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					   ICI Programs
How does that apply to me?

                  Bill Hoffman
    H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC
                        &
           Water Management, Inc.

                512-280-0199
        billhoffmantx@earthlink.net
  Things To Be Covered
• What is ICI and why look there

• Top ICI users in smaller
  communities

• The top of the list technologies

• Where to go for information and
  help
What is ICI?
 Industrial
Commercial
Institutional
Why Look at ICI?
 ICI and Water Use
• Less than 5% of
  connections but large users

• Biggest band for the buck

• Buy back capacity
So How Much Does
     ICI Use?
  Water Use in Texas in 2000
       16.98 Million Ac-Ft./Yr.


                                  Mun.
                                  24%

 Ag.
62%
                                  Ind.
                                  14%
Non-Ag. Use in Texas in 2000
Dom.
47%



                               Ind.
                               37%
 Com.
 16%
        LCRA Municipal Water Use

                               Wholesale
                                 19%




Residential
   66%

                                    ICI
                                   15%
       Water Use in Austin, Texas
                       Wholesale
                         8%
     Industrial
        9%



                                       Residential
                                          38%

Commercial
   27%




                        Multi-Family
                            18%
                         Austin Water Use (10-99 to 9-02)
  90
  80
  70
  60
MGD




  50
  40
  30
  20
  10
      0
          10

               12

                     2

                          4

                              6

                                  8

                                      10

                                           12

                                                2

                                                    4

                                                        6

                                                            8

                                                                10

                                                                     12

                                                                          2

                                                                              4

                                                                                  6

                                                                                      8
                                                Month
                    Residential        Multi-Family         Commercial
                    Industrial         Wholesale
Commonly Found ICI Users
  1. Schools
  2. Dental Clinics
  3. Laundromats
  4. Offices and Retail
  5. Convenience and Grocery Stores
  6. Motels and Hotels
  7. Public Pools
  8. Restaurants and Fast Food
  9. Car Washes
  10. Parks, Ball Fields and Playgrounds
Golf Courses In
Another LCRA
   Category
BENCHMARKING

 How do I compare
 to other facilities
      like me?
             Restaurant efficiency
                 benchmarks
End Use/Benchmark Measure       N      Efficiency Benchmark Range*
     TOTAL WATER USE
         Gal./sf/year          90                  130 - 331
         Gal./meal served      90                  6-9
         Gal./seat/day         90                  20 - 31
         Gal./employee/day     90                  86 - 122
*Developed from combined methods (field studies, audit data, and modeling
results)

   An efficient restaurant would use approximately 130 to 331
   gallons of water per square foot of building area in a year. Also,
   an efficient restaurant would use around 6 to 9 gallons of water
   per meal served. Furthermore, total water use for an efficient
   restaurant would fall within a range of use of 20 to 31 gallons per
   seat per day and 86 to 122 gallons per employee per day.
        Office building efficiency
               benchmarks
 End Use/Benchmark        N        Efficiency
      Measure                     Benchmark
                                    Range*
       INDOOR USE
         Gal./sf/year        62             9 - 15
     Gal./employee/day       72             9 - 16
     COOLING USE**
         Gal./sf/year        49           8.5 - 22
    IRRIGATION USE**
       Inches per year       47           26 - 50
      TOTAL WATER
         USE**
         Gal./sf/year        62           26 - 35
* Developed from combined methods (field studies, audit
                data, and modeling results)
   ** Appropriate benchmarks will depend upon local
                          climate.
School efficiency benchmarks
End Use/Benchmark                              N                Efficiency Benchmark
Measure                                                                 Range*
  INDOOR USE
   Gal./sf/year                               142                       8 - 16
   Gal./person/day                            141                       3 - 15
  COOLING USE**
   Gal./sf/year                                35                       8 - 20
  IRRIGATION
USE**
   Inches per year                            132                       22 - 50
  TOTAL WATER
USE**
   Gal./sf/year                               142                       40 - 93
* Developed from combined methods (field studies, audit data, and modeling results)
** Appropriate benchmarks will depend upon local climate.
                                  Elementary School Water Use
                                     Based on 133 campuses in Texas

                             50
                             48
                             46
Gallons per Person per Day




                             44
                             42
                             40
                             38
                             36
                             34
                             32
                             30
                             28
                             26
                             24
                             22
                             20
                             18
                             16
                             14
                             12
                             10
                              8
                              6
                              4
                              2
                              0
                                   1
                                   5
                                   8
                                  12
                                  16
                                  20
                                  23
                                  27
                                  31
                                  35
                                  38
                                  42
                                  46
                                  50
                                  53
                                  57
                                  61
                                  65
                                  68
                                  72
                                  76
                                  80
                                  83
                                  87
                                  91
                                  95
                                  98
                                             Percent of Sample
                                Fast Food Restaurants
           A
           B
           C
           D
           E
           F
Location




           G
           H
            I
           J
           K
           L
           M
           N
           O
           P
           Q
                0


                    100


                          200


                                 300


                                       400


                                             500


                                                      600


                                                              700


                                                                    800


                                                                          900


                                                                                1,000


                                                                                        1,100
                                Thousands of Gallons per Year
                                 Outdoor     Indoor         Combined
    Figure 1. Annual Water Use
for a 10 Story Office Building in Austin, Texas


   Irrigation
       22%




                                       Cooling
                                         47%

    Indoor
      31%
And then there is energy
• 8% of all energy used in USA for
  water/wastewater (US EPA)

• In a typical city, 1/3 to 2/3 of all
  electricity used by that city’s
  municipal government operations
  is for water and wastewater
                  Embedded Energy
Source



    Collection,   Water Treatment       Water
   Extraction &                       Distribution
   Conveyance
                                                     End-use
                                                     Agricultural
                  Recycled Water    Recycled Water   Residential
                    Treatment         Distribution   Commercial
                                                      Industrial



                    Wastewater       Wastewater
    Discharge       Treatment        Collection



Source
       Even Traffic Lights
        Can Save Water
                        Question - What is the
                         difference between
                         these two traffic
                         lights?
  Old 135 Watt Light

                        Answer – 1.2 gallons
                         per day savings in
                         water evaporated at
                         the power plant and
                         90% more energy
New LED 15 Watt Light    efficient.
                               Energy Costs for Heating Water
                     18
Cents/kWh or $/MCF

                     16
                     14
                     12
                     10
                      8                                    Assumes 70o F
                                                           Temperature
                      6
                                                             Increase
                      4
                          $0
                          $2
                               $4
                               $6
                                     $8
                                    $10
                                    $12
                                          $14
                                          $16
                                          $18
                                                   $20
                                                   $22
                                                   $24
                                                   $26
                                                   $28
                                                   $30
                                                                    $32
                                                                    $34
                                        $/1,000 Gallons

                                        Gas     Electric
    ICI Requires a
Knowledge of Different
   Businesses and
     Technology
Technology Potpourri
1.   Outdoor Use
2.   Alternate Sources of Water
3.   Food Service
4.   Medical – Laboratory
5.   Cooling Towers and Boilers
6.   Laundries
7.   Commercial Bathrooms
8.   Other Process Uses
Public Restrooms
 • Toilets (flush valve)
       • Faucets
      • Showers
        • Urinals
     • Mop Sinks
        • Bidets
   • Trap Primers
  Talk
 about

Public!
                                   More Bang for the Buck
                             100
Flushes per Toilet per Day


                              90
                              80
                              70
                              60
                              50
                              40
                              30
                              20
                              10
                               0
                                    Home    Office - Clinic   Grocery or
                                                              Restaurant
                                    MaP Flush Performance - ULFTs
                                900
                                               vs. HETs
                                800            ULFTs                                             HETs
MaP Flush Performance (grams)




                                700
                                600
                                500
                                400
                                               Current UNAR and WaterSense Minimum Performance Threshold (350g)

                                300
                                                    Original MaP Testing Minimum Performance Threshold (250g)

                                200
                                100
                                  0
                                      ULFTs - 2003- ULFTs through    ULFTs June    All dual-flush Pressure-assist   Gravity-fed
                                       2004 (92)    May 2005 (78)   2005 to June    HETs (69)       single-flush    single-flush
                                                                     2007 (223)                      HETs (31)       HETs (10)
                 By Koeller and Veritec, June 1, 2007
                 Sloan Crown Valve




                            Kohler's
                            1.28 GPF
Sloan Uppercut
                             Toilet
                              Figure 1. Annual Plumbing Fixture Cost
                              for a Building with 500 Employees open 255 days/Year


                     $12
$ per Thousand Gallons




                     $10

                         $8

                         $6

                         $4
                                                 0




                                                            0




                                                                       0




                                                                                 0




                                                                                           0
                                      00
                         $0




                                               00




                                                          00




                                                                     00




                                                                               00




                                                                                         00
                                    ,0




                                             0,




                                                        5,




                                                                   0,




                                                                             5,




                                                                                       0,
                                  $5




                                           $1




                                                      $1




                                                                 $2




                                                                           $2




                                                                                     $3
                                                      $ per Year

                               Current Lowest        Code*      1980's     Before 1980’s
                          What does
                         this mean to
                            you in
                           dollars &
                            cents?
Water & Wastewater Alone - $850 per year
  Hot Water (Gas)     - $1,380 per year
  Hot Water (Electric) - $2,000 per year
    Landscape Design Concepts
•   Soil preparation and depth
•   Shape land to hold water
•   Chose appropriate plant material
•   Proper irrigation system design
•   Capture on-site sources of water
•   Symbiosis between landscape and
    stormwater control
• KEEP IT WHERE IT FALLS
Shape land to hold water
        Landscape
 It Must Hold Water First!

• Soil Depth

• Shaping of Land

• Draining of Impervious Areas

 LID – Keep it where it falls!
Irrigation Controllers
       Irrigation Association
• http://www.irrigation.org/swat/industry/hom
  e-developers/resources.asp


  US EPA Water Sense Program
• http://www.epa.gov/watersense/
Pools, Hot Tubs & Fountains
   • Must be recirculating

   • Filtration Systems –
          Cartridge
          Diatomaceous earth and pearlite
          Sand


   • Discharge to landscape

   • Meter refill line
   Car Wash Conservation
         Standards
        (Southwest Car Wash Association)


• Conveyor – 40 gal./car or less

• In-bay – 55 gal./car or less

• Large vehicle – 75 gal./vehicle or less

• Wand type – 3.0 gallons per minute or
  less
    Food Service
     Operations
•   Refrigeration
•   Ice machines
•   Garbage grinders
•   Pre-rinse spray nozzles
•   Dishwashers
•   Pot Soakers
•   Steamers
    Food Service Operations
            Cont.
•   Steam Tables    • Utility Sinks
•   Clean-up        • Hand washing
•   Thawing food      Sinks
•   Steam kettles   • Confectionary
•   Floor Wash        Sinks
    Hoses           • Outdoor Area
                      Washing
  Pre-Rinse Spray Valves

                        Old Spray Valve
                        4-6 GPM
                        8-12 Cents/Min.


                        New Spray Valve
                        1.6 GPM
More water   Forceful
   Less       Spray
                        3.2 Cents/Min.
 pressure
                                        Jump to first page


Air cooled ice machine   Water cooled ice machine
                               (no louvers)
    Commercial Ice Machine
         Water Use
Water
Cooled
  Air
Cooled

         0       50    100    150    200     250
             Gallons per 100 Pounds of Ice
Dish Washers
       Energy Star Efficiency Requirements
          for Commercial Dishwashers
  Machine Type    High Temp Efficiency Requirements    Low Temp Efficiency Requirements


                    Idle Energy        Water            Idle Energy         Water
                       Rate*        Consumption**          Rate*         Consumption

Under Counter    <= 0.90 kW        <= 1.00 gal/rack   <= 0.5 kW        <= 1.70 gal/rack

Stationary Single <= 1.0 kW        <= 0.950           <= 0.6 kW        <= 1.18 gal/rack
Tank Door**                        gal/rack



Single Tank      <= 2.0 kW         <= 0.700           <= 1.6 kW        <= 0.790
Conveyor                           gal/rack                            gal/rack

Multiple Tank    <= 2.6 kW         <= 0.540           <= 2.0 kW        <= 0.540
Conveyor                           gal/rack                            gal/rack
•90% less
water
•Big energy
savings
•No water
hookup
•No sewer
hookup
•No vent
   Laundry
• Residential Type Systems

 • Coin Operated Washers

  • Commercial System
Clothes Washer Standards
     Gallons per Cubic Foot

     • California Std.
        – 8.5 now &
        – 6.0 after 2010


     • CEE Tiers
        – Tier 1 – 7.5
        – Tier 2 – 6.0
        – Tier 3 – 4.5
   An
Example
of Water
Reuse at
 a Hotel
Laundry.
     Medical & Laboratory
                          9.  Food service
1.   Autoclaves
                          10. HVAC
2.   Vacuum pumps
                          11. Vaporizers
3.   X-ray film dev.
                          12. Laundry
4.   Lab equipment
                          13. Landscape
     cooling
                          14. Plumbing fixtures
5.   Lab hoods
                          15. Pools
6.   Medical equipment
     cooling              16. Scrubbers
7.   Sterile ware washing 17. Decorative
                              fountains/ponds
8.   Therapeutic baths
                          18. Washdown of paved
                              areas
                          19. ???
 Large
Hospital
 Steam
Sterilizer
 Old Liquid Ring and New Dry
Vacuum Pump at Dental Office
Cooling
Towers
     Cooling Towers
• Purpose – to remove unwanted
 energy from process fluids

• Major Use – HVAC systems

• Process Fluid in HVAC
  Systems - water
Typical Counterflow Tower
                                             Fan and Motor

    Process Return
                                                                     Drift
                                                                 Eliminators




                            Fill Material


                                                             Make-up



                                                                  Float
    Overflow



                                             Basin
                            Pump
                                            Conductivity
       To Process    Blow                    Controller
                     Down
Ways other than a cooling tower


• Direct Exchange (DX)

• Variable Frequency Drive Air
  Cooled

• Absorption – Evaporation Systems
Cooling Tower Controls and Alarms

  Makeup & blowdown meters,

  Conductivity controllers,

  Overflow alarms,

  Drift eliminators, and

  Electronic monitoring
                             Cooling Tower Evaporation Water
                                      Requirements
                       6.6
                       6.4
                       6.2
                       6.0
                       5.8
                       5.6
Gallons per Ton Hour




                       5.4
                       5.2
                       5.0
                       4.8
                       4.6
                       4.4
                       4.2
                       4.0
                       3.8
                       3.6
                       3.4
                       3.2
                       3.0
                       2.8
                       2.6
                       2.4
                       2.2
                       2.0
                       1.8
                       1.6
                       1.4
                             1.5   2   3     4     5     6     8     10    20      30
                                            Cycles of Concentration
                                       2.0 kWH/ton-hr             1.5 kWH/ton-hr
                                       1.0 kWH/ton-hr             0.5 kWH/ton-hr
                                       Process
 The Cooling Tower Contract
• Require a minimum number of cycles
  of Concentration

• Have all meter reading reports part of
  responsibility

• Keep record on ton-hours of cooling
  vs. water use.
Other Ways to Reduce Use
  •   Energy Conservation
  •   Air-side Economizers
  •   Water-side Economizers
  •   Reuse of Waste Heat
  •   Drift Eliminators
  •   Pre-cooling
  •   Variable Frequency Drives
  •   Thermal Storage
       Boilers
         and
Water Heating Systems
   • Hot water conservation
   • Metering
   • Conductivity controls
     on steam boilers
   • Condensate return
          Alternate On-Site
          Sources of Water
•   Rainwater harvesting
•   Stormwater harvesting
•   Air conditioner condensate
•   Swimming pool filter backwash water
•   Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration
    (NF) reject water
•   Gray water
•   On-site treated wastewater systems
•   Foundation drain water
•   Others??????
     Where it can be used
•   irrigation,
•   green roofs,
•   cooling tower makeup water,
•   toilet and urinal flushing,
•   makeup for an ornamental pond/fountain
•   swimming pools,
•   laundry,
•   process use, and
•   aquifer recharge and wetlands
    maintenance.
   AMD Lantana Site
• Largest known rainwater/AC
  condensate harvesting project
• Used for irrigation and cooling
  tower makeup
• 1.3 Million Gallons
City Hall – Austin, Texas
                     New Bank of America
                     Tower in Manhattan


                     This LEED Platinum
                     project collects rainwater,
                     gray-water foundation
                     drain water and A/C
                     condensate water for
                     reuse in toilet flushing and
                     cooling tower makeup.
Cook+Fox Architect
   In Texas, rainwater
  harvesting and water
reuse systems are sales
       tax exempt
  Tax Code Section 151.355(1)
 provides an exemption for the
 recycling system if purchased.
Property Tax Exemptions
    Certain industrial and
  commercial water reuse and
 water conservation equipment
and installations can be exempt
from placement on the property
            tax roles.
  Metering and Sub-metering
• It is your measurement of what is going
  on

• It provides your history

• It lets you know when there are
  problems

• It verifies equipment operations
        What to Meter
• Each building on campus
• Cooling towers (makeup and blowdown
  for credits)
• Boiler makeup and condensate return
• Pools, spas and fountains
• Irrigation systems
• Major water using processes
Ranking of Possible Measures
Good
       1. Adjust equipment
       2. Modify equipment or install
          water saving devices
       3. Replace with more efficient
          equipment
       4. Water reuse/recycle
       5. Change to waterless process
Best
The Cheapest Water
You Will Ever Have
 Is The Water You
   Already Have!
Where Can We Go
   for Help?
         Tools Available
•   New Standards & Testing
•   EPA – Water Sense and Energy Star
•   Information and Publications
•   Technical Organizations
•   Water Efficiency Consulting Groups
•   Financial Assistance & Tax Breaks
• Governmental Initiatives
        Enough to make you
            turn Green
• US Green
  Building Council            • Project Green
•   http://www.usgbc.org/       Build
                              •   http://www.projectgreenbuild.org


• Green Globes                • Green Build
  Initiative                  •   http://www.greenbuild.co.uk

•   http://thegbi.org
                              • Green Guide for
• ASHRAE SPC 189                Health Care
  and 191                     •   http://www.gghc.org



                              • Build it Green
                              •   http://www.builditgreen.org
• Green Cleaning
•   http://www.greenbiz.com
The Bandwagon
     Effect
   Other Opportunities
• BOMA and other facility managers
  associations
• Hospitality organizations
• Trade Associations
  – Plumbers
  – HVAC (A/C and cooling towers)
  – Dental and Medical associations
  – Landscape associations
Professional Help
Help from the Private Sector

• Performance Contracting

• Shared Savings

• Technical assistance
  Training and Program
           Help
• Consulting to set up ICI program

• Training of employees

• Technical presentations to ICI
  water users

• Workshops
Utility ICI Programs
    • Marketing

    • Audits

    • Rebates

    • Codes
   H.W. (Bill) Hoffman, P.E.
H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC
        & Water Management
        9013 Texas Sun Drive
         Austin, Texas 78748
          Phone: 512-280-0199
           Mobil: 512-294-7193
      billhoffmantx@earthlink.net

				
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