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Western Settlement and Immigration

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					Western Settlement
 and Immigration
      What four factors fueled
       American growth and
    expansion in the late 19th and
        early 20th centuries?


•   1) Economic opportunity
•   2) Industrialization
•   3) Technological change
•   4) Immigration
 What four factors influenced
    American growth and
 expansion in the late 19th and
     early 20th centuries?
• 1) Westward movement
• 2) Immigration
• 3) Growth of cities
• 4) Admission of new states
 Into what western region did
 settlement increase after the
          Civil War?


• Between the Mississippi
  River and the Pacific Ocean
   When was the era of the
    American cowboy?


• Years right before and right
  after the Civil War
     During the era of the
American cowboy, what was
the reason for the long cattle
 drives over unfenced open
      land in the West?

• It was the only way to get
  cattle to market
   What three cities in the
 Midwest became centers of
 the meatpacking industry in
    the late 19th century?

• Chicago
• Omaha
• Kansas City
What was the Homestead Act
         of 1862?


• Gave free public land in the
  western territories to settlers
  who would live on and farm
  the land
According to the SOLs, who
 moved west to seek new
    opportunities after
      the Civil War?

• Southerners
• Especially African-
  Americans
   What does one call the
  African-Americans who in
1879 and 1880 moved from the
  South to Kansas to escape
       racial violence?

• The Exodusters
 What two new technologies
opened new lands in the West
  for settlement and made
     farming profitable?

• Railroads
• Mechanical reaper
What crop did the mechanical
      reaper harvest?


• Wheat
  By 1900, what parts of the
American West had gone from
 unsettled frontier to regions
of farms, ranches, and towns?

• The Great Plains
• The Rocky Mountains
   What happened to the
American Indians as settlers
continued to move west from
       1865 to 1900?

• American Indians were
  forced off their ancestral
  lands
 What did the Dawes Act
         attack?


• Traditional Indian ways
   What federal law first
     offered American
  citizenship to Indians?


• The Dawes Act
      When was the Old
       Immigration?


• Before 1880
• SOLs say “prior to 1871”
   From what region of the
 world did immigrants come
 during the Old Immigration?


• Northern and Western
  Europe
From what countries did the
immigrants come during the
    Old Immigration?
• Germany
• Great Britain
• Ireland
• Norway
• Sweden
   What is the best way to
remember the most important
     groups of the Old
       Immigration?
• BIG:
• British
• Irish
• Germans
     When was the New
       Immigration?


• 1880-World War I
• SOLs say “the half-century
  from 1871 until 1921)
From what region of the world
   did the New Immigrants
            come?


• Southern and Eastern
  Europe
From what countries did the
immigrants come during the
    New Immigration?
• Italy
• Greece
• Poland
• Russia
• Present-day Hungary
• Former Yugoslavia
   What is the best way to
remember the most important
    groups of the New
       Immigration?
• RIP:
• Russians
• Italians
• Poles
   Do the SOLs put Asian
    immigration in the Old
   Immigration or the New
       Immigration?

• New Immigration
What two Asian countries do
the SOLs include in the New
       Immigration?

• China
• Japan
 Why did immigrants come to
  America during the New
        Immigration?

• Freedom (political and
  religious)
• Better lives for their families
  (economic opportunity)
How did Chinese immigrants
 contribute to the industrial
    growth of America?


• Helped build the
  Transcontinental Railroad
 Where did immigrants work
 in the Northeast during the
         late 1800s?


• Textile mills
• Steel mills
    In what industry did
immigrants work in New York
   City in the late 1800s?

• Clothing industry
 What groups worked in the
coal mines of the East during
       the late 1800s?

• Slavs
• Italians
• Poles
Describe the pay and working
     conditions of most
 immigrants in the late 19th
          century.

• Low pay
• Dangerous working
  conditions
 Where did most European
 immigrants enter America
during the New Immigration?

• Through Ellis Island in New
  York harbor
  What was the first view of
  America of the European
  immigrants who entered
    through Ellis Island?

• The Statue of Liberty
   What theory says late 19th
century immigrants were quickly
  assimilated (absorbed) into
       American culture?

• The “Melting Pot” thesis
 Where in the growing cities
 did the “new immigrants”
        often settle?

• In ethnic neighborhoods
      What are ethnic
      neighborhoods?


• Neighborhoods of people
  from the same country or
  culture
According to the “melting pot”
    thesis, what American
institution served an essential
     role in the process of
 assimilating immigrants into
       American society?

• Public schools
What types of hardship and
hostility did late 19th century
  immigrants often face?
• Fear and resentment that
  immigrants would take jobs
  for lower pay than native
  born Americans
• Religious and cultural
  prejudice
    What two laws limited
  immigration to the United
          States?

• Chinese Exclusion Act of
  1882
• Immigration Restriction Act
  of 1921
       What cities grew rapidly as
          manufacturing and
    transportation centers in the late
              19th century?
•   Chicago
•   Detroit
•   Cleveland
•   Pittsburgh
•   New York
  What provided jobs in the
  large cities during the late
         19th century?

• Factories
Where did workers often live
in the large cities of the late
        19 th century?




• Tenements
• Slums
    What are tenements?



• Run-down, low rental
  apartment buildings
What shortages were created
by the rapid growth of cities
  in the late 19th century?


• Housing shortages
  What new public services
were needed as a result of the
 rapid growth of cities in the
      late 19th century?

• Sewage systems
• Water systems
• Public transportation
 What American city was one
  of the first cities to begin
  construction of a subway
system around the turn of the
        20th century?

• New York City
      What type of public
  transportation system did
 many American cities build at
 the turn of the 20th century?


• Trolley or streetcar lines
 As the American population
  moved westward after the
Civil War, in what two regions
were many new states added
     to the United States?

• The Great Plains
• The Rocky Mountains
  By the early 20thcentury,
   what states had been
   admitted to the United
          States?

• All 48 states that make up
  the continental United States
What is the continental United
           States?


• All the states between the
  Atlantic Ocean and the
  Pacific Ocean

				
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