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Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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					Rome and the Rise of Christianity

          600 B.C.-500 A.D.
The Rise of Rome

      5.1
        Land and People of Italy
• Rome's central location and geography
  features made it a desirable location from
  which to expand
  – Large peninsula
  – Mountain down the center Apennines
     • Did not divide people
  – Farmland
  – Tiber River- route to sea
  – Splits Mediterranean Sea
– Latins 1500 B.C. Indo-European
   • Spoke latin
– Greeks and Etruscans 800 B.C.
   • Greeks started in south and migrated up
   • Etruscans north of Rome in Etruria
      – Controlled Rome in 650 B.C.
      – Turned Rome into a large city
      – Toga and military organization passed on
          The Roman Republic
• The Romans were practical and skillful in
  politics and military matters
• 509 B.C. overthrew last Etruscan king and
  founded Republic
              War and Conquest
• 200 years of continuous war
• 338 B.C. defeated Latin States
• 388 B.C. defeated mountain people
     • Gained control large part of Italy
• 264 B.C. defeated Greeks in Itlay and then moved
  north against Etruscans
• Created Roman Confederation
  – Latins citizens -Rest allies
     • Provide soldiers, free to run own local affairs
     • Good allies could become citizens
             Successful Strategies
• Diplomats
  – Earn citizenship, allowed to control own affair
    (allies)
• Military
  – Brilliant strategists
  – Failure pushed them to try again
  – Built fortified colonies, roads to move troops
• Law and Politics
  – Built institutions in response to problems
       Roman Political Structure
• Patricians
  – Aristocrats, land owners, ruling class, elected officals
• Plebeians
  – Farmers, small land owners, merchants, craftspeople
• Men in both were citizens
• Officers: Consuls and Praetors
  – Two consuls chosen every year ran government ran
    army
  – Praetors judges
• Roman Senate
  – Patricians- advice officials-life positions
  – Later gained force of law
• Centuriate- elected officials and made laws
• Council of Plebs- created to give power to less
  wealthly
      The Struggle of the Orders
• Patricians between Plebs
  – Wanted equality
  – 471 Council of Plebs
  – 287 B.C. Council given power to make all laws
     • A few Patricians and Pleb families still held power
                  Roman Law
• 12 tablets-first laws 450 B.C.
  – Not enough for large
• Laws applied to Roman Citizens
• Laws of Nations (natural law) applied to all
  – Innocent till proven guilty
  – Judge weighed evidence
            Roman Expansion
• After their conquest of Italy the Romans faced
  the State of Carthage. (Phoenicians)
• Carthage largest and wealthiest state
                First Punic War
• Began 264 B.C. over Sicily
  – Roman built navy and defeated Carthage.
     • Turned naval battle into land battle
• 241 B.C. Rome wins
  – Paid a fine and gave up control of Sicily
• Carthage expands in Spain
  – Rome encourages Carthage Ally in Spain to revolt
  – Hannibal Starts 2nd Punic war in response
           The Second Punic War
• Bring the War to Rome
   – Starts in Spain and moves through Alps
      • 46,000 men, horses, and 37 elephants
• 216 B.C. Hannibal defeats Roman army
   – Rome attacks and lose, build another army
   – Hannibal unable to take large cities
• 206 B.C. Carthage pushed out of Spain
• 202 B.C. attack Carthage
   – Hannibal forced to come home
   – Scipio Africanus defeats Carthage
   – Spain Becomes part of Rome
             More Conquests
• 50 years later Rome 146 B.C. Carthage
  Destroyed
  – Burned the city for 10 days
  – Sold citizens into slavery
• During it’s wars with Carthage Rome also
  conquered Macedonia, Greece, and
  Pergamum
From Republic to Empire

          5.2
   The End of the Roman Republic
• Political and social unrest led to civil wars,
  ending the Republic.
• Senate became governing body
   – Directed war
   – Foreign and domestic affairs
   – Financial affairs
              Growing Unrest
• Small circle wealthy and powerful families
  controlled the Senate
• Aristocrats bought land and forced farmers off
  – Used slave labor
  – Left many landless poor in cities
• Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus urge Plebs to
  pass land-reform bill.
  – Taking back public land and giving it to poor
  – Senate killed Tiberius and Gaius
       A New Role for the Army
• Consul Marius recruited armies in a new way
  – Instead of farmers went after landless poor
     • Promised land
  – Swore oath to general not state
  – Generals became involved in politics to get land
    for soldiers
• Senate gives war to Lucius Cornelius Sulla
  – Plebs try to transfer command to Marius
  – Civil War breaks out.
• Sulla won and takes control of Rome
  – Kills opposition
  – Gives city back to Senate
  – Takes power away from other assemblies
          The First Triumvirate
• Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar win 50
  year civil wars.
  – Crassus richest man
  – Pompey War Hero
  – Caesar War Hero in Spain
• Join together and share power in Triumvirate
• Crassus died leaving Pompey and Caesar to
  share
• Senate and Pompey fears Caesar popularity
  – Vote him to lay down his command
  – He refuses
• Caesar decides to return home
  – Break law by crossing Rubicon (river)
  – Starts civil war between Caesar and Pompey
       • Caesar wins
• Caesar named dictator (absolute ruler) 45 B.C.
  –   Gave land to poor
  –   Increased Senate to 900
  –   Granted citizenship in the provinces
  –   Introduced Solar Calendar
  –   44 B.C. group of leading senators assassinated him
       The Second Triumvirate
• Octavian heir and grandnephew
• Antony ally and assistant
• Lepidus Commander of Caesar Cavalry
  – Avenge Caesar’s death
• Octavian took west & Antony took east
• Cleopatra of Egypt and Antony went to war
  against Octavian
  – Battle of Actium Octavian wins
  – Cleopatra and Antony flee to Egypt later
    committing suicide
• Octavian (Augustus Caesar) 32
• Ended of The Republic
  The Beginning of the Roman Empire
• Octavian, titled Caesar Augustus, created a
  new order that began the Roman Empire.
          The Age of Augustus
• Senate names Octavian Augustus 27 B.C.
• Given title imperator (commander chief)
• Maintained standing army
  – 28 legions 151,000 men
  – Praetorian guard of 9,000 men
• Emperor controlled certain provinces
  appointed deputies to govern them
• Augustus expanded territory
  – Only failing in Germany
• The Early Empire ended in 180 A.D.
   Emperors and the Early Empire
• Augustus’s new political system allowed
  Emperor to chose his successor from family or
  adopted family
• Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero from his
  family
  – Took more and more power from Senate
  – Became more and more corrupt
• After Nero’s death civil war broke out
• Pax Romana
  – Last 200 years
  – 5 good emperors
• Emperors adopted capable men to be their
  sons and successors
• Power continued to expand
• Created programs to help citizens
            Empire Expands
• Empire grows too large
• Emperor gave citizenship everyone in empire
• Planned cities important to spread Roman
  culture
• Latin was language of west empire and Greek
  East
         Economy and Society
• First consumption-oriented society
• Gap between rich and poor
  – Many depend on wealthy neighbor and emperor
    for hand out
Roman Culture and Society

           5.3
         Art and Architecture
• The Romans spread Greco-Roman arts and
  culture throughout the empire.
          Art and Architecture
• Brought back Greek art and style
  – Began to copy Greek style
• Excelled in architecture
  – Arch, vault, and dome.
  – Built roads, aqueducts, and bridges
                   Literature
• Golden Age under Augustus
  – Virgil
  – Horace
  – Livy- History of Rome- History in terms of moral
    lessons, not all factual
          Life in Ancient Rome
• City life in ancient Rome had problems similar
  to life today
   Family Life and Women’s Roles
• Paterfamilias
• Romans raised children at home
• Boys and girls expected to learn to read
   – 16 boys became men
   – Girls married instead of going to secondary school 12-14
• Women need male guardians
• Either could ask for divorce
• 100 A.D all changed
   – Women more freedoms, but not participating in politics
        Slavery and Slave Revolts
• Early slaves were treated as part of family, were
  Italian
• Later it was cheaper to replace slaves than treat
  well.
• Greek slaves were in great demand
• If slave killed master all slave of house were killed
• Spartacus
   – Led revolt of 70,000
   – Gladiator
   – Captured after two years
         Living Conditions in Rome
• Place to be
• Overcrowded and noisy
• Rich lived in large villas, poor lived insulae
   –   Poorly built often collapsed
   –   Fire
   –   High rent (entire family in one room)
   –   No plumbing or central heat
   –   Spend most time outside in streets
   –   200,000 poor who were given free grain
• Bread and circus
   – Circus Maximus, theaters, gladiatorial shows
The Development of Christianity

              5.4
    Religion in the Roman Empire
• Prior to Christianity, Roman religion involved
  the worship of a number of gods and
  goddesses and the belief that Rome had
  earned the favor of the gods.
               Roman Religion
• Observance of proper rituals by state priest
• Allowed worship of native gods and goddess
  – Even adopted some
  – After conquering Hellenistic east their religion
    flooded back to Rome
         Judaism in the Empire
• 6 A.D. Judaea becomes Roman province
• Divided on what to do
  – Sadducees: cooperation
  – Pharisees: follow religious law
  – Essenes: lived apart from society waiting for God’s
    salvation
  – Zealots: violent overthrow
• 66 A.D. Jewish Revolt crushed
        The Rise of Christianity
• Although Christians were initially persecuted,
  Christianity grew in importance and spread
  throughout the Roman Empire.
        The teachings of Jesus
• Complete Salvation God promised
• Transformation of inner person
• Some saw Jesus potential revolutionary leader
  against Romans
• Procurartor order Jesus' crucifixion
• After death follower said he rose from the
  dead. Messiah
    Christianity Spreads Through the
                  Empire
• Simon Peter-leader of apostles
• Paul spread message to Gentiles and Jews
  – Roman citizen
  – Founded Christian communities in Asia Minor and
    Aegean Sea
  – New Testament: Jesus and followers teachings
     • 2nd book in Bible
• 100 A.D. Churches in most Eastern cities and
  some western
  – First followers Jews, or Greek speaking pops in east
           Roman Persecution
• Saw Christianity as sect of Judaism
• Began to see Christians as threats for refusing
  to worship state gods
  – Treason
  – Christians refused on grounds of false worship
• Time of Nero punished for great fire
• Under good emperors persecution stopped
• Christians still a small minority of pop
Roman Empire Adopts Christianity
• Church organizes
  – Clergy lead church
  – Laity followers
• Christian message offered much to Romans and
  grew quickly
  –   Salvation and eternal life
  –   Jesus easy to relate to
  –   Similar to other religions but cheaper
  –   Fulfilled human need to belong
  –   All classes joined but ideal to poor
• 3rd century new persecution
  – Just too many followers
• 4th Century, Constantine becomes first
  Christian emperor
  – Edict of Milan 313
• Theodosius the Great
  – Adopts Christianity as official religion of Rome
Decline and Fall

      5.5
                 The Decline
• Political upheavals, the plague, and the
  division of the empire led to its decline
         Problems and Upheavals
• Military Government- Severan rulers
• 235-284: 22 emperors
   – Whoever had the military power to hold throne
• Series of Invasions
   – Germans and Sassanid Persians
• Economic Collapse
   – Plague leads to labor shortage
   – Industry and production decline
   – Lack of funds made it difficult to hire soldiers to
     protect from invasions
      • Forced to hire Germans
Reforms by Diocletian and Constantine
• Late Roman Empire
• New government structure, rigid economic
  and social system, state religion Christianity
• 284-305 Diocletian divided empire into 4 parts
• 306-337 Constantine
  – Created new capital in East Byzantium
    (Constantinople)
• Increased army and civil service
  – Lack of population growth meant increases in
    taxes to pay
• 301 Diocletian set wages and price controls (it
  failed)
• Edict forcing workers to remain in their
  vocations
  – Changes by control and coercion
  – Long term hurt growth
                  The Fall
• The migration of Germanic tribes helped bring
  an end to the Roman Empire.
               German Tribes
• Huns invaded German lands, Germans
  (Visigoths) moved into Roman lands
  – First allies, revolt later
  – 378 attempt to stop revolt fails
  – 410 sack Rome
• Vandals pour into Spain and Africa
  – Later sack Rome
• 476 Romulus Augustulus removed by Germans
  – End of Rome (traditional more later)
                   Theories
• Christianity’s emphasis on a spiritual kingdom
  weakened Roman military virtues.
• Traditional Roman values declined as non-Italians
  gained prominence in the empire
• Lead poisoning through leaden water pipes and
  cups caused a mental decline in the pop
• Plague wiped out one-tenth of the pop
• Rome failed to advance technologically due to
  slavery
• Rome could not create a workable political
  system

				
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