About Calculators
                                                              Calculator A
You have used calculators to help you learn to count.
Now you can use them for working with whole numbers,
fractions, decimals, and percents.
As with any mathematical tool or strategy, you need to
think about when and how to use a calculator. It can help
you compute quickly and accurately when you have many
problems to do in a short time. Calculators can help you
compute with very large and very small numbers that
may be hard to do in your head or with pencil and paper.
Whenever you use a calculator, estimation should be part
of your work. Always ask yourself if the number in the
display makes sense.
There are many different kinds of calculators. Four-
function calculators do little more than add, subtract,
multiply, and divide whole numbers and decimals. More
advanced scientific calculators let you find powers and
reciprocals, and some perform operations with fractions.
After elementary school, you may use graphic calculators
that draw graphs, find data landmarks, and do even
more complicated mathematics.
There are many calculators that work well with Everyday
                                                              Calculator B
Mathematics. If the instructions in this book don’t work
for your calculator, or the keys on your calculator are not
explained, you should refer to the directions that came
with the calculator, or ask your teacher for help.

192    one hundred ninety-two

Basic Operations
You must take care of your calculator. Dropping it, leaving           Note
it in the sun, or other kinds of carelessness may break it
                                                                      Calculators have two
or make it less reliable.
                                                                      kinds of memory.
Many four-function and scientific calculators use light cells         Short-term memory
for power. If you press the ON key and see nothing on the             is for the last number
display, hold the front of the calculator toward a light or a         entered. The keys
                                                                      with an “M” are for
sunny window for a moment and then press ON again.
                                                                      long-term memory
Entering and Clearing                                                 and are explained on
Pressing a key on a calculator is called keying in or entering.       pages 218–220.
In this book, calculator keys, except numbers and decimal
points, are shown in rectangular boxes:      ,    ,    , and so on.
A set of instructions for performing a calculation is called a
key sequence.
The simplest key sequences turn the calculator on and enter
or clear numbers or other characters. These keys are labeled
on the photos and summarized below.

Always clear both the display and the memory each time
you turn on the calculator.

                                                            one hundred ninety-three           193

Many calculators have a backspace key that will clear
the last digit or digits you entered without re-entering
the whole number.

          Enter 123.444. Change it to 123.456.

Try using the backspace key on your calculator.

194    one hundred ninety-four

Order of Operations and Parentheses
When you use a calculator for basic arithmetic operations,
you enter the numbers and operations and press       or Enter
                                                                         Examples for arithmetic
to see the answer.
                                                                         calculations are given
Try your calculator to see if it follows the rules for the order         in earlier sections
of operations. Key in 5      6       2    .                              of this book.

♦ If your calculator follows the order of operations, it will
   display 17.
♦ If it does not follow the order of operations, it will probably
   do the operations in the order they were entered: adding
   and then multiplying, displaying 22.
If you want the calculator to do operations in an order different
from the order of operations, use the parentheses keys       and     .

           Evaluate. 7     (2   1)

                                                                         If you see a tiny up or
                                                                         down arrow on the
                                                                         calculator display, you
                                                                         can use the up or
                                                                         down arrows to scroll
                                                                         the screen.

    7    (2   1)    4

                                                                one hundred ninety-five            195

Sometimes expressions are shown without all of the
multiplication signs. Remember to press the multiplication
key even when it is not shown in an expression.

             Evaluate. 9       2(1    2)

      9     2(1    2)   3

   Use your calculator to evaluate each expression.

   1. 48      (8   5)       2. 81    7(4   2)     3. 8(4     6.2)       24   4. (64   16)/4   31
                                      Check your answers on page 347.

196       one hundred ninety-six

Negative Numbers
How you enter a negative number depends on your calculator.
You will use the change sign key, either    or (–) depending
on your calculator. Both keys change the sign of the number.

          Enter   45.
                                                                         If the number on the
                                                                         display is positive, it
                                                                         becomes negative after
                                                                         you press        . If the
                                                                         number on the display is
                                                                         negative, it becomes
                                                                         positive after pressing
                                                                              . Keys like this are
                                                                         called toggles.

           What happens if you try to subtract with   ( –)   or   ?
   Try it for 38 9 ?                                                     “SYn” is short for
                                                                         “syntax,” which means
                                                                         the ordering and
                                                                         meaning of keys in
                                                                         a sequence.

                                                                         If you try to subtract
                                                                         using        on this
                                                                         calculator, it just
                                                                         changes the sign of the
                                                                         first number and adds
                                                                         the digits of the second
                                                                         number to it.

                                                              one hundred ninety-seven         197

Division with Remainders
The answer to a division problem with whole numbers does not
always result in whole number answers. When this happens,
most calculators display the answer as a decimal. Some
calculators also have a second division key that displays the
whole number quotient with a whole number remainder.

            39   5   ? Use the division with remainder key.
                                                                “Int” stands for “integer”
                                                                on this calculator. Use
                                                                 Int÷ because this kind
                                                                of division is sometimes
                                                                called “integer division.”

                                                                     means “divide with
  39    5    7 R4                                               remainder.” You can also
                                                                divide positive fractions
                                                                and decimals with       .
Try the division with remainder in the previous example to
see how your calculator works.

   Divide with remainder.

   1. 422    7       2. 231     13          3. 11,111   43
                     Check your answers on page 347.

198    one hundred ninety-eight

Fractions and Percent
Some calculators let you enter, rewrite, and do operations with
fractions. Once you know how to enter a fraction, you can add, subtract,
multiply, or divide them just like whole numbers and decimals.
Entering Fractions and Mixed Numbers
Most calculators that let you enter fractions use similar key sequences.
For proper fractions, always start by entering the numerator. Then
press a key to tell the calculator to begin writing a fraction.

           Enter   8   as a fraction in your calculator.

                                                                           Pressing d after you
                                                                           enter the denominator
                                                                           is optional.

To enter a mixed number, enter the whole number part and
then press a key to tell the calculator what you did.

           Enter 73 5 as a fraction in your calculator.

Try entering a mixed number on your calculator.

                                                            one hundred ninety-nine          199

The keys to convert between mixed numbers and improper
fractions are similar on all fraction calculators.

          Convert 7 to a mixed number with your calculator.
   Then change it back.

                                                                  Pressing Enter is
                                                                  not optional in this
                                                                  key sequence.

                                                                  Pressing        is
                                                                  optional in this
                                                                  key sequence.

Both       and      toggle between mixed number and
improper fraction notation.
Simplifying Fractions
Ordinarily, calculators do not simplify fractions on their own.
The steps for simplifying fractions are similar for many
calculators, but the order of the steps varies. Approaches for
two calculators are shown on the next three pages depending
on the keys you have on your calculator. Read the approaches
for the calculator having keys most like yours.

200    two hundred

Simplifying Fractions on Calculator A                                    Calculator A
This calculator lets you simplify a fraction in two ways. Each
way divides the numerator and the denominator by a common
factor. The first approach uses        to automatically divide by
the smallest common factor, and Fac to display the factor.

        Convert 24 to simplest form using smallest
   common factors.

  18    3
  24    4                                                             Pressing Fac toggles
                                                                      between the display
                                                                      of the factor and
In the second approach, you can simplify the fraction in one          the display of
step by telling the calculator to divide by the greatest common       the fraction.
factor of the numerator and the denominator.

         Convert 24 to simplest form in one step by dividing the
   numerator and the denominator by their greatest common factor, 6.

  18    3
  24    4

                                                                    two hundred one      201

Simplifying Fractions on Calculator B                                       Calculator B
Calculators like this one let you simplify fractions three different
ways. Each way divides the numerator and the denominator by
a common factor. The first approach uses        to give the
simplest form in one step. The word Simp in the display means
that the fraction shown is not in simplest form.

                Convert   24   to simplest form in one step.

      18    3
      24    4

If you enter a fraction that is already in simplest form, you will
not see Simp on the display. The one-step approach does not tell
you the common factor as the next two approaches do using          .

        Convert 24 to simplest form using smallest
   common factors.

                                                                       Each time you press
                                                                             in the smallest
                                                                       common factor
                                                                       approach you briefly
                                                                       see the common factor,
                                                                       then the simplified
                                                                       fraction. This can be
                                                                       done without pressing
      18    3                                                                first.
      24    4

202        two hundred two

In the last approach to simplifying fractions with this type of
calculator, you tell it what common factor to divide by. If you
use the greatest common factor of the numerator and the
denominator, you can simplify the fraction in one step.

                    18                                                   Note
           Convert 24 to simplest form by dividing the
                                                                         If you enter a number
   numerator and the denominator by their greatest common
                                                                         that is not a common
   factor, 6.                                                            factor of the numerator
                                                                         and the denominator,
                                                                         you will get an error
                                                                         symbol “E” in the
                                                                         display with the
                                                                         unchanged fraction.

Try simplifying the fractions in the previous examples to see
how your calculator works.
Many calculators have a       key, but it is likely that they work
differently. The best way to learn what your calculator does
with percents is to read its manual.

                                                                     two hundred three         203

Most calculators include   to solve “percent of” problems.

          Calculate 25% of 180.

   25% of 180 is 45.

You can change percents to decimals with    .

           Display 85%, 250%, and 1% as decimals.

                                                             To convert percents
                                                             to decimals on this
                                                             calculator you calculate
                                                             a percent of 1, as in the
                                                             previous example.

204   two hundred four

You can also use        to convert percents to fractions.
On many calculators, first change the percent to a decimal as
in the previous examples, then use     to change to a fraction.

           Display 85%, 250%, and 1% as fractions in
   simplest form.

                                                                    You may need to use
                                                                        to simplify.

                                                                    This calculator simplifies

          17               1         1
   85%    20 ;   250%    2 2 ; 1%   100

Try displaying some percents as fractions and decimals on
your calculator.

                                                                  two hundred five         205

Fraction/Decimal/Percent Conversions
Conversions of fractions to decimals and percents can be done on any calculator.
For example, to rename 5 as a decimal, simply enter 3      5    . The display
will show 0.6. To rename a decimal as a percent, just multiply by 100.
Conversions of decimals and percents to fractions can only be done on calculators
that have special keys for fractions. Such calculators also have keys to change a
fraction to its decimal equivalent or a decimal to an equivalent fraction.

          Convert   8   to a decimal and back to a fraction in
   simplest form.

                                                                     F D toggles between
                                                                    fraction and decimal

   8   0.375

See how your calculator changes fractions to decimals.

206    two hundred six

The tables below show examples of various conversions. Although only one key sequence
is shown for each conversion, there are often other key sequences that work as well.

   Use your calculator to convert between fractions, decimals, and percents.
   1.   16   to a decimal         2. 0.565 to a fraction          3. 0.007 to a percent
   4. 291% to a decimal           5. 32 to a percent              6. 72% to a fraction
                                Check your answers on page 347.

                                                                  two hundred seven       207

Other Operations
Your calculator can do more than simple arithmetic with whole numbers,
fractions, and decimals. Each kind of calculator does some things that
other calculators cannot, or does them in different ways. See your owner’s
manual, or ask your teacher, to help you explore these things. The
following pages explain some other things that many calculators can do.
All calculators can round decimals. Decimals must be rounded to fit on
the display. For example, if you key in 2   3
♦ Calculator A shows 11 digits and rounds to the nearest value:
♦ Calculator B shows 8 digits and rounds down to 0.6666666.
Try 2     3    on your calculator to see how big the display is     Note
and how it rounds.
                                                                    To turn off fixed
All scientific calculators have a   key to set, or fix, the place   rounding on a calculator,
value of decimals on the display. Fixing always rounds to the       press             .
nearest value.

           Clear your calculator and fix it to round to
   tenths. Round each number, 1.34; 812.79; and 0.06, to
   the nearest tenth.

                                                                     On this calculator you
                                                                     can fix the decimal
                                                                     places to the left of
                                                                     the decimal point but
                                                                     are limited to the right
                                                                     of the decimal point
                                                                     to thousandths

   1.34 rounds to 1.3; 812.79 rounds to 812.8;
   0.06 rounds to 0.1.

208    two hundred eight

        Clear your calculator and fix it to round to
tenths. Round each number, 1.34; 812.79; and 0.06, to             This calculator only
                                                                  lets you fix places
the nearest tenth.
                                                                  to the right of the
                                                                  decimal point.

                                                                  You can fix either
                                                                  calculator to round
                                                                  without clearing the
1.34 rounds to 1.3; 812.79 rounds to 812.8;                       display first. It will
                                                                  round the number
0.06 rounds to 0.1.
                                                                  on the display.

Use your calculator to round to the indicated place.

1. 0.37 to tenths   2. 521.73 to ones     3. 6174.6138 to thousandths

4. 0.8989 to hundredths
                       Check your answers on page 347.

                                                               two hundred nine            209

Fixing the display to round to hundredths is helpful for solving
problems about dollars and cents.

           One CD costs $11.23 and another costs $14.67.
   Set your calculator to round to the nearest cent and
   calculate the total cost of the CDs.

   Together, the CDs cost $25.90.

On most calculators, if you find the total in the Example above
with the “fix” turned off, the display reads 25.9. To show the
answer in dollars and cents, fix the display to round to
hundredths and you will see 25.90.

210    two hundred ten

Powers, Reciprocals, and Square Roots                                         Calculator A
Powers of numbers can be calculated on all scientific calculators.
Look at your calculator to see which key it has for finding
powers of numbers.
♦ The key may look like                  and is read “x to the y.”
♦ The key may look like                   , and is called a caret.
To compute a number to a negative power, be sure to use the
change-sign key (–) or   , not the subtraction key – .

                                           4        –2
             Find the values of 3 and 5 .

                                                                              Calculator B
    If you press   (–)   after the 2, you will get an error message.

    If you press      before the 2, it will change the sign of the 5
    and display the result of ( 5)2 25.

   34     81; 5–2         0.04

                                                                       two hundred eleven    211

Most scientific calculators have a reciprocal key     . On all
scientific calculators you can find a reciprocal of a number
by raising it to the 1 power.

            Find the reciprocals of 25 and 3 .

                                                                       You don’t need to press
                                                                       the last key in the final
                                                                       step if your calculator
                                                                       is set to keep fractions
                                                                       in improper form. See
                                                                       the owner’s manual
                                                                       for details.

                                                     2            3
   The reciprocal of 25 is 0.04; the reciprocal of   3   is 1.5   2.

Almost all calculators have a   key for finding square roots. It
depends on the calculator whether you press      before or after
entering a number.

            Find the square roots of 25 and 10,000.

                                                                       On this calculator
                                                                       you have to “close”
                                                                       the square root by
                                                                       pressing ) after
                                                                       the number.

      25   5;   10,000     100

212    two hundred twelve

             Find the square roots of 25 and 10,000.

      25     5;   10,000     100

Try finding the square roots of a few numbers.
Scientific Notation
Scientific notation is a way of writing very large or very
small numbers. A number in scientific notation is shown as a
product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10. In
scientific notation, the 9,000,000,000 bytes of memory on a
9-gigabyte hard drive is written 9 * 109. On scientific calculators,
numbers with too many digits to fit on the display are automatically
shown in scientific notation like the calculator below on the right.
Different calculators use different symbols for scientific notation.
Your calculator may display raised exponents of 10, although
most do not. Since the base of the power is always 10, most
calculators leave out the 10 and simply put a space between
the number and the exponent.

This calculator uses the caret ^    This calculator shows 9 * 109
to display scientific notation.
                                                                    two hundred thirteen   213

          Convert 7 * 104, 4.35 * 105 and 8 * 10–3 to
  decimal notation.

                                                                       Neither calculator
                                                                       displays large numbers
                                                                       in decimal notation with
                                                                       a comma like you do
                                                                       with pencil and paper.
                                                                       One uses an apostrophe;
                                                                       the other uses no
                                                                       symbol at all.

  7 * 104    70,000; 4.35 * 105    435,000; and
  8 * 10–3    0.008

  Use your calculator to convert the following to standard notation:

  1. 4.9 * 10–4        2. 3.3 * 107         3. 6.147 * 10–6    4.   7.8 * 10–5
                             Check your answers on page 347.

214   two hundred fourteen

Calculators have different limits to the numbers they can display
without scientific notation.

         Write 123,456 * 654,321 in scientific notation.
   Then write the product in decimal notation.                            A calculation resulting
                                                                          in a number larger than
                                                                          the limit is automatically
                                                                          displayed in scientific

   The product is 8.078 * 1010     80,780,000,000.

   The product is 8.0779 * 1010      80,779,000,000.

          Write 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 * 6 * 7 * 8 * 9 * 10 * 11 *
   12 * 13 * 14 * 15 in scientific notation.                              Using        to round
                                                                          answers does not affect
                                                                          scientific notation on
                                                                          either calculator.

   The product is 1.308 * 1012, or 1,308,000,000,000.

   The product is 1.3076 * 1012, or 1,307,600,000,000.

   Write in scientific notation.
   1. 995 * 7 * 54 * 65 * 659 * 807 * 468               2. 956 * 859 * 760 * 862
   3. 527 * 32 * 987 * 424 * 77 * 145 * 195             4. 159 * 13 * 996 * 558
   5. The number of different 5-card hands that can be drawn from a standard deck of
      52 cards is: 52 * 51 * 50 * 49 * 48. How many hands is this in scientific notation?
      In decimal notation?
                                   Check your answers on page 347.

                                                                     two hundred fifteen          215

Pi ( )
The formulas for the circumference and area of circles involve
pi (π). Pi is a number that is a little more than 3. The first nine
digits of pi are 3.14159265. All scientific calculators have a pi
key      that gives an approximate value in decimal form. A few
calculators display an exact value using the π symbol.

          Find the area of a circle with a 4-foot radius.
   Use the formula A     r 2.

                                                                      You can set the number
                                                                      of decimal places on your
                                                                      calculator’s display to
                                                                      show 50 by pressing
                                                                      either Fix       1. or
                                                                           0 depending on
                                                                      the calculator.
   The areas of 50.26548246 and 50.265482 from the two
   calculator displays look very precise. Because the decimal
   value of π is approximate, the decimal areas are also
   approximate, but still look accurate. In everyday life,
   the measure of the radius of a circle is probably
   approximate, and giving an area to 6 or 8 decimal
   places does not make sense.
   So a good approximation of the area of the 4-foot radius
   circle is about 50 square feet.

216    two hundred sixteen

       Find the circumference of a circle with a
15-centimeter diameter to the nearest tenth of a
centimeter. Use the formula C πd.

                                                                        When you are finished,
                                                                        remember to turn off the
                                                                        fixed rounding by
                                                                        pressing          .
The circumference is about 47.1 centimeters.

1. Find the area of a circle with an 18 foot radius. Display your answer to the
   nearest square foot.
2. To the nearest tenth of a centimeter, find the circumference of a circle with
   a 26.7 centimeter diameter.
                              Check your answers on page 347.

                                                                two hundred seventeen         217

Using Calculator Memory                                         Calculator A

Many calculators let you save a number in long-term
memory using keys with “M” on them. Later on, when
you need the number, you can recall it from memory. Most
calculators display an “M” or similar symbol when there is
a number other than 0 in the memory.
Memory Basics
There are two main ways to enter numbers into long-term
memory. Some calculators, including most 4-function
calculators, have the keys in the table on page 220. If
your calculator does not have at least the     and
keys, see the examples on this page.
Memory on Calculator A
One way that calculators can put numbers in memory
is using a key to store a value. On the first calculator,
the store key is M and only works on numbers that
have been entered into the display with Enter .

                                                             If you press MR/MC
                                                             more than twice, you
                                                             will recall and display
                                                             the 0 that is now in
                                                             memory. Press Clear
                                                             to clear the display.

218    two hundred eighteen

The following example first shows what happens if you don’t
enter a number before trying to store it.

          Store 25 in memory and recall it to show that it
   was saved.

   Oops. Start again. First, press Clear twice.

If your calculator is like this one, try the Check Your Understanding
problem on page 220.

                                                              two hundred nineteen   219

Memory on Calculator B                                               Calculator B
Calculators put a 0 into memory when     is pressed. To store
a single number in a cleared memory, simply enter the number
and press    .

          Store 25 in memory and recall it to show that it
   was saved.

                                                                  When this calculator
                                                                  turns off, the display
                                                                  clears, but a value
                                                                  in memory is not

  Store π in the long-term memory. Clear the display. Then compute the area A of a
  circle whose radius r is 12 feet without pressing the  key. (A πr2)
                                Check your answer on page 347.

220   two hundred twenty

Using Memory in Problem Solving
A common use of memory in calculators is to solve problems
that have two or more steps in the solution.

         Compute a 15% tip on a $25 bill. Store the tip in
   the memory, then find the total bill.

                                                                           Always be sure to clear
                                                                           the memory after
                                                                           solving one problem
                                                                           and before beginning

                                                                           The second solution
                                                                           shows how this
                                                                           calculator solves
                                                                           the problem by
                                                                           using memory
   The total bill is $28.75.

   Compute an 18% tip on an $85 bill. Then find the total bill.
                                 Check your answer on page 347.

                                                                  two hundred twenty-one         221

          Marguerite ordered the following food at the food
  court: 2 hamburgers at $1.49 each and 3 hot dogs at $0.89
  each. How much change will she receive from a $10 bill?

                                                              The key sequence
                                                                 M + is a shortcut
                                                              to add the displayed
                                                              number to memory.
                                                              Similarly,   M –
                                                              subtracts a number
                                                              from memory.

  Marguerite will receive $4.35 in change.

222   two hundred twenty-two

         Mr. Beckman bought 2 adult tickets at $8.25 each
and 3 child tickets at $4.75 each. He redeemed a $5 gift
certificate. How much did he pay for the tickets?

                                                              If you fix the rounding to
                                                              hundredths, all the values
                                                              will be displayed as
Mr. Beckman paid $25.75 for the tickets.                      dollars and cents.

                                                    two hundred twenty-three        223

           Juan bought the following tickets to a baseball game
  for himself and 6 friends: 2 bleacher seats at $15.25 each
  and 5 mezzanine seats at $27.50 each. If everyone intends
  to split the costs evenly 7 ways so that they can swap seats
  now and then, how much does each person owe Juan?

                                                                  If you fix the rounding to
                                                                  hundredths, all the values
                                                                  will be displayed as
                                                                  dollars and cents.
  Each friend owes Juan $24.00 for the tickets.

  1. How much would 3 movie tickets and 2 popcorns cost if movie tickets cost
     $13.75 each and popcorns cost $4.25 each?

  2. How much would it cost to take a group of 2 adults and 6 children to a bowling
     alley if games cost $3.75 for adults and $2.50 for children?
                                Check your answers on page 347.

224   two hundred twenty-four

Skip Counting on a Calculator                                             Calculator A

In earlier grades, you may have used a 4-function calculator to
Recall that the program needs to tell the calculator:
1. What number to count by;
2. Whether to count up or down;
3. What number to start at; and
4. When to count.
Here’s how to program each calculator.

           Starting at 3, count by 7s on this calculator.

                                                                     You can use Op1 to
                                                                     define a second constant
                                                                     operation. Op2 works
                                                                     in exactly the same
                                                                     way as Op1 .

                                                                     The number in the
                                                                     lower left corner of the
                                                                     display shows how
                                                                     many counts you
  To count back by 7, begin with Op1         7 Op1 .                 have made.

                                                            two hundred twenty-five         225

         Starting at 3, count by 7s on this calculator.

  To count back by 7, begin with 7            .

  Use your calculator to do the following counts. Write 5 counts each.

  1. Starting at 22, count on by 8s.

  2. Starting at 146, count back by 16s.
                        Check your answers on page 347.

226   two hundred twenty-six