Automotive Vehicle

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Oswego Update Project
A Graduate Research Project
Updating Course Outlines in Technology Education

June 2004


“Automotive Technology”
(formerly “Automotives”)

                                  In collaboration with:




Developer:

Mr. Kenneth Goodsell, Graduate Research, SUNY – Oswego, kgoodsell@rhnet.org

Project Directors:

Dr. William Waite, Professor, SUNY-Oswego, waite@oswego.edu
Mr. Eric Suhr, Laisson, New York State Education Department, esuhr@mail.nysed.gov

Content Consultants:

Mr. Roger Powers, SUNY Morrisville, powersrw@morrisville.edu
Mr. John Conti, West Irondequoit High Schools, JConti@westirondequoit.monroe.edu
Mr. Chris Stahl, Fairport High School, chris stahl@fairport.monroe.edu




                                                                     Digitally available at
                                                                  www.oswego.edu/~waite
                                                                                                    2


                                              Forward

The “Oswego Update Project” is a collaboration between SUNY Oswego and the NYS Education
Department to refresh and modernize existing Technology Education course outlines. New York
State Learning Standards will be identified and organized.

The original work was a NYSED initiative during the transformation from Industrial Arts to
Technology Education in the 1980s. These courses have proven to be very popular and most
durable for the profession. In fact, many have been used as course models in other states.

Hundreds of sections are offered in New York state each year, according to the Basic Educational
Data System (BEDS). However, the objectives need to be revisited with a current eye,
successful teaching strategies need to be surveyed in the field, bibliographies should be updated,
and Internet resources added, as they were unavailable during the original project.

It is hoped that this graduate-level research endeavor will accomplish the following:

   provide a solid graduate research project for the developers involved (learning by doing)

   involve known, successful teachers as consultants to the process through a common
    interview template

   honor the work and dedication of the original writing teams

   refresh course objectives and teaching strategies

   forge a more uniform format between and among course outlines

   update the bibliography of each course to reflect the last ten years of literature review

   include Internet resources both useful as general professional tools, and as specific content
    enhancement

   develop an index showing how NYS M/S/T standards are accomplished for each course
    objective

     The result will be an enhancement for graduate students at SUNY-Oswego, NYSED
implementation goals, and Technology Education teachers in New York state. Course outlines
will be digitally reproduced and made available through appropriate Internet and electronic media.



                                                  Dr. William Waite, Professor
                                                  SUNY Oswego, Dept. of Technology
                                                  School of Education
                                                                                                      3


                                       Overview of the Course

Course Goals
                                                          th
To introduce and educate students about one of the 20 centuries greatest inventions, the
automobile. Students will learn how this invention changed lives and helped a nation grow.
Students will also understand the basic systems with in an automobile and how they can be
individually diagnosed and repaired.

Course Description

This course will introduce students to the history, evolution and systems of the automobile.
Students will be introduced to mechanical systems with in the modern automobile. Students will
also learn the different automotive systems within an automobile.

Automotive Technology is continually changing due to advances in other technological fields.
This course will help students understand how mechanical and electrical systems work through
hands-on labs and projects. Knowledge in these automotive systems will prepare students for
real life problem solving. This course should reflect a combination of older technology and the
latest tool and equipment available to automotive diagnosis.

This course could vary due to the lab and budget of the school. This curriculum is written in a
format that allows for flexibility within the curriculum, while still meeting the objectives of the
course.


Course Skills, Knowledge, and Behaviors to be Developed

Students will develop skills in the use of modern automotive hand and power tools, as well as
show a cognitive understanding of the various systems of an automobile. Students will be
expected to show safe work skills and over professionalism. When this source is completes
students will understand how an automobile works, be able to diagnose basic problems with in an
automobile, and identify if an automobile is safe for the road.
                                                                   4


                                      Content Outline


MODULE 1: Introduction to Automotive Technology

    1.1:      History of the Automobile
              1.1.1. Horse to horseless carriage
              1.1.2. What was the need for the automobile

    1.2:      Changing a Nation
              1.2.1. Impacts on society
              1.2.2. Economic impacts
              1.2.3. Environmental Impacts

MODULE 2:     Chassis

       2.1.   Changing engine oil
              2.1.1. Identifying type and quantity
              2.1.2. Completing a change
              2.1.3. Evaluate used oil condition

       2.2:   Fluid Level Check
              2.2.1. Oil level check
              2.2.2. Coolant level check
              2.2.3. Brake fluid level check
              2.2.4. Washer fluid level check

       2.3:   Automotive Brake Systems
              3.2.1. Identification of system types
              3.2.2. Diagnosis of Problems
              3.2.3. Disassembly and repair

       2.4:   Tire change
              2.4.1. Flat Tire change
              2.4.2. Change and balance tires on rim

MODULE 3:     Automotive Systems - Mechanical Parts

       3.1:   Internal combustion engine
              3.1.1. Four stroke cycle
                       3.1.1.1. Gas Piston Engine
                       3.1.1.2. Diesel Engine
                       3.1.1.3 Wankel Engine

       3.2:   Cooling System
              3.2.1. Operation
              3.2.2. Maintenance of the system
              3.2.3. Diagnosis of cooling problems

       3.3:   Charging System
              3.2.1. Identification of types of charging systems
              3.2.2. Testing for problems
              3.2.3 Replace or repair of system components

       3.4:   Fuel system
                                                                         5


                3.4.1   Operation
                3.4.2   Diagnosis of Problems
                3.4.3   Replace or repair of system components

         3.5 Ignition system
                3.5.1 Operation
                3.5.2 Diagnosis of Problems
                3.5.3 Replace or repair of system components

         3.6 Emission system
               3.6.1 Operation
               3.6.2 Diagnosis of Problems
               3.6.3 Replace of repair of system, components

MODUAL 4:       Automotive tune-ups and repair

         4.1:   Checking for problems
                4.1.1. Spark plugs
                4.1.2. Vacuum testing
                4.1.3. Compression testing
                4.1.4. Leak down testing

         4.2:   Determining cost of repair or replace
                4.2.1. Replacing pieces or component

MODUAL 5:       Computer/Electronic Evaluation

         5.1:   EEC Computer control system
                5.1.1. Explanation of system
                5.1.2. Identification of components and their function
                5.1.3 Diagnosis using scan tool.

MODUAL 6:       Automotive performance

         6.1:   Camshaft technology
                6.1.1. Operation
                6.1.2. Modification pros/cons

         6.2:   Forced Induction
                6.1.1. Superchargers
                        6.2.1.1 Operation
                        6.2.1.2 Types of superchargers
                        6.1.2.3. Pros/cons

                6.2.2. Turbochargers
                        6.2.2.1 Operation
                        6.2.2.2 Types of superchargers
                        6.2.2.3 Pros/cons

   6.3          Nitrous Oxide
                        6.3.1   What is NOS
                        6.3.2   Pros/Cons

MODUAL 7:       Consumerism

         7.1    Buying a car
                                                  6


      7.1.1   New or used
      7.1.2   Trends
      7.1.3   Financing

7.2   Selling a car
      7.2.1 How to get the most from your car

7.3   NYS Inspection
      7.3.1 Knowing what the mechanics look for
      7.3.2 Fixing the car before you go.
                                                                                                  7


                                              Module 1
                              Introduction to Automotive Technology

In this unit students will gain an understanding of how and why the automobile was created and
the affect it has had on our lives.


                        Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies


Students will be able to:


     a.      Define Automotive Technology
     b.      Describe technological advances which have improved the automobile
     c.      List historical events that changed the automobile.
     d.      Name key figures involved with the invention and improvement of the automobile
     e.      Analyze the affects of living without the automobile.
     f.      Describe how important the automobile is.
     g.      List key ideas that make the automobile a valuable asset
     h.      Name cultures that live without the use of the automobile.
     i.      List the affects the automobile had on early 1900’s America
     j.      Describe how these affects speed up the technological advancement in America.
     k.      Introduction to Automotive Technology List the positive and negative impacts the
             automobile had on the US economy
     l.      List the negative affects the automobile hat on pollution
     m.      Discuss if the positive attributes created by the automobile outweigh the negative
             attributes of pollution caused by the automobile.


                            Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies


    a. Internet research on key figures in automotive history.
    b. Worksheet on positive and negative effects of the automobile.
    c. Discuss life in early 1900’s America and describe ways the automobile changed this
       lifestyle
    d. Group students to research how specific cities changed or were created due to the
       automobile
                                                                                                  8


                                            Module 2
                                            Chassis

In this unit students will be introduced to the components which make up an automotive chassis.
They will understand each of its components and how to make checks and repairs.



                        Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies


Students will be able to:


    a. Explain where to look up information pertaining to oil specifications for any car.
    b. Demonstrate the ability to successfully obtain the correct material needed to perform and
        oil change
    c. Explain the procedure for changing the oil in a lab car.
    d. Demonstrate the ability to properly change oil in a lab car.
    e. Safely dispose of used motor oil.
    f. Identify the type of brake fluid being used in a vehicle
    g. Check for low level
    h. Detect if the fluid had gone bad.
    i. Demonstrate the ability to properly and safely modify the brake fluid in a lab vehicle.
    j. Identify where to add washer fluid in a variety of lab vehicles.
    k. Explain why washer fluid is a safety concern.
    l. Safely prepare a car for a tire change
    m. Demonstrate the ability to change a flat tire using both in lab and in car tools.
    n. Safely dismount and remount a tire on a rim using a pneumatic tire machine
    o. Describe the difference between disk and drum brakes.
    p. Perform checks to determine if brakes need to be replaced.
    q. Demonstrate the ability to safely change both drum and disk brakes on a lab vehicle
    r. Apply knowledge learned from lab activity to other applications
    s. Describe the difference between disk and drum brakes
    t. List the pros and cons of each system
    u. Recognize the different systems on lab vehicles.
    v. List different problems that can occur in a brake system.
    w. Identify a problem in a lab vehicle
    x. Recommend a solution
    y. Safely perform diagnosis of brake type and problem
    z. Assess best fix to problem
    aa. Change brake pads/shoes, rotor/drum




                            Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies

    a.   Bring student car into lab for demonstration to gain interest.
    b.   Challenge students to find faults with lab car, give prize.
    c.   Handouts showing and describing how to identify the different components.
    d.   Show pictures of what can happen if safety practices are not upheld.
    e.   Team students for lab activity
                                                                                                      9


                                             Module 3
                                         Automotive systems

In this unit students will be introduced to the different systems with an automobile. Students will
gain an understanding of how each system works and how to diagnose problems when they
occur.



                          Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies


Students will be able to:

    a.    List the four cycles of a gas engine
    b.    Describe technological advances which have improved the internal combustion engine
    c.    Differentiate between a gas and diesel engine
    d.    List the parts of a wankel engine
    e.    Describe how a wankel engine works.
    f.    Recognize similarities between a wankel and piston engine
    g.    Identify vehicles that use this engine
    h.    Apply knowledge to other applications
    i.    List the different parts of an automotive cooling system
    j.    Explain how each part functions
    k.    Point out what will happen if one part is missing
    l.    List the checks being performed
    m.    Identify Type of coolant being used
    n.    Perform a coolant system flush and change
    o.    Demonstrate proper use of a hydrometer
    p.    Record results
    q.    List the different charging systems
    r.    Identify and alternator and generator.
    s.    Explain the differences between and alternator and generator.
    t.    List possible problems
    u.    Identify problems on lab vehicles
    v.    Apply previously learned knowledge to new activity
    w.    Demonstrate ability to properly diagnose problem within charging system
    x.    Perform proper fix after diagnose of problem
    y.    Apply knowledge to other applications
    z.    List the four cycles of a diesel engine
    aa.   Describe how a diesel engine works
    bb.   Differentiate between a diesel and gas engine



                             Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies


    a.    PowerPoint presentation on different types of engines and how they work
    b.    Lab demonstration of the different engines and how they run.
    c.    Handouts showing and describing how to identify the different types of engines
    d.    PowerPoint presentation on the different systems of an automobile.
    e.    Lab demonstration of the different systems and how to check for problems.
    f.    Pair students into teams for lab activities on the different system checks and repairs.
    g.    Show students different electrical problems by melting down a demo alternator.
                                                                                                  10


                                            Module 4
                                 Automotive Tune-ups and Repair

In this unit students will apply knowledge about systems in the previous unit to understand why
keeping an engine in tune is important, and how to perform this task.



                        Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies


Students will be able to:


    a.   Identify automotive running conditions by spark plug condition
    b.   Demonstrate ability to properly gap and replace a sparkplug
    c.   Determine when it is time to change a sparkplug
    d.   Discuss what happens if a vacuum leak exists
    e.   Test for vacuum leaks
    f.   Demonstrate ability to properly find and fix a leak
    g.   Explain why we check engine compression
    h.   Demonstrate ability to properly test engine compression
    i.   Record test results
    j.   Determine if the engine is within acceptable specifications
    k.   Explain why we perform a leak down check
    l.   Demonstrate ability to properly perform a leak down test
    m.   Record test results
    n.   Discuss results
    o.   Determine if the engine is within acceptable specifications
    p.   Decide if problem exists and determine where
    q.   Research cost of parts
    r.   List pros and cons of each solution
    s.   Discuss findings
    t.   Convince others of their solution


                            Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies


    a.   PowerPoint presentation on different types of engines and how they work
    b.   Use student vehicle for demo
    c.   Handouts showing and describing how to perform tasks
    d.   Pair students into teams for lab activities on the different checks.
    e.   Student research on cost of parts for local auto parts store.
    f.   Students compete to find the cheapest price on parts.
                                                                                                11


                                          Module 5
                                 Computer/Electronic Evaluation

In this unit students will learn how and why computers are used in automobiles, and why it is
necessary to use a computer to diagnose problems.



                        Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies


Students will be able to:


    a.   Define what an EEC is
    b.   Discuss the pros and cons of this system
    c.   Understand why they are in use today
    d.   List the components in an EEC system.
    e.   Identify components of an EEC system
    f.   Understand their individual function.
    g.   Anticipate what would happen of various components failed
    h.   Explain why we need a computer to test a computer
    i.   Connect the scan tool tester to the vehicle
    j.   Complete a diagnosis of the EEC system
    k.   Discuss problems
    l.   Perform component change



                            Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies


    a. Take ECC out of lab vehicle in front of students to perform demo.
    b. Show students a running engine and disconnect different sensor to show what affect they
       have.
    c. Handouts showing and describing how to perform tasks
    d. Pair students into teams for lab activities on the different checks using their own vehicle.
                                                                                      12



                                           Module 6
                                     Automotive Performance

In this unit students will be introduced to performance items used enhance vehicles


                        Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies


Students will be able to:

    a.   Define duration, lift, lobe, separation
    b.   Identify a cam
    c.   Discuss the different types
    d.   Explain why multiple cams are used
    e.   Describe how engine performance is a trade off
    f.   Determine if torque or horsepower is desired.
    g.   Design a cam for a specific task using a computer simulator
    h.   Explain how a supercharger works
    i.   D List the different types of superchargers
    j.   Identify a supercharger
    k.   Explain why one type is used vs. another
    l.   List the pros and cons of a supercharger
    m.   Explain why every vehicle does not have a supercharger.
    n.   Explain how a turbocharger works
    o.   Determine the best application for a turbocharger
    p.   List the different types of turbochargers
    q.   Identify a turbocharger
    r.   Explain why one type is used vs. another
    s.   List the pros and cons of a supercharger
    t.   Explain why every vehicle does not have a turbocharger.
    u.   Compare and contrast a turbocharger vs. a supercharger
    v.   Define Nitrous oxide
    w.   Explain why it is written NO2
    x.   Understand why it is called artificial air
    y.   Determine the best application for a supercharger


                            Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies

    a.   Show exiting movie with high performance cars.
    b.   Have guest speaker from racing team, demonstrate parts on real race car.
    c.   Handouts showing and describing how to perform tasks
    d.   Chemistry demonstration to produce NO2
    e.   Lab demonstration on vehicles with turbo/supercharger.
                                                                                                   13


                                             Module 7
                                           Consumerism

In this unit students will learn strategies for buying and selling automobiles. They will learn what
the mechanics look for.


                        Performance Indicators/Supporting Competencies


Students will be able to:

    a.   Identify problems a used car.
    b.   Inspect a used car and determine if it is a good buy
    c.   Present used car values for a vehicle.
    d.   Locate financing for a vehicle
    e.   List items checked in a NYS inspection
    f.   Fix problems on a vehicle prior to NYS inspection.



                            Suggested Specific Instructional Strategies


    a.   Field trip to car dealership
    b.   Guest speaker, salesman, mechanic
    c.   Handouts showing and describing how to perform tasks
    d.   Lab demonstration of on how to perform tasks
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                                          Bibliography


Bonnick, (2001). Automotive computer controlled systems: Diagnostic tools and techniques;
       Newton, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Brady, R.N. (1999). Automotive electronics and computer systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
        Pearson Higher Education.

Crouse and Anglin, (1994.) Automotive engines : student workbook 8th ed. McGraw-Hill
       Education.

CroCrouse and Anglin, (1994) Automotive engines. McGraw-Hill Education.

Duffy, J. E. (2000). Modern automotive technology. Teachers Guide Edition; Paperback;
         Illustrated Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Publishers.

Erjavec, J. (1999) Automotive technology: A systems approach 3rd edition. Florence, KY:
        Thomson Learning.

Halderman, (2003). Automotive engines: Theory and servicing worktext 4th edition. Upper
       Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Higher Education.

Halderman, (2001). Diagonosis and troubleshooting of automotive electrical, electronic, and
       computer system. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Higher Education.

Hughes, J. G. (2000). Automotive engine rebuilding 2nd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
       Pearson Higher Education.

Johanson, and Stockel, (2003). Auto brakes technology. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox
       Publisher.

Newton, T. (1999). How cars work. Black Apple Press. ISBN: 0966862309

Sclar, D. (1997). Auto Repair for Dummies 2nd rev. edition. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.

Toboldt and Johnson, (2000). Automotive Encyclopedia. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox
        Publisher.
                                                                            15




                   DVD, VHS, and Other Instructional Technology Resources

Automotive Design (VHS)
PBS home video
$27.97
15min

Vehicle Maintenance
Cambridge Educational
$99.95
22min

Cerebellum Corporation
$7.40
45min

Automotive Video
QAD
Free
15min streaming video

Clay to Classic
Ultimatebook
$29.95
45min

www.historychannel.com for several titles

www.discoverychannel.com for several titles
                                                                    16


Appendices



General Web Resources

Academy of Applied Science (AAS)
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Chemical Society (ACS)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASEE EngineeringK12 Center
Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE)
Council on Technology Teacher Education (CTTE)
Dr. Waite's SUNY Oswego Academic Web Site
Einstein Project
Electronic Industries Foundation
Epsilon Pi Tau Honorary Fraternity in Technology
Florida Technology Education Association
For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (FIRST)
Four County Technology Association (Rochester Area)
Future Scientists and Engineers of America (FSEA)
History of Education - Selected Moments of 20th Century
History of Science Society
Inner Auto
Innovation Curriculum Online Network
Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
International Society for Technology in Education
International Technology Education Association
JETS
Journal of Technology Education
Journal of Technology Education
KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR)
Microsoft Educator Resources
Mohawk Valley Technology Education Association
Montgomery Public Schools
NASA - Education Program
Nassau Technology Educators Association
National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering: TECHNICALLY SPEAKING
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
National Research Council
National Science Foundation
National Society of Professional Engineers
New York State Technology Education Association
Niagara County & Western New York TEA
Ohio State University
Oswego Technology Education Association
Project Lead The Way
Sills USA
Society for Philosophy and Technology
                                                          17


Society for the History of Technology
Suffolk Technology Education Association
SUNY Oswego Dept of Technology
Teacher Certification Office NYS
TECH CORPS
Tech Learning
Techne Journal
Technology for All Americans Project (standards)
Technology Student Association
Technology Student Association (TSA)
The Learning Institute of Technology Education (LITE)
TIES Magazine
U.S. Department of Education


Specific Web Resources

http://ghlin2.greenhills.net/~apatter/steam.html

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/auto.html

http://www.acdelco.com/html/as_guide_main.htm

http://www.innerbody.com/innerauto/index.html

http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcar.htm

http://www.cybersteering.com/trimain/history/ecars.html

http://www.howcarswork.com/

http://www.autonews.com/

http://popularmechanics.com/

http://www.autoshop-online.com/auto101.html

http://www.khake.com/page12.html

http://www.reflinks.org/auq/Automobiles.htm
                                                                                                 18


Appendix A - Correlation Matrix with NYS Learning Standards for Math, Science, and Technology
(Complete text of standards available on line at: www.emsc.nysed.gov
  Go to MST icon)

(use format given, add performance Indicators from your course, and put in right column on the
matrix)

Content Standards         Performance           Modules Within This Course
                          Standards
Standard 1
“Analysis, Inquiry, and
Design”
                          Mathematical
                          analysis
                          Scientific inquiry
                          Engineering design
Standard 2
“Information Systems”
                          Retrieve              Module 7
                          Process
                          Communicate
                          Impacts
                          Limitations
                          Ethics
Standard 3
“Mathematics”
                          Mathematical
                          reasoning
                          Number and
                          numeration
                          Operations
                          Modeling
                          Measurement           Module 2
                          Uncertainty
                          Patterns
Standard 4
“Science”
                          Physical setting
                          Living environment
Standard 5
“Technology”
                          Engineering design    Module 6
                          Tools, resources,     Module 2, 3, 4, 5
                          and technological
                          processes
                          Computer              Module 3
                          technology
                          Technological         Module 3
                          systems
                          History of            Module 1
                          technology
                          Impacts               Module 1, 7
                          Management            Module 7
Standard 6 –
                                             19


“Interconnectiveness:
Common Themes”
                        Systems thinking
                        Models
                        Magnitude and
                        scale
                        Equilibrium and
                        stability
                        Patterns of change
                        Optimization
Standard 7 -
“Interdisciplinary
Problem Solving”
                        Connections
                        Work habits
                        Skills and
                        strategies
                                                                                         20


Appendix B – Example of Assessment Materials

Automotive Technology Final Exam

   1.      Who is credited with creating the first automobile
           a. Karl Benz
           b. Henry Ford
           c. Robert Anderson
           d. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot

   2.      Why did every city have its own car company
           a. Every city competed with each other
           b. The transportation system was too poor to transport resources
           c. The government gave grants to cities who had more industry
           d. Every person wanted a car and this was needed to keep up with production

   3.      Society expanded in the early 1900’s due to
           a. Better roads meant people could get from point A to B easier
           b. Many people wanted a new life for their families
           c. The invention of electricity
           d. Growth of cities due to jobs in automotive production

   4.      Henry Ford created
           a. Better jobs
           b. Assembly line
           c. First automobile
           d. First labor union

   5.      What was the need for the automobile?
           a. Cities needed a better way to transport it’s people
           b. There was a shortage of horses
           c. People wanted personal freedom and the automobile provided this
           d. Jobs

   6.      The type of oil required by a vehicle can be determined from
           a. The oil cap
           b. Owners manual
           c. Repair manual
           d. All of the above

   7.      The most important part of any job is
           a. Completing the project
           b. Making money
           c. Safety
           d. Making the customer happy

   8.      Milky white oil indicates
           a. The wrong oil was used
           b. The engine has synthetic oil
           c. Coolant in the oil
           d. You are working on a milk truck

   9.      Metal in your oil can mean
           a. B & D
           b. Possible engine failure
           c. Synthetic oil
                                                                        21


      d. Warn internal engine parts

10.   A magnetic drain plug can help to
      a. Isolate abrasives in you engine
      b. Indicate if there could be a problem
      c. Aid in the engine brake in process
      d. All of the above

11.   It is important to maintain washer fluid
      a. The most important aspect of driving is you ability to see
      b. The tank can freeze and crack if it is low
      c. You never know when it could become valuable
      d. All of the above

12.   Brake fluid will go bad by
      a. Absorbing moisture
      b. Going stale
      c. Overheating
      d. Freezing

13.   How can you visually tell if brake fluid has started to go bad?
      a. become a dark color
      b. become thick
      c. feel slippery
      d. expand in the tank

14.   When changing a flat tire you should
      a. Make sure the car is in park
      b. Make sure the emergency brake is on (front tire change)
      c. Jack on a flat level surface
      d. All of the above

15.   What can happen when seating a tire onto the rim?
      a. The rim can split and come apart
      b. The tire can split
      c. The tire will come off if not seated right
      d. The tire can explode

16.   Balancing tires will result in
      a. Better gas mileage
      b. Smother ride
      c. Less wear on suspension parts
      d. All of the above

17.   The four strokes of an engine
      a. Air, Fuel, Power, Exhaust
      b. Intake, Compression, Power, Exhaust
      c. Intake, Concussion, Spark, Gas
      d. Compression, Spark, Power, Exhaust

18.   The correct fuel to air ratio for a gas engine is
      a. 10:1
      b. 14:1
      c. 15:1
      d. 24:1
                                                                            22


19.   A diesel engine is similar to a gas engine except for
      a. Ignition System
      b. Compression
      c. Exhaust Cycle
      d. Power Stroke

20.   A Wankel engine is superior to a piston due to
      a. Fewer moving parts
      b. Better Power to size ratio
      c. Smoother operation
      d. All of the above

21.   Most all modern cars have disk brakes
      a. In the back
      b. Up front
      c. Both Front and Back
      d. For the emergency brake

22.   A hard vibration when the brakes are pressed could be the result of
      a. Bad brake fluid
      b. Damaged rotors
      c. Cracked brake pads
      d. The wrong grade of pads installed

23.   Before reinstalling brake calipers with new pads you must first
      a. Compress the caliper piston
      b. Check the fluid level
      c. Change the brake rotor
      d. Rotate the tires

24.   You should change you antifreeze every
      a. 50,000 miles
      b. 10,000 miles
      c. Every 3rd oil changes
      d. When it changes color

25.   You can detect a coolant leak by
      a. A sweet smell
      b. A puddle under the car
      c. Checking the heater for leaks
      d. All of the above

26.   Modern cars use this type of charging system
      a. Generator
      b. Alternator
      c. Battery
      d. Photo cell

27.   Standard spark plug gap for an electronic ignition engine is
      a. .045”
      b. .030”
      c. .015”
      d. .065”

28.   A vacuum leak will result in
      a. A poor running engine
                                                                                    23


      b. A hissing sound
      c. Accessories not to work properly
      d. All of the above

29.   The compression tester fits in
      a. The carburetor
      b. The fuel pressure rail
      c. A fitting on the intake manifold
      d. The spark plug hole

30.   A compression test will determine
      a. The mechanical systems with in the engine
      b. The compression ratio
      c. The condition of the engine
      d. Fuel pressure

31.   Cylinders should be with in (____%) of each other
      a. 10%
      b. 20%
      c. 35%
      d. 25%

32.   A leak down test will determine
      a. Where any coolant leaks are
      b. How well the engine holds compression
      c. How much fuel pressure is present
      d. How much power and engine has

33.   An engine in good condition should have less than _____ leakage
      a. 10%
      b. 20%
      c. 30%
      d. 40%

34.   The best fix for an engine with a bad compression and leak down test is
      a. New piston rings
      b. A valve job
      c. A new engine
      d. Not enough information is known

35.   When trying to decide between repair and replace what is the biggest factor
      a. Time
      b. Cost
      c. Knowledge
      d. Information

36.   How do you decide weather to do you self of hire out
      a. You comfortable level with the job
      b. Can you be with out the car for a few days
      c. Do you want to try the job
      d. All of the above

37.   The final check to repairing or replacing an engine is
      a. Time
      b. Availability
      c. Price
                                                                         24


      d. Sentimentality

38.   What does EEC stand for
      a. Electronic Engine Control
      b. European Economic Community
      c. Electric Engine Combustion
      d. European Engine Control

39.   Most modern cars use this system
      a. EEC-3
      b. EEC-4
      c. EEC-2
      d. EEC-1

40.   A sensor performs this operation
      a. Converts sensory inputs into a analog signal
      b. Measures engine activity
      c. Controls engine performance
      d. All of the above

41.   A motor performs this operation
      a. Converts a EEC signal into a physical activity
      b. Runs your car
      c. Changes engine conditions
      d. All of the above

42.   The job of the EEC is to
      a. Modify engine inputs for optimal efficiency
      b. Control pollution
      c. Alert you if a problem in your engine occurs
      d. All of the above

43.   The chemical make up of Nitrous Oxide is
      a. NO3
      b. N20
      c. N30
      d. NO2

44.   Nitrous oxide performs this function
      a. Polymerization
      b. Oxidation
      c. Combustion
      d. Compression

45.   If only nitrous oxide is injected into an engine the engine will
      a. Increase the power by 50%
      b. Not run
      c. Smell funny
      d. Run lean and self-destruct

46.   A supercharger is used to
      a. Force extra fuel into an engine
      b. Force extra air into an engine
      c. Increase mileage
      d. All of the above
                                                 25


47.   A turbo charger is use to
      a. Force extra fuel into an engine
      b. Force extra air into an engine
      c. Increase mileage
      d. All of the above

48.   A supercharger is better for
      a. High rpm racing
      b. Stop and go traffic
      c. Trucks
      d. Torque and low end power

49.   A turbocharger is best used for
      a. Torque and low end power
      b. High rpm power
      c. Stop and go traffic
      d. Trucks

50.   You can bolt on a turbo or super charger
      a. With out any other modifications
      b. To any car
      c. If you modify the EEC
      d. Only to sports cars
                       26


          Answer key



1.    a
2.    b
3.    d
4.    b
5.    c
6.    d
7.    c
8.    c
9.    a
10.   d
11.   a
12.   a
13.   a
14.   d
15.   a
16.   d
17.   b
18.   b
19.   a
20.   d
21.   b
22.   b
23.   a
24.   a
25.   d
26.   b
27.   a
28.   d
29.   d
30.   c
31.   a
32.   b
33.   a
34.   d
35.   b
36.   d
37.   c
38.   a
39.   b
40.   a
41.   a
42.   d
43.   b
44.   b
45.   d
46.   b
47.   b
48.   d
49.   b
50.   c
                                                                                                    27


Appendix C - Students with Disabilities

        The Board of Regents, through part 100 Regulations of the Commissioner, the Action
Plan, and The Compact for Learning, has made a strong commitment to integrating the education
of students with disabilities into the total school program. According to Section 100.2(s) of the
Regulations of the “Commissioner of Education, “Each student with a handicapping condition as
such term is defined in Section 200.1(ii) of this Chapter, shall have access to the full range of
programs and services set forth in this Part to the extent that such programs and services are
appropriate to such student’s special educational needs”. Districts must have policies and
procedures in place to make sure that students with disabilities have equal opportunities to
access diploma credits, courses, and requirements.

         The majority of students with disabilities have the intellectual potential to master the
curricula content requirements of a high school diploma. Most students who require special
education attend regular education classes in conjunction with specialized instruction and/or
related services. The students must attain the same academic standards as their non-disabled
peers to meet graduation requirements, and, therefore, must receive instruction in the same
content area, at all grade levels. This will ensure that they have the same informational base
necessary to pass statewide testing programs and meet diploma requirements.

          Teachers certified in the subject area should become aware of the needs of students with
disabilities who are participating in their classes. Instructional techniques and materials must be
modified to the extent appropriate to provide students with disabilities the opportunity to meet
diploma requirements. Information or assistance is available through special education teachers,
administrators, the Committee on Special Education (CSE) or student’s Individualized Education
Program (IEP).

Strategies for Modifying Instructional Techniques and Materials.

        1. Students with disabilities may use alternative testing techniques. The needed testing
           modification must be identified in the student’s Individualized Education Program
           (IEP). Both special and regular education teachers need to work in close cooperation
           so that the testing modifications can be used consistently throughout the student’s
           program.

        2. Identify, define, and pre-teach key vocabulary. Many terms in this syllabus are
           specific, and some students with disabilities will need continuous reinforcement to
           learn them. It would be helpful to provide a list of these key words in the special
           education teacher in order to provide additional reinforcement in the special
           education setting.

        3. Assign a partner for the duration of a unit to a student as an additional resource to
           facilitate clarification of daily assignments, timelines for assignments, and access to
           daily notes.

        4. When assigning long-term projects or reports, provide a timeline with benchmarks as
           indicators for completion of major sections. Students who have difficulty with
           organizational skills and time sequence ma need to see completion of sections to
           maintain the organization of a lengthy project or report.

Infusing Awareness of Persons with Disabilities Through Curriculum.

    In keeping with the concept of integration, the following subgoal of the Action Plan was
    established.
                                                                                             28


In all subject areas, revisions in the syllabi will include materials and activities related to
generic subgoals, such as problem solving, reasoning skills, speaking, capacity to search for
information, the use of libraries, and increasing student awareness of and information about
the disabled.

The purpose of this subgoal is to ensure that appropriate activities and materials are
available to increase student awareness of disabilities.

The curriculum, by design, includes information, activities, and materials regarding persons
with disabilities. Teachers are encouraged to include other examples as may be appropriate
to their classroom or the situation at hand.
                                                                                                29


Appendix D - Student Leadership Skills

     Development of leadership skills is an integral part of occupational education in New York
state. The New York State Education Department states that “each education agency should
provide to every student the opportunity to participate in student leadership development
activities. All occupational education students should be provided the opportunity to
participate in the educational activities of the student organization(s) which most directly
relate(s) to their chosen educational program”.

    Leadership skills should be incorporated in the New York state occupational education
curricula to assist students to become better citizens with positive qualities and attitudes.
Each individual should develop skills in communications, decision making/problem solving,
human relations, management, and motivational techniques.

     Leadership skill may be incorporated into the curricula as competencies (performance
indicators) to be developed by every student or included within the suggested instructional
strategies. Teachers providing instruction through occupational educational curricula should
familiarize themselves with the competencies. Assistance may be requested from the State
adviser of the occupational student organization related to the program area.

    Students who elect to become active members in student leadership organizations
chartered by NYSED have the advantage of the practical forum to practice leadership skills in
an action-oriented format. They have the potential for recognition at the local, state, and
national level.

    More information in Technology Education can be found at the Technology Education
Student Association web site at:

http://www.tsawww.org

				
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