Hydrofoils and Chesapeake Bay Ferries by chenmeixiu

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									International Hydrofoil Society                                     11 March 2010
Mark Rice, P.E. & Jeanne Torstenson, P.E.
Hydrofoils and Chesapeake Bay Ferries




                                       Graphic from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
           Graphic from Google Earth

 Chesapeake Bay                             Growth Since 1986
                              Outline
   Early Ferry Transportation & Transition to Bridges
   John Smith Historic Waterway Trail
   Transportation Changes?
   Hydrofoil Ferries for Chesapeake Bay
   Technology Options for Reducing Hydrofoil Energy
    Consumption
                      BALTIMORE
                                            ROCK HALL

                         ANNAPOLI         KENT ISLAND
                            S
                         SHADY SIDE         ST. MICHAELS


                                                CAMBRIDGE

                         SOLOMONS/
                       LEXINGTON PARK


                                                     CRISFIELD
                                REEDVILLE

                                                        ONANCOC
                                                           K



                      WILLIAMSBUR                  CAPE CHARLES
                                        YORKTOWN
                            G
                                  HAMPTON
                                                   VA BEACH
                                      NORFOLK
Common 19th & 20th Century Ferry Routes
 1640 - 1952
Slower pace

No bridges

Lots of Time

No other choice

Alternative routes were
   very long
                                  19th Century

                                                                  Chesapeake Bay
                                                                      excursion
                                                                    steamboat the
                                                                     Emma Giles,
                                                                      circa 1890




1829: The Washington, Alexandria, and Baltimore Steam-packet Company was succeeded by
the Washington, Alexandria and Georgetown Steam –packet Company

1840: Baltimore Steam Packet Company is founded.
                      Early 20th Century




                                       Love Point Resort



Steamer Westmoreland at
  Love Point - 1910 - two
dollars for the car and driver
    - $0.50 per passenger




                                       Baltimore 1912
               Early 20th Century




                                  Steamboat Louise




Steamer Nellie White       Early 20th Century Steamer Routes
                           • Tolchester – Baltimore
                           • Baltimore – Love Point
                           • Annapolis – St Michaels
                           • Annapolis – Matapeake - Claiborne
Baltimore Harbor 1935
                       1930s Steamers




  Luxury Steamer President Warfield – Built for Chesapeake Bay
 Converted to a Troop Ship in WW II – Survived a torpedo attack
             Purchased as scrap – Renamed EXODUS
Covertly Carried 4,554 Illegal Jewish Emigrants to Palestine in 1947
                                          1928 - 1964


                                                            316’ M.V. North Hampton – 1948-1964
339’ S.S. Delmarva – 1933-1964




     339’ S.S. Virginia Lee – 1928-1964                  291’ S.S. Accomac – 1951-1964




  339’ S.S. Princess Anne – 1932-1964                   305’ M.V. Old Point Comfort – 1958-1964




                                                        327’ M.V. Virginia Beach – 1961-1964
358’ S.S. Pocahontas – 1941-1964
                           Two Fixed Crossings
   Chesapeake Bay Bridge
     – 4.35 miles
     – Opened 1952 / Second span 1973
     – $2.50 toll east bound only
     – State and Federal tax dollars (~$5B total in
       2010 dollars)
     – 2009: 65,000 trips/day on weekdays,
       95,000 trips on summer weekends
     – 2025: 85,000 trips/day on weekdays,
       135,000 trips on summer weekends
   Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel
     –   17.6 miles
     –   Opened 1964 / Second span 1999
     –   $12.00 toll south bound only
     –   Financed by state guaranteed revenue
         bonds (~$2.3B total in 2010 dollars)
     – Replaced ferry service (1930s–1964)
     – ~10,000 trips/day
Chesapeake Bay Bridge Summer
Congestion: 95,000 trips per day
     Bridge Is Now Over Capacity During Summer

• 60,000 avg. daily trips in 2004 -- 86,000 avg. daily trips in
  2025
• 11,000 people commute daily from the Eastern Shore to the
  Western Shore
• Eastern Shore will experience a growth spike in the next 30
  years on the order of 150%
• New bridge will cost $3B+ and is at least 15 years away




  Task Force on Traffic Capacity Across the Chesapeake Bay - Bridge Study Results
                          Puget Sound Comparison




                                          28 Vessels, 10 routes, 11 million cars + 26 million people per year
2 Bridges, 30 million vehicles per year
                              Outline
   Early Ferry Transportation & Transition to Bridges
   Captain John Smith Historic Waterway Trail
   Transportation Changes?
   Hydrofoil Ferries for Chesapeake Bay
   Hydrofoil Technical Advances
Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail




                        • National Park Service
                        • Authorized by Congress – 12/06
                        • Numerous Commercial Partners
                        • 150+ Designated Sites and Attractions
  Captain
John Smith
    Trail
 Maryland
 Points of
  Interest
Tributary Points of
     Interest
                       Chesapeake Bay
              An International Tourist Destination
   History
     – Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail
     – Washington, D.C.
     – Williamsburg & Jamestown
     – Baltimore & Annapolis
   Ecology
     – Estuary ecology walks and watercraft trips
     – Smithsonian Institution
     – 8 National Wildlife Refuges
   Entertainment
     – Water sports and Beaches
     – Baltimore – Washington attractions
     – Aquariums, Museums, Bicycle Trips
                              Outline
   Early Ferry Transportation & Transition to Bridges
   Captain John Smith Historic Waterway Trail
   Transportation Changes?
   Hydrofoil Ferries for Chesapeake Bay
   Hydrofoil Technical Advances
 Fast Ferry Energy Use (BTU/Passenger Mile)




           Fuel Efficiency - BTU/Passenger Statue Mile at 50% Load Fraction

   14000
                                                                              11788
   12000
   10000
    8000                                           6727        7145           42 kts
                           6253        6549
    6000       5123

    4000
    2000                                           34 kts      36 kts
                                       50 kts
                           37 kts
      0
               40 kts
            MAPC 250    MAPC 200     MAPC 149     FA Cat    SP Hydrofoil   JetFoil




Shaded values are estimates, Full Load Calm Sea
                           Not The Most Efficient Per Mile

.
                                    Energy Use per Passenger Mile
                       6000

                       5000
BTU/passenger-mile

                       4000

                       3000

                       2000

                       1000

                            0
                                              .




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                                      2008 Transportation Energy Data Book, US Department of Energy & Other Sources
        Rock Hall/Tolchester – Baltimore Passenger Ferry
             Ferry is VERY Efficient on a Per Passenger Trip Basis
Kent County residents going to Baltimore
    Shopping
    Hospitals and doctors
    Universities
    Concerts / museums / plays / restaurants / BSO
    Orioles / Ravens games
    Commute to higher paying jobs
    Connect to BWI, Amtrak, MARC, Greyhound
    Produce / seafood delivery to Baltimore
    School/club/retirement community tours & charters

Baltimore residents going to Kent County
    Museums / historic sites / antique shops
    Bicycle trips
    Bed and breakfasts / restaurants
    Marinas / boating
    Connecting transportation going to Atlantic coast
    Flexcar / Zipcar rental on the Eastern Shore
    School/club/retirement community trips
                                                          87 s. miles by road
    School/club/retirement community tours & charters     19 n. miles by ferry
         Transportation Tomorrow - Conjecture

   Short-haul vehicles
     – Electric car becomes dominant
         - 60 to 80 miles between charges
     – Highway & bridge congestion continue to grow
         - Commuter rail and ferry grow due to congestion & efficiency
         - Electric power “from the road” or new battery technology
                Electric cars move into the mid-haul market
   Mid-haul trips
     – Hybrid bio-diesel electric car for mid-range
     – More intermodal options for people who own only electric cars
         - Greater inter-city rail
         - Regional air travel with more efficient small aircraft
   Long-haul
     – Remains the purview of large airplanes which continue to get
       more efficient

            Market for Ferry Travel on the Chesapeake Returns
                              Outline
   Early Ferry Transportation & Transition to Bridges
   Captain John Smith Historic Waterway Trail
   Transportation Changes?
   Hydrofoil Ferries for Chesapeake Bay
   Hydrofoil Technical Advances
                 Waterways As Transportation Corridors
             Low-Cost Low-Impact Alternative to New Bridges
                      A Smart Growth Opportunity

   Small High-Speed Passenger Vessels - Frequent Service
     – Shallow draft (6.5 feet), 149-passengers
     – High quality, high speed (35-50 knots)
     – Rock Hall/Tolchester – Baltimore – Annapolis
     – Matapeake - Baltimore
     – St Michaels – Annapolis - Baltimore
     – Cambridge – Annapolis
     – Shady Side – Annapolis
     – Aberdeen – Baltimore – Betterton
     – Solomons - Honga
                     Mesh with Future Transportation Systems
   Ferry as an integral component of the total transportation system
   Baltimore side
     – Established local mass transit via MTA bus, light rail, taxi
     – Established connections to long-range transit
          - Connections to BWI
          - Connections to MARC train, Amtrak and intercity bus
   Eastern shore side
     – Connecting bus to the beach
     – Flexcar / Zipcar rentals
     – Private bus services
     – Feeder buses to the ferry
                                   Chesapeake Bay Passenger
                                           Hydrofoil




• 90 feet, 75 L.tons
• 7.5 ft / 5 ft drafts
• 20 ft Air Draft
• 26 foot beam
• Three strut hydrofoil
• Caterpillar C32 engines
• Sea state 3
• 37 or 50 knots variants
• Stern or side loading
• 149 passengers + luggage
• Fixed shallow-draft struts, Rolls Royce CPZ Drives
• USCG Subchapter T + IMO High Speed Code
                Chesapeake Passenger Ferry
   Market discriminator for Baltimore port cities (Baltimore,
    Annapolis, Cambridge, etc.)
     – Commuters
     – Tourism
   Smart Growth Development opportunities in Bay communities
     – Fosters alternative and intermodal transportation
     – Creates investment in town centers
     – Fosters Appropriate Economic development in small communities
   No expensive infrastructure required
   Energy efficient
   Flexible solution – not tied to road or bridge investments
     – Routes can be changed
     – Magnitude can be altered
   Enables travel on the John Smith Waterway
New York Markets
                                          New York Hydrofoil




• 90 feet, 75 L.tons
• 14 ft / 9 ft drafts
• 22 ft Air Draft
• 26 foot beam
• Three strut hydrofoil
• Caterpillar C32 engines
• Sea state 4
• 37 or 50 knots variants
• Stern or side loading
• 149 passengers + luggage
• Fixed shallow-draft struts, Rolls Royce CPZ Drives
• USCG Subchapter T + IMO High Speed Code
Resistance
New York Variant – Power vs Speed
Range and Endurance
                                          Open Ocean Routes




• 132 feet, 125 L.tons
• 16 ft / 8.5 ft drafts
• 32 ft Air Draft
• 24 foot beam
• Three strut hydrofoil
• Caterpillar C32 engines
• Sea state 4+
• 40 knots
• Stern or side loading
• 250 passengers + luggage
• Fixed shallow-draft struts, Rolls Royce CPZ Drives
• USCG Subchapter T + IMO High Speed Code
                 Open Water Markets




   UK - France
                                         Caribbean

Brazil                                Mediterranean

                 Asia
   Next Generation Hydrofoils?




Maritime Applied Physics Corporation – in the Fairfield Section of Baltimore City
                     Wing In Ground Effect Hydrofoil




                   +                              =

Limited speed             Good speed                        Good speed
Good seakeeping           Poor seakeeping                   Good seakeeping
Good control              Poor control                      Good control

                                                      Wing In Ground Effect
   25% reduction in fuel use per passenger mile
                                                        Hydrofoil (WIGH)
       relative to existing 40-knot ferries
                           Higher Speed WIGH Lift Regimes

               Buoyant Lift                      Aero/Hydro Lift
         100                                     Subcavitating
                                                           Hy
                                                             dro
                                                                foil
               Catamaran                                               Lift
         75    Hullborne -> Planing
                                                                   Dynamic Control
                                            Decreasing foil       + 65% of Total Lift
% Lift




         50                               lift with increased
                                          cavitation number
                                                                              35% of Total Lift
                                  g                         Lift
         25                   n in t                 ynamic
                            la Lif              Aerod
                          P                 WIG

                     10            20       30        40         50              60
                                        Speed (knots)
                                                                • Air Propulsion – Avoids Cavitation Limits on
    Combined Aero & Hydro Lift                                   Marine Propellers
       – Lift of ‘wing’ enables foil to operate at
         higher cavitation-free speeds                          • Deployable Buoyancy
       – Improved L/D                                               − Quiet approach
       – Low specific power                                         − Shallower draft
Wing In Ground Effect Hydrofoil
       Passenger Ferry

            Performance:

            Cruise Speed      40 kts
            Take Off Speed    25 kts
            Catamaran Mode 6 kts
            Propulsion Power 1400 hp

            Passengers      149
            Total Weight    110,000 lbs
Wind Tunnel Experiment

        Wind tunnel experiments were performed at
        the University of Maryland wind tunnel, as
        part of the MIPS program, to determine the
        aerodynamic characteristics of the hull
        shape.
                                                                 Total Lift & Drag
                                          110,000 lb. Wing In Ground Effect Hydrofoil

                     Velocity vs Hydrodynamic Lift, 110,000lb Hydrofoil                        Ve locity vs L/D, 110,000lb Hydrofoil
            120000                                                                   25
            100000

             80000                                                                               Hydrodynamic L/D
Lift, lbs




             60000                                                                               Aerodynamic L/D
                                                                                     20          Total L/D
             40000

             20000

                0
                     25         30          35           40         45    50         15
                                             Velocity, kts




                                                                               L/D
                                                                                     10

                    Velocity vs Hydrodynamic Drag, 110,000lb Hydrofoil
            14000
            12000                                                                    5
            10000
Drag, lbs




             8000
             6000
             4000                                                                    0
             2000                                                                         25        30             35      40          45   50
               0
                    25          30          35          40          45    50
                                                                                                               Velocity, kts
                                             Velocity, kts
WIGH
                       Summary
               Chesapeake Bay Ferry System

 East-West travel is increasing
 
 Existing bridge infrastructure has
 
   reached capacity during summer
 East-West travel is fuel and carbon
 
   intensive due to North-South
   distances to the bridge
 East-West passenger passenger
 
   ferry routes can reduce energy use
   and carbon emissions
 Hydrofoil technology offers the
 
   lowest fuel use and carbon
   emissions
 If developed with public leadership,
 
   “smart growth” and environmental
   objectives can be honored
 Fosters tourism on the John Smith
 
   National Waterway Trail
                                         Red areas indicate development since 1986
                                         Data compiled by Scott Goetz, Woods Hole Research Center, as
                                         published in the Washington Post, 8 August 2004
Backup Slides
Canton – Rock Hall
Rock Hall
Rock Hall
Canton Berth
Fells Point to Ft Mc Henry Buoy
   (6 knot speed restriction)
Fells Point
H&S Properties to Ft Mc Henry Buoy
Inner Harbor to Ft McHenry Buoy
Baltimore – Rock Hall - Annapolis
Possible Annapolis Berth
Annapolis – Saint Michaels
St. Michaels
Aberdeen - Annapolis
Aberdeen – Rock Hall
Aberdeen
Bainbridge – Aberdeen - Betterton
Aberdeen - Betterton
Betterton
Bainbridge / Port Deposit
Annapolis - Crisfield
Crisfield
Annapolis – Kent Island
Matapeake

								
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