hydrofracking bharat bham by suchenfz

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									HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
  HYDRO FRACTURING
   HYDROFRACKING

  EPA RCRA CORRECTIVE ACTION WORKSHOP
              ROCKY GAP, MD
           NOVEMBER 8-10, 2010

               Presenters

        BHARAT BHAM, PADEP-NERO

     PAMELA TROWBRIDGE, PADEP-SCRO
WHAT IS HYDROFRACKING?
Hydraulic fracturing is a proven technology that has been used since the 1940s in
more than 1 million wells in the United States to help produce oil and natural gas.
The technology involves pumping a water-sand mixture into underground rock layers
where the oil or gas is trapped. The pressure of the water creates tiny fissures in the
rock. The sand holds open the fissures, allowing the oil or gas to escape and flow up
the well.
Is hydraulic fracturing widely used? Yes, and its use is likely to increase. A
government-industry study found that up to 80 percent of natural gas wells drilled in
the next decade will require hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing allows access to
formations, like shale oil and shale gas, that had not been assessable before without
the technology. It also allows more oil and natural gas be to be brought to the
surface from wells that had been produced without this technology.
Doesn’t hydraulic fracturing present a serious threat to the environment?
No. The environmental track record is good, and the technology is employed under
close regulatory supervision by state, local and federal regulators. Hydraulic
fracturing has been used in nearly one million wells in the United States and studies
by the U.S. EPA and the Ground Water Protection Council have confirmed no direct
link between hydraulic fracturing operations and groundwater impacts.
  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Who regulates hydraulic fracturing?

         There are multiple federal, state and local government rules addressing environmental protection
         during oil and gas operations, including the protection of water resources. These rules cover well
         permitting, well materials and construction, safe disposition of used hydraulic fracturing fluids,
         water testing, and chemical recordkeeping and reporting. In addition, API has created a guidance
         document on proper well construction and plans to release guidance documents outlining best-
         available practices for water use and management and protecting the environment during hydraulic
         fracturing operations.

Isn’t there a risk that hydraulic fracturing will use up an area’s water supplies? No.

         Local authorities control water use and can restrict it if necessary. In many areas, water is recycled
         and reused; in some cases companies pay for the water they use, which comes from a variety of
         sources. Water requirements for hydraulic fracturing are less than many other commercial and
         recreational uses. In Pennsylvania, for example, all the 2009 hydraulic fracturing activity used only
         5 percent of the amount of water used for recreational purposes, like golf courses and sky slopes.
         State agencies manage      water in a way that safeguards the water needs by nearby communities
         and protects the environment. Companies recycle and reuse much of the water.

Doesn’t hydraulic fracturing present a serious threat to the environment? No.

        The environmental track record is good, and the technology is employed under close regulatory
        supervision by state, local and federal regulators. Hydraulic fracturing has been used in nearly one
        million wells in the United States and studies by the U.S. EPA and the Ground Water Protection
        Council have confirmed no direct link between hydraulic fracturing operations and groundwater
        impacts.

How are the fluids kept away from aquifers and drinking water wells?

         Wells are drilled away from drinking water wells. Also, fracturing usually occurs at depths well
         below where usable groundwater is likely to be found. Finally, when a well is drilled, steel casing
         and surrounding layers of concrete are installed to provide a safe barrier to protect usable water .
           Simplified Steps In Hydraulic Fracturing


1. Water, sand and additives are pumped at extremely high pressures down the wellbore.
2. The liquid goes through perforated sections of the well bore and into the surrounding formation,
fracturing the rock and injecting sand or proppants into the cracks to hold them open.
3. Experts continually monitor and gauge pressures, fluids and proppants, studying how the sand reacts
when it hits the bottom of the well bore, slowly increasing the density of sand to water as the frac
progresses.
4. This process may be repeated multiple times, in “stages” to reach maximum areas of the well bore.
When this is done, the well bore is temporarily plugged between each stage to maintain the highest water
pressure possible and get maximum fracturing results in the rock.
5. The frac plugs are drilled or removed from the well bore and the well is tested for results.
6. The water pressure is reduced and fluids are returned up the well bore for disposal or treatment and re -
use, leaving the sand in place to prop open the cracks and allow the gas to flow.
     Common Hydraulic Fracturing Equipment
Although hydraulic fracturing, or fracing, operations take a relatively short amount of time to complete, the
process requires the use of advanced technology and a variety of equipment. From data monitoring to frac


blenders and pumps, this highly developed and monitored process involves a flurry of activities
Example of Typical Deep Shale Fracturing Mixture Makeup
             Example of Typical Deep Shale Fracturing Mixture Makeup



 Product         Main Ingredient                           Purpose                                           Other Common Uses
 Category

Water                                   Expand fracture and deliver sand                 Landscaping and manufacturing
                      99.5%
Sand                water & sand        Allows the fractures to remain open so the gas   Drinking water filtration, play sand, concrete and brick mortar
                                        can escape

Other          approximately 0.5%

Acid           Hydrochloric acid or     Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in   Swimming pool chemical and cleaner
               muriatic acid            the rock

Antibacteria   Glutaraldehyde           Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces   Disinfectant; Sterilizer for medical and dental equipment
l agent                                 corrosive by-products

Breaker        Ammonium persulfate      Allows a delayed break down of the gel           Used in hair coloring, as a disinfectant, and in the manufacture
                                                                                         of common household plastics

Corrosion      n,n-dimethyl             Prevents the corrosion of the pipe               Used in pharmaceuticals, acrylic fibers and plastics
inhibitor      formamide

Crosslinker    Borate salts             Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature         Used in laundry detergents, hand soaps and cosmetics
                                        increases

Friction       Petroleum distillate     “Slicks” the water to minimize friction          Used in cosmetics including hair, make-up, nail and skin
reducer                                                                                  products

Gel            Guar gum or              Thickens the water in order to suspend the       Thickener used in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream,
               hydroxyethyl cellulose   sand                                             toothpaste, sauces and salad dressings

Iron control   Citric acid              Prevents precipitation of metal oxides           Food additive; food and beverages; lemon juice ~7% citric acid

Clay           Potassium chloride       Creates a brine carrier fluid                    Used in low-sodium table salt substitute, medicines and IV
stabilizer                                                                               fluids

pH
               Sodium or potassium      Maintains the effectiveness of other             Used in laundry detergents, soap, water softener and
adjusting
               carbonate                components, such as crosslinkers                 dishwasher detergents
agent

Scale          Ethylene glycol          Prevents scale deposits in the pipe              Used in household cleansers, de-icer, paints and caulk
inhibitor

Surfactant     Isopropanol              Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture   Used in glass cleaner, multi-surface cleansers, antiperspirant,
                                        fluid                                            deodorants and hair color
In addition to water and sand, other additives are used in fracturing fluids to allow fracturing to
be performed in a safe and effective manner. Additives used in hydraulic fracturing fluids include a
number of compounds found in common consumer products.

Example of Typical Deep Shale Fracturing Mixture Makeup
A representation showing the percent by volume composition of typical deep shale gas hydraulic
fracture components (see graphic) reveals that more than 99% of the fracturing mixture is
comprised of freshwater and sand. This mixture is injected into deep shale gas formations and is
typically confined by many thousands of feet of rock layers.

Fracturing Ingredients Product Category Main Ingredient Purpose Other Common Uses Water
water & sand Expand fracture and deliver sand Landscaping and manufacturing Sand Allows the
fractures to remain open so the gas can escape Drinking water filtration, play sand, concrete and
brick mortar Acid Hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in
the rock Swimming pool chemical and cleaner Antibacterial agent Glutaraldehyde Eliminates
bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-products Disinfectant; Sterilizer for medical and
dental equipment Breaker Ammonium Persulfate Allows a delayed break down of the gel Used in
hair coloring, as a disinfectant, and in the manufacture of common household plastics Corrosion
inhibit iron, N-Dimethyl Formamide Prevents the corrosion of the pipe Used in pharmaceuticals,
acrylic fibers and plastics Cross linker Borate salts Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature
increases Used in laundry detergents, hand soaps and cosmetics Friction reducer Petroleum
distillate “Slicks” the water to minimize friction Used in cosmetics including hair, make -up, nail
and skin products Gel Guar gum or Hydroxyethyl cellulose Thickens the water in order to suspend
the sand Thickener used in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, sauces and salad
dressings Iron control Citric acid Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Food additive; food and
beverages; lemon juice ~7% citric acid Clay stabilizer Potassium chloride Creates a brine carrier
fluid Used in low-sodium table salt substitute, medicines and IV fluids pH adjusting agent Sodium
or potassium carbonate Maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as cross linkers
Used in laundry detergents, soap, water softener and dishwasher detergents Scale inhibitor
Ethylene glycol Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Used in household cleansers, de -icer, paints
and caulk Surfactant Isopropanol Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid Used in glass
cleaner, multi-surface cleansers, antiperspirant, deodorants and hair color
What Is Marcellus Shale?
Marcellus Shale is a geological formation that was formed by the accumulation of sediment into a sea. This formation was
eventually buried over many thousands of years and compressed to produce an organic-rich black shale. This geological
formation, which dates back to the Devonian time period , stretches from the Northeast to the Southwest in direction. The
Marcellus starts at the base of the Catskills in upstate New York, stretches across the upstate toward Marcellus, New York (t he
town from which the formation is named) and southwest to West Virginia, Kentucky, and Ohio. The Marcellus Shale is known to
be deeper on the southeast edge of the formation that borders the ridge and valley regions of New York, Pennsylvania,
Maryland, and West Virginia. The Marcellus gets more shallow as it heads Northwest towards Ohio and Lake Erie.

Why Now?
Although throughout the geological world, Marcellus Shale has been identified as potentially rich in fossil fuels, it was not until
recently that the industry has invested into exploration in Marcellus. Two factors are clearly present in the ramp up in
exploration and production (E&P) activities related to Marcellus Shale. First, the success of the Barnett Shale play in North
Central Texas has allowed companies to transfer the hydrofracturing technology to other areas, such as the Fayetteville Shale
play (Arkansas), Haynesville Shale play (Louisiana and Eastern Texas), and the Marcellus Shale play. Second, the population
centers of Northeastern U.S. are very close in proximity to the Marcellus Shale. This improves the economic conditions of the
play because the demand for natural gas from this region is high; there are also costs associated with the transportation of
natural gas so the close proximity will result in lower transportation costs.

What Does the Future of Marcellus Hold?
As America demands more and more energy, the role that natural gas will play in that demand is uncertain. One thing that is
certain is the Marcellus play is shaping up to be a key supplier for domestic natural gas. Impacts from this industry are
uncertain as well. Historically, the energy industry has gone through times of "boom and bust" and is driven by the economica l
conditions present across the nation. The industry is also known for paying a higher wage, on average, compared to an
equivalent manufacturing job. One thing that is not uncertain, although, is that the natural gas industry associated with
Marcellus Shale exploration will give the nation another source to potentially reduce the intake of foreign supplies of natural
gas.
The Lifespan of Marcellus Shale
The natural gas development process was divided into three phases (called pre -drilling, drilling, and production), and the
distinct occupational categories that comprise the workforce requirements for each phase were identified. This process was
relatively straightforward, as all major occupations were listed and further separated by the distinct educational and traini ng
requirements when possible .
MAP OF GAS EXPLORATION IN THE SHALE FORMATION IN THE USA
              WHY IS HYDRAULIC FRACTURING IMPORTANT?



   Application of hydraulic fracturing techniques, to increase oil and gas
 recovery, is estimated to account for 30 percent of U.S. recoverable oil and
gas reserves and has been responsible for the addition of more than 7 billion
  barrels of oil and 600 trillion cubic feet of natural gas to meet the nation’s
                                   energy needs
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

Doesn’t hydraulic fracturing present a serious threat
to the environment?
No. The environmental track record is good, and the
technology is employed under close regulatory supervision
by state, local and federal regulators. Hydraulic fracturing
has been used in nearly one million wells in the United
States and studies by the U.S. EPA and the Ground Water
Protection Council have confirmed no direct link between
hydraulic fracturing operations and groundwater impacts.
How are the fluids kept away from aquifers and
drinking water wells? Wells are drilled away from
drinking water wells. Also, fracturing usually occurs at
depths well below where usable groundwater is likely to be
found. Finally, when a well is drilled, steel casing and
surrounding layers of concrete are installed to provide a
safe barrier to protect usable water.
                          Making Hydrofracking Safer

Hydrofracking – The key to obtaining substantial yields of natural gas from wells drilled
into hard shale rock has been used for many years throughout the US, Canada and many
other countries.
In recent years, as the technology has evolved, it has also become controversial in some
areas.

While EPA and regional governmental bodies are trying to optimize the risks versus
returns and with consideration to US Energy Security new technologies are starting to
emerge to deal with some of the potential problems.

One issue which is starting to be addressed is the presence of Radium and other
Radionuclides in Fracking Backflow Water.
When rock is fractured deep beneath the ground there is often a certain amount of
Radium present.
Radium is a decay product of Uranium which was present in the rock hundreds of millions
of years ago.

                                 EPA REQUIREMENTS

What is required by the EPA?
Right now the EPA (Environmental Protection Administration) is engaged in a complete
review of Hydrofracking technology throughout the United States. The goal is to make
sure that best practices can be developed to minimize danger while Hydrofracking
evolves.
EPA establishes allowable limits for radioactive nuclides in Backflow water. At present
these limits are being re-evaluated and will likely be lowered.
Facts & Figures About Natural Gas
Natural gas, including unconventional shale gas resources, fuels our economy, delivers heat and power to over 60 million U.S. homes and provides
our nation with a clean-burning, domestic energy source. According to a Massachusetts Institute of Technology study released in June 2010, natural
gas is expected to double its share of the energy market, from 20 percent to 40 percent by 2050, making the development of th is vital resource
increasingly important to our nation’s future energy.
Natural gas is essential to America's manufacturers, not only to power their operations, but also as a feedstock for many of the daily products we
use—clothing, carpets, sports equipment, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment, computers, and auto parts. It is also a primary feedstock for
chemicals, plastics and fertilizers.
Over the past few years, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have unlocked the promise of natural gas in tight rock
formations—sandstone in the intermountain West and shale throughout the central and eastern U.S.—and have led to a natural gas boom in several
areas of the country.
Improvements in technology and application of science have contributed to an 8 percent increase in U.S. natural gas production between 2007 and
2008, through development of tight shales and sandstones which, not all that long ago, were considered impractical or uneconomical to pursue.
Among the first targets was the Barnett shale deposit in northern Texas. As a result of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, the Barnett Shale
now produces over 7 percent of America’s natural gas, enough to power 20 million homes per year. Operators are able to drill underneath Fort
Worth from miles outside the city limits with directional drilling.
Success in the Barnett after years of drilling led to the application of lessons in technology and science that shortened the learning curve for
development of emerging plays like the Fayetteville Shale in Arkansas, the Haynesville Shale in Louisiana and the Marcellus S hale in the
northeastern United States. A recent EIA report noted that U.S. proven natural gas reserves rose 3 percent in 2008, and shale gas reserves rose an
astonishing 51 percent over 2007.
New resources have helped to increase natural gas supplies and improve U.S. energy security. They have also encouraged discussions about
America's abundant natural gas as a clean, bridge fuel to the nation's energy future.
Natural gas has many uses:
Meets 24 percent of U.S. energy requirements.
Heats 51 percent of U.S. households.
Cools homes and provides fuel for cooking.
Provides the energy source or raw material to make a wide range of products, such as plastics, steel, glass, synthetic fabric s, fertilizer, aspirin,
automobiles and processed food.
Natural gas demand is growing:
Americans used 23.2 trillion cubic feet of it in 2008.
Natural gas supplies about 64.9 million residential customers and 5.5 million commercial and industrial customers in 2007.
It powers nearly 120,000 vehicles operating on American roads.
Supply:
At the end of 2008, U.S. natural gas reserves stood at 244.7 trillion cubic feet—the highest level in over 30 years.
The United States produced 20.6 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas in 2008—about 88 percent of U.S. consumption.
Most natural gas used in the United States comes from North America.
Hydraulic fracturing is a proven technology that has been used since the 1940s in more than 1 million wells in the United States to help produce o il
and natural gas. The technology involves pumping a water-sand mixture into underground rock layers where the oil or gas is trapped. The pressure
of the water creates tiny fissures in the rock. The sand holds open the fissures, allowing the oil or gas to escape and flow up the well.
Is hydraulic fracturing widely used? Yes, and its use is likely to increase. A government-industry study found that up to 80 percent of natural
gas wells drilled in the next decade will require hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing allows access to formations, lik e shale oil and shale gas, that
had not been assessable before without the technology. It also allows more oil and natural gas be to be brought to the surfac e from wells that had
been produced without this technology.
Doesn’t hydraulic fracturing present a serious threat to the environment? No. The environmental track record is good, and the technology is
employed under close regulatory supervision by state, local and federal regulators. Hydraulic fracturing has been used in nea rly one million wells in
the United States and studies by the U.S. EPA and the Ground Water Protection Council have confirmed no direct link between h ydraulic fracturing
operations and groundwater impacts.
    RESOURCES AND LINKS TO IMPORTANT INFORMATION

 http://www.api.org/policy/exploration/upload/Hydraulic_Fracturing

       http://www.hydraulicfracturing.com/Pages/information

http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/class2/hydraulicfracturing

                      http://www.msetc.org/

                      http://strongerinc.org/

        http://www.marcellus.psu.edu/resources/maps.php

              http://live.psu.edu/tag/Marcellus_shale

                http://extension.psu.edu/naturalgas

                  http://www.wpsu.org/gasrush/

                  http://www.marcellus-shale.us/
                    WHAT THE
                    HECK IS
    DO YOU KNOW       HE          FORGET ABOUT
   ANYTHING ABOUT   TALKING    HYDROFRAC CRAP I AM
     HYDROFRAC      ABOUT I    HUNGRY AND LET TAKE
                    AM LOST          A BREAK




       THANK YOU
QUESTIONS OR CONCERNS?

								
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