Colonizing North Carolina Columbian Exchange 1519 - 1619 The movement of living things between the Eastern & Western Hemispheres is known as the Columbian Exchange. One result was the transfer of germs from Europe to the Americas. Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza were not known to the Native American tribes before Europeans came to North America. Native Americans had no immunity – disease resistance – and their bodies could not fight off these new diseases. Diseases brought by the Europeans killed off more than 20 million Native Americans in Mexico after the conquest, 90 – 95% of all Native Americans in Central America died during this 100 year period. A total of 60 – 100 million people had lived in the Americas when Columbus arrived and that number dropped by 90% within 150 years. Positive Effects of the Columbian Exchange The Spanish brought many plants and animals to the Americas European livestock such as cattle, pigs, and horses thrived. Crops from the Eastern Hemisphere such as grapes, onions and wheat also thrived. Many American crops also benefited Europe and became part of most European diets. These included two which had a huge impact – potatoes and corn. The mixing of products from the two hemispheres brought the world closer together. Also, people were moving from one hemisphere to another – blending their cultures as they relocated. Summary Map – Columbian Exchange •Spain’s success in the America’s made her the wealthiest and most powerful country in Europe •England was envious and wanted a share in the power •John Cabot claimed Newfoundland in 1497 for England paving the way for future English exploration and settlement in North America Elizabeth I (1533-1603) Queen of England, never married and was known as the virgin queen She was the daughter of King Henry VIII who rejected the Catholic church and under his rule England became a Protestant country. The first English attempts to colonize North America were made under her patronage. WHY NORTH AMERICA ??????? 1. Protestant England vied with Catholic Spain (Religious reason) 1. England wanted to establish bases from which to attack Spanish ships and Spanish colonies in Central and South America (Political reason) 3. The English colony, Newfoundland, was too isolated. (Geographic reason) 4. England wanted wealth from overseas exploration and trade; the establishment of colonies would provide England that wealth (Economic reason) 1578 Sir Humphrey Gilbert presented Queen Elizabeth I with a plan for an English colony in North America Queen Elizabeth accepted the proposal and granted Gilbert a charter (a legal document that grants permission to explore, settle, and govern land) In 1583, Gilbert landed in Newfoundland but within a month he decided the location was too isolated. On the return to England, Gilbert and his ship were lost at sea. 1584 Queen Elizabeth I allowed Walter Raleigh, Gilbert’s half brother, to take up the charter in his own name. Raleigh’s mission was “to discover and inhabit strange lands” Learning from his brother’s experience, Raleigh decided to send a small exploratory expedition to study and report on the best place for a colony to be located. He also decided that they needed to find a warmer location than Newfoundland! Walter Raleigh chose Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe as captains of the two-ship fleet that sailed from Plymouth, England on April 27, 1584. The ships passed through the West Indies but avoided Spanish outposts – then followed the Gulf Stream up the coast arriving near present day Cape Lookout on July 4, 1584 This makes Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe the first people of English descent to set foot on what is now North Carolina!! They continued up the coast and arrived on July 13th at an inlet opposite Roanoke Island and claimed the 600 miles north and 600 miles south for Queen Elizabeth I. July 4, 1584 Philip Amadas & Arthur Barlowe – Cape Lookout Barlowe described the beauty of the coast and the sweet odor that drifted from the land as “some delicate garden” Two days passed before any native people appeared The men reported the natives to be timid but welcoming and they traded pearls and furs for English trinkets. The Native Americans offered the settlers food and shelter. “After he had spoken of many things not understood by us, we brought him …… aboard the ships and gave him a shirt, a hat, and some other things and made him taste of our wine and our meat, which he liked very well. And after having viewed both barks (ships), he departed and went to his own boat again ….. As he was two bowshots into the water, he fell to fishing, and in less than half an hour, he had laden his boat as deep as it could swim. He divided his fish into two parts, pointing one part to the ship and the other to the pinnace (ship’s boat), which, after he had (as much as he might) requited (repaid us for) the former benefits received, he departed out of our sight.” Arthur Barlowe – “Report to Raleigh” Amandas and Barlowe did make their exploration headquarters on Roanoke Island and spent the next six weeks exploring the Outer Banks and the islands. They collected specimens of natural resources to take back to England When they left, two Native Americans – Manteo, a Croatoan, and Wanchese returned to England with the ship. The presence of Manteo and Wancheses aroused more interest in the proposed colony, Native Americans, their language and their customs. Queen Elizabeth I was so delighted with the findings that she knighted Walter Raleigh - he would be known as Sir Walter Raleigh. All land north of Florida was claimed and named Virginia in honor of Queen Elizabeth I, “The Virgin Queen”. Truth ………. Or Propaganda????? Barlowe’s accounts of his exploration were published after his return to England. His accounts were not completely truthful! These writings were designed to entice colonists to travel to this new land and to encourage financial backers to aid the planned colony in Roanoke. Barlowe portrayed the Native Americans as an idyllic people: “We found the people most gentle, loving, and faithful, void of all guile, and treason, and such as lived after the manner of the golden age.” In truth – the land was rich with natural resources such as fertile soil, trees, fruits and grains, fish, and wildlife. 1585 Sir Walter Raleigh’s new goal was to set up a lasting settlement – and based on the reports of Barlowe and Amadas, Raleigh picked Roanoke Island. A group of 107 men left England to set up headquarters and prepare for the arrival of their families. April 1585 saw a fleet of seven ships under the command of Sir Richard Grenville sail from Plymouth, England. Pilot of the fleet was Simon Fernandes, who also served with Amadas and Barlowe. Thomas Harriot, a scientist, John White, an artist, Joachim Gans, a mineral expert, and Ralph Lane, the commander were some of the notables on board. Manteo and Wanchese also returned. They had taught Harriot and the others the Algonquia language. GEOGRAPHY OF THECOAST On June 23, 1585 the fleet arrived at Cape Lookout Three days later they made the difficult passage into the sound beyond the Outer Banks. Simon Fernandes, however, ran the Tiger, one of Queen Elizabeth's best ships, aground on a sandbar. Many of the ship’s precious supplies were lost or spoiled by saltwater and it took time to make repairs. The colonists didn’t reach Roanoke Island until the end of July. Map by John White. Virginea Pars. 1585 The fleet landed at the Northern end of Roanoke Island and quickly constructed a fort which they named Fort Raleigh. On August 17th, Ralph Lane took over as Governor of the colony. Grenville soon left to return to England to seek food and supplies. He left one small ship for Lane’s team to use for exploration. Food and supplies would not last through the winter, Grenville agreed to return as soon as possible with more goods The colonists agreed to quickly begin their assigned tasks; to explore, map, and paint pictures of the region. One group set out for Chesapeake Bay in search of suitable deepwater ports from which to capture Spanish ships. A second group explored the area on and around Roanoke Island. A third group, led by Lane, traveled to the mainland west of Roanoke Island. Thomas Harriot gathered information from the Native Americans and recorded his own observations. John White painted a great many watercolor pictures of plants and wildlife, including birds, fish, and insects. Together, Harriot and White surveyed the land and made maps of the country around Roanoke Island and other parts of the southeastern coast of North America. TROUBLE FOR THE COLONISTS Winter was approaching and Grenville’s ships had not returned – food was running out •The colonists had arrived too late to plant crops •It had been a poor growing season and that left the Native Americans with little or nothing to share. Leadership Lane and Grenville had disagreed on many things during the journey from England. After Grenville’s return to England, many of the colonists were unhappy with Lane. Lane was a military officer and most of the colonists were not accustomed to being ordered around in military fashion. After a year of living in the same area as the Native Americans, it was clear that all was not well. Serious shortages of food caused Lane to become more aggressive with the Native Americans and he even took an Indian chief’s son hostage. The Native Americans took to hiding themselves and their food supplies and Lane was convinced they were deliberately trying to starve the colonists. DANGER The situation became more dangerous when the friendly chief of the Roanoke people died. His son, Wingina, succeeded him and he disliked these English colonists. Angered by Lane’s actions, Wingina planned to murder him and the rest of the colonists. Native Americans still friendly to the English warned Lane before Wingina could act. June 1, 1586 – Lane responded by leading a “camisado” – a surprise night attack – on Wingina’s settlement on the mainland. Several Native Americans were killed and Lane had Wingina beheaded. Future colonists would pay dearly for Lane’s aggressive actions. Wingina, Roanoke Island Indian Chief English Sea Dog Sir Francis Drake During the mid 1500’s, Queen Elizabeth I secretly urged bold sea captains, called Sea Dogs, to capture Spanish treasure ships laden with gold and silver. One of the most successful sea dogs was Sir Francis Drake. In the early 1570’s, Drake took part in raids off the coast of Panama. The Spanish called him a pirate and nicknamed him El Draque, “the Dragon”. Unexpected Visit While the colonists continued to wait for Grenville – June 8th, 1586 saw the arrival of Sir Francis Drake. Drake had just destroyed the Spanish settlement at St. Augustine and ships in the Caribbean when he stopped to call on the colony. Seeing the desperate conditions, Drake offered to leave food, supplies and several crew members and weapons. As he was about to leave, a fierce storm arouse and the colonists made an immediate decision NOT to wait any longer for Grenville’s return. They quickly abandoned the settlement and returned to England with Drake. Three of Lane’s men who were away from the settlement exploring were left behind. In less than 10 months, the settlement at Roanoke Island had come to a sudden end Sir Richard Grenville did return to Roanoke Island – just a matter of days after Drake’s ship left with the colonist. He searched for two weeks for the colonists and then left 15 men to hold the region under English domain and his ship returned to England Achievements of the Colony 97 men returned to England Documents and Drawings Maps Determination to establish an English colony in North America Valuable products ……. tobacco UPPOWOC corn PAGATOUR OPENAUK potato Plans for a 2nd English Colony • Women and boys were included in this attempt - 117 colonists including 17 women and 9 boys •The men would be landowners •John White, the artist who produced the maps from the first visit, would be the governor •Left Portsmouth, England on April 26, 1587 with a fleet of 3 small ships Simon Fernandes was pilot •Landed at Roanoke Island but the colonists thought they were going to Chesapeake – Fernandes refused saying the summer was too far gone for him to stay any longer – Governor White had no authority on the ship so the new colonists had to disembark on Roanoke Island The Missing 15 •Fort Raleigh had been destroyed but some of the other buildings were still standing so the men started in making repairs and building new structures •Except for the bones of one man, there was no sign of the men who had been left behind on the previous expedition The “Other” Lost Colony Many historians believe that in order to make room for the Roanoke colonists, Sir Francis Drake may have left several hundred war captives on the Outer Banks. These captives may have included Native Americans and Portuguese from South America and possibly even African slaves. When White and the colonists returned to Roanoke Island, they not only found hardly any trace of the fifteen Englishmen left there the year before but also no trace of the captives who had been left there to survive on their own. MURDER …….. •Less than a week later, George Howe was attacked and killed by a group of Native Americans from the mainland •Manteo, a member of the friendly Croatoan people assure the colonists that the attackers were members of Wingina’s Roanoke tribe, enemies of both the settlers and the Croatoans. Lord of Roanoke Later that week the English mounted a surprise attack in the middle of the night on the people they thought had killed Howe. Spying a campfire, they shot one man and chased the others through the reeds -- including women and children. But the colonists had made a terrible mistake. These were the friendly Croatoans, who -- knowing their enemies had left the area -- had come to gather up peas, corn, pumpkin, tobacco. August 13, 1587 – As a reward for faithful service, the English christened Manteo a few days later, calling him Lord of Roanoke and Dasemunkepeuc. They thought that this would make him a better friend to the English and a loyal subject of Queen Elizabeth. What Manteo thought of the ceremony is unknown. This marks the first time the English granted a title of nobility to a Native American Child of Legends •August 18th , Governor White's daughter, Eleanor, wife of Ananias Dare, gave birth to a daughter, who was named Virginia because she was the first child of English parentage to be born in the region known as Virginia. •Another child was born to Dyonis and Margery Harvie shortly afterwards. •On the 27th, Governor White, at the earnest entreaty of the "planters in Virginia," sailed homeward with the fleet to obtain supplies for the colony. Some of the leaders of Roanoke were considering moving the colony to a more suitable location. They assured Governor John White that if the colony relocated while he was away, they would leave him a sign by carving their destination on a tree. If they were in danger, they would carve a cross over the location of their destination. When White returned to England it was to find a country at war with Spain. As a result, no ship in England’s defense was allowed to sail. It was not until 1590 – three years later – that John White was able to return to his colony. The Lost Colony August 18, 1590 – on the 3rd birthday of his granddaughter Virginia Dare, John White reached Roanoke Island. It was deserted. Some of the colonists’ heavy gear had been left behind and several of White’s chests had been buried in the sand but uncovered later and their contents left to the elements. His books were torn from their covers and his pictures torn from their frames. Rain had damaged them and rust had attacked his armor. White found CRO and CROATOAN carved on a post and a tree. Neither carving had a cross above it to show distress – leading John White to believe that his people had probably departed in peace to the portion of the Outer Banks (now known as Hatteras) where Manteo lived. White was anxious to sail there in search of the colonists – nightfall was approaching and a storm was brewing. He and the sailors returned to the ship to wait out the storm – the storm worsened and the captain decided to head to the West Indies for the winter – they would return in the spring when the weather would be better. As they put out to sea, the storm became so fierce that they had little choice but to let the winds blow them toward England. MYSTERY of THE LOST COLONY Governor John White was never able to mount another rescue effort. He lived out the rest of his life not knowing the fate of his colony – and that of his granddaughter – Virginia. Years later, when English sailors finally reached Croatoan, they found no English settlers. No one ever learned what had become of this lost colony. Native American legend told of a beautiful young woman, Virginia Dare, who was mistaken for a white doe, and shot through the heart with a silver arrow from a hunter's bow In legend, Virginia Dare became a Native American princess, fell in love with a Native American, and spent her entire life in the New World Recent archeology at the Indian Croatoan village in North Carolina has uncovered an English signet ring. ? Theories about the Lost Colony 1. The Spanish came North from Florida to destroy the colony. 2. The colony was destroyed by Native Americans. 3. The colonists traveled inland to friendly tribes and married into their societies 4. The colonists went to Croatoan to join the Native Americans living there. 5. They returned to England in a small ship but for some unknown reason were unable to complete their voyage.