyboard, minimum number of options, as little free
                             text as possible) and to avoid that simpler tools such as
                             telephone are used
                         •   need for confirmation of incidents by organisation (motorway)
                             responsible
                         •   information needs to be validated by organisation responsible
                             for stretch of road where it occurred
                         •   traffic information and control measures need to be well-




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                         synchronised and consistent
                       • further development of DATEX-Net to include exchange of
                         images and intermodality
                       • less time between incident occurrence and dissemination
                       • language-independent and compatible mechanisms for data
                         exchange
                       • better year-round traffic forecast tools (not only holiday traffic)
                         with a precision of +- 200 vehicles/hour for all vehicles
                         estimation and +-50 vehicles/hour for heavy traffic estimation
                       • electronic toll collection
                                  ◊ perform transaction and infringement functions over
                                     the whole width of the pavement, including
                                     emergency lanes
                                  ◊ decrease the duration of transactions and thus
                                     increase the traffic fluidity
                                  ◊ enable toll collection with high traffic flow rate (1500
                                     vehicles/hour) at speeds ranging from 0 to 180 km/h
                                     in all traffic conditions
                                  ◊ ensure toll collection for non-equipped users
                                  ◊ minimise the risk of fraudulent use
                                  ◊ ensure the toll collection in case of malfunctioning; be
                                     designed to minimise the risk of distraction to drivers
                                  ◊ be highly reliable concerning the failure rate of
                                     transactions
                                  ◊ be cost-effective
                                  ◊ be adapted to space constraints, in particular in
                                     urban areas
                       • to have at their disposal short-term estimations of traffic
                         conditions
                       • to evaluate a priori and a posteriori the impact of operating
                         decisions in order to maximise the traffic flow
Intermediate users
• public and private   information needs: description of difficulties (kind, location, extent,
   radio operators     effect on traffic, foreseeable duration and alternative roads) and
                       related advise (to postpone time of departure, to stop, to use
                       alternative roads)




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                                    (INCO-)WELCOM

INCO-WELCOM looks into ATT applications for multimodal freight and fleet
management on an international corridor, with the emphasis of the user needs report
completely on Poland. The results are high-level user requirements (same
requirements for shippers, forwarders, transport operators, carriers and terminal
operators).

What problems are addressed
• lack of use of EDI in freight and fleet management

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• use of EDI in freight and fleet management - specific applications are not indicated at this
  stage

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                  user needs
Shippers, forwarders, key general requirements are (in decreasing order of importance):
transport operators,    1. expandability
carriers and terminal   2. reliability of systems
operators (in the final 3. increased speed of information
analysis of user needs 4. compatibility/integration with other systems
for ATT, these are      5. potential for generating income
treated more or less    general priorities for new information systems are (in decreasing
together)               order of importance):
                        1. more reliable information
                        2. lower maintenance costs
                        3. information about alternative modes and routes
                        4. information about other systems
                        5. system easier to operate
                        6. improvement of data processing
                        7. reduced operating costs
                        more specific requirements are:
                        • exchange by EDI
                        • barcode system useful
                        • proactive/real-time information
                        • on-line status information
                        • adequate registration of data
                        • improvement of internal efficiency
                        • direct links with order entry
                        • automatic invoicing by electronic means
                        • on-line tracking and tracing




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                                        INFOPOLIS

INFOPOLIS (Advanced Passenger Information in European Cities) is producing a
range of ergonomics guidelines for designers to improve access to public transport
information systems, regarding information content, graphics, interactive aspects,
request formulation and navigation. This deliverable mainly focuses on content;
overall, it is clear that the project will deliver a lot of useful information for designers.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• user-friendly interfaces to public transport information

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• bus-stop displays
• public access terminals
• enquiry office terminals
• on-board information
• information at home
• hand-held devices / personal traveller assistant

Data collection
The deliverable makes good use of previous projects and the literature; it is clear that direct
input from the users is foreseen in further stages.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
         users/stakeholders                                       needs
Commuters, Businessmen, School         • information content requirements are:
children/students, Disabled, Elderly,           ◊ network's instructions for use: to recognise
Leisured/tourists, Occasional users               network's elements (identifiers, information
                                                  boards, vehicles' identification modes, ticket
                                                  vending machines, etc.) Where can the user
                                                  obtain information ? Where and how to pay
                                                  ? How to punch one's transport ticket ?
                                                  What are the access points to the network?
                                                  What are the available information sources ?
                                                  etc.
                                                ◊ time data: journey times, waiting times,
                                                  transfer times, travel times between stops,
                                                  timetables, vehicle frequency, first and last
                                                  vehicle on a line
                                                ◊ pricing data: prices (fares, season pass,
                                                  annual pass, etc.), prices reduction
                                                  possibilities, periods of validity, ticket types
                                                ◊ network and lines structure: general view of



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                                             the network, to know the lines, to know
                                             transport modes in the network and their
                                             junctions, to know stops and stations
                                             location in connection with the topography
                                             of the city, etc.
                                         ◊   network conditions: to know disfunctions
                                             (breakdowns, failures, hardware crashes,
                                             demonstrations, current works, strikes,
                                             atmospheric disturbances) and their
                                             consequences on the use of the network
                                         ◊   modifications in the network: line(s)
                                             modifications (stop(s) addition and/or
                                             suppression) or line(s) addition and/or
                                             suppression, vehicles' cancellations, lines
                                             substitutions, particular modifications (week-
                                             end, during holidays, etc.)
                                         ◊   to plan: actions to be taken, directions to
                                             follow, references of the vehicles which will
                                             be used, departure, arrivals and intermediate
                                             points, journeys, fares, time data, etc.
                                         ◊   to compare: comparisons between different
                                             transport means (personal vehicles, taxi,
                                             public transport, etc.), between different
                                             networks, between lines
                                         ◊   to choose: a line (to go from a point to
                                             another, various lines can be used combined
                                             with various transport means), a means
                                             (different means can be used like personal
                                             vehicles, taxi, public transport, etc.)
                                         ◊   to orientate oneself: to reach an access point
                                             of the network, to orientate oneself in the
                                             network, to find the final destination




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                                         INFOTEN

INFOTEN (Multimodal Information and Traffic Management Systems on Trans-
European Networks) is developing an interregional and multimodal communication
network between the regions of Austria, France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland. A
large survey (1000 participants) of end-users (drivers) was undertaken identifying
service content and quality requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• creation of high-quality interregional multi-modal traffic and travel information services

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• interregional multi-modal traffic and travel information services (Personal Traveller
  Assistants, Fixed Information Terminals)
• data exchange
• Companion

Data collection
There is a lot of direct input as 1000 end-users were interviewed.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                     needs
end-users              • information should be available, reliable, improvable, consistent,
                          cheap, timely, fast, accurate, complete, relevant and
                          understandable
                       • interregional and multimodal service is highly desirable
                       • leisure travellers want a free service, business travellers do not
                          mind paying
                       • information content requirements for long-distance travel are:
                               ◊ information about the current traffic situation
                               ◊ incidents/accidents
                               ◊ roadworks
                               ◊ practicability of roads
                               ◊ traffic forecasts
                               ◊ weather information
                       • information content requirements for short-distance travel are:
                               ◊ information about the current traffic situation
                               ◊ incidents/accidents
                               ◊ roadworks
                               ◊ car parks at the destination
                               ◊ traffic forecast
                               ◊ shortest route to destination
data providers         • low costs



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                    •   high level of automation
                    •   as many channels for dissemination as possible
service providers   •   low priced data
                    •   low costs
                    •   high added value




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                                      IN-RESPONSE

IN-RESPONSE (Incident RESPonse with ON-line innovative Sensing) is developing
and validating integrated detection and response strategies that are based on
innovative sensing technologies. Although user fora were set up in 6 countries and at
the European level, this deliverable only identifies very high-level requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• fast and coordinated incident response

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• incident detection, communication

Data collection
Although user fora were set up in 6 countries and at the European level, this deliverable only
identifies high-level requirements.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
     users/stakeholders                                    needs
actors involved in incident    • incident detection
management                     • incident verification
                               • dispatching / routing of response vehicles
                               • on-scene clearance actions
                               • traffic management
                               • post-clearance actions
                               • “appropriate incident information” (monitoring)
                               • coordination of incident management actors, for instance,
                                  through a central management facility
                               • technological attributes are:
                                       ◊ compliance with standards
                                       ◊ user friendliness
                                       ◊ documentation
                                       ◊ price
                                       ◊ compatibility with existing system
                                       ◊ system security
                                       ◊ system reliability
                                       ◊ speed




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                                          INTACT

INTACT aims to develop a generic tool to facilitate integration of management
systems in freight transport, and to validate it in different transport companies in
Europe. The main outcome of the project is a conceptual information model that
serves as a common platform for the integration of transport telematics applications
as well as interfaces to connect various applications in transport companies and
externally, with shippers, operators and suppliers.

What problems are addressed
• lack of efficiency and effectiveness of various stand-alone applications in the same office

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• information model and application interfaces

Data collection
• interviews/analyses of four transport companies
• literature review
• questionnaire survey.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
               users/stakeholders                                  needs
consignor, forwarder, carrier/fleet manager, • functional requirements:
driver, traffic manager, transport centre          ◊ cost reduction: eg reduction of
operator, consignee, vehicle, other mode of          paperwork and manpower
transport operator, authorities, support           ◊ customer service: real-time status
services supplier                                    reports, integration of systems
                                                   ◊ control and planning: route planning,
                                                     processing of trip data
                                                • non-functional requirements:
                                                   ◊ interoperability
                                                   ◊ flexibility
                                                   ◊ interconnectivity (connecting all kinds
                                                     of communication networks)
                                                   ◊ suitable for all tasks
                                                   ◊ user-friendly (support)
                                                   ◊ security
                                                   ◊ efficiency
                                                   ◊ cost-effectiveness
                                                   ◊ open standards
                                                   ◊ user-friendly/man-machine interface
                                                   ◊ availability/reliability
                                                • main needs for integration are between:



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                                            ◊      digital tachograph and administrative
                                                   system
                                            ◊      on-board computer and
                                                   administrative system
                                            ◊      on-board computer and operational
                                                   planning system
                                            ◊      positioning and operational planning
                                                   system
                                            ◊      administrative system and operational
                                                   planning system




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                                       INTERPORT

INTERPORT (Integrating Water Transport in the Logistics Chain) is implementing
Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) for drivers and vehicles and Automatic
Equipment Identification (AEI) for different types of load units in ports focusing using
stationary (wire-bound) and mobile (wireless) tag-based and smart card-based
technologies and EDI. The largest part of deliverable examines the current practice in
the various demonstration sites in detail, resulting in user needs that are than
consolidated at project level.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• opportunities for tag-based and smart-card based applications in port management
What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) for drivers and vehicles
• Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) for different types of load units
supporting:
        ◊ document generation and communication
        ◊ access control
        ◊ customs control
        ◊ inventory control
        ◊ control of loading and unloading

Data collection
There is a very detailed description and analysis for all demonstration sites based on user
group meetings (Helsinki, Oslo, Bilbao, Pireaus, Volos) as well as on a wide range of
questionnaires.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
             users/stakeholders                                      needs
terminal operators, port authorities,          Information required regarding:
customs, distribution company, shipping        • document generation and communication
companies, road transport operators, haulier          ◊ customs clearance
organisations, railway operators, ministries,         ◊ booking
shipping agents, ship owners                          ◊ pre-announcement of vehicle and
                                                          shipment (load unit)
                                                      ◊ manifest for import and export
                                                      ◊ bayland
                                                      ◊ confirmation of document receipt
                                                      ◊ list of dangerous goods
                                                      ◊ invoicing
                                               • access control
                                                      ◊ driver identification
                                                      ◊ vehicle and load unit id.



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                                                 ◊ status of load units (damages)
                                                 ◊ vehicle arrival and departure
                                                 ◊ load unit arrival/departure time
                                         • interface with external vehicles
                                                 ◊ guidance of external vehicles
                                                 ◊ parking (waiting) area status
                                                 ◊ receipt of load unit received
                                         • inventory control
                                                 ◊ id. position, type of load unit
                                                 ◊ storage area status
                                                 ◊ delivery and collection time
                                         • loading/unloading control
                                                 ◊ load unit/vehicle identification
                                                 ◊ loading/unloading time
                                                 ◊ load unit/vehicle status




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                                         MAGNET A

MAGNET A and MAGNET B are basically investigating what applications can be
supported by GNSS 1 (Global Navigation Satellite System) MAGNET A (down to 10
m in accuracy and within 10 s for the time to alarm, or supported by
GPS+EGNOS+GLONASS) respectively MAGNET B (down to 1 m in accuracy and
within 1 s for the time to alarm, or supported by GPS+EGNOS+GLONASS means
augmented by local means) functionality. To do so, the projects mainly develop
critical values for relevant RNP (Required Navigation Performance) parameters. See
the comments for GNSS above.

What problems are addressed
• positioning of vehicles/trains/vessels/aircraft

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• satellite navigation

Data collection
Only for rail, possible applications are identified using a questionnaire (2 respondents).
Extensive use of literature and knowledge of project partners.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                  user needs
Maritime                MAGNET A -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                        applications:
                        • ocean navigation
                        • coastal navigation
                        • pilotage navigation
                        • fishing navigation
                        • large area VTMS (Vessel Traffic Management Services), …
Rail                    MAGNET A -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                        applications:
                        • fleet monit’ng &related applications:
                                 • - tracking of cargo and rolling stock
                                 • - passenger information
                                 • - on-board ticketing
                        • real-time train-forthcoming alarm
                        • route pricing
                        More general applications are:
                        • infrastructure management
                        • traffic management
                        • electronic tolling
                        • fleet management, …



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Road                  MAGNET A -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                      applications:
                      • traffic information
                      • travel demand management
                      • traffic control
                      • incident management
                      • emergency management
                      • hazardous good incident notification
                      • stolen vehicle location
                      • public travel security
                      • valuable cargo location
                      • accident reporting
                      • pre-trip travel information
                      • on-trip information (travel & traffic information services)
                      • on-trip information (collective transport services)
                      • navigation and route guidance
                      • collective transportation management
                      • commercial freight and fleet management
                      • commercial vehicle electronic clearance
                      • automated roadside safety inspection
                      • intermodal transport and terminal management
                      • transport process monitoring
                      • electronic tolling
                      • enforcement
                      • asset management, …
air                   MAGNET A -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                      applications:
                      • collision avoidance systems
                      • navigation systems (en-route navigation)
                      • surveillance enhancements
                      • CAT I (precision approach)




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                                         MAGNET B

MAGNET A and MAGNET B are basically investigating what applications can be
supported by GNSS 1 (Global Navigation Satellite System) MAGNET A (down to 10
m in accuracy and within 10 s for the time to alarm, or supported by
GPS+EGNOS+GLONASS) respectively MAGNET B (down to 1 m in accuracy and
within 1 s for the time to alarm, or supported by GPS+EGNOS+GLONASS means
augmented by local means) functionality. To do so, the projects mainly develop
critical values for relevant RNP (Required Navigation Performance) parameters. See
the comments for GNSS above.

What problems are addressed
• positioning of vehicles/trains/vessels/aircraft

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• satellite navigation

Data collection
Only for rail, possible applications are identified using a questionnaire (2 respondents).
Extensive use of literature and knowledge of project partners.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                  user needs
Maritime                MAGNET B -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                        applications:
                        • pilotage
                        • harbour approach
                        • narrow channels entrance
                        • hydrographic survey
                        • dredging
                        • cable and pipe laying
                        • docking, …
rail                    MAGNET B -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                        applications:
                        • fleet management: marshalling yard
                        • traffic management
                        • train control:
                                 • positioning (absolute - relative)
                                 • integrity monitoring
                                 • stop control
                        • track/rail inspection:
                                 • track geometry (measurement)
                                 • rail inspection (location of rail, defaults)



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                      more general applications are:
                      • traffic management
                      • train control
                      • rail inspection...
road                  MAGNET B -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                      applications:
                      • collision avoidance control
                      • collision avoidance: hazardous situation
                      • navigation and route guidance
                      • mayday/incident alert
                      • automated bus/rail stop announcement …
air                   MAGNET B -type GNSS 1 is required for the following
                      applications:
                      • CAT II/III (precision approach)
                      • surface movement guidance and control systems…




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                                        MANTEA

MANTEA (Management of Surface Traffic in European Airports) is developing (1)
decision-support tools for tower controllers (the future kernel of Advanced Surface
Movement Guidance and Control Systems) handling surveillance, planning/routing
and monitoring/control as well as (2) airport capacity optimisation tools such as a
runway system capacity model, a runway delay model, an apron/taxiway simulation
model and a weather model. An extensive list of detailed functional requirements is
identified.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• better on-ground capacity utilisation in European airports

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS)
• Airport Capacity Optimisation (ACOTool) tools

Data collection
Inputs are mainly collected through a questionnaire.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                     needs
tower controllers      Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS)
requirements           • surveillance requirements cover:
                               ◊ basic requirements
                               ◊ surveillance requirements for planning
                               ◊ display and operator interactions requirements
                               ◊ external constraints
                       • routeing requirements cover:
                               ◊ basic routeing requirements for departing aircraft
                               ◊ basic routeing requirements for arriving aircraft
                               ◊ other basic routeing requirements
                               ◊ HMI requirements for routeing: display requirements,
                                  operator s interactions requirements
                               ◊ safety and performance requirements for routeing
                               ◊ routeing requirements for the guidance function
                       • guidance requirements cover
                               ◊ basic constraints posted on guidance
                               ◊ guidance requirements
                               ◊ display requirements
                               ◊ operator interactions
                       • control requirements cover
                               ◊ general control requirements



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                              ◊ Mantea planning
                              ◊ situation control
                              ◊ plan control
                              ◊ specific management
                              ◊ ground control requirements on planning
                              ◊ ground control requirements on situation control
                              ◊ ground control requirements on plan control
                              ◊ specific measures to expedite movements
                              ◊ display requirements
                              ◊ runway occupancy management
                              ◊ monitoring aimed at conflict detection
                              ◊ support functions for conflict's resolution
                              ◊ taxi takeoff and landing clearance issuing
                      • non-functional requirements cover:
                              ◊ accuracy
                              ◊ integrity
                              ◊ availability
                              ◊ continuity of service
                              ◊ reliability
airport authorities   Airport Capacity Optimisation (ACOTool) tools (strategic and not
requirements          operational tools)
                      • general requirements
                              ◊ flexibility and capacity
                              ◊ regularity and punctuality
                              ◊ minimising the environmental impact of air traffic
                              ◊ "first come-first serve" principle
                              ◊ airport capacity to be driven by market demand
                              ◊ resilience to service disruption
                              ◊ management from gate to gate
                              ◊ beyond gate to gate concept
                              ◊ block to block efficiency of individual flight
                              ◊ all weather operation at airport
                              ◊ need for an Advanced SMGCS
                              ◊ optimised departure/arrival sequencing and taxi routing
                              ◊ integration of A-SMGCS and EATMS as a tool
                              ◊ priority Takeoff and Landings in SAR operations
                              ◊ expansion of airport capacity
                              ◊ general financial implication
                              ◊ cost/benefit analysis
                      • functional requirements
                              ◊ gates and stands
                              ◊ departure slot times
                              ◊ towing and push back



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                          ◊ holding bay, penalty box
                          ◊ detailed procedures for departure line-ups, reaction time
                             and roll out level
                          ◊ taxiways
                          ◊ rules for blind alleys
                          ◊ passengers flow
                          ◊ vehicle movement
                          ◊ runway allocation
                          ◊ takeoff
                          ◊ runway arrival and departure occupancy
                          ◊ multiple runway exit
                          ◊ runway crossing
                          ◊ departure-departure separation
                          ◊ arrival and departure sequencing
                          ◊ weather condition
                          ◊ hubbing structure design
                          ◊ capability to support strategic decision
                          ◊ capability to estimate the delays
                          ◊ capability to perform analysis
                          ◊ capability to determine delay benefits
                    • non-functional requirements
                          ◊ alternative scenarios
                          ◊ set up time
                          ◊ operability
                          ◊ computation platform
                          ◊ computation time
                          ◊ operating system




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                                          MARCO

MARCO (Multilevel Advanced Railways Conflict resolution and Operation control) is
developing a set of tools, algorithms and technologies for conflict detection and
resolution within rail and metro networks. Based on an exhaustive description of all
possible types of conflicts, user needs are defined mainly in terms of how these
conflicts need to be represented in control rooms (based on internal discussions and
questionnaire results from all major European railways).

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• conflicts on rail and metro networks

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• common definition and visualisation of potential conflicts with a view to faster conflict
  detection and resolution

Data collection
Based on an exhaustive description of all possible types of conflicts, user needs are defined
mainly in terms of how these conflicts need to be represented in control rooms (based on
internal discussions and questionnaire results from all major European railways).

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                      needs
operators              • general requirements are:
                               ◊ there are existing typical conflict types which should be
                                  handled by different levels of disposition
                               ◊ conflict detection should be done completely in an
                                  automatic way
                               ◊ rules and experience together with highly automated tools
                                  should be used for conflict resolution
                               ◊ the goals of conflict resolution and train running
                                  optimisation are generally a minimisation of a (train) delay
                                  sum
                       • needs for line management are:
                               ◊ minimising a (weighted) train delay sum
                               ◊ maximising the throughout on a line
                       • needs for HTA management are:
                               ◊ increase service reliability
                               ◊ reduce service disruption and delay
                               ◊ minimise or compensate for the effects of unreliable
                                  infrastructure, signalling and rolling stock
                               ◊ compensate for unreliable service planning
                               ◊ provide greater consistency in decision making and



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                              greater predictability in the outcome
                           ◊  reduce the training and experience required by staff
                           ◊  reduce the number of staff required to operate the railway
                           ◊  enable greater infrastructure utilisation
                           ◊  improve customer information
                           ◊  enable improved medium and long term planning through
                              better operational statistics
                    • needs for GAN management are:
                           ◊ improve resource utilisation
                           ◊ increase the efficient use of infrastructure
                           ◊ enable more flexible deployment and use of resources
                           ◊ compensate for unreliable infrastructure, signalling and
                              rolling stock
                           ◊ minimise the number of adverse consequences of
                              decisions
                           ◊ reduce the time taken to restore services following
                              disruption
                           ◊ support dynamic service planning
                           ◊ enable improved medium and long term planning through
                              better operational statistics
                           ◊ support interoperatibility across national boundaries
                    • data exchange connections are needed between LM, HTA,
                      GAN, rolling stock management, personnel management and
                      passenger information




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                                        MOVE-IT

MOVE-IT is a study focusing on the contractual interoperability of EFC systems in
Europe. In this context, rather specific user requirements are identified for motorway
operators and drivers.

What problems are addressed
• non-interoperability of ETC systems

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• no specific applications are developed

Data collection
User needs are identified based on the experience of project partners.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                   user needs
motorway operators      General requirements are:
                        • high reliability of EFC systems (failing transactions lead to loss
                           of income and/or additional recovery costs)
                        • transactions shall be completed whatever the circumstances,
                           even in degraded system modes
                        • newly implemented EFC systems shall be incorporated in, or at
                           least coexist with, existing Fee Collection Systems.
                        • EFC systems shall be able to operate in various environments,
                           such as:
                               ◊ on highways (either with lanes specially designed for EFC
                                  or not),
                               ◊ in urban areas (cities, with lanes specially designed for
                                  EFC),
                               ◊ on isolated infrastructures, e.g. tunnels and bridges,
                               ◊ on ferry entries (and exits),
                               ◊ in parking garages,
                               ◊ underground, in urban areas,
                               ◊ in public transport.
                        • EFC systems shall be able to operate in various toll plaza
                           configurations, such as:
                               ◊ single lane
                               ◊ multi-lane roads
                        • EFC systems shall be able to operate under harsh traffic
                           conditions with high vehicle speeds and small distances, lateral
                           as well as longitudinal, between vehicles
                        • the use of EFC systems should not limit operators in their



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                        commercial options by the techniques used (e.g. limited
                        transaction modes)
                      • high-security to contain fraud
drivers               General requirements are:
                      • high reliability of EFC systems (unjust financial consequences or
                        inconvenience)
                      • EFC systems shall be user-friendly:
                            ◊ no complicated administrative procedures
                            ◊ direct check of the transaction
                            ◊ accompanied with other services such as traffic
                               information
                      • EFC systems shall be interoperable (continuity of service)
                      • EFC systems may have to take into account the privacy of the
                        user
                      • EFC systems shall minimise delay, leading to:
                            ◊ no speed limits
                            ◊ multi-lane
all                   Requirements for an interoperable EFC service are:
                      • interoperability service should be treated from the user’s point
                        of view as an extension of the local EFC service, sharing
                        contract as well as required equipment
                      • possibility for the OBE to hold different contracts and possibility
                        for the user to choose the appropriate contract per usage
                      • available payment means: for feasibility reasons, in the short
                        term only credit/central account payment means should be
                        accepted
                      • acceptance of different third party entities acting as issuers
                        (Transport Service Providers as well as other entities like
                        Financial Institutions
                      • the service will include a single notification of usage linked to the
                        contract used and including all transactions done for a given
                        period included in the interoperable agreement
                      • post-sales service should be put at the user disposal
                      Requirements for an interoperable EFC system are:
                      • technical solution based upon approved European Standards
                            ◊ creation of a multi-vendor environment
                            ◊ reduction of costs for both users and TSP due to free
                               competition of suppliers
                            ◊ reduction in the risk of investment assumed by TSP
                      • OBU including read/write facilities
                      • OBE composed of an On Board Unit + removable Smart Card
                        (OBU+SC). The “removability” is a basic objective but is not
                        necessary. Initially an integrated version is possible:



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                              ◊ possibility to use the same equipment in non EFC lanes
                              ◊ flexible to accept regular or multi-services payment means
                              ◊ more secure system (user can remove the card when
                                 leaving the vehicle)
                              ◊ it can be used in both open and closed networks
                              ◊ it can provide a reasonable quality of service at a lower
                                 cost (not all the toll plazas have to be equipped)
                      Requirements for Interoperable EFC (IOEFC) infrastructure are:
                      • IOEFC service available in all lanes where Local EFC Service
                          (LEFC) is available
                              ◊ perception of a unique service (LEFC and IOEFC)
                                 enhanced
                              ◊ usability enhanced by a common signalling
                              ◊ no specific resources being limited to external users
                      • interoperable EFC service available at all toll plazas but offering
                          different collecting modes
                      Security requirements are:
                      • it shall not be possible to debit or credit purses/accounts in a
                           way not intended by the Issuer
                      • it shall not be possible to exchange value without agreement
                           between the participants involved (e.g. the User and the
                           Service Provider, or the User and the Collection Agent)
                      • it shall not be possible for participants defrauding others
                           without detection
                      • the balanced exchange of value shall be possible
                      • recovery procedures in the event of error shall be available
                      • adequate data to resolve conflicts shall be provided
                      • the privacy of Users involved in transactions shall be assured
                           accordingly to the data protection policy and the contracts
                      What is needed is therefore a security framework suitable for
                      interoperable payment in the EFC as well as a security framework
                      suitable for fast payment in the EFC.
                      Classification requirements are therefore that the motorway
                      operators remain free in choosing:
                      • to use measured or declared characteristics
                      • parameters to be used to assign cases of usage to classes
                      • tariffs to be connected to classes
                      Specific validation procedures need to be developed for complete
                      systems as well as for on-board equipment.




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                                     MULTITRACK

MULTITRACK (Tracking, tracing and monitoring of goods in an intermodal and open
environment) is providing a mechanism for the end-user to monitor the location and
status of a cargo throughout the whole logistic chain in an intermodal transport
system, relying on existing technologies for cargo identification, fixed and mobile data
communication and localisation. The focus is completely on goods management, and
more specifically on the shipment of cars, and not on fleet or driver management.
User requirements are analysed at a high level, links to the more detailed functions of
MULTITRACK are unclear.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• logistics

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• tracking*
• tracing*
• monitoring*

Data collection
User needs are mainly derived from other market surveys as well as from expert
discussions.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
   users/stakeholders                                    needs
operators of combined • globally: quality
transport                 • receive better information faster
                          • decrease of manual tasks and administrative costs
                          • error reduction
                          • reduction of access time to information
                          • more precise localisation of the equipment
                          • acceleration and improvement of the entry/exit procedures at
                             harbour or other zones
                          • better surveillance, in particular for dangerous goods; security
                          • organisation and follow up of reparations
                          • optimisation of the rotation of the equipment
                          • reduction of equipment
                          • reduction of empty kilometres
                          • amelioration of the client service
                          • sales argument
                          • acceleration of billing procedures and financial gains
                          • increase of market share
                          • cost reduction by making the supply chain more transparent



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                               and by moving information fast
                           • service improvement through exact information on location and
                               status of goods
                           • standards for more economic processing and exchange of
                               information
                           • security through anti-theft functions, temperature regulation
                               and monitoring of hazardous goods
                           • active management of transports by announcing expected
                               arrival times
                           • increased quality through reduced missed or incorrect
                               deliveries and enhanced reliability
                           • easy and efficient information exchange
                           • increase in equipment use
                           JIT
                           • better communication leads to better JIT planning and lower
                               stocks
                           • information on exact arrival times at client with a location
                               precision between 100 m and 1 km
                           For dangerous goods, as far as the level of precision desired by
                           the users is concerned, the following cases have to be
                           distinguished:
                           • passive id. identification by warning device (access control)
                           There are two requirements as far as tracking is concerned:
                           • precision of about one hundred meters is sufficient for
                               subsequent control or even for real time measurement (boats)
                           • for the warning system a precision of 10 meters is required
                           Transport of refrigerated goods
                           • constantly actualised information
                           • alarm in case of anomaly
clients of the logistics   • needs are subset of operators needs
companies (e.g.
manufacturers)
customs                    • replacement for reduced border checks




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                                         POSEIDON

POSEIDON (European Project On integrated VTS, Sea Environment and Interactive
Data On-line Network) aims to establish the principles, standards and architecture for
the interoperability of maritime VTS at local, regional and European level.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• integration of Vessel Traffic Services

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• environmental information service
• traffic and port information service
• navigational assistance service
• traffic organisation service
• allied services
• emergency service
• value-added service
• other

Data collection
User needs are identified based on 7 user for a as well as on the experience of project
partners.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
users/stakeholders                           needs
VTS operators, ship masters, pilots,         environmental information service:
harbour authorities, pilot services, tug     • weather status and forecast
services, lock services, mooring             • where applicable, results from analyses of local
organisation, cargo handlers, ship               wave and current conditions
chandler (suppliers, repairs, etc.), agents, • where applicable, information related to the
ship owner, coast guard, customs,                presence and condition of ice in the fairways
marine police, emergency services, port • indications of any malfunctioning equipment
state control, immigration, health control,      along the fairway, such as buoys, lights or
Search and Rescue (SAR), coast guard,            waymarks
fire fighting, pollution combating, marine   • indications of pollution or significant floating
safety agencies, defence / military              objects which have been observed in the
                                                 fairway
                                             • any VTMIS system should take account of and
                                                 assist in the monitoring of sites of special
                                                 scientific interest
                                             traffic and port information service:
                                             • the VTS/VTMIS should provide the waterway
                                                 traffic situation in real time mode with an ability



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                                          to interrogate, process and present a specific
                                          number of vessels varying according to the
                                          needs per users category
                                      • to broadcast radar information to laptop pilots
                                          carried on board the vessels only in emergency
                                          situations
                                      • port and quay conditions
                                      navigational assistance service:
                                      • present position, speed, and course of a given
                                          ship
                                      • present position with reference to way points
                                      • alerts of deviations between positions derived
                                          from GPS/transponders and radar
                                      • under special circumstances (like bad weather
                                          or faulty equipment onboard the ship),
                                          navigational assistance in the form of shore
                                          based pilotage should be offered
                                      traffic organisation service:
                                      • traffic movements, situations, and density,
                                          including vessel intentions as reported,
                                          estimated time to and geographical position to
                                          closest point of approach (TCPA and GCPA),
                                          and identification of vessels that entail a rise in
                                          risk level
                                      • local conditions such as ferry traffic,
                                          construction work, and temporary regulations
                                      • various obstacles for vessel traffic such as
                                          fishing farms, fishing vessels, and concentration
                                          of leisure boats
                                      • assigning fairway, anchorage, waiting locations,
                                          etc.
                                      • instruct vessels regarding entrance to a fairway
                                          and allowed speed
                                      • the related look ahead should be adjustable in
                                          time or distance
                                      • route planning (vessel movements)
                                      allied services
                                      • be a central interface to all (i.e. including
                                          external) allied services, such as services related
                                          to the environment, navigational assistance,
                                          traffic organisation and emergencies
                                      • support to the management of towage and
                                          harbour services



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                                      •  local area hazards
                                      •  type of piloting
                                      •  the pilot's name and number
                                      •  general information about the pilots in the
                                         VTMIS area
                                      emergency service
                                      • flow of information during an emergency should
                                         be, as far as possible, in a standard format,
                                         agreed by all those involved
                                      • become distributed to many agencies, e.g. via
                                         the Internet, such as: Meteorological Office,
                                         Marine Pollution Control unit (MPCU), Marine
                                         Accident Investigation Board (MAIB), Search
                                         And Rescue (SAR)
                                      value-added service
                                      • the central interface should be accessible from
                                         the various types of clients through clickable
                                         user interfaces, like it is known from GIS-
                                         applications and World Wide Web browsers
                                      • the functionality and information interface should
                                         be adapted to each specific user group
                                      • for the users that do not have access to a
                                         computer and data communication facilities and
                                         generally as a backup, a manual service through
                                         telephone and VHF-radio should provide
                                         similar information (ship reporting system,
                                         available in some areas)
                                      • the vessel reporting system should be
                                         connected to a database to ease the retrieval
                                         and reuse of stored data, both for statistical
                                         purposes and as a service for other users
                                      other
                                      • if equipped with appropriate transponder
                                          equipment to receive from the nearest VTS,
                                          information about targets known to the VTS
                                          but not necessarily to the ship
                                      • an ability to identify a specific vessel directly by
                                          some specific means of communication, to
                                          which it can be expected to attain a higher
                                          degree of notice than regular VHF (e.g. a
                                          special VHF/DSC service or by a mobile
                                          phone)
                                      • much of the information passed today via fax,



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                                          letter, agents etc. will be supplied electronically
                                          directly from the ship in the future; thus, a
                                          common information server on board should
                                          be able to supply the necessary info in
                                          appropriate format / based on input provided
                                          only once




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                                         Pro-ATN

Pro-ATN (Prototype Aeronautical Telecommunication Network) is developing a
prototype of the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network as it is being standardised
by ICAO in SARPs and Guidance material, in close cooperation with the Air Traffic
Management Application developed in the EOLIA project. This results in a long list of
system requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• communication backbone for commercial aircraft operations

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Prototype Aeronautical Telecommunication Network

Data collection
Requirements have mainly been identified through a user forum as well as based on the
literature.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
      users/stakeholders                                       needs
all                               system requirements cover:
                                  • (general requirements)
                                  • EOLIA services and EOLIA/ProATN interfaces (data
                                     link initiation capability, aircraft parameter reporting
                                     visualising air situation not under radar coverage, ATC
                                     communications management …)
                                  • compliance with existing standards
                                  • performance requirements (probability of non-receipt
                                     1/1 mio, …)
                                  • security requirements (protection against monitoring,
                                     against modification, replay, flooding or jamming)
                                  • (airspace user requirements)
                                  • cost-benefit and safety
                                  • service requirements such as on datalink
                                  • avionics requirements such as safety, cost-benefit and
                                     aircraft fit
                                  • certification requirements
                                  • (air traffic service provider requirements)
                                  • cost-benefit and safety
                                  • communication system requirements such as
                                     availability, throughput, delay time, reliability, etc)
                                  • ground infrastructure requirements
                                  • certification requirements



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                              • security requirements
                              • requirements on subnetwork selection
                              • operator requirements




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                                        PROMISE

PROMISE (Personal Mobile Traveller and Traffic Information) is introducing new
tools to provide travellers with mobile and personalised services via GSM (essentially
the NOKIA 9000 Communicator). This deliverable groups very detailed user analyses
in Finland, Sweden, UK, France, The Netherlands and Germany.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• more comfortable travel through information available at hand

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• traffic and travel information services available on PDAs

Data collection
There is an impressive amount of direct input from users, most of which were confronted
with working prototypes (in the different sites).

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                       needs
                        • (Finland)
                        • car drivers’ problems:
                                 ◊ traffic jams
                                 ◊ weather conditions
                                 ◊ difficulties in finding a given address
                                 ◊ accidents that stop or slow traffic
                                 ◊ bad roads or roadworks
                                 ◊ one-way road in an unfamiliar city
                                 ◊ one’s own car breaking down
                                 ◊ how to find a hotel or a restaurant
                                 ◊ ferry timetables
                                 ◊ where and when to stop and shop
                                 ◊ how to find a tourist information bureau
                                 ◊ road fees abroad
                                 ◊ how to avoid truck routes
                                 ◊ how to make a remote access to business files in the
                                    office
                                 ◊ how to store new information into the office system
                        • public transport users’ problems:
                             ◊   timetables
                             ◊   traffic jams
                             ◊   missing the next link
                             ◊   a vehicle breaking down
                             ◊   finding information on services




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                          ◊ finding the destination
                          ◊ shortest and quickest routes
                          ◊ services should be formulated in terms of transport profiles
                             of users
                          ◊ electronic map
                          ◊ index
                          ◊ real-time traffic information
                          ◊ information on where it is worth stopping
                          ◊ customisable, personal mobile terminals
                          ◊ (Sweden)
                          ◊ have access to services via their computers at home and at
                             work
                          ◊ services have to give relevant information to disabled
                          ◊ users are willing to pay for the services, but today's mobile
                             phone tariffs are way to expensive to make the services
                             really attractive
                          ◊ Nokia PROMISE-Terminal interesting, but some,
                             especially women, thought that it looked to complicated for
                             them
                      • (England)
                      • traveller information needs:
                             ◊ travellers highlighted the need for a diverse range of
                                 information:
                             ◊ pre-trip planning information (dynamic/real time
                                 information system such as routes to a required
                                 destination)
                             ◊ traffic related information (delays caused by roadworks
                                 and accidents, alternative route information, time
                                 estimates, dynamic guidance service)
                             ◊ weather information
                             ◊ town/city car park information (location and availability)
                             ◊ timetable information for ferries, trains, buses and
                                 airlines
                             ◊ local hotel, restaurant and tourist attractions information
                             ◊ access to street level maps for the "final hop" of their
                                 journey
                             ◊ Talking Yellow Pages, facsimile and e-mail
                      • route guidance/traffic information terminal must:
                             ◊ be fully dynamic
                             ◊ provide visuals i.e. maps
                             ◊ be flexible/transportable between cars
                             ◊ be secure - easy to remove or deactivate




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                              ◊  take you door to door i.e. street level maps are required
                              ◊  be easy to use
                              ◊  provide quick and ready access
                              ◊  be safe (not involve taking risks/taking eyes off the
                                 road)
                               ◊ be offered at the right price
                      the following payment preferences were noted:
                               ◊ business users and corporate decision makers had a
                                 strong preference for monthly service fees rather than
                                 "pay as you go"
                               ◊ private users and business users who did not anticipate
                                 frequent usage had a preference for "paying as you go"
                                 i.e. price per route or per call or by time
                               ◊ a two tier tariff system was suggested based on an all
                                 inclusive price for service and calls for light/low users
                                 and heavy/frequent users
                               ◊ terminal displays should not be too small, and provide
                                 opportunity to high luminance and contrast
                               ◊ text-to-speech interfaces are good for blind people.
                                 This function may also help car driver and increase
                                 traffic safety
                               ◊ (Netherlands)
                               ◊ mobility calendar (scheduling, planning, advance
                                 warning, re-scheduling)
                               ◊ multimodal trip planning
                               ◊ personal route guidance
                               ◊ user-profile information broadcasting
                               ◊ position-related information
                               ◊ remote payments and reservation
                               ◊ remote database access
                               ◊ mobile telephony and communication
                               ◊ e-mail
                               ◊ emergency services
                               ◊ desk-top derivative services
                      • (France)
                      • car users - regular trip - local area:
                               ◊ foreseeable disturbances (pre-trip) and unexpected
                                 disturbances (on-trip)
                               ◊ allowing to judge importance of disturbance and react to
                                 it if possible
                      • car users - casual trip - local area:
                               ◊ destination search, existing means of transport, route,
                                 guidance, disturbance



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                      • car users - long distance:
                             ◊ cost and route
                      • public transport users - regular trip - local area:
                             ◊ transport connections and timetables, disturbances
                      • public transport users - casual trip - local area:
                             ◊ existence of public transport leading to destination,
                                 duration of journey, route, cost, localisation at final
                                 destination including map
                      • public transport - long distance:
                             ◊ timetables, cost, reservation
                      • problems are difficulty to use in transport means (metro, air), not
                        adapted to alert services (no permanent connection), less
                        functionality than PC + modem
                      • (Finland)
                      • blind people require
                             ◊ text-to-speech interfaces
                      • elder drivers require:
                             ◊ terminal display should not be too small and it should
                                 provide opportunity to high luminance and contrast. The
                                 use of icons on terminal display allows greater visibility
                                 distances than the same size of textual counterpart. The
                                 icons particularly benefit older people, but they also
                                 benefit other age groups
                             ◊ some intelligent features should be added to mobile
                                 phones to make the phoning safer while driving
                             ◊ older drivers are very accepting of new technology




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                                        QUARTET+

Quartet+ (Validation of a European Urban and Regional IRTE based on Open
System Architectures) is validating the benefits of an Integrated Road Transport
Environment (IRTE), in which any application no single application operates in
isolation based on principles such as cooperative monitoring, equilibrium planning
and cooperative control (Athens, Gothenburg, Midlands, Stuttgart, Torino and
Toulouse). The deliverable is not really on user needs, but rather some PR-like
presentation of results.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• integration of ATT applications in cities

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• cooperative monitoring
• equilibrium planning
• cooperative control

Data collection
The deliverable is not really on user needs, but rather some PR-like presentation of results.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
            users/stakeholders                                      needs
operators, final and professional users,    • first priority is shift to public transport by
authorities                                    objective and subjective improvements
                                            • second priority is effective traffic
                                               management systems
                                            • cooperative management and control
                                               requires sharing data and establishing
                                               common control strategies through new high-
                                               level functions and architectures, LANs and
                                               WANs
                                            • IRTE can reduce average travel times by
                                               17% and travel times by bus by maximum
                                               15%




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                                           ROSIN

ROSIN (Railway Open System Interconnection Network) is validating the TCN (Train
Communication Work) specifications for an open on-board train communication
system that allows to link all sorts of electronic subsystems. Given these detailed
results, the focus of the deliverable is on refining some detailed functional
requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• validation of TCN (Train Communication Network)

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Passenger trains including locomotives, networking on existing UIC cable, freight train
  device networking, mass transit application for metros, standard application interface,
  radio link, ERTMS (ETCS, EUROCAB, etc.), training tools.

Data collection
Results are mainly based on previous projects, the literature and on internal discussions.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
users/stakeholders             needs
public transport operators     passenger trains, including locomotives
                               • traction functions
                                       ◊ remote locomotive control of: traction effort and
                                          speed regulation, auxiliary equipment, process
                                          data of the locomotive, according to an updated
                                          list of signals to be agreed with or derived from
                                          UIC working groups (slip/slide information should
                                          be addressed), self-protection of remotely
                                          controlled loco
                                       ◊ multiple traction control of: up to 4 locomotives in
                                          multiple traction on a passenger train, speed
                                          control with a single speed controller active for all
                                          locomotives, torque control according to
                                          characteristics of the locomotives and train
                                          composition, reporting of process data of all
                                          locomotives, with driver interface to be agreed
                                          with UIC working groups, train coupling between
                                          different train buses should be addressed
                                       ◊ Brake supervision and control: reporting of brake
                                          lining, maximum brake power and brake weight
                                          for each vehicle Status information and testing
                                          from electro-pneumatic, stop and block brake for



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                                      each vehicle, shunting (direct) brake, automatic
                                      (indirect) and electric brake control should be
                                      possible, with remote change of brake mode,
                                      remote deactivation of non working/possibly
                                      faulty brakes should be addressed, control and
                                      reporting of emergency brake, and in case (to be
                                      analysed) command for prevention of emergency
                                      brake
                           • passenger information
                                  ◊ seat reservation: seat reservation, interface to
                                      radio link (MORANE)
                                  ◊ information displays: destination displays,
                                      information displays internal, interface to “delay
                                      management”, time table information (self
                                      service), “next stop” indicator internal, coach
                                      selective information, direction and location
                                      display for dinning coach, telephone, lavatory,
                                      train route indication
                                  ◊ announcements (loudspeaker): coach selective
                                      loudspeaker, selection of loudspeaker
                                      inside/outside (mass transit), automatic
                                      announcements due to train position (GPS
                                      required)
                                  ◊ interactive communication, passenger / operating
                                      staff: emergency cells, service calls, stop on
                                      demand, request for stop (mass transit)
                                  ◊ external systems (telephone, TV, audio):
                                      multinational telephone, definition of TCN-
                                      interface for telephone and entertainment systems
                                  ◊ ticketing: ticket machines, networking on existing
                                      UIC cable
                           • specific requirements
                                  ◊ to support end-to-end communication (between
                                      the driving cab at the head of the train and the
                                      driving cab at the tail) for pushpull operation
                                  ◊ to support maximum UIC train length (22
                                      coaches), defining criteria for the selection of
                                      allowable coaches in the composition
                                  ◊ to support remote locomotive control functions,
                                      (command and remote reporting of status)
                                  ◊ to enable transmission among at least 6 nodes on
                                      WTB, so as to guarantee openness towards any
                                      other coach and passenger function



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                           freight train device networking
                           • detailed physical and transmission service requirements
                               are developed
                           mass transit
                           • overall feeling is that TCN satisfies mass transit
                               requirements




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                                          SAMPO

SAMPO (System for Advanced Management of Public Transport Operations) is
assessing the potential and effectiveness of telematics technologies to provide
Demand-Responsive Transport Services (DRTS) with test sites in five Member States
(Finland, Belgium, Ireland, Italy and Sweden).

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• attractive demand-responsive public transport services

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• booking and reservation
• dispatching and route optimisation
• payment systems
• control centre software and hardware
• on-board mobile terminals

Data collection
The different sites have carried out a detailed user needs analysis, obviously with a lot of
direct input of the users (one-to-one interviews, discussion groups, local reference groups
and surveys), that has then been consolidated.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                      needs
end-users              seamless transport service integrating:
                       • information
                       • booking
                       • pricing and payment
                       • ticketing
                       • accessibility
                       • transfer
                       • customer support
                       • baggage handling
                       • quality
                       • wide range of destinations/coverage
                       • easy access to services (walk, wait)
                       • responsive to personal needs
                       • accessibility of complete, reliable information
                       • ease and speed of booking
                       • last-minute booking
                       • reliability of service and arrival time
                       • assurance of the return journey
                       • minimum deviations/delays on the route



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                    • ease of boarding and space for luggage, shopping
                    • access to other modes, but minimise transfers
                    • maximum operating hours
                    • reasonable pricing structure
operators           • viable, sustainable services
                    • maximise patronage
                    • develop new markets
                    • cost efficiencies in service provision
                    • maximise occupancy/minimise dead running
                    • quick start-up period for new services
                    • suitable/improved technical support systems
                    • integration with other modes/routes
                    • effective/efficient Travel Dispatch Centre
                    • fair allocation of work, costs and revenues
                    • freedom to continue to develop own business
                    • ability to accept non-booked passengers
                    • ability to expand coverage area
                    functional requirements are therefore:
                    • real-time scheduling and dispatching of trips
                    • ability to also accommodate advance reservation and subscription
                       trips
                    • real-time digital data communication between vehicle and control
                       centre
                    • voice capability for non-routine circumstances
                    • route optimisation software which communicates directly with the
                       driver
                    • computer monitoring of driver and activities
                    • automated data collection
                    • automation of all analysis activities (i.e. fare collection, billing and
                       financial accounting)
                    • automated generation of reports
                    • on-line access by administrators to system operations




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                                           SAVE

The aim of the SAVE (System for effective Assessment of the driver state and Vehicle
control in Emergency situations) project is to diminish the severe consequences of road
drivers impairments (a consequence of stress, fatigue, alcohol abuse, medication,
inattention, effects of various diseases, etc), the first cause of fatal accidents on
European motorways (34%, followed by punctures at 14%, lack of attention to
meteorological conditions at 12%, non respect of distance between vehicles at 11% and
loss of control through speeding). Though there is a very extensive survey of existing
and planned applications, the deliverable only comes up with rather high-level
requirements (confirmation that different actors accept ACD systems).

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• overcoming fatal effects of driver impairments

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• system monitoring driver alertness (Integrated Monitoring Unit)
• system which “takes the steering wheel” in case of emergency (Automatic Control
  Device, ACD will stop the vehicle safely and it will guide it to the roadside in order to
  park it in a safe location.)
• SAVE warning system (warn surrounding drivers and emergency services)

Data collection
A detailed questionnaire was used (407 replies).

User needs (separate box for different applications)
             users/stakeholders                                       needs
drivers                                         • drowsiness is mainly caused by alcohol,
                                                   becoming sleepy and tired before driving
                                                • SAVE systems seems to be well
                                                   accepted as a concept by the users and
                                                   the key actors, especially its monitoring
                                                   part, since it requires no wiring of the
                                                   driver and it transmits no data to the
                                                   police or other Authorities
                                                • main reservations of the users and the
                                                   experts were concentrated on the
                                                   Automatic Driving Mode, but they were
                                                   also mildened when it became clear, that
                                                   Automatic Driving Mode would be used
                                                   only in case the driver does not react at
                                                   all
                                                • professional drivers are interested in



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                                            drowsiness detection with an audible
                                            signal
public authorities                        • Authorities involved seem to be ready to
                                            accept SAVE system verdict
insurance companies                       • Insurance Organisations stated that are
                                            ready to promote a reliable SAVE
                                            System, by accepting high Insurance fee
                                            reductions (in some cases up to 50%) for
                                            cars equipped with it, as well as that
                                            system malfunction or accidents occurring
                                            after system activation can be also
                                            covered




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                                        SHIDESS

SHIDESS (Ship Integrated Decision Support System) is designing an integrated system
to support users on-board (captain, …) and ashore (ship owners) to enhance safety
and reduce operational costs. The report starts with the extensive description of the
applied methodology to identify user needs, a short description of key users on-board
and ashore and a detailed description for all users of the tasks that need to be
supported. Based on this, overall user needs for all users are than presented in the
form of functional requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• increase safety and reduce operational costs of shipping

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• integration of:
       ◊ propulsion system (engines, transmission, helixes)
       ◊ rudders control (servo system)
       ◊ navigation system (RADAR, navigation sensors, Anticollision System)
       ◊ gyrofins control
       ◊ monitoring of cargo disposition
       ◊ power generation and distribution
       ◊ monitoring of hull stress
       ◊ monitoring of status of hull hatches
       ◊ fire extinguishing system
       ◊ telecommunication system
       ◊ monitoring liquid and gas cargo's (ballast)
       ◊ monitoring pumps status for bilge's and double bottom's water levels

Data collection
Based on a detailed task analysis and a very detailed questionnaire, user needs are
formulated in terms of functional requirements.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
      users/stakeholders                                      needs
Technical Office, Maritime       safety-related functionality
Office, Commander, First         • monitoring the efficiency of safety equipment and global
Officer, Chief Engineer             ship safety taking into consideration:
                                          ◊ environmental conditions (sea state, weather
                                             condition)
                                          ◊ efficiency of on-board equipment and sensors
                                          ◊ radar situation (presence of ships or coast)
                                          ◊ alarm status (presence of disabled alarms)
                                          ◊ manning level



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                                      ◊ the control and monitoring functions provided by
                                         single equipment will be extended so that the risk
                                         deriving from the simultaneous presence of
                                         different causes can be detected fusing, the
                                         information provided by each subsystem
                                      ◊ overall safety level and suggested manning level
                                         (suggestion on the necessity of more surveillance
                                         actions in dangerous situations)
                                      ◊ alarms deriving from the coincidence of more
                                         then one dangerous factors
                                      ◊ list of high-ranked risks and events that would
                                         have a dangerous impact in the actual situation
                                      ◊ fist of possible additional failures or reduction of
                                         capabilities with associated risks
                                      ◊ corrective actions or forbidden actions, possible
                                         effects, alternative ways to maintain a proper
                                         safety level
                             • reduction of probability of human errors
                                      ◊ provision (display) of navigation
                                      ◊ display of "filtered" information to all the on-
                                         board users (ship position, alarm status, etc.)
                                      ◊ transmission of information (position, status of
                                         on-board equipment) to an ashore control centre
                                         where the required expertise is available and
                                         monitoring activity is continuously performed
                                      ◊ provision of a list of scheduled events or task to
                                         perform at given instants
                                      ◊ monitoring personnel presence and efficiency
                                      ◊ logging all the operation
                             cost-related functionality
                             • reduction of fuel consumption
                                      ◊ comparing the actual consumption with the output
                                         of a model of the "system" that can provide the
                                         performance expected in the given situation
                                      ◊ the model should give indications on the probable
                                         cause of the loss of performance
                             • reduction of maintenance costs
                                      ◊ use of predictive maintenance based on a model
                                         of the system
                                      ◊ monitoring the values of equipment
                                         MTBF/MTTR to see if normal values are
                                         exceeded
                                      ◊ transmission of information to an off-shore centre



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                                      for real-time decisions or ex-post analysis




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                                             SITE

SITE (Improving Urban Transport in Medium Size Cities) is a study aiming to
demonstrate that a number of proposed public transport-related telematics
applications are technically, economically and operationally feasible. Given the broad
range of services that is looked into, user needs are formulated at a rather high level.

What problems are addressed
• need to support modal shift from private cars to public transport
• increase attractiveness and comfort of public transport
• better operational performance of public transport in medium-sized cities

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• PT info at origin, stops and stations
       ◊ PT info on route and at parks
       ◊ PT riding fee
       ◊ PT space
       ◊ PT priority
       ◊ PT control
       ◊ Traffic access

Data collection
Users are well situated in their context (through formulation of problems that they are
facing), but it seems that there is little direct input from users regarding the proposed
systems.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
    users/stakeholders                                       needs
public transport operator    • to make sure that the theoretic timetable is done in the
                                 possible maximum level
                             • to take decisions in real-time answering traveller needs at
                                 stop and in vehicle (possibility of control lighting priority)
                             • to know demand (per lines, stops, hours, working day,
                                 special services, etc.) for a better service planning
                             • to provide good and easy user information
                             • to provide a handy payment system that contributes to the
                                 optimal shaping of service and improves labour conditions
                                 for bus drivers
                             • increase demand level
                             • taking decisions in real-time
                             • provide a better service (increasing commercial speed and
                                 improving punctuality and regularity)
                             • up-to-date knowledge on relations frequently asked for by



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                              travellers is needed to optimise information concepts and
                              public transport network
                          •   dynamic schedule information is needed to improve
                              reliability and user satisfaction
                          •   information integration (local and regional)
parking operators         •   knowledge of parking places occupancy
                          •   improvement of system management
                          •   parking space reservation data is needed to improve long
                              term prognosis
                          •   to improve user satisfaction
access control operator   •   quick and efficient access control system
                          •   24 hours service
                          •   better labour conditions for vigilant group
                          •   improvement of system management
public transport users    •   users need a quality system with respect to supply and
                              information: good frequency, regularity, punctuality and
                              real-time information, in other words, a reliable system
                              without uncertainly
                          •   effects due to obstruction by private transport have to be
                              minimised, improving the in-vehicle travel time
                          •   the payment system (tickets sale and vending) has to be
                              attractive for the user
                          •   frequent passengers that use pre-paid tickets, with a limit to
                              the number of trips, need to improve their average travel
                              cost
                          •   travellers that travel regularly (daily) need a reliable and
                              attractive public transport system and information of delays
                              at bus stops
                          •   captive users (females and elderly people) need a quality
                              system, solving their mobility problems
                          •   employees need reliability of schedule and in-vehicle travel
                              time, they need to guarantee their arrival at work
                          •   students need a more frequent service
                          •   retired persons need a more comfortable service
                          •   old car users and walkers need an attractive and
                              competitive public transport system and a good information
                              system including dynamic schedule
                          •   variables most important for public transport: regularity and
                              punctuality, in-vehicle travel time, and real-time information
                          •   pedestrians will use the bus when their actual travel time
                              was 20-30 minutes, in other cases (times < 20 minutes)
                              service will not be able to attract them




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                          • to improve the existing poor standard of public transport
                            service
                          • better connection (faster route, earliest arrival, latest
                            departure, direct connection,...)
                          • alternative connections
                          • individual schedule (origin-destination printout of the
                            information above)
                          • route/transit stop schedule (e.g. printout of all departures of
                            a transit stop)
                          • combined mode information: best route and origin-
                            destination related travel times for public transport, private
                            transport (taking into account actual traffic situation and
                            parking availability) and park & ride as combination of
                            both (including guidance to P&R facility)
car users                 • to improve the traffic control
                          • to solve the deficit of parking spaces in the central area
                          • to improve the traffic conditions in the central area,
                            especially at peak hours
                          • quality and attractive bus services could encourage drivers
                            to change modes
                          • the private transport variable with more influence is parking
                            cost, even more than travel time
                          • better traffic conditions and parking facilities especially in
                            the central area (knowledge of level of occupancy in
                            parking places)
                          • drivers who live outside the walls need to know in real-time
                            the availability of parking spaces inside and outside the
                            walls (level of occupancy of parking places)
                          • parking fees
                          • parking space reservation (availability, reservation,
                            debiting, confirmation)
                          • route suggestion to desired parking facility
                          • combined mode information
                          • short-term parking drivers will be attracted to a car park
                            when a parking space is guaranteed
                          • long term parking drivers need dynamic parking information
                            and reservation, and actual traffic situation
                          • to increase the access facilities into and better traffic
                            conditions, including parking facility for authorised vehicles.
                            Now. there are non authorised vehicles that increase traffic
                            flows and interfere with authorised ones.
                          • residents in the Historical Centre need some guarantee
                            about a free parking space



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                          • service staff desires to increase the access facilities and
                            better road condition




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                                          SUPRA

SUPRA (Support for the use of presently unserved airspace) is developing
technologies to distribute traffic load more equally throughout existing airports by
equipping smaller regional airports with presently no sufficient ATC infrastructure
with cost effective new technology products in order to enable them to provide
services comparable with existing controlled VFR or IFR services. The deliverable
gives an overview of operational scenarios/user needs (pre-flight, take-off, interface
take-off and en-route, en-route, interface en-route and approach, approach, landing
and post-flight) and identifies detailed system requirements covering (1) air traffic
control services, (2) meteorological, aeronautical and planning information as well as
(3) general aviation views.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• better use of regional airports
What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Air Navigation Services (ANS) System which guarantees at least non-precision
  approaches with 500 ft decision height

Data collection
Requirements are identified based on knowledge within project.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
         users/stakeholders                                     needs
commuter aircraft operators, small     User needs cover pre-flight, take-off, interface take-
business aircraft operators, schools off and en-route, en-route, interface en-route and
for professional pilots, …             approach, approach, landing and post-flight.
                                       Examples of pre-flight needs are:
                                       • as required by the appropriate ATS authority the
                                          pilot needs ability to present a Flight Plan
                                       • MET and AIS information must be available
                                          before the flight, considering the route foreseen
                                       • departure Aerodrome must know, before take-
                                          off, the equipment and radio call sign of the
                                          aircraft even in the case that an FPL has not been
                                          presented




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                                           SURFF

SURFF covers a wide range of applications for intermodal freight and fleet
management at seven demonstration sites throughout Europe. Distinguishing between
27 groups of users, the project has identified a very extensive list of user requirements
yielding interesting information on what ATT applications are useful and how they
should be performed.

What problems are addressed
• larger integration of telematics applications for freight and fleet management; freight
  intermodality

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• improve the efficiency of the multimodal (sea, rail and road) terminal
• coordination of urban distribution
• use of traffic information

Data collection
Distinguishing between 27 groups of users, the project has identified a very extensive list of
user requirements yielding interesting information on what ATT applications are useful and
how they should be performed. There is an extensive literature review and use has been
made of a detailed questionnaire.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
Users/stakeholders?     User needs?
freight centre and      • inside a freight centre / terminal
terminal operators         ◊ exchange of information inside the freight centre (the
                               terminal) via a mobile communication system
                           ◊ improve the monitoring of the container units
                           ◊ provide a system for route planning and tracking/tracing of
                               units
                           ◊ register the position of containers in the terminal via the
                               existing private radio network
                           ◊ warning system for wrong (container) pickups
                           ◊ OBCs (On-Board Computers) should be used for
                               information exchange inside the freight centre or terminal
                           ◊ pre-trip planning and route guidance inside the terminal area
                           ◊ carry out (in terminal) route planning, providing current
                               vehicle status (and position) and continuous re-scheduling of
                               the trucks
                           ◊ OBCs should be used as a means of providing driver with
                               pre-trip plan
                        • communications between freight centres and other external



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                          parties:
                          ◊ extension of information exchange between potential
                              partners, actual clients and other transport partners
                          ◊ systems architecture that permits common access to a mobile
                              communication network
                          ◊ create transparent EDI connection between internal railway
                              operation production system, shipper organisation, shipping
                              agent and final distribution party
                          ◊ design EDIFACT message enabling end-customer to obtain
                              transport status information
                          ◊ e-mail connection for information exchange between freight
                              centres and their users
                          ◊ interactive freight centre home page on Internet with both
                              public and private access
                          ◊ public access which will provide general information about
                              the centre
                          ◊ private access for members of freight centre, using password
                              security
                          ◊ private access information system needs to be a
                              multithreaded conference system
                          ◊ specific monitoring and tracing and tracking systems in the
                              port terminal hinterlands for bonded transport
                      •   access to a general transport regulations data base - eg
                          hazardous goods transport, technical control procedures for
                          vehicles, etc.
warehouse operators   •   facilitate coordinated collection/delivery in urban areas
                      •   utilise OBCs for tracking and tracing, providing vehicle position
                          and route planning, using the GSM network
                      •   automate overall exchange of information
                      •   application must serve as a data storage/handling facility as well
                          as a data exchange centre
                      •   computerise route planning procedures that will provide GIS-
                          based output
                      •   it is important that seamless integration between new and
                          existing applications is achieved
                      •   develop an EDI information network among suppliers and
                          customers that will at the very least provide entry-level access to
                          the warehouse operators data base
                      •   must contribute to standardisation of information flows
                      •   adapt existing freight collection/delivery technologies in order to
                          integrate real-time traffic information into route planning system
                      •   systems architecture must be open in design, in order to
                          incorporate future developments



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                       • develop a centralised route planning system that will consolidate
                         collection/delivery transport for a group of transport operators
transport operators    • have access to traffic information that provides real-time details
                         of conditions (including road works and weather conditions) for
                         inter- and inner-urban environments
                       • receive dynamic traffic information by either standard
                         telecommunications, dial-up modem, e-mail or Internet
                         homepage
                       • open systems architecture and systems integration is essential
                       • data transfer should be cheap, reliable, fast and safe
                       • applications should be cheap, modular (ie users of obtain those
                         elements that benefit their operation) and be suitable for a PC
                         environment
                       • user friendly applications are absolutely necessary
                       • since many small transport operators are not technologically
                         sophisticated, initial applications should be uncomplicated, but
                         be designed such that the system can incorporate further
                         enhancements
                       • standardise information flows
                       • exchange information with driver via a mobile data network
                       • support a hand held computer via a 'docking point' in a vehicle
                       • incorporate data capture facilities for: vehicle; route/stops;
                         parcel ID; error log; proof of delivery
                       • be able to use order information that the transport organiser
                         collects during the night
                       • incorporate order information into route planning application
                       • electronically transfer route information to haulier
                       • electronically transfer route information (as pre trip plan) to
                         driver
                       • update consignment status - ie in transit, delivered to consignee
                         etc.
                       • permit external tracking of consignment via Internet
                       • initialise automatic billing / payment procedure to consignee /
                         haulier on confirmation of delivery
                       • facilitate on-line access by customers to operators central data
                         base
shipping line, rail    • adapt existing public transport technology such that goods
transport and public     vehicles involved in urban collection/delivery can share the
transport operators,     incumbent system
and port authority     • develop a mobile data communications interface to permit
personnel                driver/dispatcher communication
                       • develop an AVM (Automatic Vehicle Monitoring) interface to
                         facilitate fleet status and position monitoring



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                        • develop a traffic information interface in order to receive real-
                           time data for the inclusion into route planning
                        • create transparent EDI connection between internal railway
                           operation production system, shipper organisation, shipping
                           agent and final distribution party
                        • develop EDIFACT messages that permit initiation of transport
                           order, correction of order and rejection of order
                        • develop an interface that will permit access to transport status
                           information by customer
                        • develop electronic container location register
                        • container registration needs to be completed by port truck
                           drivers using OBC equipment
                        • registration system must be controlled by container and depot
                           number
                        • capture other specific container-related information (eg weight).
retailer / wholesaler / • improve efficiency of administrative processes
shipper / manufacturer • improve control of transport activity
                        • activate transport order electronically using EDI
                        • low cost of the service/equipment
                        • compatible with future developments
                        • use widely accepted and diffuse standards
                        • develop interfaces between different transport operators data
                           bases to provide a virtual stockholding facility
                        • provide final customer with access to order and delivery status
                           information
                        • facilitate safe and accurate exchange of information
forwarders and          similar to those of transport operators and retailers
distribution agents
drivers and vehicle     • select suitable mobile data communications network
                        • application has be to flexible both physically and from a
                           software point of view and suitable for the tasks it is to perform
                        • used for time-critical data
                        • data collection must include items such as: vehicle
                           information/location, route/stops, consignment ID, error log,
                           proof of delivery details
                        • provide driver with updated routing/schedule plan
                        • adapt existing public transport technology (ie on-board
                           computer) for urban distribution purposes
                        • use on-board computer for information exchange within a freight
                           terminal
                        • provide goods vehicle driver with essential information about
                           collection/delivery points




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                         • have driver forward information concerning trip and load status
                            to central distribution data base
                         • have driver provide tachograph information via kiosk facility
                         • provide driver with useful information of local collection/delivery
                            are via kiosk facility
                         • vehicle should automatically provide position information
FTC manager /            • build a computer service centre in order to support cooperation
coordination                between transport companies
                         • collect and disseminate traffic and other goods transport
                            information
                         • information provision will be for third party carriers or own
                            account operators and local authorities
                         • system requires public and private access facilities
                         • modify existing application tools in order to accommodate
                            multimodal freight transport services for large industrial
                            companies and SME-specific needs
                         • develop and implement graphic user interfaces for telematic
                            systems used by freight centres and SMEs
                         • integrate various telematic tools which can be considered as the
                            framework for multimodal freight telematic operations in urban
                            areas
                         • facilitate the common use of optimisation software (ie planning,
                            routing, monitoring systems etc.)
                         • interface with traffic management authorities at a regional level
telematic, information   • location of freight centres
kiosk, other IT and      • route to and from freight centres
hardware                 • location of local transport operators offices
provision/support        • information concerning the petrol stations
                         • vehicle maintenance and repair facilities
                         • banks, public organisations, hotels etc
                         • essential information should be included, ie address, telephone
                            number, opening times, etc
                         • information must be available in hard copy
                         • information must be presented in more than one language
                         • multimedia terminal must be easy to use and robust
                         • terminal should be located in an easily accessible location
traffic information      considered as external
processors
economic                 • the need to improve the quality of urban life by reducing the
development                impact of commercial vehicles
agencies, all            • increasing the efficiency of goods traffic through the provision of
government related         traffic information




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authorities and        • provide a framework for coordinated urban freight transport
chambers of            • optimise the temporal and spatial distribution of freight flows
commerce               • the need to have a better understanding of goods traffic
                           movements within an urban area.
consultants,           this combined group does not have a direct need for telematic
academics and              applications
associations
vehicle manufacturer   interested party carrying out the development of interfaces and
                          application compatibility




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                                           TABASCO

TABASCO (Telematics Applications in Bavaria, SCOtland and Others) is a
demonstration project implementing multimodal information and control systems.
Different deliverables cover user needs and functional specifications of different areas
covered by TABASCO: Public Transport Information, Park+Ride information using
Variable Message Signs, Network Control. Deliverable 7.1 investigates the use of
Companion to manage inter-urban events. For some areas, TABASCO does not really
bother to study user needs in detail. Companion is probably too limited a system to
try and develop detailed functionality. Deliverable 7.4 covers user needs and
functional specifications on one area covered by TABASCO: Inter-urban Corridors.
Deliverable 9.2 covers public transport priority, describing some developments in
Germany and the UK. There is no distinction between different users, only a few user
needs can be read between the lines. Maybe a better user needs analysis was done in
the predecessor of TABASCO, the LLAMD project.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• better public transport information to (future) passengers (examples of specific problems
  are: difficulty in quick reading the static time schedule at the bus/tram stops, important time
    schedule deviations, information about time delay are not available, substitutions of
    transport vehicles could not be announced)
•   better utilisation of Park and Ride facilities
•   traffic problems in general
•   improved network traffic control
•   avoidance of secondary accidents
•   potential of ITS applications on an inter-urban corridor
•   public bus transport running to schedule.

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• dynamic information panels at bus stops
• web site
• Park and Ride information using Variable Message Signs
• network control (essentially rerouting)
• COMPANION is a roadside incident warning and management system designed for use
    on inter-urban roads, with the primary function of reducing the number of 'shunt' style
    accidents by warning drivers in advance of stationary vehicles ahead. This is done through
    roadside electronic guidemarkers, which emit yellow or red signals to indicate in a matter of
    seconds that there are incidents ahead
• infrastructural improvements
• wide range of public transport and road ATT applications
• integration of public transport priority algorithms in adaptive signal control systems.




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Data collection
User needs are analysed through interviews, questionnaire but especially results from past
projects.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
Public transport information
   users/stakeholders                                   needs
public transport users     • dynamic information panels at bus stops:
and non-users, public             ◊ dynamic and current arrival time at bus / tram stops for
transport operators                  every serving line
                                  ◊ good readable text output at the information panels
                                  ◊ simple architecture
                                  ◊ low service cost
                                  ◊ more acceptance of the public transport system
                                  ◊ more efficiency of the public transport system
                                  ◊ waiting time to the next bus is seen to be the main
                                    information requirements
                                  ◊ other important information was considered to be bus
                                    route number and destination
                          • web site:
                                  ◊ icons should be clear and not ambiguous
                                  ◊ point size of text should be as large as possible for all
                                    categories of information to suit all users and especially
                                    those with sight problems
                                  ◊ maps need careful consideration to meet needs for
                                    comfort as well as precision
                                  ◊ me 'back' button is as important as being able to move
                                    forward in a site - a consistent home page is also
                                    important
                                  ◊ simplicity of presentation and content
                                  ◊ clarity of information
                                  ◊ colours need to be carefully considered and should
                                    perhaps take into account of the fact that many users
                                    will only see in 16 colours
                                  ◊ specifying the actions and making clear the options
                                  ◊ there is considerable value in providing other
                                    information such as a telephone enquiry number

Park&Ride using VMS
users/stakeholders          needs
general                     • increased network capacity
                            • journey times savings
                            • safety enhancements
                            • environmental improvements




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                        •  fuel consumption savings
                        •  commercial prospects
                        •  reduction of car traffic and parking in the city centre
motorway operators      •  the motorway authority has to have the overall control of the
                           P+R VMS
                        • rules and priorities (which messages to display) for co-
                           operation between motorway control and other control
                           centres have to be determined
                        • motorway control centre needs to be linked to municipal
                           control centre to co-ordinate parking operations and urban
                           traffic management
                        • operational effectiveness
city authorities        • the city authority wants to reduce air pollution and congestion
                           in the city by reducing traffic into the city. One possibility is
                           to shift car users to public transport. By giving information
                           about the traffic situation in the case of congestion in the city
                           the attractiveness of P+R and public transport will be
                           improved.
                        • the city wants to reduce car traffic to important events by
                           giving information to drivers that P+R and public transport
                           provides a better means of travel than the car (faster, no
                           searching for a free parking space, …)
                        • relieve congestion and unnecessary parking in the city centre
                        • operational effectiviness
drivers                 • drivers evaluated legibility, layout, comprehensibility and
                           content as satisfying; some minor points of criticism were
                           about the contrast and the colours used
                        • VMS seems to be the main source of information; P+R users
                           with the trip purpose leisure, shopping and business and in a
                           lesser term with the trip purpose work said that the
                           information system has convinced them to use P+R
                        the users and non-users required the following information:
                        • status of the P+R facility free/occupied
                        • public transport offer (Underground or rapid transit)
                        • information about parking fee
                        • information about special events
                        • information about the traffic situation
                        • information about the public transport frequency
                        • good guidance to the transferium
                        • indication of alternative in case of congestion
                        • quick guidance to parking space within the transferium
                        • inform a prospective user about present P+R offers




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                             • knowing beforehand whether there are still free parking to be
                               found, what kind of public transport offers are available, or
                               whether the traffic situation in town makes the use of P+R
                               highly advisable
P&R operator                 • the main objective of the P+R company is the full utilisation
                               of the P+R facility; this means that the P+R company has
                               almost got the same user-needs as the P+R users and
                               potential users
                             • a further user-need is that the system should have a lot fewer
                               malfunctions and that operation and maintenance costs
                               should be reduced

network control
users/stakeholders           needs
road network operators       • network control algorithms have the following functionality:
                                   ◊ on-line acquisition of traffic and VMS status data
                                      allowing for the presentation of the current
                                      reconstructed traffic patterns on the whole network
                                      thanks to the use of on-line traffic simulation
                                      (SIMRES module
                                   ◊ on-line traffic prediction (1 hour in advance) of traffic
                                      patterns on the network
                                   ◊ accounting of incident occurrence when input by the
                                      operator and subsequent updating of reconstructed
                                      and predicted traffic patterns
                                   ◊ calculation of information and guidance messages
                                      presented to the operator (including calculation of
                                      delays and route advice) for validation in the case of
                                      incidents occurring on the network (SELECT
                                      module)
                                   ◊ provision of explanations about the choice of the
                                      message proposal
                                   ◊ simulation of the likely impact of any operator's
                                      strategy other than the one proposed by OPERA
                                   ◊ OD estimation
                                   ◊ identification of instability phenomena
                                   ◊ real-time updating of obedience rates

COMPANION
        users/stakeholders                                     needs
drivers                             • avoidance of secondary accidents at serious accident
                                        sites and traffic jams at smaller accidents




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                                     •   reduction of secondary congestion at serious accident
                                         sites
                                     •   avoidance of accidents caused by traffic congestion
                                     •   increased probability to survive with reduced injuries
                                     •   reduced rescue time
                                     •   better information about traffic and the possibility of
                                         changing driving behaviour
road network administrators          •   simple operation, with integration with existing traffic
                                         control systems
                                     •   clearness of the display
                                     •   possibility to control the state of operation easily
societal needs                       •   the associated recovery costs following an accident,
                                         including vehicle damage, personal injuries, hospital
                                         costs, re-convalescence and the time lost before
                                         returning to work
                                     •   the cost of travel time
                                     •   the costs of pollution (emissions, noise etc.)

Inter-urban Corridors
             users/stakeholders                                          needs
public transport users and drivers                •   (main requirement appears to be
                                                      infrastructural improvements)
                                                  •   real-time public transport information,
                                                      also on roadside VMS
                                                  •   information inside public transport
                                                      vehicles
                                                  •   multimodal travel information
                                                  •   information on road works and
                                                      carriageway restrictions
                                                  •   real-time traffic information, also on
                                                      roadside VMS
                                                  •   automatic detection of incidents and
                                                      weather monitoring
                                                  •   urban control, inter-urban network
                                                      control
                                                  •   parking information
public transport
             users/stakeholders                                      needs
                                                  • improved user interface
                                                  • improvements to algorithms for public
                                                    transport priority




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                                          • improve detection of public transport
                                            vehicles and of traffic




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                                           TELSACS

TELSACS (Telematics for Safety Critical Systems) is integrating Airborne Collision
Avoidance Systems (ACAS) and Short-Term Conflict Alert systems (STCA, ground-
level) to relax the vertical and horizontal separation standards that are currently used
(handling possible conflicts such as triggering of ACAS during situations already
under ATC management). The deliverable is mainly based on interviews and
questionnaires answered by controllers and pilots, resulting in a rather long list of
specific functional requirements.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• best use of limited airspace

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• enhancement of ACAS - Airborne Collision Avoidance System and STCA - Short-
  Term Conflict Alert

Data collection
The deliverable is mainly based on questionnaires answered by controllers and pilots,
resulting in a rather long list of specific functional requirements.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                       needs
controllers and pilots    examples of general requirements:
                          The STCA system as part of the ATM system:
                          • shall monitor all air traffic for potential conflicts and shall notify
                             controllers when a conflict is detected
                          • should provide resolution advice to controllers
                          The ATM system shall provide fully updated information to
                          the STCA system on the following:
                          • ID code of identified aircraft
                          • current aircraft position (4D)
                          • flight level or altitude (Depending on phase of flight)
                          • altitude deviation indication
                          • heading deviation indication
                          • air Vector: current IAS, current heading
                          • ground vector: current ground speed, current track
                          • vertical rate (climb or descent)
                          • rate of turn
                          • air speed change indication
                          • predicted aircraft trajectory: evolving distance between



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                          conflicting aircraft, predicted minimum horizontal distance
                          between conflicting aircraft, predicted minimum vertical
                          distance between conflicting aircraft, predicted vertical,
                          crossing separation for vertical manoeuvring aircraft, predicted
                          crossing point, predicted crossing angle
                       • next planned waypoint
                       • estimated time at next waypoint
                       • conflict warning data especially: TAs Downlinked from
                          aircraft, RAs Downlinked from aircraft
                       • Current meteorological data (at least wind and temp)
                       examples of HMI requirements are:
                       The STCA shall display immediately the following information for
                       each aircraft involved in a conflict:
                       • ID code of identified aircraft
                       • active RAs (if existing)
                       • current position (4D)
                       • ground speed
                       • current track
                       • vertical rate (climb/descent)
                       • height difference
                       • predicted crossing angle
                       • predicted crossing point
                       • evolving distance between conflicting aircraft (separation)
                       • pilot reaction to TCAS
                       examples of ACAS logic / STCA logic requirements are:
                       • STCA shall detect conflicts by considering all detected aircraft
                          in the relevant sector
                       • a common ATC/ACAS database shall be used to compute
                          the ACAS and STCA advisories
                       • STCA shall provide alert indication to controllers for all
                          detected conflicts




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                                        TELSCAN

TELSCAN deals with the needs of E&D (the elderly and disabled) travelling by
different modes of transport (car/van, bus/tram, metro/train, ship and airplane). The
study yields a rich database of E&D user needs translated in corresponding ATT
services (that can satisfy these needs) and how they should work.

What problems are addressed
• insufficient provision of support to E&D travellers in ATT/ITS systems

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• no specific ATT applications will be developed (though the user needs are often
  expressed in terms of required ATT services)

Data collection
User needs are identified based on a very detailed literature survey as well as on discussions
amongst experts and interviews and with users.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                  user needs
E&D users car/van       • (in-vehicle) navigation systems/ travel and traffic information
                           systems
                        • gap acceptance systems
                        • speech recognition systems
                        • parking aids
                        • smart cards enabling disabled people to pay tolls, fuel costs and
                           parking fees without getting out of the vehicle
                        • collision avoidance
                        • vision-enhancement
                        • travel and traffic information
                        • tactile feedback
                        • emergency alert
E&D users bus/tram      • relevant information on accessibility, etc., to make decisions, eg
                           in trip planning
                        • ATT systems with speech input/output interface
                        • ATT systems which employ spatial forms of communication
                           (e.g. symbols, icons)
                        • computer-based trip planning systems
                        • hand-held information systems
                        • information systems at the bus/tram stop and on the bus
E&D users               • providing relevant information on accessible travel routes
metro/train             • trip planning systems that provide information regarding the




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                        layout of stations and metros/trains
                      • ticketing systems that utilise speech input/ output
                      • ATT systems which present complementary visual
                        announcements at the station and on the metro/train (use of
                        symbols and icons)
                      • computer-based trip planning systems
                      • hand-held information systems
                      • smart card payments
E&D users ship        • ATT navigation systems (though difficult to implement on a
                        moving base such as a ship)
                      • hand-held communication devices for use in planning
                      • trip information (utilising symbols and icons)
                      • computer-based trip planning systems
                      • improved means of purchasing a ticket (e.g. smart card
                        automatic debiting)
E&D users airplane    • information systems accessible from home or at travel agents
                        (particularly in virtual reality)
                      • intelligent booking systems (impairment details are logged at the
                        ticket purchase stage)
                      • sources of navigation information (e.g. tactile flooring, braille on
                        signs)
                      • portable navigation systems
                      • computer-based planning systems
                      • smart card-based ticketing systems
                      • complementary visual information
                      • information systems accessible from home or at travel agents
                      • a longer-term booking system or an easy-to-use, short-term
                        booking system accessible from abroad is required




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                                         TILEMATT

TILEMATT (Testing and Implementing Links in Europe for Multimodal Applications
of Transport Telematics) is identifying telematics applications that can improve the
level of service offered to passengers and truck drivers making intermodal trips
including sea stretches (Greece-Italy, France-England, Germany-Sweden). For each
of these links, ATT services in which end-users are interested are prioritised. Most of
these services are to be offered through information terminals in ports or on-board
the ship. Given the different nature of trips (varying in length between 30 minutes and
23 hours), these needs are rather local - the European dimension of the exercise is not
clear.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• improving multimodal transport that includes a ferry link

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• traffic and travel information services

Data collection
All three links/sites relied on extensive questionnaires to arrive at rather specific information
needs.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
    users/stakeholders                                    needs
drivers (mainly tourists   • information content requirements for Italy-Greece are:
and truck drivers)                  ◊ nr, type & destination of vehicles
                                    ◊ dock instructions
                                    ◊ departure time
                                    ◊ location of VMS & info Kiosks
                                    ◊ location of ferry terminals
                                    ◊ location of port services
                                    ◊ document exchange
                                    ◊ national holidays
                                    ◊ city maps
                                    ◊ weather conditions
                                    ◊ hotel booking & payment
                                    ◊ car rental
                           • information content requirements for France-England are:
                                    ◊ in vehicle lanes leaving the vessels, indication of the
                                       following information: local road conditions (within a
                                       100 km radius), weather conditions
                                    ◊ automated ferry ticket facilities
                                    ◊ indication of the following information on vessels:



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                               ◊ ferry operator services offered
                               ◊ disruptive road conditions within a 100 km radius of
                                   the link 2 ports
                               ◊ disruptive weather reports local to the
                                   disembarkation port
                               ◊ on board shopping facilities
                               ◊ on shore shopping facilities
                               ◊ tourist information
                               ◊ route maps
                               ◊ national holiday and accommodation information in
                                   relevant European countries
                               ◊ location maps
                               ◊ shop opening times
                               ◊ train and bus departure times
                               ◊ journey planning information
                               ◊ duty free allowances
                               ◊ automated ferry ticket facilities
                        • information content requirements for Germany-Sweden are:
                               ◊ route guidance for the destination area and /or of the
                                   destination city
                               ◊ best route to destination taking actual traffic (traffic,
                                   road works and incidents) and weather conditions
                                   into account
                               ◊ the actual information of the weather conditions are
                                   also very important for both groups of end users
                        • location where information is offered mainly depends on
                          travel time on-board (long enough =>provide info on-board)




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                                          TITAN

TITAN (Transmodel-based Integration of Transport Applications and Normalisation)
is validating the potential of Transmodel v 4.1 to develop an integrated information
system (data sharing by applications from different suppliers). This involves three test
sites relying on the current systems of three PT organisations. The focus of the
deliverable is on system requirements as “the functionality foreseen by existing
application programs is seen as an expression of user requirements”.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• Transmodel needs to be validated in terms of contribution to support for developing an
  integrated information system (data sharing by applications from different suppliers and
  serving different functions)

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• application programs to be interfaced with a Transmodel-based database include: study
  passenger behaviour and determine the demand, design the network, plan the service to
  be offered, plan detailed journeys, schedule vehicle blocks, schedule driver duties,
  prepare driver rosters, manage driving personnel, automatic vehicle monitoring /AVM,
  part of Perform and control the driving process, provide passenger information on the
  planned service, provide passenger information on the actual service, manage statistical
  results / MIS, manage personnel, and manage and represent geographical information

Data collection
User needs are taken from earlier research projects as well as from the operators
participating in the project.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                    needs
PT operators           • study passenger behaviour and determine the demand
                       • design the network
                       • plan the service to be offered
                       • plan detailed journeys
                       • schedule vehicle blocks
                       • schedule driver duties
                       • prepare driver rosters
                       • manage driving personnel
                       • automatic vehicle monitoring /AVM, part of Perform and control
                          the driving process
                       • provide passenger information on the planned service
                       • provide passenger information on the actual service
                       • manage statistical results / MIS
                       • manage personnel



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                    • and manage and represent geographical information




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                                         TRACAR

TRACAR (Traffic and Cargo Supervision System) uses low-frequency non-battery
powered radio tags/transponders for locating and positioning of vehicles and swap
bodies locally and GPS for wide-area positioning (collected data can be accessed
through radio, GSM or satellite). The deliverable gives a concise overview of user
needs mainly based on the knowledge of project partners as well as on the results of a
questionnaire sent to external parties.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• shifting goods transport from road to rail
• expected benefits are:
    ◊ it has great importance to the environment
    ◊ it is cheaper, as it is possible to transport up to 20% more cargo on a railway wagon
    ◊ no problems with work-hour rules for drivers
    ◊ transport by rail is safer regarding the risk of having the cargo stolen (insurance
        asset)

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• tracking and tracing of load units on a multimodal transport chain

Data collection
The deliverable gives a concise overview of user needs mainly based on the knowledge of
project partners as well as on the results of a questionnaire sent to external parties.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
   users/stakeholders                                      needs
consignors, forwarders,    • the user groups in the total transport market look for
road and rail carriers,        advanced EDI, datasafe, reliable, flexible and user-friendly
consignees                     transport supervision and management systems
                           • the SME's within the transport market need these systems at
                               low cost to be able to become more competitive and
                               effective
                           • the ideal system must be able to interface to existing
                               technologies i.e. radio and telecommunication, and to existing
                               infrastructures
                           • transport modes other than road require an improved
                               supervision system for inter-modal transport if the needs of
                               sensitive cargoes are to be met
                           • if a system can be used/exploited in other public areas such
                               as AVI, public transport, emergency transport and
                               hazardous transport etc. it will increase the interest for many




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                          different user-groups, public as well as private
                        • data to be recorded are:
                               ◊ all conditions related to the transported freight unit
                               ◊ information concerning the forwarding/shipping
                                  agent, sender/receiver, loading place, freight,
                                  temperature and humidity measurement during
                                  loading
                               ◊ the transporters identity, arrival and departure time
                                  to/from loading places
                               ◊ the conditions during accompanied journeys,
                                  including temperature and humidity measurements,
                                  essential vibrations, transport route and transport
                                  time
                               ◊ the transporters arrival time for reloading to another
                                  transporter or terminal
                               ◊ the conditions at reloading from one transporter to
                                  another
                               ◊ the temperature and humidity at the acceptance of
                                  the freight by the receiver/terminal
                               ◊ the freight units and conditions during transport or
                                  storing, including supervision of the temperature,
                                  humidity, vibrations and removal from transporting
                                  unit or from terminal
                               ◊ the automatic electronic alarm at changes in the
                                  freight unit's conditions during transport or storing,
                                  including changes in temperature and/or humidity, or
                                  by non authorised entry to, or movement of the
                                  freight unit from, the transporting unit or from the
                                  terminal
                               ◊ automatic electronic positioning of the freight unit
                                  during transport or storing
                               ◊ electronic remote controlled adjustment of
                                  temperature and humidity in transported or stored
                                  freight unit
                               ◊ electronic access to reading and treatment of
                                  forwarding documents references etc. and recorded
                                  data




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                                             UDC

UDC (Urban Drive Control) is studying the integration of traffic management and
vehicle longitudinal control, based on the transmission of remote speed profiles to
vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control functionality using short-range
communications. The report looks at driving behaviour in urban traffic conditions
(showing a constant relationship between speeds and headways and a linear
relationship between speed and gaps) and describes the results of simulating the effect
of static speed limitations and operational tests investigating the stop&go application
.

What problems are addressed
• better use of road capacity in cities
• safer and more comfortable driving conditions
• less exhaust pollution

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)*:
       ◊ speed recommendation*
       ◊ speed adjust*
       ◊ stop & go *

Data collection
There is an extensive literature survey of user needs study as well as a description of the
results of simulations.

General user needs
users/stakeholders      needs
drivers                 • prefer support on motorways to support in urban area
                        • the decision for Speed Recommendation or automatic Speed
                           Adjustment should be left to the consumer (switch)
                        • liability problems should be analysed carefully
User needs for speed recommendation
users/stakeholders      needs
drivers                 • recommended speed limits
                        • modify the driving style of network users
                        • speed advice strategies
                        • recommendation signal should be presented early, to allow time
                           for speed adjustment
                        • speed recommendation should be presented ahead of a sign and
                           continuously along the entire road section concerned




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                         • a message when entering or leaving the radio controlled area is
                           highly desirable
                       • Stop&Go support is of high interest to improve driving safety
                           and to increase road capacity
User needs for speed adjust
users/stakeholders     needs
drivers                • the ACC set speed should be adjustable also during Speed
                           Adjust
                       • a message when entering or leaving the radio controlled area is
                           highly desirable
                       • for the majority of the sample the system should accelerate
                           automatically if the speed of the own vehicle is slower than
                           permitted at the moment
                       • Stop&Go support is of high interest to improve driving safety
                           and to increase road capacity
                       • emergency braking assessed ambivalently: useful only if it
                           operates at the same level of reliability as all other components
                           of the car
User needs for stop & go
users/stakeholders     needs
drivers                • give the users a dynamic speed profile, slowing them down far
                           ahead of the intersection and permitting them to cross the
                           intersection at the highest possible speed
                       • flexibility and adaptability, to cope with the variability of
                           journeys in an urban and suburban context
                       • speed of response (detection, and management of dynamic
                           behaviour), to cope with the instability of traffic in such contexts
                       • flexibility of management of vehicle behaviour, giving priority, as
                           the drivers themselves do, to regular speed
                       • acquisition of data concerning what happens upstream (achieved
                           through communication with the infrastructure), but also in the
                           general vicinity of the drivers
                       • Stop & Go support is assessed to make driving more
                           comfortable, but should be more predictable
                       • an automatic go after a stop is preferred instead of a driver-
                           triggered go
                       • Stop&Go support is of high interest to improve driving safety
                           and to increase road capacity
Conventional ACC
users/stakeholders     needs




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drivers               • the controller layout regarding longitudinal distance and brake
                          intensity was assessed as positive
                      •   more reliable image recognition of critical targets (e.g.
                          motorcycle) is needed
                      •   faster reactions on situation changes were demanded (no e.g.
                          acceleration delay when pulling out onto left lane)
                      •   the controller layout regarding longitudinal distance control and
                          brake intensity was assessed positively
                      •   in urban areas, where curves of small radius occur frequently,
                          the ACC system has problems to track a preceding target
                          vehicle; therefore more stable and reliable image recognition is
                          desirable
                      •   according to results obtained, situations in urban traffic change
                          very quickly and require fast reactions by the ACC system




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                                      VADEMECUM

VADEMECUM is studying potential network and traffic management applications on
an important international corridor involving different modes of transport. Different
users are distinguished: network operators, infrastructure owners and service
providers and freight organisation. A very wide list of potential applications is
examined, resulting in high-level user needs.

What problems are addressed
• no specific problems are stated; a multimodal, international corridor is defined and it is
  assumed that there must be some problems

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• road network management
• traveller information
• freight operations
• (Tradex links providers and distributors of road traffic information, Turtle distributes
  public transport information via Videotext, and Celenis assists inter-modal freight users to
  optimise choices – these are in no way mentioned in this report)

Data collection
It seems that it was decided very quickly to only interview organisations (88) operating
infrastructure or a service (no end-users).

User needs (separate box for different applications)
Users/stakeholders?     User needs?
general                 • most quoted service currently offered is traveller information
                        • “use and interest in ATT was as varied as the profiles of the

                        • requirements for ATT applications are reliability (of system and
                          of information provided) and costs (implementation and
                          operating)
network management • increasing network efficiency
(network operators)     • influence modal shift
                        • improvement of quality of service
                        • increase safety
traveller information   • more real-time information is needed
(infrastructure owners, • accurate, reliable and detailed information is needed
operators and service • user-friendly HMI (standard presentation formats) and/or
providers)                human operators
                        • sufficient number and coverage of access points to information
                        • compatible systems




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                         •   automated data retrieval processes
                         •   interactive terminals at home
                         •   increased range of information
freight operation        •   interoperable data exchange amongst different actors
(shippers,               •   low costs
forwarders/hauliers
(often overlapping),
terminals/ports, lines
and air-cargo-related
organisations)




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                                          VASCO

VASCO (VAlidation of Short-range COmmunications) is validating the DSRC
equipment of all main DSRC manufacturers based on two different media (5.8 GHz
and infrared). User needs are investigated for two (series of) applications: (1)
Automatic Fee Collection/Access Control and (2) Traffic and Travel Information.
In D1 (Specification of user requirements relevant for the validation activities), user
needs, user goals and (a lot of) functional requirements are mixed. The report is based
on a review of existing work mainly carried out within European and national
projects.

What problems/opportunities are addressed
• validation of DSRC equipment

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• Automatic Fee Collection and Access Control (AFC/AC)
• Traffic and Travel Information (TTI)
   ◊ road (weather, limitations, recommended speed, etc.) and traffic conditions
       (accidents, roadworks, traffic jams) relating to the currently undertaken route, i.e.
       Medium Range Pre-Information (MRPI)
   ◊ routes to follow
   ◊ services along or close to the route
   ◊ other transportation means or multimodal access

Data collection
User needs are mainly collected from (road) operators participating in the project.

User needs AFC/AC
users/stakeholders              needs
vehicle users                   • no waiting in queues at the toll point, i.e. ETC lanes are
                                   available, the system is generally dependable as a whole
                                   and risks of making a mistake is reduced
                                • increased driving comfort: driving through, hands on the
                                   steering wheel, without having to stop
                                • physical safety for the driver in his vehicle and for staff
                                   present close to the ETC lanes
                                • guarantees that the privacy of the user is respected
                                • possibility of directly controlling and monitoring the
                                   transactions made, i.e., that the client should be able to
                                   request a statement of transactions stored either in a
                                   central storage point or in the, or in the means of payment
                                   held by the user




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                              • guarantee of financial security of the transaction
operators (infrastructure     • to improve the service provided to users by avoiding
operators, information            waiting in queues for payment or authorisation control and
operators, fleet operators)       increasing comfort at toll points
                              •   to increase the flow of vehicles through the toll plazas by
                                  improving conditions at peak times
                              •   environmental protection: reduced noise and exhaust
                                  pollution by reducing queues to a minimum
                              •   improving or reinforcing the operator's reputation in the
                                  public mind by installing a state-of-the-art system
                              •   rewarding regular clients by the use of a means of
                                  payment which makes them feel valued
                              •   widening the range of services provided to users: use of a
                                  single means of payment, integrating new services made
                                  possible by the existence of on-board equipment able to
                                  receive and communicate with the outside world
                              •   the ETC system will fit into the various geographic
                                  configurations (section, urban ring road, network, isolated
                                  structures) and for all operation modes: open or closed
                                  toll system, existing or new plazas, mono-lane or multi-
                                  lane; the greatest possible flexibility concerning of
                                  payment may be kept: pre-payment, post-payment,
                                  immediate payment; anonymous or identified payment,
                                  with or without various commercial advantages
                              •   the dependability of the transactions made be ensured to
                                  a sufficiently high level
                              •   the security of financial exchanges be ensured to
                                  maximum: using coding devices and authentication of
                                  exchanges, controlling the legitimacy of use, and by
                                  protecting equipment against vandalism
                              •   the system's credibility be also guaranteed by controlling
                                  and fighting defrauders, use with malicious intent and
                                  unlawful situations
                              •   ETC equipment can be put into service gradually on the
                                  networks, be integrated into existing systems and not
                                  require any large-scale reorganisation of their architecture
                                  and modes of operation
                              •   the ETC equipment and systems installed should be able
                                  to evolve
                              •   interconnection of networks managed by the various




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                                  operators both nationally and on a European level; i.e.
                                  interoperability of the various systems and technical
                                  compatibility and financial agreement between the
                                  partners
authorities
car manufacturers
standardisation bodies        •   compatibility
                              •   multi-application support
                              •   multi-lane support
                              •   security of payment (confidentiality, integrity, availability)
User needs TTI
users/stakeholders            needs
vehicle users                 • Trans-European use of applications, obtained through the
                                 standardisation of the communication system (DSRC) and
                                 of applications; specifically the nature of data that are
                                 exchanged over the DSRC
                              • language independence of applications, implying that the
                                 data exchanged over the DSRC should be coded (or
                                 presented as icons)
operators (infrastructure     • collection of dynamic information relating to the road
operators, information           network from vehicles: standardisation of the
operators, fleet operators)      communication systems and the applications
                              • optimisation of the communication systems
                                 (communication zones) to limit the cost of deployment of
                                 the infrastructure side
authorities                   • enable a safer and more efficient use of existing road
                                 infrastructures, especially those that are beyond the
                                 immediate control of road operators
                              • enhance safety aspects related to the use of information
                                 terminals while driving
                              • provision of dynamic environmental information and traffic
                                 condition statistics: use of DSRC beacons to extend
                                 network supervision capabilities, by exchanging and
                                 collecting data from vehicles used as traffic condition
                                 sensors
car manufacturers             • improve the driving environment
                              • improve safety of in-vehicle systems
                              • establish standardisation of short range communication
                                 systems and related applications




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                                    (INCO-)WELCOM

INCO-WELCOM looks into ATT applications for multimodal freight and fleet
management on an international corridor, with the emphasis of the user needs report
completely on Poland. The results are high-level user requirements (same
requirements for shippers, forwarders, transport operators, carriers and terminal
operators).

What problems are addressed
• lack of use of EDI in freight and fleet management
What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• use of EDI in freight and fleet management - specific applications are not indicated at this
  stage

Data collection
There is direct input form shippers, forwarders, transport operators, carriers and terminal
operators (in total, there are 5 answers to a very detailed questionnaire).

User needs (separate box for different applications)
  users/stakeholders                                  user needs
Shippers, forwarders, key general requirements are (in decreasing order of importance):
transport operators,    1. expandability
carriers and terminal   2. reliability of systems
operators (in the final 3. increased speed of information
analysis of user needs 4. compatibility/integration with other systems
for ATT, these are      5. potential for generating income
treated more or less    general priorities for new information systems are (in decreasing
together)               order of importance):
                        1. more reliable information
                        2. lower maintenance costs
                        3. information about alternative modes and routes
                        4. information about other systems
                        5. system easier to operate
                        6. improvement of data processing
                        7. reduced operating costs
                        more specific requirements are:
                        • exchange by EDI
                        • barcode system useful
                        • proactive/real-time information
                        • on-line status information
                        • adequate registration of data
                        • improvement of internal efficiency
                        • direct links with order entry



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                      • automatic invoicing by electronic means
                      • on-line tracking and tracing




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                                       WISDOM

WISDOM is looking into intermodal freight applications with a special interest in the
waterborne link. Applications of interest (datasharing, EDI messages and load unit
tracking) as well as identified user needs are discussed at a high level. A distinction is
made between the two demonstration sites, that are interested in rather different
applications and this is reflected in the rather diverse user needs that have been
identified.

What problems are addressed
• transport chain from consignor to consignee involves many actors
• unoptimal information exchange causes loss of time and lack of reliability
• lack of real-time knowledge where equipment is causes un-optimal use of capacity and
  poor customer service

What applications will be developed to overcome these problems
• datasharing
• EDI messages
• load unit tracking

Data collection
The user needs were identified based on project workshops in which a number of actors in
the transport chain have been involved.

User needs (separate box for different applications)
 users/stakeholders                                   user needs
Rotterdam               • make information on transport flows more quickly available to
                           all the control functions
                        • make information available even when it is incomplete
                        • make information about changes in transport process available
                           when they occur
                        • make all information for the control of the transport flow
                           electronically available
Bremen                  • to get regular position data for truck and (container) chassis
                        • to connect the terminal operator and truck operator with EDI
                           transport messages about transport moves
                        • to connect the carrier and the forwarder with the truck operator
                           by EDI messages about transport orders
                        • to connect two service providers of EDI messages and make
                           their service transparant to the user




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CONVERGE TR 1101 D4.1.2                  Page 2                   23/12/98
Key User Needs for Transport Telematics Services




 KEY USER NEEDS FOR TRANSPORT
               TELEMATICS SERVICES



                                        VERSION 1.1




                                      23 December 1998




Author: Peter Van der Perre, ERTICO




CONVERGE TR 1101 D4.1.2                          Page 3   23/12/98
   Key User Needs for Transport Telematics Services



                                ERTICO Document Control Sheet


   Activity name: CONVERGE
   Work area: User Needs
   Document title: Key User Needs For Transport Telematics Services
   Version number: 1.1
   Electronic reference: g:\converge\userneeds\progress\deliverables\D4.1.2.v1.1.doc
   Main author(s) or editor(s): Peter Van der Perre
   Other author(s): -
   Dissemination level1: Restricted
   Version history:
   Version                 Date                Main author                        Summary of changes
1.0                  15/11/98            Peter Van der Perre          -
1.1                  23/12/98            ““                           Incorporating comments of EC project
                                                                      officers, CODE area rapporteurs and
                                                                      peer reviewers
   Approval:
                                          Name                     Date               Signature
            Prepared              Peter Van der Perre
            Reviewed                Paul Kompfner
            Authorised               Ghassan Freij

   Circulation:

            Recipient                                        Date of submission
            Client                                           23/12/98
            ERTICO library                                   ““
            ERTICO Web Site                                  n/a




   1
       This is either: Restricted (to the Programme, to the activity partners) or for Public use




   CONVERGE TR 1101 D4.1.2                                      Page 4                             23/12/98
Key User Needs for Transport Telematics Services



     Activity partners                    n/a




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                                   Table of Contents

1.     SUMMARY                                                         8


2.     INTRODUCTION                                                    9

2.1.    The Work of CONVERGE on User Needs                             9


2.2.    The Analysis of User Needs by TAP-T projects                   9


2.3.    Goal of this Deliverable                                      10


2.4.    User Needs versus System Requirements                         11


2.5.    Structure of this Document                                    12


3.     APPROACH                                                      12

3.1.    Introduction                                                  12


3.2.    How to Structure User Needs                                   13


4.     KEY USER NEEDS FOR TRANSPORT TELEMATICS SERVICES              17

4.1.    Introduction                                                  17


4.2.    Common Needs per User Group                                   18


4.3.    Traveller Intermodality and Publ ic Transport                 22


4.4.    Freight Intermodality                                         26


4.5.    Travel and Traffic Information / Driver Information           29


4.6.    Automatic Debiting and Toll Collection                        34


4.7.    Network and Traffic Management                                38




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4.8.     Vehicle Control                                           42


4.9.     Air Transport and GNSS                                    45


4.10.      Rail Transport                                          47


4.11.      Maritime and Inland Waterway Transport                  50


5.      CONCLUSIONS                                               52


6.      REFERENCES                                                53


ANNEX – REVIEWS OF TAP-T USER NEEDS DELIVERABLES             A1-A135




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1.      Summary

As users are at the heart of the Telematics Applications Programme for Transport (TAP-T),
all TAP-T projects have been strongly encouraged to investigate user needs as a starting
point in the project. As a result, almost all of the around sixty 1st Call TAP-T projects have
conducted a user needs analysis and around thirty 2nd Call are in the process of doing so.
The CONVERGE Project has reviewed and synthesised the different analyses of the 1st call
projects as well as the available work of 2nd call projects with a view to disseminate them to
a wider audience and to promote their future use.

This double goal is reflected in the content and organisation of this deliverable. After a brief
introduction, the approach followed in producing this deliverable is outlined with an
emphasis on how the vast number of user needs identified in the TAP-T programme can be
structured and presented in a comprehensive way. The bulk of this document is then
covered by the section “Key user needs for transport telematics services”, that offers a
general synthesis of the user needs that were identified for the relevant user groups for each
of the application areas distinguished in the TAP-T programme. This synthesis is
complemented by a more detailed description of the user needs identified in each TAP-T
project (using a standard format) in the Annex. In combination with the detailed user needs
databases developed in the TAP-T programme [REF 3, REF 4], this deliverable is therefore
felt to be a good basis for future work, for instance in the context of the Fifth Framework
Programme, also known under the name “Creating a user-friendly information society”.




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2.       Introduction

         2.1. The Work of CONVERGE on User Needs

Almost all projects of the Telematics Applications Programme for Transport (TAP-T) have
carried out a user needs analysis (1st call projects) or are in the process of doing so (2nd call
projects). The CONVERGE project aims to consolidate and disseminate the work done on
user needs in the TAP-T programme by:

(1) preparing a suitable contribution on user needs to a key TAP-T project developing an
      overall architecture for ATT2 in Europe (D 4.1.1. Transport Telematics User
      Requirements: Input to the KAREN Project)

(2) summarising the main findings of the TAP user needs reports for dissemination and as a
      basis for future work (D 4.1.2. Key User Needs for Transport Telematics Services)

(3) validating and, where possible, improving the guidebook developed by the CODE
      project supporting the analysis of user needs by the TAP-T projects            (D 4.1.3.
      Review of User Needs Approach in the TAP Transport Sector).

This deliverable is the second of these reports.


         2.2. The Analysis of User Needs by TAP-T projects

Projects have used many different techniques to study the needs of the users of the
applications that they will later be developing or demonstrating. In decreasing importance,
these have been: working sessions amongst experts involved in the project, questionnaires,




2
    Advanced Transport Telematics




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direct interviews, user fora and literature studies. The results are mostly presented in one or
more separate deliverables.

As a common basis for this work, the CODE project has issued a Guidebook for User
Needs Analysis [REF 1]. This Guidebook has not been widely used as a basis for the user
needs analysis done by 1st call TAP-T projects (the large majority of reviewed projects),
however, as it was still undergoing modifications at the start of these projects. A
complication when producing this deliverable was therefore to deal with the many different
ways user needs were treated in the different reports, such as per domain, per application,
for all users, for very specific user groups, or (especially for air transport) the almost
immediate focus on detailed architectures.

        2.3. Goal of this Deliverable

The goal of this deliverable is twofold:

• to disseminate the most important needs that affect the provision of transport telematics
   applications to a wider audience

• to serve as a basis for future R&D projects, in which the analysis of user needs is usually
   the first step in the overall development process. This development process typically
   follows the telematics applications lifecycle:

      1. user needs identification

      2. functional specifications

      3. demonstrator

      4. validation

      5. exploitation plan.




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These two objectives are mainly served by the fourth chapter on key user needs for
transport telematics services respectively the Annex containing the more detailed summaries
of user needs per project.


       2.4. User Needs versus System Requirements

User needs essentially explain what users expect a system to do at a rather high level (for
instance, enhance road safety). In most R&D projects, however, no rigorous distinction is
made between user needs and system requirements, that explain how the system should
work (for instance, by incident warning on VMS using pictograms). This is true as:

• users often formulate their needs already in terms of ITS applications and their
    characteristics, as they are already familiar with them

• R&D projects are often focused on specific applications

• in most R&D projects, user needs are eventually translated into system requirements
    anyway.

Within system requirements, an important distinction is made between functional and non-
functional requirements. These are the basis for the development of the architecture of any
system as:

• functional requirements: specify the service(s) that will be expected from the system,
   and/or the functions needed to provide a working system, (for instance incident warning
   using VMS), and,

• non-functional requirements: specify the performance and/or quality attributes of a
   workable system (for instance using pictograms rather than text).

As the title suggests, the emphasis of this deliverable is on key user needs. The descriptions
of these user needs contain clear links, however, to what applications users desire




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(functional requirements) and how users would like these applications to function (non-
functional requirements).

        2.5. Structure of this Document

The structure of this document is as follows:

Chapter 3 describes the approach that was followed when producing this deliverable. The
emphasis is on how to structure the various user needs described in the TAP-T projects.

Chapter 4 contains the summary descriptions of key user needs for all TAP-T application
areas. The starting point for each area is a list of examples of the applications covered by the
area as well as a list of examples of the different user groups involved in the area. High-level
user needs are then synthesised and explained. The chapter is closely related to the Annex,
that contains the detailed reviews of all TAP-T projects.

Chapter 5 contains some conclusions and Chapter 6 provides an overview of the most
important references.

The Annex contains detailed descriptions of the user needs identified in each reviewed TAP-
T project (using a standard form).




3.      Approach

        3.1. Introduction

The starting point of this activity has been a detailed review of the about 70 1st call TAP-T
projects as well as about five 2nd call TAP-T projects summarising key information using a
standard form (see Annex). Altogether, about 75 deliverables have been reviewed (some
projects did not produce a deliverable on user needs, but others produced up to six
separate reports), covering altogether well over 10 000 pages of text.



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To fully exploit all the work carried out in the domain of user needs in the TAP-T
programme, this material was also organised in a structure similar to the one used by the
KAREN project [REF 3] effectively merging the interim results of CONVERGE and
KAREN for TAP-T areas also covered by the KAREN project.

Based on all this, a structure was then devised in which the several hundreds of identified
user needs and system requirements could be synthesised. Since it is obviously not possible
within the context of this deliverable to present specific user needs for each separate ITS
application, these applications first needed to be grouped in different domains. Second, as
different user groups have different needs, the relevant groups needed to be identified and
described. Ideally, these groups had to be relevant for the different domains of applications.

As a third step, the results were synthesised in the form of key user needs that are explained
in separate paragraphs in terms of related functional and non-functional requirements.

A first draft of this document was submitted to the EC, to the CODE area rapporteurs and
to two independent peer reviewers. Three different sources have therefore commented on
the document and these comments have been integrated in this final version.


        3.2. How to Structure User Needs

                3.2.1. Application Domains

There are many different ways to structure ITS applications into domains. Examples of
classifications of services are the about 30 road transport services defined by ISO and the
about 150 functions distinguished by CORD covering road and waterborne transport. In the
context of this work, the classification that was used is the division of the TAP-T programme
into different areas. These are:

               Traveller Intermodality and Public Transport
               Freight Intermodality
               Road Transport
               • Travel and Traffic Information / Driver Information



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                • Automatic Debiting and Toll Collection
                • Network and Traffic Management
                • Vehicle Control
                Air Transport and GNSS
                Rail Transport
                Maritime and Inland Waterway Transport
                                    Table 1 – TAP-T Areas

Though a source of lively debate in any project that needs to classify ITS applications, this
structure is not seen as a problem as it is relatively straightforward to cross-reference TAP-
T areas to ISO services and ISO services to CORD functions.


                3.2.2. User Groups

The following user groups are distinguished in this report. They are a consolidation of the
user groups distinguished by the KAREN project:

•   Private consumers: these are private consumers and travellers including business people,
    tourists , etc. that enjoy the benefits of ITS

•   Freight industry: these are commercial consumers such as freight- and transport industry
    companies that are working in the field of commercial goods and passenger transport
    and also enjoy the benefits of ITS

•   Operators applying ITS: these are the operators of transport infrastructure, such as road
    operators or operators of transferia such as ports and stations, as well as operators of
    transport services such as public transport services; as such, they are users of ITS
    devices, controlling and purchasing many ITS applications

•   Authorities: these are both local authorities, such as city or district authorities (that issue
    regulations concerning ITS on local, district or state level such as city councils, provincial
    and state governments, etc., and high-level ministries, such as national or federal
    authorities issuing regulations concerning ITS on a national or state level




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•   Service providers: these are companies such as information service providers, that use
    data processed by ITS to give information to their customers; their interest is to gain a
    better market position in comparison to their competitors

•   Developers, manufacturers and suppliers of systems: these are all industrial companies
    concerned with the production, the development and sale of ITS applications.

As shown in Figure 1, private users and freight industry often have similar needs as both
groups are the final customers of many telematics services such as traffic and travel
information services. For other services such as electronic toll collection, most needs stem
from the operators of transport facilities they are the prime customer of the service. Most of
the user needs described in the next chapter therefore relate to the first three key user
groups. Authorities also play an important role but they mostly impose additional constraints
on services. Service providers implement the services and applications according to the
needs expressed by private users, freight industry and operators. Their additional needs
mostly refer to user-friendly man-machine




                                                                   (        Industry
                                                                                            )
     Private Consumers
                                                                       Service Providers

         Freight Industry


                                                  (Regulatory)
            Operators
                                                  Authorities


                        Figure 1 – Relationship between User Groups




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interfaces in service centres such as traffic control centres. Finally, there are few key user
needs at the level of ITS industry. Their role is essentially to build systems that meet the
detailed specifications to which all user needs of the other actors have been translated.

Obviously, many projects have elaborated this classification into more specific target groups
for specific applications. As this deliverable covers the entire TAP-T, the only subgroup that
will be described in greater detail below are elderly and disabled users.




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4.      Key User Needs for Transport Telematics Services

        4.1. Introduction

Some user needs are formulated at such a high level that they not only apply to different
applications but even to different domains. For travellers, for instance, very high-level needs
are typically safety, efficiency, comfort and low costs and almost any other more specific
need is related to these. Therefore, these generic and high-level needs are first presented for
all user groups in a first, separate section “Common needs per user group”. Next, more
specific user needs for each of these user groups and relating to a specific domain will be
treated in a separate section per domain. For each domain, the user groups for which more
detailed user needs are described are presented in Table 2.

                   TAP Areas                               User Groups
        (1) Traveller Intermodality and      •   Private consumers
            Public Transport                 •   Operators applying ITS
                                             •   Authorities
        (2) Freight Intermodality            •   Freight industry
                                             •   Operators applying ITS
                                             •   Authorities
        (3) Road Transport
        (3.1.) Travel and Traffic            •   Private consumers
               Information / Driver          •   Freight industry
               Information                   •   Operators applying ITS
                                             •   Authorities
        (3.2.) Automatic Debiting and        •   Private consumers
               Toll Collection               •   Operators applying ITS
                                             •   Authorities
        (3.3.) Network and Traffic           •   Private consumers
               Management                    •   Operators applying ITS
                                             •   Authorities
        (3.4.) Vehicle Control               •   Private consumers
                                             •   Freight industry
                                             •   Operators applying ITS
                                             •   Authorities
        (4) Air Transport and GNSS           •   Operators applying ITS
        (5) Rail Transport                   •   Operators applying ITS




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                   TAP Areas                                  User Groups
        (6) Maritime and Inland                •    Freight industry
            Waterway Transport                 •    Operators applying ITS
              Table 2 – User Groups with more detailed User Needs per Domain

Subsequent sections each cover the user needs for one of the application domains described
in the previous chapter. In each of these sections, a list of the most important applications
and supporting technologies covered by the domain is first given. Next, some examples of
real-world organisations that are active in this domain are given for each of the different user
groups to give a “face” to these user groups that would otherwise remain rather abstract and
generic. The heart of each section then contains the descriptions of key user needs for each
user group.


        4.2. Common Needs per User Group

                 4.2.1. Common Needs of Private Consumers

                                       safety and low risk

Private consumers are interested in services that increase their safety by preventing incidents,
during incidents and by minimising the impact of incidents. Examples are incident warning,
pre-crash restraint deployment and fast emergency response. The same is true for services
that allow to limit or avoid unnecessary risk, for instance in terms of variability of travel or
waiting times. Of interest here is information on changes in expected travel times including
the reason and expected delays as well as support for corrective actions such as re-routing.

                                            efficiency

The main concern here is the ability to move from any origin to any chosen destination in the
fastest possible time, through informed trip planning and by avoiding delays. Another aspect
related to the need for efficiency is the ability to engage in other activities while travelling
such as leisure activities or work.




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                                           comfort

European travellers are used to comfortable travelling conditions and seek ways to increase
their comfort, for instance, through value-added services such as advanced information and
reservation services related to any possible destination. An example is restaurant and hotel
information.

                                             price

Private consumers like to have the widest possible offer of services at the lowest possible
price. Private consumers therefore need mechanisms to compare offers including their price.

                        4.2.1.1.A Special Interest Group: Elderly and Disabled Users

Elderly and disabled people need pre-trip planning services allowing for prepared and
informed travelling according to selected modes and routes as well as on-route navigation
and information systems. They also want visual and spoken announcements in transferia such
as stations and ports using standard icons and text of an agreed minimum size, speech
recognition, smart cards allowing to pay for tolls, support for parking and fuelling without
getting out of a vehicle and straightforward mechanisms to use booking facilities. In general,
almost any telematics services can accommodate elderly and disabled travellers with minimal
adaptations.


                4.2.2. Common Needs of Freight Industry

                                          efficiency

The predominant concern of the freight industry is to meet the needs and requirements of
customers to move goods from any origin to any destination at the lowest possible cost and
within tight time windows. As for private consumers, the freight industry therefore has a need
for informed trip planning and for applications that allow to avoid or minimise delays.


                4.2.3. Common Needs of Operators Applying ITS



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                                      maximise throughput

Operators want to maximise their revenue or patronage and meet the needs of their clients at
the lowest possible costs. Operators are therefore generally interested in applications that
increase the throughput of customers through their facilities. Examples are traffic
management applications such as speed harmonisation by VMS on motorways or free-flow
electronic toll collection systems.


                4.2.4. Common Needs of Authorities

                                         the Economy

Transport of goods, commuting, travelling and tourism are vital for any economy. Authorities
have always sought to satisfy the growing demand for mobility investing massive sums in
transport infrastructure and transport services. As large-scale extensions of transport
infrastructure are no longer possible for economic and environmental reasons, authorities are
first considering ITS applications allowing more effective use of infrastructure, such as urban
and inter-urban network management, before considering to deploy more restrictive
measures such as demand management or road pricing.

                                            safety

With more than 50 000 people are killed every year on the roads of the European Union,
transport safety remains an absolute priority. It is a prime role of authorities to create laws
to enhance safety and they therefore have a need to establish the necessary enforcement
mechanisms to make sure people abide by them. Examples are ITS applications enforcing
the road code through unmanned cameras or license plate recognition systems at hazardous
locations or digital tachographs as a means to enforce social regulations in the freight
transport sector.

                              reduce environmental pollution




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In general, authorities need to monitor excesses in negative external effects, or effects
caused by transport that are not paid for by travellers. The most important external effect is
environmental pollution as other typical examples of external effects such as congestion and
accidents are already accounted for (paid for) by the travelling public. Examples of useful
applications here are traffic management applications relying on environmental monitoring.

                                  optimal overall mobility

Authorities also want to be able to optimise mobility for society as a whole, by optimising
synergy effects between the different modes of transport (minimising overall negative
external effects such as congestion, pollution, accidents, …). This is done by ensuring good
interfaces between different transport modes, companies or transport environments such as
modal interfaces or interfaces between the urban and inter-urban environment. This can
either be done at an operational level or by ensuring that integrated information is provided
to travellers. It can also be done by applications that can influence the chosen starting time,
mode or followed route on a trip by applications such as access control, public transport
priority, lanes for High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV) and road pricing (demand
management).


                4.2.5. Common Needs of Service Providers

                                   open, modular systems

For service providers, systems should rely on open, modular architectures and on common
data dictionaries, message sets, query languages and communication protocols so as to
facilitate interfacing with other systems. Therefore, systems should adhere to European and
world-wide standards. Last, it should be easy to migrate to future applications and systems
should, as much as possible, support backward compatibility.

                                     economic viability




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Service providers need systems with good cost-benefit ratios and low payback periods.
This typically results in highly-automated systems with low maintenance costs. Highly
interconnected systems operating at a high level of automation should also be very reliable.

                                         easy to use

To improve efficiency and to avoid unnecessary errors, service providers also need systems
with excellent human machine interfaces. Examples of aspects here are the ability to have all
critical information to handle a situation presented on the same screen, fault-tolerant entry
mechanisms and use of pictograms where appropriate.


                4.2.6. Companies developing and producing ITS

                                       standardisation

The ITS market is highly complex as ITS services are heavily interrelated and often rely on
common infrastructure. The most important need of the ITS industry is therefore modular
systems with open architectures and standardised interfaces, as this is the only way to ensure
to arrive at a large market for ITS services rather than at a range of small and fragmented
markets. Or in other words, any company prefers to have a small percentage of a multi-
billion Euro market rather than a big part of a niche market.


        4.3. Traveller Intermodality and Public Transport

Reviewed projects are: ADEPT II, AUSIAS, CAPITALS, CARPLUS, CONCERT,
CROMATICA, ENTERPRICE, EUROSCOPE, EUROSPIN, EUROTRACS,
INFOPOLIS, ICARE, INFOTEN, PROMISE, QUARTET+, SAMPO, SCRIPT,
TABASCO, TITAN, VADE-MECUM




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                4.3.1. What Applications are Covered?

Examples of applications in this area are real-time traveller information services covering all
stages of a trip, public transport priority at intersections and through (time-dependent)
access control and HOV lanes as well as public transport management (bus, tram, metro)
applications such as vehicle scheduling, crew rostering and maintenance planning. Other
examples are demand-responsive public transport (“dial a bus”) such as on-demand
services on a fixed or variable route and carpooling services such as ride-sharing
information, reservation and confirmation services.


                4.3.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key supporting technologies are vehicle monitoring, vehicle localisation (through GPS or
GNSS possibly enhanced by local augmentation means), GIS and digital maps, modelling
and forecasting algorithms, data and voice communication links to vehicle and drivers and
monitoring of crowds as well as of incident-prone areas.


                4.3.3. Who are the Users?

Private consumers          These are public transport and intermodal travellers, or captive
                           public transport travellers and car drivers that have the possibility
                           to change mode. As most traffic problems occur during the rush
                           hours and at the start and end of public holidays, the emphasis is
                           on people commuting from and to work as well as on seasonal
                           tourism flows.
Operators                  These are essentially public transport operators (rail, bus, tram,
                           metro). Examples are Deutsche Bahn in Germany and RATP in
                           Paris. For intermodality, the emphasis is on combining public
                           transport and road transport. An example of a road operator
                           encouraging drivers to shift to other modes is Rijkswaterstaat in
                           The Netherlands.
Authorities                These are the Ministries of Transport and related authorities.
                           Examples are the Department of the Environment, Transport and
                           the Regions in the United Kingdom and the Bundesministerium für
                           Verkehr in Germany.
Service providers          Public transport as well as intermodal passenger services are
                           mostly provided by the operators. In the freight sector,




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                           multimodal services are handled by transport companies (see
                           separate section).
        Table 3 – Examples of Users in Traveller Intermodality and Public Transport


                4.3.4. Needs of Private consumers

                                      short travel times

Public transport usually takes more time than when travelling by car as it typically requires
walks to and from the stop of departure and arrival, and as routes are mostly fixed (that is,
most likely not the shortest or fastest route to a destination) and often require one or more
transfers. Public and intermodal transport therefore needs to be given priority to cars,
intermodal services should be well connected and route planning and vehicle scheduling
should closely follow demand patterns through monitoring of demand and performance.

                                         door to door

Public transport travellers need support covering all stages of a journey. Appropriate public
transport and intermodal information systems need to be available supporting all stages of a
trip from planning to execution and covering the entire trip from door to door. Information
on the availability of parking space or park and ride facilities are also of importance.

                                            reliable

Public transport travellers need services that depart and arrive at stops on time. The current
feeling of unreliability can partially be overcome with real-time information at any stage of a
journey: before starting, at stops and within public transport vehicles.

                                           flexibility

The fact that public transport departures are limited in number and fixed in time makes
services unattractive in areas with few routes and low frequencies. Examples of applications
that can help here are flexible “dial a bus” services on fixed or variable routes. Other




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examples are carpooling services allowing people with common travelling and commuting
habits to share rides.

                                   real-time information

Travellers want to be informed about any event that may affect the travel time, safety, cost
or comfort of a journey. Examples of events known in advance for public transport are
service offer, structural congestion, road works, road closures and social events such as
sport events, cultural events or announced strikes. During the selected journey, travellers
also want to be informed about any unforeseeable event or incident that can affect their
journey. Examples of incidents for public transport are vehicle breakdowns, accidents and
adverse weather conditions. When unexpected events occur, customers want to be able to
re-optimise their journey from the present location onwards.

                                           security

Security is a problem in public transport vehicles and at stops. Both the objective insecurity
and the subjective (feeling of) insecurity need to be improved, for instance by monitoring
devices and emergency call systems.


                4.3.5. Needs of Operators Applying ITS

                             improve utilisation of resources

To improve the cost-effectiveness of public transport operations, running times on routes
should be reduced, minimum ridership levels should be attained especially on non-subsidised
routes and idle running and time losses from and to depots or between routes should be
minimised. This can be done through demand and performance monitoring as well as by
modelling, forecasting and optimisation tools.

                                    increase reliability




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Reliability of services can be enhanced through preventative maintenance planning,
contingency planning and forecasting of demand and the impacts of events and incidents.
This can be done through monitoring of operations as well as of any events and incidents
that can affect operations.


                4.3.6. Needs of Authorities

                              minimum coverage of services

Given the social dimension of public transport, authorities want public transport to service all
population centres, even in remote areas. An example of an application that is of use here is
demand-responsive public transport.

                                  optimal overall mobility

This may involve initiatives to promote public transport, for instance by public transport
priority at intersections or through public transport-only or HOV lanes.


        4.4. Freight Intermodality

Reviewed projects are: CAPITALS, COREM, ENTERPRICE, INTACT, INTERPORT,
MULTITRACK, SURFF, TRACAR, TRIS, WELCOME, WISDOM


                4.4.1. What Applications are Covered?

Most ITS applications focus on the relationship between the home base (transport
company) and the transport company’s drivers and vehicles on the road, as applications
extending the home office to individual drivers and vehicles are the first to reach the market.
These applications can roughly be divided into freight management, fleet management and
driver-vehicle management, and they typically support one or more phases of a transport:
planning (examples are vehicle scheduling and route planning), execution (re-routing,
transport status follow-up), control (proof of delivery), administration (order administration,




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personnel and payment administration) or more general management (driver training and
education).

Other applications seek to automate the relationship between a transport company (home
office and drivers/vehicles) and the many other partners in the transport chain. Examples are
forwarders, shippers, consignors and consignees, or ports and customs agencies. As the
many different organisations imply the use of many different approaches and technologies,
these interfaces are more difficult to standardise. Examples of applications here are data
exchange between these different organisations or vehicle and load unit identification in
transferia.

A last series of applications optimises operations within any of the individual organisations.
Examples here are the use of VMS in ports or RDS messages on ships indicating departure
or arrival gates and times, possible waiting times, location of waiting areas and general traffic
conditions.


                4.4.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key enabling technologies are vehicle localisation (through GPS or GNSS possibly
enhanced by local augmentation means), GIS and digital maps, fixed and mobile
communication links, automatic vehicle identification (AVI) and automatic equipment
identification (AIE) (for instance of load units), applications supporting forecasting and
contingency planning as well as on-board computers for freight and fleet management.


                4.4.3. Who are the Users?

Freight industry           First actors here are the consignor (sender) and consignee
                           (receiver) of which one acts as the principal, that is the
                           responsible for the transport. Unless one of these relies on an
                           internal transport company, they are not directly involved in the
                           execution of a transport movement. The real players are therefore
                           the transport companies that actually carry out the transport and
                           intermediary organisations known as forwarders that arrange
                           transports using transport companies and possibly involving




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                            different modes. Examples of large transport companies are
                            Sogestrans – Groupe Giraud (3000 trucks) in France and Willy
                            Betz (4500 trucks) in Germany.
Operators                   These are essentially port authorities such as Rotterdam or Le
                            Havre as well as railway operators such as SNCF in France or
                            Deutsche Bahn in Germany. Freight transport by road is not
                            handled by road operators but directly by the transport
                            companies mentioned above.
Authorities                 These are the Ministries of Transport and related authorities such
                            as the Swedish National Road Administration or the Departement
                            Leefmilieu en Infrastructuur in Belgium.
Service providers           The services providers are essentially transport companies and/or
                            forwarders as well as port and rail operators.
                     Table 4 – Examples of Users in Freight Intermodality


                4.4.4. Needs of Freight Industry

                             fast and efficient order processing

The first step for any transport company is to obtain orders and sign contracts. In this
context, there is a need for efficient mechanisms matching demand and supply. Clearly,
transports can be realised at the lowest costs, involving for instance the least idle running, if
as many clients and transport companies as possible have access to the same databases.

                            management of transports (orders)

This involves cost-minimising order grouping (possibly involving several pick-ups and
deliveries), route planning and driver/vehicle scheduling as well as mechanisms to track and
follow-up the status of transports with the possibility to give clients regular progress reports.
Also, it should be possible to re-optimise assignments following events that render on-going
transports less than optimal.

                         automated and paperless administration

Transports typically involve a lot of administration, involving many documents to be kept on-
board trucks. Examples are customs documents such as manifests of import and export,




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baylands and lists of dangerous goods. Also, order, vehicle and personnel administration
within the home base can be greatly facilitated by registering appropriate data during
transports to be downloaded during or at the end of these transports. The data can also be
used for training and driver education, for instance leading to far-reduced fuel consumption.


                4.4.5. Needs of Operators Applying ITS

            automated transport handling – operations and administration

As for transport companies, operators have an interest in cost-efficient transport handling
involving both operations and administration. Operations can be supported by warning of
imminent transport (vehicle) arrivals, access control and automated guidance in transferia
such as ports or stations.


                4.4.6. Needs of Authorities

                                             safety

Apart from more general applications such as unmanned cameras or license plate
recognition to enforce speed regulations as mentioned above, an ITS application that will
become mandatory for all new trucks starting in 2001 is the digital tachograph. This
application is to enforce social regulations for freight transport by road to improve road
safety and to ensure fair competition. Another example are weigh in motion applications
allowing authorities to enforce maximum vehicle weights.

                                   optimal overall mobility

This may involve initiatives to promote rail transport as well as inland waterway and maritime
transport, for instance by introducing tolls for freight transport by road or by road pricing
with special tariffs for trucks on public roads.


        4.5. Travel and Traffic Information / Driver Information




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Reviewed projects are: CLEOPATRA, EPISODE, FORCE 1&2, PROMISE


                4.5.1. What Applications are Covered?

A distinction is often made here between pre-trip and on-trip information services even
though information content is often the same for both. Examples of information content are
traffic, road status and event information as well as information on public transport routes,
timetables and delays, information on park & ride facilities or on best routes (route
guidance).


                4.5.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

The enabling technologies are data exchange (through messaging systems or access to
federated databases), accurate localisation (through GPS or GNSS possibly enhanced by
local augmentation means), GIS and digital maps, location referencing, high-quality
monitoring, modelling and forecasting tools, speech recognition and text to speech
conversion. Services are accessed by radio and in-vehicle route guidance systems, roadside
VMS or displays within public transport vehicles, or through the Internet, information kiosks
and personal traveller assistants.


                4.5.3. Who are the Users?

Private consumers          These are essentially car drivers, that may have the possibility to
                           change mode. As most traffic problems occur during the rush
                           hours and at the start and end of public holidays, the emphasis is
                           on people commuting from and to work as well as on seasonal
                           tourism flows.
Freight industry           These are transport companies such as Sogestrans – Groupe
                           Giraud (3000 trucks) in France and Willy Betz (4500 trucks) in
                           Germany.
Operators                  These are essentially road operators such as Austostrade in Italy.
                           To some extent, it also involves public transport operators (rail,
                           bus, tram, metro) such as Nederlandse Spoorwegen in The
                           Netherlands or STIB/MIVB in Brussels.
Authorities                These are the Ministries of Transport and related authorities.
                           Examples are Vejdirektoratet in Denmark and Ministère de



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                           l’Equipement, du Transport et du Tourisme (MELTT) in France.
Service providers          Most road operators operate traffic centres that act as a service
                           provider often in cooperation with one or more broadcasters.
                           Examples of private service providers are PASSO and
                           TEGARON in Germany, TrafficMaster in the United Kingdom
                           and Visionaute in France.
     Table 5 – Examples of Users in Travel and Traffic Information / Driver Information


                4.5.4. Needs of Private consumers

                          real-time status and event information

Travellers want to be informed about any event that may affect the travel time, safety, cost
or comfort of a journey in order to exercise a choice or inform others of any delays.
Examples of events known in advance for road transport are structural congestion, road
works, road closures and social events such as sport events, cultural events or announced
strikes. During the selected journey, travellers also want to be informed about any
unforeseeable event or incident that can affect their journey. Examples of incidents for road
transport are accidents and adverse weather conditions. When unexpected events occur,
customers want to be able to re-optimise their journey from the present location onwards.
Systems should therefore be able to validate and integrate many different kinds of monitoring
information. Examples are loop data, cameras data, data generated through automatic
incident detection, emergency calls (including calls automatically triggered after accidents),
floating car data, traffic statistics, weather reports, roadside weather monitoring data,
pollution data and driver reports.

                                         door-to-door

To plan or guide a journey, systems should allow to find any destination, calculate the
journey time and distance and provide a detailed description, preferably in map format, of
the best route to follow. This can, for instance, be done by static or dynamic route guidance
applications. A localisation precision of 10 m as offered by GPS and GNSS systems is
sufficient and does not require local augmentation means. ITS providers and their customers



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should also be able to refer to specific locations on the road network in an unambiguous
way through unique location referencing systems. Detailed spatial queries relying on
Geographical Information Systems and digital maps showing exactly how to arrive at a
chosen destination are other key geographical tools supporting traffic and travel information
services. The same information should be provided through many different media as
customers have access to different media and want information at any point on their journey.
Examples are Internet, Personal Traveller Assistents, Car Driver Information Systems,
VMS, Roadside Warning (COMPANION), In-Bus Information Displays, Bus-stop
Information Displays, Public Inquiry Terminals, Parking Guidance and P&R Information
Displays.

                                           multimodal

The content of information people are looking for should cover road (car, bus, bicycle,
walking), rail (train, metro, tram), waterborne (ferry) and air (aeroplane) transport including
all relevant transferia (car parks, park and ride facilities, bus stops, bicycle parks, train
stations, metro and tram stops, ports and airports). Service providers therefore need rapid
access to a wide range of information stored in different databases. This can be done using
data exchange or messaging systems if little information need to be exchanged or by direct
access using a federated database approach under clear agreements with the organisations
that have the responsibility for the area covered by each database, and that are best-placed
to keep the information up to date (for instance, a road operator for a road events database,
a public transport operator for public transport-related information, a meteorological institute
for weather information, etc.).

                                    giving maximum choice

Systems should be able to provide an overview of the traffic situation including all relevant
incidents and events for customers that are familiar with the environment and want to judge
for themselves. As customers want to choose the time they leave, systems should also have
a forecasting capability. Systems should allow users to re-optimise journeys at any stage of



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the journey. This involves forecasting of recurrent events and impacts of incidents is crucial
as customers want to determine themselves when to leave and journeys are spread out in
time. Therefore, systems should be able to predict traffic flows based on historic data (traffic
statistics) as well as to forecast the impact of events that are known in advance and
incidents.

                                user-friendly, safe and fast

The human-machine interface to information services should be simple and clear. Access to
the services should be straightforward and fast. Speech recognition and text to speech
conversion greatly improves driver safety and helps elderly and disabled drivers. Speech
recognition also greatly facilitates giving input to systems such as navigation systems gaining
time and increasing comfort.

              integrated with reservation and electronic payment services

If information is sought on facilities that require reservation and/or payment such as for
hotels, restaurants, parking lots and public transport trips, users want the information service
to be integrated with the reservation and payment services. This obviously includes
confirmation of the reservation and proof of payment.

                                         personalised

The systems should allow that services are tuned to users based on their specific profiles.
Service providers will therefore rely on so-called intelligent agents to keep track of individual
preferences and to deduce with maximum likelihood what their customer will prefer in new
situations.


                4.5.5. Specific Needs of Freight Industry

                                     specific information




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Examples of specific information are routes where trucks are banned (altogether or during
specific periods), dangerous goods regulations, or waiting times at transferia such as ports
and stations or at critical points such as tunnels.


                    4.5.6. Needs of Authorities

                              minimum service available for all

One of the main needs of authorities is to ensure that a minimum service is given to all and
that not only the people who pay have access to a service. In particular in case of
emergencies, service providers have to make the information accessible to all.

                               consistency with control actions

Authorities will support that traffic and travel information should be consistent with on-going
and planned control actions as these are often safety-related (the information should
consistently support the traffic management level). This is also true for roads operated by
private entities.

                      consistency with neighbouring and greater regions

Information should be consistent with related information given in neighbouring and greater
regions. It should be avoided, for instance, that drivers are guided off ring roads and into the
city by (inter-urban) ring road operators and off urban roads and onto the ring road by the
urban road operators.


        4.6. Automatic Debiting and Toll Collection

Reviewed projects are: ADEPT II, CAPITALS, CONCERT, ENTERPRICE,
EUROSCOPE, ICARE, INTERPORT, MOVE-IT, QUARTET PLUS, VASCO, CARD-
ME




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                4.6.1. What Applications are Covered?

Examples of applications are multi-lane, free-flow electronic toll collection, parking
management, congestion pricing, public transport payment and access control.

For the first application, a distinction is often made between open (payment at entry point
only) and closed systems (payment at entry and exit point), active (read-write, required for
closed systems as the entry point needs to be recorded) or passive systems (read-only),
area-based or network-based systems. For reasons of flexibility and security, modern
systems tend to use smart cards rather than being monolithic systems with a preference for
contactless cards as opposed to contact smart cards.


                4.6.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key supporting technologies are smart cards, vehicle detection, video enforcement and
license plate recognition, vehicle classification, mechanism to support foreign vehicles as well
as non-equipped users, localisation (through GPS or GNSS possibly enhanced by local
augmentation means), GIS and digital maps, and financial clearinghouses.


                4.6.3. Who are the users?

Private consumers          These are car drivers, public transport travellers and intermodal
                           travellers.
Operators                  Amongst road operators, the most active players are private
                           motorway operators already operating electronic and/or
                           conventional toll collection systems such as Autopistas in Spain,
                           COFIROUTE, ESCOTA, SANEF and SAPRR in France or
                           BRISA in Portugal. Also, many public road operators in many
                           EU member states are considering to introduce toll collection or
                           road pricing systems. Examples of public transport operators
                           active in this area are RATP in Paris and ATM in Turin. Another
                           relevant type of operators are parking operators.
Authorities                These are the Ministries of Transport and Finance as well as
                           related authorities. Examples are The Bundesministerium für
                           wirtschaftliche Angelegenheiten (BMWA) and the
                           Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Verkehr (BMWV) in
                           Austria.



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Service providers           Services are usually provided by the operators. This is true both
                            for (private) road operators and for public transport operators.
           Table 6 – Examples of Users in Automatic Debiting and Toll Collection


                 4.6.4. Needs of Private consumers

                                       avoid loss of time

Automated debiting and toll collection equipment needs to increase the comfort of travellers,
in the first place by cutting waiting times at toll booths, in stations or within buses.

                                           ease of use

Debiting systems need to be straightforward and quick to use. Examples of this are that car
users require that the systems to have a minimum impact on the driving task and that they are
not aware that he is travelling on roads managed by different operators, and that public
transport users have a preference for contactless as opposed to contact smart cards.

                                          transparency

The use of the systems and especially the pricing and billing operations should be as
transparent as possible. In practical terms, this means that commuters should be able to see
the fee while travelling and obtain proof of payment.

                                           anonymity

Travellers do not want that their movements are registered in a way that can identify and
trace them, or that “big brother is watching” them. Therefore, they want to remain
anonymous and this can for instance be done through the use of prepaid systems.


                 4.6.5. Needs of Operators Applying ITS

                                            reliability




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Operators want their systems to charge users correctly as failing to charge some users will
lead to income loss and over- charging them will undoubtedly lead to a bad image. Systems
need to remain reliable under heavy conditions (such as dense traffic flows of 1500 vehicles
per lane, or speeds of up to 180 km / hr, or complex vehicle configurations such as small
lateral and longitudinal distances between vehicles or mixtures of large and small vehicles
with the former partially or totally obscuring the latter). They should also support non-
equipped users, and in the case of road tolling, foreign vehicles, whilst ensuring good
enforcement such as over the whole width of the carriageway including the emergency lanes.
This means a low rate of improper transactions: for electronic toll collection this typically
implies a rate of non-effective transactions smaller than 10-6 and a rate of erroneous
transactions smaller than 10-8.

                                            security

Security involves all possible fraudulent uses of the systems. As such, it covers a wide range
of aspects, varying from preventative measures such as ensuring that the devices are
physically tamperproof, foreseeing contingency plans if systems break down and backup
systems for losses of data as measures active during fraudulent actions to make sure that
it is impossible to fraud without detection and allowing to conclude transactions even in
degraded system mode and finally ex-post measures applied after security has been
threatened such as enforcement measures and maintaining a black list file. Systems shall use
on-board units with smart cards as these allow for great flexibility and security as they can
be removed by users.

                                           flexibility

Systems should permit that the amounts of fees be changed, that subareas in which different
fees apply can be defined or that the amount of the fees can vary according to the time of
day. It also implies that systems support different environments such as sections, urban ring
roads, entire networks, areas, open or closed systems, existing or new plazas, mono-lane or
multi-lane systems and free-flow or stopping systems and that the same infrastructure can be



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used for other services such as traffic control or information services. Finally, it implies easy
migration to next generation systems implying modular and open architectures.

                                  reduction of waiting times

This applies both to road operators operating conventional toll collection systems and to
public transport operators operating conventional ticketing systems. Reducing waiting times
is directly related to revenues as it increases throughput as well as customer satisfaction.


                4.6.6. Needs of Authorities

                                     public acceptability

Authorities need to ensure that the fees and fares that are charged are acceptable for the
services that are provided and that the privacy of travellers is fully respected.

                                  European interoperability

Authorities across Europe actively support interoperable solutions based on common
standards that allow to use the same devices for tolling and debiting across borders.


        4.7. Network and Traffic Management

Reviewed projects are: AUSIAS, CAPITALS, CLEOPATRA, COSMOS, DACCORD,
ENTERPRICE, ESCORT, EUROSCOPE, FORCE, HANNIBAL, INFOTEN, IN-
RESPONSE, QUARTET- PLUS, SITE, TABASCO, VADE MECUM


                4.7.1. What Applications are Covered?

Though network and traffic management should apply seamlessly to cities and inter-urban
roads, a distinction is often made in reality between urban and inter-urban applications. In
cities, most traffic management applications enhance integrated network control, for instance
by giving priority to public transport and emergency vehicles. A promising future application




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is Intelligent Speed Adaptation prompting drivers to reduce speeds in incident-prone areas
by in-vehicle warning or control.

On inter-urban roads, it is useful to distinguish between applications at link level and
applications at network level. Examples at link level are lane control, speed harmonisation
(imposing uniform speeds to increase traffic flows), speed funnelling (gradually reducing
speeds before arriving at the site of an incident), incident warning, local traffic information,
winter maintenance, emergency response and ramp metering (mostly by VMS and radio).
Examples at network level are re-routing, network management and regional traffic
information (mostly by VMS and radio).


                4.7.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key supporting technologies are a wide range of roadside monitoring devices, vehicle
detection and counting devices, GIS and digital maps, data exchange mechanisms,
forecasting algorithms and consistent HMIs.


                4.7.3. Who are the Users?

Private consumers           These are essentially car drivers.
Operators                   These are private and public road operators. Public road
                            operators are often also (part of) the responsible authorities.
Authorities                 These are the Ministries of Transport as well as related
                            authorities. Examples are Tielaitos in Finland and Ministero Lavori
                            Pubblici (MLP) in Italy.
Service providers           Services are usually provided by the operators through urban or
                            inter-urban road traffic centres.
                                                Network and Traffic Management


                4.7.4. Needs of Private consumers

                                    consistency and legibility

The consistency problem relates both to text and to pictograms used, for instance, on VMS.
As “a picture is worth a thousand words”, motorists generally prefer the use of pictograms



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compared to text, especially when travelling abroad. Yet, no pictograms relating to dynamic
events such as accidents, traffic jams and weather problems are currently standardised
leading to consistency problems. The same applies to text messages where many different
structures are currently used across Europe. An example of this is the order of “event -
cause - location or area affected”. Both pictograms and text messages should be sufficiently
large and clear to ensure legibility.

                                           reliability

Traffic management actions can roughly be divided into “information - advice - warning -
control” actions, an order that typically applies to motorists nearing the site of an incident.
This is also the order in which reliability requirements increase, even though all actions
should generally be highly reliable. If information or advice actions influence the decision of
drivers to re-route, the travel time on the new route should be lower than the travel time on
the old route.

                                            comfort

In the context of network and traffic management, comfort essentially means high-quality
information. Of relevance here is that users generally prefer travel times to queue lengths,
and appreciate to know the cause of an incident. Travellers also want good connections to
information services that are not strictly road-related such as information on intermodal
transfer points or dynamic information on public transport services and Park & Ride offered
on roadside VMS.


                 4.7.5. Needs of Operators Applying ITS

                                             safety

On inter-urban roads, safety can first be increased at link level by preventing certain
incidents to happen, including secondary incidents. On motorways, that are already relatively
safe, this is basically done by preventative lane control and speed funnelling (gradually




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reducing speeds up to the location of the incident) as well as by incident warning and traffic
information, all of which relies on high-quality traffic and weather monitoring. Further
improvements can be realised at network level through re-routing and regional information.
The most accident-prone roads are national and regional roads of non-motorway standard,
and especially roads that cross settlements and activity centres. Here, as is the case on
urban roads, the emphasis is still more on infrastructural changes protecting vulnerable road
users such as pedestrians and cyclists. Intelligent Speed Adaptation looks a promising
application, but will need some time to be widely implemented as it requires both roadside
infrastructure and in-vehicle equipment.

                                           efficiency

Authorities need applications that can increase the use of existing capacity as well as of
throughput. In the urban environment, it has been shown that integrated network control can
reduce average travel times by 10 to 15% in congested areas. On inter-urban motorways,
the most effective applications seem to be speed harmonisation and ramp metering.

                               reduce environmental pollution

For cities as well as for inter-urban roads, this mainly involves network and traffic
management overlapping with or supporting demand management measures. Examples of
these are encouraging the use of Park and Ride facilities, public transport and carpooling, for
instance in the form of priority lanes for High-Occupancy Vehicles.

                            consistency with information actions

To maximise effectiveness, it is in the interest of operators that all actions (information,
advice, warning and control actions) across the different media that are utilised are
consistent.


                4.7.6. Needs of Authorities




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                   consistency with neighbouring and greater regions

In most cases, inter-urban motorways and the urban road to which they connect are not
managed by the same operators. As each operator will optimise traffic conditions on his
network only, authorities have an interest in intervening by establishing rules for the inter-
urban interface, that can, for instance be realised by integrated procedures for urban - inter-
urban network management.

                                   optimal overall mobility

Authorities may encourage operators of individual modes to provide multimodal information
as they may not be keen to encourage travellers to change mode, and to harmonise traffic
control actions with neighbouring regions.


        4.8. Vehicle Control

Reviewed projects are: AC ASSIST, CHAUFFEUR, SAVE, UDC, VASCO


                4.8.1. What Applications are Covered?

The topics under research in this area include applications such as vision enhancement,
lateral and longitudinal collision avoidance, electronically coupled vehicles, telematic speed
recommendation and assisted stop and go. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems are
under active development for product by a number of vehicle manufacturers and this
research is aimed at providing an increased level of functionality. Standard cruise control
systems keep the vehicle at a constant set speed, while the emerging ACC systems have the
capability to adapt the vehicle speed to that of preceding traffic within an allowable range.
The new functions under research in the vehicle control area include: removal of the
minimum operating speed for ACC and the ability to adapt to roadside speed
recommendations including traffic lights, and emergency braking. Compared to earlier
developments, the emphasis of current research is now on systems that actively support or
assist the driver’s task of controlling the vehicle. Progress has also been made in the



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development of electronically coupled vehicles (tow-bar) and with a feasibility study of
automated platooning (for trucks).


                4.8.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key supporting technologies are human machine interaction analysis, traffic situation analysis
and modelling, advanced vision sensing systems (for example based on radar or video),
image processing, high-performance computers, integrated electronic and optical device
technologies, serial data exchange on-board and off-board, data fusion and data processing,
control algorithm development and simulation, structured system definition and modelling,
distributed systems and open architectures, automatic vehicle location via satellite navigation
systems coupled with local beacons, dead reckoning, map and data matching.


                4.8.3. Who are the Users?

Private consumers          These are essentially car drivers.
Freight industry           These are essentially transport companies.
Operators                  These are private and public road operators.
Authorities                These are the Ministries of Transport as well as related
                           authorities. Examples are the Direccion General de Trafico (DGT)
                           in Spain and the Swedish National Road Administration.
Service providers          Most of the applications coming to market are fully integrated in
                           the vehicle and do not require roadside communication. As such,
                           there is no need for service providers. However, some more
                           advanced applications may involve service providers not as users
                           but as providers or carriers of data external to the vehicle.
                           Another case is that of driver status monitoring and vehicle control
                           exception data which may be integrated with emergency call
                           systems and used by emergency and roadside assistance service
                           providers.
                      Table 8 – Examples of Users in Vehicle Control


                4.8.4. Needs of Private consumers

                                 high level of automation




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Users prefer advanced versions of vehicle control, such as emergency braking, to warning
only systems. Such systems greatly reduce the time to come to maximum braking pressure
(by 1 second). To achieve this, however, the systems should not only be able to detect
slowly moving vehicles but also vehicles that are stationary within a range of 150 metres,
neither of which is possible with production-ready sensors at this time. Also, users are
interested in dynamic speed profiles allowing them to cross intersections without stopping.
This requires automatic transfer of information from traffic control systems into vehicles,
which is also not available currently.

                                           reliability

Especially the more advanced (active) versions of vehicle control need to be extremely
reliable and robust. Systems should function correctly in all circumstances, also, for instance,
in curves of an acceptable minimum radius.

                                             HMI

For passive versions of vehicle control, users generally seem to prefer kinaesthetic (short,
sharp application of brakes to alert the driver) or haptic signals (vibrations or increasing
force required through the pedals) rather than auditory (spoken and tone) or visual signals
(blinking lights of different colours, pictograms…) that are found to be rather stressing.
Some projects working on anti-collision systems have carried out studies of user acceptance
within both a driving simulator environment and using equipped vehicles on a test track.
Different brands of vehicle control systems should have similar look and feel.similar look and
feel.


                4.8.5. Needs of Freight Industry

                                         cost-efficiency

The freight sector has a need to reduce the cost of transporting goods by road. The
additional cost of applications should therefore be compensated by efficiency gains, for




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instance by reducing the required number of drivers. An example of a useful application here
is the electronic towbar, for which a qualitative survey of freight operators was carried out.


                4.8.6. Needs of Authorities

                                             safety

For authorities, it is important that vehicle control applications do not negatively affect road
safety. For electronic towbars, for instance, the conditions under which towbar operations
are not allowed for safety reasons should be identified. For applications relying on
communications with the roadside, drivers should be clearly warned before entering or
leaving a radio-controlled area.


                4.8.7. Needs of Operators Applying ITS

                               interface to other applications

If and when advanced versions of vehicle control applications involving communication with
the roadside become widespread, highway operators will require the ability to use the
communication links for other applications that can vary from information services to tolling.


        4.9. Air Transport and GNSS

Reviewed projects are: AATMS, AIRPORT G, ATHOS, CINCAT, DAFUSA, EOLIA,
EURONAV, FAR AWAY, GNSS-1, MAGNET-A, MAGNET-B, MANTEA, PRO-ATN,
SUPRA, TELSACS


                4.9.1. What Applications are Covered?

A very wide range of application is covered by the TAP-T programme. In general,
applications can be divided into aircraft-based systems and systems operated from the
control tower. The former include Short-Term Conflict Alert (STCA)/Airborne Collision
Avoidance Systems (ACAS), en-route navigation systems and CAT I/II/III precision




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approach systems. The latter include surface movement guidance and control systems
(SMGCS), Advanced Flight Management System (AFMS), Automatic Dependent
Surveillance (ADS), Airport Capacity Optimisation (ACO), Air Navigation Services (ANS)
for regional airports as well as more general Air Traffic Control and Air Traffic Management
applications.


                4.9.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key enabling technologies are accurate localisation mechanisms based on radar and through
GPS or GNSS enhanced by local augmentation means as well as two-way communications
for instance using the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN).


                4.9.3. Who are the Users?

Private consumers          These are people travelling by air, primarily for (international)
                           business and tourism.
Freight industry           These are transport companies moving goods by air or by a
                           different modes.
Operators                  There are two important groups of operators: airlines operating a
                           large number of planes for passenger and goods transport, such
                           as Air France and Lufthansa, and airports, typically in the
                           neighbourhood of any large European city.
Authorities                These are the Ministries of Transport as well as related
                           authorities. Examples are Departement Leefmilieu en
                           Infrastructuur (LIN) and Ministère Wallon d’Equipement et des
                           Transports (MET) in Belgium.
Service providers          The bulk of services in this domain is provided by the airports, for
                           instance by the control towers.
                   Table 7 – Examples of Users in Air Transport and GNSS


                4.9.4. Needs of Operators Applying ITS

The air transport market is characterised by a limited number of actors, the airlines
(that buy planes from two manufacturers only) and the airports (control towers). As a
result, the user needs investigated by the TAP-T projects in this domain typically
relate to operators only (and not to private consumers or the freight industry). TAP-T



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projects in this area do typically not describe high-level user needs but immediately
enter into detailed architectural developments improving existing systems or
characterising new systems. What follows are therefore some examples showing how
the two key high-level needs of safety and efficiency can be met.

                                             safety

Operators require to be warned if an aircraft deviates significantly from what it is expected
to do based on ID code of identified aircraft, current aircraft position (4D), flight level or
altitude (depending on phase of flight), altitude deviation indication, and heading deviation
indication. Operators also require a display of the currently identified problems relevant to
them, including the latest times they should be solved, the type of problem and the aircraft
involved in the potential conflict. All system interfaces need to use fault-tolerant data entry
formats and systems shall support all weather operation at the airport.

                                           efficiency

Operators require that systems have the capability of optimising the trajectory for the aircraft
performance by geometrically defining climb or descent trajectories and speeds for all
phases of flight. They also require the capability of providing four-dimensional guidance and
control of the aircraft using the autopilot and autothrottle. Operators also need systems to
provide optimised departure/arrival sequencing and taxi routing.


        4.10. Rail Transport

Reviewed projects are: CITHER/INTER, EUROPE-TRIS, MARCO, MORANE, ROSIN,
WELCOM




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               4.10.1.What Applications are Covered?

Applications covered by the TAP-T programme are traffic management and incident
management at company level and Timetable Teleconferencing (TTC) and Freight
Timetable Marketing (FTM) at the international level.


               4.10.2.What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key supporting technologies are mechanisms ensuring accurate localisation (through GPS or
GNSS possibly enhanced by local augmentation means), GIS and digital maps, as well as
the International Railway Communications Network (IRCN) and the Train Communication
Network (TCN).


               4.10.3.Who are the Users?

Private consumers         These are people travelling by rail, either for local commuting or
                          for cross-border business and tourism.
Freight industry          These are transport companies moving goods by rail or a
                          combination of modes.
Operators                 These are the railway operators, key players that are typically one
                          large company in each EU member states such as NMBS/SNCB
                          in Belgium or British Rail in the United Kingdom (railway
                          companies are now increasingly being privatised, for instance
                          separating transport services from infrastructure management).
Authorities               These are the Ministries of Transport as well as related
                          authorities. Examples are the Department of the Environment,
                          Transport and the Regions in the United Kingdom and the
                          Bundesministerium für Verkehr in Germany.
Service providers         Services in this domain are typically provided by the operators.
                      Table 7 – Examples of Users in Rail Transport


               4.10.4.Needs of Operators Applying ITS

The rail transport market is characterised by a limited number of actors, the railway
companies, that control all rail operations varying from transport services for goods
or passengers, infrastructure management and station management. As a result, the




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user needs investigated by the TAP-T projects in this domain typically relate to
operators.

                                          efficiency

Operators need mechanisms to optimise capacity utilisation at the level of individual
stretches (line management), complex stations (high traffic areas) and regions (global
network management) as well as to coordinate actions between these three levels.
Operators also need systems to remotely control locomotive traction effort and speed
regulation, auxiliary equipment, and to process data of the locomotive (command and
remote reporting of status). A key tool to do so is the Train Communication Network
(TCN). Amongst rail operators (at the international level), operators need systems that
support the co-ordination of international timetables between operators as well as the
extended use of databases for real-time monitoring of transports throughout Europe. This
can, for instance, be done through an international railways communication network.

                                            safety

Operators want to avoid conflicts, for instance between freight and passenger services as
well as fast and slow trains. Such conflicts need to be detected at the earliest possible time
and handled in a completely automatic way.

                                     passenger comfort

Operators need systems that support seat reservation, information displays such as
destination displays, interfaces to "delay management", time table information, "next stop"
indicators and coach-selective information. They also need support for announcements
(loudspeaker) such as coach selective loudspeaker, selection of loudspeaker inside/outside
(mass transit), and automatic announcements due to train position (GPS required). Last,
operators also require support for interactive communication between passengers and
operating staff such as emergency cells, service calls, stop on demand, request for stop




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(mass transit). All of these can be supported by the Train Communication Network (TCN).
Amongst rail operators (at the international level), operators need systems that support
through-ticketing (for passenger transport) and services accessible both for customers and
for freight transport operators through an international railways communication network.


        4.11. Maritime and Inland Waterway Transport

Reviewed projects are: COREM, ECHO, INTERPORT, MAGNET, MULTITRACK,
POSEIDON, SHIDESS, WISDOM


                4.11.1.What Applications are Covered?

Key applications are integrated vessel traffic services (such as providing navigational
assistance based on present position, speed and course of a given ship) and applications
ensuring good interfaces between maritime and road transport.


                4.11.2. What are the Supporting Technologies?

Key enabling technologies are localisation (through GPS or GNSS possibly enhanced by
local augmentation means), GIS and digital maps as well as ship-shore communication
(voice and data).


                4.11.3.Who are the Users?

Freight industry           These are transport companies shipping goods by maritime and
                           inland waterway transport, or by different modes of transport.
Operators                  These are essentially port authorities, such as the ports of
                           Southampton and Ghent.
Authorities                These are the Ministries of Transport as well as related
                           authorities. Examples are Vejdirektoratet in Denmark and
                           Ministère de l’Equipement, du Transport et du Tourisme
                           (MELTT) in France.
Service providers          Services are usually offered by port authorities and transport
                           companies and/or forwarders.
         Table 7 – Examples of Users in Maritime and Inland Waterway Transport




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                4.11.4.Needs of Freight Industry

                                 interface to road transport

The freight industry requires applications providing information on dock instructions, on
departure time, on the location of VMS & info kiosks, on the location of ferry terminals, on
the location of port services, on car rental services as well as on local road conditions
(within a 100 km radius) and weather conditions. Other applications of importance facilitate
access such as automated ferry ticket facilities.


                4.11.5.Needs of Operators Applying ITS

                               integrated traffic management

Operators require information on the weather status and forecast, results from analyses of
local wave and current conditions, information related to the presence and condition of ice in
the fairways as well as information on the waterway traffic situation in real-time with an
ability to interrogate, process and present a specific number of vessels varying according to
the needs per users category. Operators also require navigational assistance based on the
present position, speed, and the course of a given ship, the present position with reference
to way points and alerts of deviations between positions derived from GPS/transponders
and radar. Operators further require support to the management of towage and harbour
services, local area hazards, type of piloting, and emergency services including sending
standard messages to different actors such as the meteorological office, the marine pollution
control unit and the marine accident investigation unit. Last, there is a need for identifying
specific vessels directly through two-way communications.




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5.      Conclusions

For each of the areas covered by the TAP-T programme, high-level user needs were
described. These descriptions not only offer a bird’s eye view of the needs of the different
user groups involved with ITS, but also illustrate that ITS applications and their specific
attributes can go a long way in helping to fulfil these needs.

This deliverable also shows that high-level needs are relatively static, and that it is the
technologies and applications through which they can be realised that change more rapidly
over time. As such, it should come as no surprise that the high-level needs that are described
here contain little new information compared to previous R&D programmes.

Another conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that user needs should not only be
identified and analysed at the start of a project, but that a feedback mechanism should be
provided to collect and fine-tune all data related to user needs throughout the development
of an application. An example of important data here are the results of the validation of an
application.




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6.     References

[REF 1]    Guidebook for User Needs Analysis (Version 3), Y Robin-Prévallée, Y
Gardes, F Künkel, J M Robert, B Pavard, and F Decortis, CODE, February 1998

[REF 2]    Guidelines for the Development and Assessment of Intelligent Transport System
Architectures (Version 1), P H Jesty, J-F Gaillet, J Giezen, G Franco, I Leighton, H-J
Schultz, CONVERGE, February 1998

[REF 3]    KAREN (TR 4108), Draft Compilation of Results of User Needs and System
Requirements Analysis, Version 1.1, August 1998 (D2.01)

[REF 4]    CODE (TR 1103), Air User Requirements Database (B 4.2.1) and Waterborne
User Requirements Database (B 4.2.2), on-going

                                 Reviewed deliverables

[REF 5]    AATMS (TR 1001) , Final Report on User Requirements (D 2.6)

[REF 6]    AC ASSIST and ROADSTER (TR 1004), Report on Users’ Needs (D 3.1)

[REF 7]    ADEPT II (TR 1002), Synthesis of User Requirements (D 8.1)

[REF 8]    AUSIAS (TR 1006), User Requirements (D 3.3)

[REF 9]    CAPITALS (TR 1007), Specification Report for Traffic Management and
           Information Strategies (D 3.1)

[REF 10]   CAPITALS (TR 1007), Specification Report on Multi-modal Traffic
           Information (D 4.1)

[REF 11]   CAPITALS (TR 1007), Specification Report for Traffic Management and
           Information Strategies (D 5.1)




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[REF 12]   CAPITALS (TR 1007), Specification Report on Demand Management (D
           6.1)

[REF 13]   CARPLUS-ICARUS (TR 1008), Users’ Requirements (D 3.1)

[REF 14]   CHAUFFEUR (TR 1009), Users, Safety and Operational Requirements (D
           3.1.1)

[REF 15]   CINCAT (TR 1010), User Requirements Documents (D 3.1)

[REF 16]   CITHER / INTER (TR 1011), Selection of User Requirements & Applications
           Architecture Description & Assessment Methodology (D 1)

[REF 17]   CLEOPATRA (TR 1012), User Requirements (D 1)

[REF 18]   CONCERT (TR 1013), Before and After Studies (D 3.2)

[REF 19]   COREM (TR 1014), Report on User Requirements (D 03.1)

[REF 20]   COSMOS (TR 1015), Definition of User Requirements (D 03.1)

[REF 21]   CROMATICA (TR 1016), Results on User Needs Analysis (D 2)

[REF 22]   DACCORD (TR 1017), User Requirements for DTM Applications (D 3.1)

[REF 23]   ENTERPRICE (TR 1020), Report on General User Needs for Traffic
           Information and Other Traffic Services (D 3.1)

[REF 24]   ENTERPRICE (TR 1020), User Requirements, Specification and
           Implementation of Basic Modules (D 4.1)

[REF 25]   ENTERPRICE (TR 1020), User Requirements and Specifications (D 5.1)




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[REF 26]   ENTERPRICE (TR 1020), Report on User Needs, Administrational
           Requirements and Functional Specifications for the Mobility Service Centre (D
           6.1)

[REF 27]   ENTERPRICE (TR 1020), User Requirements and Specifications (D 7.1)

[REF 28]   ESCORT (TR 4008), User requirements (D 2.1)

[REF 29]   EURONAV (TR 4009), User requirements report (D 1.1)

[REF 30]   EUROSPIN (TR 4010), Specification of user needs (D 3.1)

[REF 31]   EUROPE-TRIS (TR 1022), User Analysis (D 3.1)

[REF 32]   EUROSCOPE (TR 1023), User Requirements Review, Legal & Institutional
           Issues (D 3)

[REF 33]   EUROTRACS (TR 1024), Final Report: User Needs and Quantitative Market
           Requirements for Multimodal Bagagge Transport (D 4.2)

[REF 34]   EUROTRACS (TR 1024), Final Report: User Needs and Requirements
           regarding the Use of Information and Guidance Systems along the Travel Chain
           (D 6.2)

[REF 35]   FARAWAY (TR 1025), Report on User Requirements (D 100)

[REF 36]   GNSS (TR 1027), GNSS User Requirements Definition (D 1)

[REF 37]   HANNIBAL (TR 1028), Analysis of User Requirements for each
           Demonstration (D 4.1)

[REF 38]   INFOPOLIS (TR 1030), Synthesis on Ergonomics Approaches (D 4)

[REF 39]   INFOTEN (TR 1031), Context and User Requirements (D 2)




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[REF 40]   IN-RESPONSE (TR 1032), Report on User Needs (D 3.1)

[REF 41]   INTACT (TR 4018), User needs for integrated telematics applications in the
           road freight sector (D 3.1)

[REF 42]   INTERPORT (TR 1033), Analysis of User Requirements and Feasibility
           Assessment (D 3.1)

[REF 43]   MAGNET-A (TR 1034), User Requirements Report (D 3.1)

[REF 44]   MAGNET-B (TR 1035), User Requirements Report (D 3.1)

[REF 45]   MANTEA (TR 1036), A Specification of Requirements for Airport Authorities
           and Airport Controllers including a Validation Plan for Verification and
           Demonstration Steps (D 3.1)

[REF 46]   MARCO (TR 1037), User Requirements (D 3.1)

[REF 47]   MOVE-IT (TR 1105), Synthesis of User Requirements for EFC (D 2.3)

[REF 48]   MULTITRACK (TR 1040), Requirements Specification (D 10.1)

[REF 49]   POSEIDON (TR 1041), Consolidated Report on the Specific User
           Requirements (D 2.1)

[REF 50]   ProATN (TR 1042), ATN User Requirements Document (D 2.2)

[REF 51]   PROMISE (TR 1043), Specification of PROMISE Services (D 3.1)

[REF 52]   QUARTET PLUS (TR 1044), Comprehensive Evaluation of Urban and
           Regional IRTE: the User View and Suggestions for Exploitation (D 2.1)

[REF 53]   ROSIN (TR 1045), User Requirements for Networked Applications in the
           Railway Environment (D 03.1)




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[REF 54]   SAMPO (TR 1046), Analysis of User Requirements for Demand-Responsive
           Transport Services (D 3)

[REF 55]   SAVE (TR 1047), Driver Needs and Public Acceptance of Emergency
           Control Aids (D 3.1)

[REF 56]   SHIDESS (TR 1049), Report on User Requirements and Guidelines for
           Standardisation, Ergonomy and Integration (D 3.1)

[REF 57]   SITE (TR 1050), SITE Feasibility Study (D 2)

[REF 58]   SUPRA (TR 1052), User Requirements (D 1)

[REF 59]   SURFF (TR 1053), User Requirements on Freight Centers and City Logistics
           (D 1.1)

[REF 60]   TABASCO (TR 1054), PT Information : User Needs and Functional
           Specifications (D 3.1)

[REF 61]   TABASCO (TR 1054), P&R Information: User Needs and Functional
           Specifications (D 4.1)

[REF 62]   TABASCO (TR 1054), Network control: User Needs and Functional
           Specifications (D 6.1)

[REF 63]   TABASCO (TR 1054), Inter-urban Event Management: User Needs and
           Functional Specifications (D 7.1)

[REF 64]   TABASCO (TR 1054), Belfast-Dublin User Needs (D 7.4)

[REF 65]   TABASCO (TR 1054), UTC with PT priority: Report on User Needs,
           Functional Specification and Demonstrators (D 9.2)

[REF 66]   TELSACS (TR 1055), User requirements (D 13)




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[REF 67]   TELSCAN (TR 1056), Inventory of ATT system Requirements for elderly and
           disabled travellers (D 3.1)

[REF 68]   TILEMATT (TR 1057), Assessment of User Requirements (D 1)

[REF 69]   TITAN 1 & 2 (TR 1058/TR 1107), Overall Requirements of the Pilots (D 4.1)

[REF 70]   TRACAR (TR 1059), Analysis of User Requirements Report (D 2.1)

[REF 71]   UDC (TR 1060), User Needs Studies and Scenario Defintion (D 3.03)

[REF 72]   VADE MECUM (TR 1061), Corridor Users Report (D 1.0)

[REF 73]   VASCO (TR 1062), Specification of User Requirements relevant for the
           Validation Activities (D 1)

[REF 74]   WELCOM (TR 1063), Technical Project Report (D 1.1)

[REF 75]   WISDOM (TR 1064), User Requirements Report (D 3.1)




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