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Alcoholism Powered By Docstoc
      Chapter 4
 Bonnie Cannon 2006

   Legal Drug
     Alcohol has been brewed by
      almost all societies
     Wine is a part of religious
     Culture that uses more alcohol
      more alcoholics
     ___ people of the American
      population drink
   Sedative –hypnotic drug
   One drink = 12 ounces of Alcohol
   Alcohol affects the neurotransmitters
    system in the brain and has an
    inflammatory effect on living tissue
   On an empty stomach absorption rate is
    40-60- minutes
   Women absorption occurs more rapidly
   Larger people or those who drink often
    require more alcohol to feel the effects

   The liver detoxifies about 95% of the
    alcohol out of the blood stream
   The organs absorb more of the
    alcohol than the bones .
   Alcohol is a cell poison. At high
    concentrations it interferes with
    normal cell metabolism and is toxic
    to many cells in the body, including
    the liver, heart, and nervous system

   The more the blood alcohol the
    greater the loss of capacity to
    function such as driving of other
    complex task
   Drivers are considered impaired
    if their blood alcohol is .04%

   An alcoholic is dependent upon
    alcohol. This dependence grows as
    the disease progresses.

   A person who abuses alcohol may
    not be dependent upon it but still
    drinks excessively. Even if you are
    not an alcoholic, abusing alcohol has
    negative results.

   Forty-one percent of 1,672
    motorcycle operators who died in
    single-vehicle crashes in 2004 had
    BAC levels of .08 g/dl or higher.

   Sixty percent of those killed in single-
    vehicle crashes on weekend nights
    had BAC levels of .08 g/dl or higher.
    (NHTSA, 2005
   The majority of those who reported alcohol-
    related DUI in the 12 months prior to a
    national survey are not alcohol dependent
    or alcohol abusers.

   In 2000, 37% of the Blacks,

   38% of the Hispanics,

   29% of Whites, 44% of the Native
    Americans/Alaskan Natives,

   39% of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders,

   22% of the Asians and 28% of those of
    Mixed race who report committing DUI in
    the past year are alcohol abusers or
    dependent; all the others who drove under
    the influence are not. (Caetano and
    McGrath, 2005)

   Beer is the drink of choice in
    most cases of heavy drinking,
    binge drinking, drunk driving and
    underage drinking. (Rogers and
    Greenfield, 1999)

   There is evidence that heavier
    drinkers prefer to drink at bars and
    other person's homes, and at
    multiple locations requiring longer
    driver distances.
   Young drivers have been found to
    prefer drinking at private parties,
    while older, more educated drivers
    prefer bars and taverns. (NHTSA,

   In 2004, 30 percent of all fatal
    crashes during the week were
    alcohol-related, compared to 51
    percent on weekends.

   For all crashes, the alcohol
    involvement rate was 5 percent
    during the week and 12 percent
    during the weekend. (NHTSA, 2005)

   For fatal crashes occurring from
    midnight to 3:00 AM, 77 percent
    involved alcohol in 2003.

   The next most dangerous time
    period for alcohol-related crash
    deaths were 9 PM to midnight (64
    percent of fatal crashes involved
    alcohol), followed by 3 AM to 6 AM
    (60 percent of fatal crashes involved

   A standard drink is defined as
    12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of
    wine, or 1.5 ounces of 72-proof
    distilled spirits, all of which
    contain the same amount of
    alcohol -- about .54
    ounces. (NHTSA, 2002)
   The speed of alcohol absorption
    affects the rate at which one
    becomes drunk. Unlike foods,
    alcohol does not have to be slowly

   As a person drinks faster than the
    alcohol can be eliminated, the drug
    accumulates in the body, resulting in
    higher and higher levels of alcohol in
    the blood. (Narcotic Education
    Foundation of America, 2002

   The rate of alcohol involvement in
    fatal crashes is more than 3 times as
    high at night as during the day (60
    percent vs. 18 percent).

   For all crashes, the alcohol
    involvement rate is 5 times as high at
    night (16 percent vs. 3
    percent). (NHTSA, 2005

   The average person metabolizes
    alcohol at the rate of about one drink
    per hour. Only time will sober a
    person up.

   Drinking strong coffee, exercising or
    taking a cold shower will not help.
    (Michigan State University, 2002)

   Impairment is not determined by
    the type of drink, but rather by
    the amount of alcohol ingested
    over a specific period of
    time. (IIHS, June 2003)

   The impact of alcohol involvement
    increases with injury severity.

   Alcohol-involved crashes accounted
    for 10 percent of property damage
    only crash costs, 21 percent of
    nonfatal injury crashes; and 46
    percent of fatal injury crash
    costs. (NHTSA, 2002)

   Alcohol-related fatalities are
    caused primarily by the
    consumption of beer (80
    percent) followed by liquor/wine
    at 20 percent. (Runge, 2002)

   Alcohol-related fatalities are
    caused primarily by the
    consumption of beer (80
    percent) followed by liquor/wine
    at 20 percent. (Runge, 2002)

   Beer is the drink most
    commonly consumed by people
    stopped for alcohol-impaired
    driving or involved in alcohol-
    related crashes. (IIHS, 2003)

   Alcohol is society's legal, oldest
    and most popular
    drug. (Narcotic Educational
    Foundation of America, 2002)

   Alcohol is closely linked with
    violence. About 40 percent of
    all crimes (violent and non-
    violent) are committed under the
    influence of alcohol. (Bureau of
    Justice Statistics, 1998)

   About three in every ten
    Americans will be involved in an
    alcohol-related crash at some
    time in their lives. (NHTSA,

   Alabama 1,131-Total deaths
   Due to Drinking 423
   Driving under the influence of alcohol or
    other drugs was listed as the greatest
    highway safety problem by the largest
    percentage of respondents (37 percent)--
    up from 29 percent in 2000-- followed by
    speeding (27 percent) and cell phones (19
   Most respondents (94 percent) cite driving
    under the influence of alcohol as a major
    highway safety problem, followed by
    driving under the influence of illegal drugs
    (87 percent) and aggressive drivers (83
Symptoms Of Alcohol Abuse
   The four known symptoms are:
   Craving: A strong need, or compulsion, to
   Impaired control: The inability to limit
    one’s drinking.
   Physical dependence: Withdrawal
    symptoms (nausea, sweating, shakiness,
    anxiety) when alcohol is stopped after a
    period of heavy drinking.
   Tolerance: The need for increasing
    amounts of alcohol in order to feel its
    effects. (Source: excerpt from Alcohol
    Abuse and Treatment: NWHIC)
Symptoms Of Alcohol Abuse
   This includes failure to meet major
    work, school, or family
    responsibilities; alcohol-related legal
    trouble; automobile crashes due to
    drinking; as well as a variety of
    medical problems.

   Under some circumstances,
    problems can result from even
    moderate drinking--for example,
    when driving, during pregnancy, or
    when taking certain medicines
Symptoms Of Alcohol Abuse
   How can you tell whether you may have a
    drinking problem? Answering the following
    four questions can help you find out:
   • Have you ever felt you should cut down
    on your drinking?
   • Have people annoyed you by criticizing
    your drinking?
   • Have you ever felt bad or guilty about
    your drinking?
   • Have you ever had a drink first thing in
    the morning (as an “eye opener”) to steady
    your nerves or get rid of a hangover?
Symptoms Of Alcohol Abuse
   One “yes” answer suggests a possible
    alcohol problem. If you answered “yes” to
    more than one question, it is highly likely
    that a problem exists. In either case, it is
    important that you see your doctor or other
    health care provider right away to discuss
    your answers to these questions. He or she
    can help you determine whether you have
    a drinking problem and, if so, recommend
    the best course of action. (Source: excerpt
    from Alcoholism Getting the
You may need help if

   Not everyone who drinks regularly
    has a drinking problem. You might
    want to get help if you:
   Drink to calm your nerves, forget
    your worries, or reduce depression
   Lose interest in food
   Gulp your drinks down fast
   Lie to try to hide your drinking habits
   Drink alone more often
Symptoms Of Alcohol Abuse

   Hurt yourself, or someone else, while
   Were drunk more than three or four
    times last year
   Need more alcohol to get "high"
   Feel irritable, resentful, or
    unreasonable when you are not
   Have medical, social, or financial
    problems caused by drinking
Symptoms of alcohol
intoxication include:
     Drunkenness
     Drowsiness
     Behavioral changes
     Poor judgement
     Coordination difficulty
     Difficulty standing
     Slurred speech
     Aggression
     Inappropriate sexual behavior
     Nystagmus
     Poor attention span
     Memory problems
     Stupor
     Coma
Facts About Alcoholics
   Alcoholism is a complex disorder with many
    pathways leading to its development.

   Genetic and other biological factors are likely
    involved in the emergence of alcohol dependence,
    along with cognitive, behavioral, temperament,
    psychological, and sociocultural factors.

   Alcohol use patterns, including alcohol abuse and
    alcohol dependence, are 'familial' in nature (cf.
    Heath et al., 1997; cf. Kendler, Heath, Neale,
    Kessler, & Eaves, 1992; Hesselbrock, 1995). \
   That is, similar styles of alcohol use and the
    presence of alcoholism are
Facts About Alcoholics
   often found within the same family, running
    from parent to child and across multiple
    generations of biologically related
    individuals. However, many other traits or
    behaviors, such as religious or political
    affiliation, which have little or no biological
    basis and, therefore, cannot be under
    heavy genetic control, also run in families.
   While genetic and other biological factors
    cannot fully explain the presence or
    absence of alcohol use disorders, their
    contribution to susceptibility for developing
    alcohol use problems appears to be