VIEWS: 34 PAGES: 11 POSTED ON: 7/2/2011
DENTAL CROWNS, BRIDGES AND DENTURES Dental crowns and bridges offer a The bone in the jaw surrounding the solution to missing teeth. Cost missing tooth or teeth continues to depends upon the quality of the skill recede, and this can lead to a of the dental surgeon in preparing gradual collapse of the lower profile and fitting the work, the quality of of the face. the dental laboratory used and the quality of materials used to manufacture the unit. Dental Crowns are caps made to fit over an existing tooth. They are often recommended following a root canal filling to protect the remaining tooth whose strength is often compromised by the extensive decay and infection that may have been present. Bridges are units of false teeth that are fixed by a dental surgeon to remaining natural teeth to fill a gap. A bridge may take the place of one or more missing teeth and the results can be excellent with good function and aesthetic results. With careful maintenance a well-made bridge can last many years. The bone in the jaw surrounding the missing tooth or teeth can continue to recede. Dentures remain a cost effective method by which a dental surgeon may replace missing teeth by providing the patient with a removable appliance. Dentures can provide patients with a reliable biting and chewing function and acceptable appearance. The main disadvantages with the dentures are they are sometimes difficult to tolerate. A denture will also be subject to slippage during speech and normal movement of the mouth. TEETH WHITENING Tooth bleaching, also known as tooth whitening, is a common procedure in general dentistry but most especially in the field of cosmetic dentistry. Many people consider white teeth to be an attractive feature of a smile. A child's deciduous teeth are generally whiter than the adult teeth that follow. As a person ages the adult teeth often become darker due to changes in the mineral structure of the tooth, as the enamel becomes less porous. Teeth can also become stained by bacterial pigments, foodstuffs and tobacco. The procedure to bleach teeth uses damaged tooth surface. There are two oxidizing agents such as hydrogen types of material used in a veneer, peroxide or carbamide peroxide to composite and porcelain. A composite lighten the shade of the tooth. The veneer may be directly placed (built-up oxidizing agent penetrates the in the mouth), or indirectly fabricated porosities in the rod-like crystal by a dental technician in a dental structure of enamel and oxidizes laboratory, and later bonded to the interprismatic stain deposits; over a tooth, typically using a resin cement. In period of time, the dentin layer, lying contrast, a porcelain veneer may only be underneath the enamel, is also indirectly fabricated. The advantages of bleached. The effects of bleaching using a veneer to restore a tooth are can last for several months, but may numerous. Very good aesthetics can be be shortened by cigarette smoking, obtained, with minimal tooth preparation and tea and coffee consumption. (i.e. drilling). Traditionally, a reduction of around 0.5 mm is required for a PORCELAIN LAMINATES porcelain veneer. Composite veneers are becoming more popular as they are easy In dentistry, a veneer is a thin layer of to repair, whereas porcelain veneers restorative material placed over a tooth have a tendency to fracture. It can be surface, either to improve the very difficult to match the shade of an aesthetics of a tooth, or to protect a individual veneer to the remaining teeth, on the face they may appear to stand hence placing several veneers is common. out and push out the lips. The effect may be enough to give the patient a full There are some newer veneers which do or chipmunk appearance when the lips not require any drilling in order to are closed. Veneers must also be remove tooth created such that the patient bites into structure. Instead, them with minimal force. Otherwise, these veneers are they may chip off. So, patients whose constructed to be lower jaw protrudes out farther than placed on top of their upper jaw, otherwise known as a teeth. As a result, class III bite, may not be good treatment is less candidates for veneers because the invasive and may be less time-consuming. teeth of the lower jaw may bite into the On the other hand, since the teeth are teeth of the upper jaw such as to not reduced in size the veneers may dislodge the veneers. appear too large or bulky unless the material used is extremely thin. Therefore, the success for these WHITE FILLINGS veneers is best when limited to specific cases. Veneers may be used cosmetically to Composite fillings are a mixture of resurface teeth such as to make them glass or quartz filler in a resin appear straighter and possess a more medium that produces a tooth- aesthetically pleasing alignment. This colored filling. They are sometimes referred to as composites or filled may be a quick way to improve the resins. Composite fillings provide appearance of malposed teeth without good durability and resistance to need to use orthodontics. However, the fracture in small-to-mid size amount of malposition of teeth may be restorations that need to withstand such that veneers alone may not be moderate chewing pressure. Less enough to correct the aesthetic tooth structure is removed when the imbalance. Instead, orthodontics would dentist prepares the tooth, and this need to be used, or orthodontics may result in a smaller filling than combined with veneers. The dentist who that of an amalgam. Composites can places veneers must be careful since also be "bonded" or adhesively held veneers could increase the thickness of in a cavity, often allowing the dentist the front face to make a more conservative repair of the teeth. to the tooth. If the teeth are too thick The cost is moderate and depends on the size of the filling and the technique used by the dentist to place it in the prepared tooth. It generally takes longer to place a composite filling than what is required for an amalgam filling. Composite fillings require a cavity that can be kept clean and dry during filling and they are subject to stain and discoloration over time. ORTHODONTICS Invisalign can help you get the great proven effective in both clinical smile you've always wanted because research and in practices nationwide. it's... Invisible, so no one can tell you're straightening your teeth. So now you can smile more during treatment as well as after. Removable, so you can eat and drink what you want while in treatment, plus brushing and flossing are no problem. Comfortable, because it has no metal to cause mouth abrasions during treatment. And no metal and wires usually means you spend less time in your doctor's office getting adjustments. Invisalign also allows you to view your own virtual treatment plan when you start, so you can see how your straight teeth will look when your treatment is complete. Invisalign is the invisible way to straighten teeth using a series of custom-made, nearly undetectable aligners. And it's been How Does Invisalign Work? * You wear each set of aligners for about 2 weeks, removing them only to eat, drink, brush, and floss. * As you replace each aligner with the next in the series, your teeth will move - little by little, week by week - until they have straightened to the final position your orthodontist or dentist has prescribed. * You'll visit your orthodontist or dentist about once every 6 weeks to ensure that your treatment is progressing as planned. * Total treatment time averages 9-15 months and the average number of aligners worn during treatment is between 18 and 30, but both will vary from case to case. PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY It is fairly possible to encounter various tooth and gingival problems in children which are frequently seen in adults. Pedodontics is a scientific branch that solves oral and tooth health in children between 0-14 years of age. Spite that the community assumes that milk tooth would change by time and therefore dental care for milk tooth would not need specific care. Conversely, milk tooth is important and has a certain impact on the formation of the other teeth and on the childs physical health. Just as it is for adults, as we behave in a different form during our communication with grown-ups, we must also behave different and considered a special approach when children undergoes dental therapy. Therefore, as a specially designed division, our physicians and dentists employed at our clinic are specialists and we aim to train children as conscious grown-ups who understands that there is nothing to be afraid of during their visit to the dentist. From this point of view, it seems rather important for us to communicate with their parents in a regular manner. All information related with children dental health, routine oral-dental controls and prevention of dental and gingival diseases and the habit of brushing tooth regularly and daily are very important issues and will require support and collaboration from the parents. Diagnosis and Therapeutical Methods: All diagnostic methods applied on adults are also applied on children. The first stage of oral examination begins by visual and manual examination. But such kind of limited examination is never adequate to diagnose the disease. At this point oral x-rays are very helpful. Sometimes 2 types of small periapical films are obtained according to the condition of the case where a single problem exists for a single tooth. However if oral examination indicates multiple problems diffused entirely in the mouth then panoramic films which shows the entire internal structure of the mouth shall be requested. PERIODONTOLOGY Periodontal diseases are caused by certain types of bacteria in plaque, the sticky, colorless film of bacteria that constantly forms on teeth. These bacteria create toxins (poisons) which irritate the gums and result in a break-down of the attachment of gum tissues to teeth. Over time, these toxins can destroy gum tissues, allowing the infection to progress to bone loss. In addition, plaque that is not removed can combine with other materials and harden into a rough, porous deposit called calculus (tartar). Calculus on the root surface, below the gums, makes removal of new plaque and bacteria more difficult. Unlike plaque, which you can remove, only a dentist or dental hygienist can remove calculus. Types of Periodontal Diseases While there are many forms of gingival and periodontal diseases, the most common types are gingivitis and adult periodontitis: Gingivitis is the earliest stage, and affects only the gum tissue. At this stage, the disease is still reversible. Periodontitis is the more advanced stage of periodontal diseases. The gums, bone and other structures that support the teeth become damaged. Teeth can become loose and fall out - or may have to be removed. At this stage, the disease may require more complex treatment to prevent tooth loss. Here is a step-by-step illustration of the progress of gingivitis and periodontitis: Healthy gingiva (gum tissue) and bone anchor the teeth firmly in place. Gingivitis develops as toxins in plaque irritate the gums, making them red, tender, swollen and likely to bleed easily. Periodontitis occurs when toxins destroy the tissues that anchor the teeth in the bone. Gums become detached from the teeth, forming pockets that fill with more plaque. Tooth roots are exposed to plaque and become susceptible to decay and sensitive to cold and touch. Advanced periodontitis is present when the teeth lose more attachment because the supporting bone is destroyed. Unless treated, the affected teeth frequently becomes loose, may fall out or require removal by a dentist. Other Factors Contributing to Periodontal Disease Although periodontal diseases are caused by plaque, a number of other factors can increase the risk, severity and speed of development of the condition. People who smoke or chew tobacco are more likely to have periodontal diseases. Poorly fitting bridges, malocclusion (badly aligned teeth or defective restorations (fillings), can all contribute to plaque retention and increase the risk of developing periodontal diseases. Excessive biting forces on your teeth, such as clenching or grinding, may also accelerate the rate at which supporting bone is lost. Poor diet may cause periodontal diseases to progress more rapidly. Pregnancy or use of oral contraceptives increases hormone levels which can cause gum tissues to react more sensitively to the toxins in plaque and accelerate growth of certain bacteria. The gums are more likely to become red, tender and swollen and to bleed easily. Systemic diseases, such as AIDS or diabetes, can lower the tissues' resistance to infection, making periodontal diseases more severe. Medications - steroids, some types of drugs, cancer therapy drugs, some calcium channel blockers and many others - affect the gums. Schedule regular dental visits. Professional cleaning is essential to prevent periodontal diseases. If you notice any of the following signs, see your dentist immediately: • Gums that bleed easily. • Red, swollen or tender gums. • Gums that have pulled away from the teeth. • Pus between the teeth and gums when the gums are pressed. • Persistent bad breath or bad taste. • Permanent teeth that are loose or separating. • Any change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite. • Any changes in the fit of partial dentures. Most people do not experience any pain due to periodontal diseases so it is important to have regular dental checkups, including a periodontal exam. Diagnosing Periodontal Diseases With regular dental visits, dentists to determine if any bone has been can detect developing periodontal destroyed. diseases early, before the gums and the bone around your teeth are irreversibly damaged. So don't wait till it hurts! During checkups, your dentist will examine your gums for periodontal problems. An instrument called a periodontal probe will be used to determine if there is any breakdown in the gum tissue attachment or development of pockets between your gums and teeth. The depth of pockets can be Periodontal Probe measured with this device. Your dentist may also need to take X-rays Treating Forms of Periodontitis The method of treatment of periodontal diseases depends upon the type of disease and how far the condition has progressed. Subgingival Scaling Root Planing remove plaque and calculus deposits beneath the gumline. In some cases, the occlusion (bite) also may require adjustment. 1. Presurgical bony defect The first step is usually a thorough cleaning which may include scaling to Surgery may be required when deeper pockets (over 4 to 6 mm) are found. Patients can seldom, if ever, keep them clean and free of plaque. 2. Flap incision allows gingival Allowing pockets to remain may tissue to be retracted invite infection and bone destruction. When pockets are deep and bone has been destroyed, flap surgery may be necessary to allow the dentist to get access to the roots of the teeth in order to thoroughly remove calculus, 3. Gingival tissue is sutured into a plaque and any diseased tissue. new positio Osseous (bone) surgery sometimes accompanies flap surgery. In osseous surgery, some of the bone around the tooth is reshaped. In certain cases, a bone area may be employed to replace lost bone. Splints or other appliances may be used to stabilize loose teeth temporarily and may be necessary after completion of periodontal therapy as well. 4. After periodontal surgery Other effective procedures are also available for replacing gum tissue and bone destroyed in advanced stages of the disease. These procedures are used for specific periodontal problems. Talk with us about the treatments that may be right for you. ORAL SURGERY AND IMPLANT DENTISTRY Having Dental Implants is quite a lengthy process. It is accomplished in two phases, which must be separated by a ‘healing period’ of several months. During the first phase of treatment you will be thoroughly checked-over and a panoramic X Ray of your mouth will be taken. This will enable you and the Dentist to plan your treatment in detail. Next comes the actual implantation procedure. Depending on how many implants you are having you will be given either a local or general anaesthetic. If you have a local anaesthetic you will be given a sedative as well. The implantation operation is carried out under strict hygienic conditions. The Dentist will open the gum at the site of the implant and, using a low speed drill will make a hole in the jawbone. The implant is screwed into place. A temporary healing cap is placed in its centre. The site of the implant is closed and sutured. The Dentist insists on making post- operative checks over the next couple of days and after the wound is healed will remove the stitches. This completes the first phase. A healing period now follows. This is necessary so that the living bone can ‘ossify’ around the implant so that the anchor is really ‘set’ in place and better able to withstand the pressures exerted on it once the crown is attached. After three / six months the second phase can begin. First the dentist makes a small opening in the gum to uncover the implant. The healing cap is removed and an ‘abutment’ or post is screwed into the implant. After a day or two castings and impressions of your teeth and gums are made. The dentist takes a great deal of trouble to get a really accurate set of impressions. These are then sent to the dental lab who will use them to make the crowns or the bridge to your exact measurements.
Pages to are hidden for
"DENTAL CROWNS_ BRIDGES AND DENTURES Dental crowns and bridges "Please download to view full document