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Aquatic Biodiversity

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					Aquatic Biodiversity
Concepts

 Factors that influence aquatic systems

 Saltwater life zones

 Freshwater life zones

 Human activities that affect
  aquatic systems
Types of Aquatic Environments
  Marine systems    Freshwater systems
Components of Aquatic Environments

  Plankton

  Nekton

  Benthos
Limiting Factors for Aquatic
Environments

   Euphotic
    zone

   Dissolved oxygen
                    Trade-offs

                  Living in Water

Advantages                          Disadvantages

Physical                            Can tolerate a
support from                        narrow range of
water buoyancy                      temperatures

Fairly constant                     Exposure to
temperature                         dissolved
                                    pollutants
Nourishment
from dissolved                      Fluctuating
nutrients                           population size
                                    for many
Water                               species
availability
                                    Dispersion
Easy dispersal                      separates many
of organisms,                       aquatic off-
larvae, and                         spring
eggs                                from parents

Less exposure
to harmful UV
radiation

Dilution and
dispersion of
pollutants
Saltwater Life Zones

Coastal zone
Estuaries
Coastal wetlands
Mangroves
Intertidal zones
Barrier islands
Delta System
Salt Marsh
Tidal Pools
Mangrove
Mangrove Islands
Fringe Reef and Lagoon
Barrier Reef
Ocean hemisphere   Land-ocean hemisphere
Ocean Zones
Lakes
Rivers
Coral reefs
Mangroves
Coral Reefs
Coral Reef
 Gray reef shark


                                                        Sea nettle
                                 Green sea
                                   turtle                              Producer
                                                                       to primary
                                                                       consumer


                                                Fairy basslet

                                             Blue
                                             tangs                     Primary
    Parrot fish                                                        to secondary
                                                      Sergeant major   consumer
                         Algae       Brittle star
                                                    Banded coral
     Hard corals                                      shrimp



                                                                       Secondary to
                     Phytoplankton                       Coney         higher-level
                                                                       consumer
Symbiotic
  algae

                                         Blackcap
                  Zooplankton
                                          basslet
                                                          Moray        All consumers and
  Sponges                                                  eel         producers to
                                                                       decomposers


                        Bacteria
           Natural Capital Degradation

                    Coral Reefs


Ocean warming
Soil erosion
Algae growth from fertilizer
runoff
Mangrove destruction
Coral reef bleaching
Rising sea levels
Increased UV exposure from
ozone depletion
Using cyanide and dynamite
to harvest coral reef fish
Coral removal for building
material, aquariums, and
jewelry
Damage from anchors, ships,
and tourist divers
         Natural Capital Degradation

             Marine Ecosystems


Half of coastal wetlands lost
to agriculture and urban
development

Over one-third of mangrove
forests lost since 1980 to
agriculture, development, and
aquaculture shrimp farms

About 10% of world’s beaches
eroding because of coastal
development and rising sea
level

Ocean bottom habitats
degraded by dredging and
trawler fishing boats

Over 25% of coral reefs
severely damaged and 11%
have been destroyed
                      Natural Capital

                 Marine Ecosystems

  Ecological                                Economic
  Services                                  Services


Climate moderation                      Food

CO2 absorption                          Animal and pet
                                        feed (fish meal)
Nutrient cycling
                                        Pharmaceuticals
Waste treatment
and dilution                            Harbors and
                                        transportation
Reduced storm                           routes
impact (mangrove,
barrier islands,                        Coastal habitats
coastal wetlands)                       for humans

Habitats and                            Recreation
nursery areas for
marine and                              Employment
terrestrial species
                                        Offshore oil and
Genetic resources                       natural gas
and biodiversity
                                        Minerals
Scientific
information                             Building materials
                                 Sea star       Hermit crab     Shore crab
Rocky Shore Beach




                                                                                       High tide


                                                                                 Periwinkle




 Sea urchin            Anemone
                                                                             Mussel


                                              Low tide

                    Sculpin




                                                                                           Barnacles


                                                                   Kelp      Sea lettuce
                                            Monterey flatworm
          Nudibranch
Barrier beach
                                                                              Beach flea




                       Peanut worm                                                     Tiger beetle

                 Blue crab
                                                                Clam
                                  Dwarf
                                  olive                               High tide




                                                 Sandpiper                        Ghost
   Silversides
                                                             Mole                 shrimp
                             Low tide
                                                             shrimp




                   White sand    Sand dollar   Moon snail
                   macoma
Barrier Island

Ocean          Beach            Primary Dune   Trough   Secondary Dune               Back Dune         Bay or
                                                                                                       Lagoon
        Intensive recreation,    No direct      Limited       No direct              Most suitable
             no building          passage      recreation      passage             for development     Intensive
                                 or building and walkways     or building                             recreation



                                                                                                 Bay shore
                                                                                                 No filling
                            Grasses or shrubs               Taller shrubs

                                                                            Taller shrubs and trees
Cape Hatteras NC
Fire Island National Seashore
Fire Island National Seashore
Tidal Pools
Freshwater Life Zones
 Standing water   Flowing water
                 Natural Capital

               Freshwater Systems

Ecological                             Economic
Services                               Services

Climate                            Food
moderation
Nutrient cycling                   Drinking water

Waste treat-                       Irrigation water
ment and
dilution
                                   Hydroelectricity
Flood control
Groundwater                        Transportation
recharge                           corridors
Habitats for
aquatic and                        Recreation
terrestrial
species                            Employment
Genetic
resources
and bio-
diversity
Scientific
information
Life Zones in Lakes

 Littoral zone

 Limnetic zone

 Profundal zone

 Benthic zone
                                        Sunlight



          Green               Painted
                               turtle                    Blue-winged
           frog                                              teal



                                                                         Muskrat
Pond
snail



                  Littoral zone



                                        Limnetic zone

Diving
                                                                          Plankton
beetle                                  Profundal zone


                                        Benthic zone

                          Bloodworms                          Northern
         Yellow
         perch                                                  pike
Types of Lakes: Oligotrophic

                     Sunlight




        Little                                                     Narrow
        shore                                                      littoral
        vegetation              Low concentration of
                                nutrients and plankton             zone
        Limnetic
        zone                                   Sparse fish        Sleepily
                                               population          sloping
                                                                  shorelines
        Profundal
        zone
                                                             Sand, gravel,
                                                             rock bottom
         Oligotrophic lake



       Oligotrophic lake
Types of Lakes: Eutrophic

                                                                    Sunlight



                                                                           Wide
                   Much                                                    littoral
                   shore                                                   zone
                   vegetation
                       High concentration of
                       nutrients and plankton
                                                Dense fish
       Limnetic                                 population
       zone                                                         Gently
                                                                    sloping
       Profundal                                                    shorelines
       zone
                                                             Silt, sand,
                                                             clay bottom



                   Eutrophic lake
Stream Systems
  Runoff        Drainage basin
  Watershed     Floodplain
New York State Watershed Areas
Streams & Rivers
The Nissequogue River
Carmens River
Connetquot River
Peconic River
Wetlands

 Importance of Wetlands
 Types:
   Marshes
   Swamps
   Prairie Potholes
   Floodplain
   Tundra
   Seasonal
Bogs and Moors


 • A bog is acidic peat land (peat bog).
 • A moor was originally the same as a bog but
   has come to be associated with this soil type
   on hill-tops.
Moss, Fen, and Carr

 • A moss is a raised bog in Scotland
 • A fen is a freshwater peat land with chemically
   basic (alkaline) ground water.
 • A carr is a fen which has developed to the
   point where it supports trees. It is a European
   term, mainly applied in the north of the UK.
Freshwater Marshes

 • A fresh-water marsh's main feature is its
   openness, with only low-growing or
   "emergent" plants. It may feature grasses,
   rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and other
   herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing
   woody plants) in a context of shallow water. It
   is an open form of fen.
Salt Marshes

 • A coastal salt marsh may be associated with
   estuaries and along waterways between coastal
   barrier islands and the inner coast. The plants
   may extend from reed in mildly brackish water
   to salicornia on otherwise bare marine mud. It
   may be converted to human use as pasture
   (salting) or for salt production (saltern).
Swamps

 • A swamp is wetland with more open water
   surface and deeper water than a marsh. In
   North America, it is used for wetlands
   dominated by trees and woody bushes rather
   than grasses and low herbs, but this distinction
   does not necessarily apply in other areas, for
   instance in Africa where swamps may be
   dominated by papyrus.
African Dambo

 • A dambo is a shallow, grass-covered
   depression of the central and southern African
   plateau which is waterlogged in the rainy
   season, and usually forms the headwaters of a
   stream or river. It is marshy at the edges and at
   the headwater, but maybe swampy in the
   centre and downstream.
Mangrove and Paperback
Swamps
 • A mangrove swamp is a salt or brackish water
   environment dominated by the mangrove
   species of tree, such as Sonneratia. Species
 • A paperbark wetland is a fresh or brackish
   water environment dominated by the
   Melaleuca tree.
Bayous

 • A bayou are southern United States terms for a
   creek amongst swamp.
 • In an Indian mangrove swamp, it would be
   called a creek.
Constructed wetlands

 • A constructed wetland is artificially contrived
   wetland, intended to absorb flash floods, clean
   sewage, enhance wildlife or for some other
   human reason.
Other Types of Wetlands

 • A pocosin is a bog-like wetland dominated by
   fire-adapted shrubs and trees, found mainly in
   the southeastern United States on the Atlantic
   Coastal Plain.
 • Seasonally flooded basins or flats
 • Inland fresh meadows
 • Inland shallow fresh water
Human Impacts on Wetlands and
Streams

 Dams, diversions and canals

 Flood control levees and dikes

 Pollution and Eutrophication

 Wetland destruction
Northwestern Ontario Experimental Lake
226




                 Image courtesy of Oceans and Fisheries, Canada.
                 http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/home-accueil_e.htm
                 Note: image usage policy: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/copyright/copyright_e.htm
                 Schindler September 4, 1973

				
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