Wind Hydro Integration

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					Wind Workshop

Wind/Hydro Integration
  Objective of this session:
  •     Understand issues or perceptions around wind
        integration into the BC Hydro System
  •     Understand how other utilities have integrated
  •     Define where knowledge gap is.

January 25 - 26, 2005

    Wind and operating reserve
    Costs to integrate Wind into system
       Incremental Reserve Requirements
       Imbalance costs (inter hour)
       Day ahead and hour ahead
    Affect on Expected Energy Not Served.

January 25 - 26, 2005
         NWPP Operating Reserve

 - Regulating reserve: covers intermittency and variability
 of wind generation and is responsibility of Control Area

 - Contingency Reserve: cover failure of wind generation
 due to mechanical or electrical failure, and high speed

 - Contingency reserve of 5% required for wind (same as

January 25 - 26, 2005
         Wind Integration - Regulation

-Xcel Energy case study
  - for current 3-4% penetration, regulations reserve
requirement increased by ~5%
  - cost of wind integration and carrying additional
reserves is system specific but <$2US/MWh

- 2 studies (PJM,BPA,SPS)
  regulation costs $0.1-$3US/MWh

- California example (AWEA)
suggests that at levels >5% wind penetration, begins to
degrade system economics.
January 25 - 26, 2005
         Wind Integration (continued)

-PacificCorp ~$5.5US/MWh for 1000 MW

January 25 - 26, 2005
      Wind Integration Costs

• Adding 2 GW of wind to WeEnergies’ 8 GW system costs 2
  to 3 USD/MWh (3.2 C$/MWh)
• Adding 280 MW of wind to Xcel Energy's 7,200 MW
  system costs 1.85 USD/MWh (2.4 C$/MWh)
• Adding 1 GW of wind to BPA's 14 GW system costs 1.47 to
  2.27 USD/MWh (2.4 C$/MWh)
• 20% wind in the Danish Eltra system costs 19.4 DKK/MWh
  (4.5 C$/MWh)
• Average worldwide cost is 3 C$/MWh and for hydro
  systems the cost is lower

January 25 - 26, 2005
         Wind Integration -BPA firming service

 Network wind integration service:
 - load following
 - goal of 450 MW

 Storage and shaping service:
 - Takes wind project output and delivers and equivalent
 amount of energy a week later in flat blocks

January 25 - 26, 2005
         Wind Integration - Eric Hirst

 -large wind farms in small utility service areas
             (200MW to 2000MW integrated with 5000MW system)

 -payment decline caused by drop in marginal costs
      ($30 US/MWh to $16 US/MWh)

January 25 - 26, 2005
         Expected Energy Not Served

January 25 - 26, 2005
            Operations -Wind Farm Output Variation

 • The power output of a large wind farm can
   be predicted with a high confidence over a
   time of an hour
 • BCTC generator schedules can be modified
   within twenty minutes before closing
 • Therefore, wind variations can be viewed as
   planned variations or outages

January 25 - 26, 2005
            Operations -Load Following

• Hydro systems are the best at following the variations
  in random consumer load.

• Wind injection can be seen by the “load following”
  generators as a decrease in consumer load. This
  means that using wind as a reservoir management
  tool is entirely feasible. Similarly, a decrease in wind
  can be seen as an increase in consumer load. Hydro
  is able to accomadate these changes.

• Given the ability to predict wind output in the short
  term, well within the time table for truing up on the
  OASIS, cost of integration is nominal.
January 25 - 26, 2005
  Summary of Discussion:

January 25 - 26, 2005