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Around Germany
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  The climate in Germany is moderate.
Sharp changes in temperature are rare. In
   the winter, the average temperature
    ranges between 1.5°C (35°F) in the
      lowlands and –6°C (20°F) in the
     mountains. In summer, average
 temperatures range from 18°C (68°F) to
                22°C (76°F).
         The Alps
At the opposite end of the country,
on its border with Austria and
Switzerland,
Germany touches the
spectacular peaks of the Alps.
Here you will find the Zugspitze,
Germany's highest peak (2,962 meters).
In winter, it offers fantastic skiing,
snowboarding and sledding; in summer,
the mountains are a hiker's and biker's
paradise.
Some of Germany's most famous castles are located in this
region. Maybe you've heard of Neuschwanstein castle, built
 by Bavaria’s King Ludwig II in 1868. It looks like something
 straight out of a fairytale (it was the primary inspiration for
Cinderella’s Castle at Disney World in Orlando, Florida) and
     it is one of the great tourist attractions in Germany.
     Germany’s Alpine foothills are home to some of the
 country’s most exquisite lakes, such as the Chiemsee and
the Koenigssee in Bavaria, and Lake Constance (Bodensee)
                     in Baden-Wuettemburg.
The Rhine river flows all the way from the Swiss Alps to
the North Sea, and is one of the world's busiest
waterways. It is especially famous for its romantic
scenery along the stretch where it snakes through the
mountains between the town of Ruedesheim and the
city of Bonn.
 The Black Forest, which lies in the southwest corner of
      Germany, is known for its deep valleys, dark
  evergreens and delicious foods, such as the ham and
                chocolate-cherry cake.




Today, people come to the Black
 Forest to relax at lakeside resorts
   and to enjoy winter sports like
   skiing and snowboarding. The
  region was named for its dense
    forests, which really do look
      black in gloomy weather.
• Most German cities buildings are older
  than in the U.S.
• In historic sections of German cities
  you will find narrow and crooked
  streets paved with cobblestones.
• Some German cities may have tall,
  modern buildings like the ones in
  America.
               Berlin
• Berlin, which became the German
  capital in 1990, is a place where wide
  boulevards and grand old monuments
  mingle with some of the most
  spectacular modern buildings to be
  found anywhere in the world.
• Berlin's best-known symbol, the
  Brandenburg Gate, towers over the city
  center.
• Between 1961 and 1989, the city of Berlin was
  divided into two halves by a massive concrete
  barrier called the Berlin Wall. Like the rest of
  Germany, which was once split into two states with
  two different governments, West Berlin and East
  Berlin were governed separately. Berlin became one
  city again when Germany was unified on October 3,
  1990. In a few places, traces of the Berlin Wall
  remain.
• Hamburg, Germany's second-largest
  city, sits on the Elbe river near the
  North and Baltic seas. Every day huge
  ships leave Hamburg's harbors to
  transport goods made in Germany
  around the world.
• Munich, the capital of Bavaria, is a
  major center for the arts and a great
  place to explore European history. The
  city also enjoys a reputation for being a
  playground for the wealthy and
  glamorous.
Munich is also famous for its film and art scenes:
You can see medieval paintings at a gallery
called the Old Pinakothek, learn how BMWs
are made during a visit to Germany's
outstanding technical museum, the
Deutsches Museum, or check out the
lifestyle of the Bavarian kings at the
extravagant Nymphenburg castle on
the city’s outskirts. Each fall, millions
of people from around the world visit
Munich's Oktoberfest, a traditional
celebration featuring Bavarian food,
music, & games.
• Frankfurt has been a busy center of
  trade and commerce for hundreds of
  years.
• Dresden’s history dates to the 13th century, but its
  most beautiful landmarks were built in the early 18th
  century.
• In the 19th century, many of Germany's best-known
  painters, sculptors, musicians and writers lived in
  Dresden.
• Two of the biggest attractions in Köln (Cologne) are
  alliterative: Karneval (carnival) and Kunst (art). Each
  year in February, the city celebrates carnival as a
  week-long street festival, with colorful parades,
  outlandish costumes and live music.
• The city is also famous for
its majestic gothic cathedral,
the Dom, a massive stone
building with two
515-foot-tall spires.
The largest cathedral in
northern Europe, it has sections
 that date to the 13th century.
• Leipzig and its surroundings form
one of the fastest-growing
economic regions in Europe,
thanks chiefly to the city’s
 trade fair grounds, which host
more than 30 fairs of all kinds
and attract roughly 1.4 million
visitors each year.
• Germany is famous for sausage!
• The German word for sausage is wurst.
• Famous types of wurst include:
   – Leberwurst (liver sausage)
   – Blutwurst (blood sausage)
   – Bratwurst (spicy pork sausage)
   – Mettwurst (ground pork sausage)
• There are approximately 200 kinds of bread and 30
  kinds of rolls in the German-speaking world.
   – Weißbrot (white bread)
   – Graubrot (wheat/rye mixture)
   – Schwarzbrot (rye bread)
   – Pumpernickel (heavy, dark bread)
• The German Frankfurter is thinner than an
  American hot dog and usually served in
  pairs. They are not served on buns. Instead,
  they are accompanied by a slice of bread or a
  roll.
• Sauerkraut, of one
  Germany’s best-known
  foods was developed to
  preserve cabbage & prevent it
  from spoiling.
• German children typically begin school when they
  are six years old. To celebrate a child’s first day of
  school, parents or friends give the child a
  Schultuete, a big colorful cardboard cone filled with
  candy and school items such as a pencil case and a
  Fueller (fountain pen). Most German children learn to
  write with a Fueller.
• The school system in Germany is very different
  from that in the United States. Every child
  attends Grundschule (elementary school) from
  first through fourth grades. After the fourth
  grade, children, their parents and their teachers
  choose the track the children will pursue for their
  schooling. Almost half go to Gymnasium (college
  preparatory school) for grades 5 to 12 (it has just
  recently been shortened from 13 to 12 grades).
    The school day starts at about 8:00 a.m.,
with lessons until a short recess period
around 10:00 a.m. The school day ends
around 2:00 p.m. Students go home for a hot
meal at lunch (Mittagessen), which tends to
be the biggest meal of the day. Although
students get out of school earlier in Germany
than they do in the U.S., they get a lot of
homework. In some states in Germany, kids
also have school on Saturdays!
    German classes are very similar to
American classes in the way they are taught,
but some of the subjects differ. Children
study math, science, literature, music and
arts, history and geography. They also have
gym classes. In grade 3, they start foreign
language study. All students learn English,
but in grades 5 and 7 they can take up
additional languages such as French, Latin,
Spanish or Russian.
German children have shorter summer vacations than
  American children: just six weeks. It is common for
  families to travel during vacation, mostly to other
  European countries. More and more visit America,
  too. Since the summer vacation is relatively short,
  German students get a two-week break in December
  and January, another two-week vacation at Easter
  and a further week off in fall. In addition, children do
  not go to school on many religious and national
  holidays. Usually, German students have 220 school
  days per year, while American students have 180.
• German is the official language in 3
  countries:
     Germany
     Austria
     Liechenstein
• Switzerland has 4 official languages.




• German is one of those official languages.
• The first writing in German dates from the
  8th century.
• Low German and High German are two
  different forms of German.
• High German is the standard German
  used today.
• High German is called High German
  because it was developed in the higher,
  southern part of the country.
• Two of the most important developments
  in the history of the German language
  were:
  1.) Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of
  movable type for printing in 1440.
  2.) Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible
  into High German in the 16th century.
Can you guess the
 meanings of the
 following words?
Amerika
America
Appetit
Appetite
Eisberg
Eisberg
Iceberg
             Review

• The Black Forest and the Bavarian Alps
  are located in the Southwestern Corner
  of Germany.
• The Rhine River is an important river in
  Europe.
• The capital of Germany is Berlin.
            Review
• Germany was divided into West
  Germany and East Germany in 1945.
         Why were they divided?
• West Germany was occupied by
  England, France, and the U.S. West
  Germany was democratic.
• East Germany was occupied by the
  Soviet Union. East Germany was
  communist.
             Review

• German is the only official language in
  Germany, Austria, and Liechtenstein.




• German is one of four official
  languages in Switzerland.
             Review

• Writing developed in Germany in the 8th
  century.
• The four Germanic languages include:
  German, Dutch, Flemish, and English.
• The German spoken in Germany today
  is called High German. It is called High
  German because it developed in the
  higher regions of Southern Germany.
             Review

• These two events were important to the
  history of the German language:
  1.) Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of
  movable type for printing in 1440.
  2.) Martin Luther’s translation of the
  Bible into High German in the 16th
  century.
            Review

• Famous German “essen” includes:

Wurst (sausage)
Sauerkraut
Brot (bread)
das Ende!

				
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