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									             Project Document

Conservation and Development of Khangai Nuruu




                           L. Sayanaa, B. Steinhauer-Burkart, P. Wit

                                                      October 2004



                                                                  1
Project summary
Title                             Conservation and Development of Khangai Nuruu
Locality                          Khangai Mountain Range, Mongolia
Duration                          4 years
Starting date                     1st of July 2005
Budget                            Euro
Executing Agencies                • GTZ
                                  • Protected Areas Administrations of Tsetserleg and Uliastay
Objectives                        • “to ensure sustainable development and ecological balance, to
                                       maintain nature conservation and environmental policies as priorities
                                       within regional socio-economic development”
                                  • “to rationally utilize and rehabilitate natural resources with due
                                       consideration of their capacity to ensure an eco-oriented economic
                                       growth; precisely define civil rights and responsibilities related to the
                                       utilization and protection of local natural resources and create a
                                       mechanism of nature and environment protection by the citizens
                                       themselves”
Target groups                     Main target groups:
                                  • Local herders and herders organisations
                                  • Extremely poor and poor people at the Sum and Aimag centres, in
                                       particular users groups of forest products (timber and non-timber)
                                  Facilitating target groups:
                                  •      PA-administrations
                                  •      Local government (Sum and Aimag)
                                  •      Buffer Zone Councils
                                  •      Government organisations at national level with a mandate to act
                                       upon national resources, like MNE and the Ministry of Agriculture
                                  •      Non-Governmental Organisations
                                  •      Private sector, e.g. Cooperatives, local businessmen and tourism
                                       organisations
Strategy                          Criteria:
                                  • Sustainability
                                  • Synergy between conservation and development.
                                  Orientations:
                                  • Projects interventions will be “actor oriented
                                  • Khangai Nuruu is to be managed as one single ecosystem
                                  • Applying the ecosystem approach
                                  • Participation of stakeholders in all project interventions
                                  • Strengthening of decentralised public and private sector structures
                                  Axes of intervention:
                                  • Conservation of the resource base for both people and biological
                                       diversity in order to ensure sustained delivery of ecosystem goods and
                                       services
                                  • Promoting wise-use of the resource base and offering alternatives.
                                  • Strengthening/establishing managing institutions.
Objective 1: Ensuring sustained   • Improved protection
delivery of ecosystem services    • Improved knowledge about ecosystem composition and functioning
and products                      • Integrated Land-use plan and its implementation
Objective 2: Improving local      • Socio-economic base-lines
livelihoods                       • Users organisations and cooperatives
                                  • Improved income through wise use of natural resources
                                  • Alternatives for actual natural resource use
                                  • Improved socio-economic infrastructure
Objective 3: Strengthening the    • Strengthened management institutions
facilitating environment          • Improved knowledge about ecosystem management in the Khangai
                                       Nuruu
                                  • More appropriate policies for ecosystem management
                                  • Effective cross-sectoral cooperation structures are functional


                                                                                                                   2
Table of contents

Section    Title                                                                             Page
           List of abbreviations and Mongolian terms                                            5
A.         CONTEXTE                                                                             7
A.1.       Description of Khangai Nuruu                                                         7
A.2.       Ongoing assistance and other projects                                                9
A.3.       Government policy for the sector                                                    10
A.4        Institutional environment                                                           11
B.         JUSTIFICATION                                                                       12
B.1.       Problem to be solved                                                                12
B.2.       Expected improvements at the end of the present phase of the project                12
B.3.       Target groups                                                                       13
B.4.       Strategy and modalities of execution                                                13
B.5.       Special considerations                                                              16
B.6.       Collaboration and cooperation                                                       16
B.7.       Qualifications of executing agencies                                                17
C.         DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE                                                               18
D.         IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES, RESULTS AND ACTIVITIES                                        19
D.1.       Immediate objective 1: Ensuring sustained delivery of ecosystem services            19
           and products
D.1.1      Product 1: Improved protection                                                      19
D.1.1.1    Activity 1: Making the Protected Areas Administration more effectively              19
D.1.1.2    Activity 2: Awareness raising and education                                         19
D.1.2      Product 2: Improved knowledge about ecosystem composition and functioning           20
D.1.2.1    Activity 1: Research and inventories                                                20
D.1.2.2    Activity 2: Design and implementation of a monitoring system for a limited          20
           number of key parameters
D.1.3      Product 3: Integrated Land-use plan and its implementation                          20
D.1.3.1    Activity 1: Elaborate an integrated land-use plan with map of Khangai Nuruu         20
           (overview scale)
D.1.3.2    Activity 2: Implementation of an integrated land-use plan                           20
D.2.       Immediate Objective 2: Improving local livelihoods                                  20
D.2.1      Product 1: Socio-economic base-lines                                                20
D.2.1.1    Activity 1: Thematic PRAs.                                                          20
D.2.1.2    Activity 2: Socio-economic characterisation of the intervention zone at the         21
           onset of the project.
D.2.1.3    Activity 3: Monitoring of socio-economic parameters                                 21
D.2.2      Product 2: Users organisations and cooperatives                                     21
D.2.2.1    Activity 1: Training in management and organisation                                 21
D.2.2.2    Activity 2: Empowerment                                                             21
D.2.3      Product 3: Improved income through wise use of natural resources                    21
D.2.3.1    Activity 1: Participatory planning of resource use                                  21
D.2.3.2    Activity 2: Implementation of local management and/or sustainable use plans.        22
D.2.4      Product 4: Alternatives for actual natural resource use                             22
D.2.4.1    Activity 1: Income generation options to relieve pressure on natural resources.     22
D.2.5      Product 5: Improved socio-economic infrastructure.                                  23
D.2.5.1    Activity 1: Seeking collaboration with other projects, e.g. provision of            23
           electricity, opening of export markets
D.3.       Immediate Objective 3: Strengthening the facilitating environment                   23
D.3.1      Product 1: Strengthened management institutions                                     23
D.3.1.1    Activity 1: Training of natural resources managers                                  23
D.3.2      Product 2: Improved knowledge about ecosystem management in the Khangai             24
           Nuruu
D.3.2.1    Activity 1: Interdisciplinary research.                                             24
D.3.2.2    Activity 2: Monitoring of management institutions.                                  24
D.3.2.3    Activity 3: Documentation.                                                          24



                                                                                                3
D.3.3     Product 3: More appropriate policies for ecosystem management                      24
D.3.3.1   Activity 1: Policy support on participatory formulation and adoption of            24
          integrated management plans for land- and water use, and use of natural
          resources in general (at local, Aimag and National level)
D.3.3.2   Activity 2: Policy support to the giving out of future concessions on use of       24
          natural resources
D.3.3.3   Activity 3: Organisation of workshops to feed results of the project back to the   25
          policy making level.
D.3.4     Product 4: Effective cross-sectoral cooperation structures are functional          25
D.3.4.1   Activity 1: Promoting cross-sectoral cooperation                                   25
D.3.4.2   Activity 2: Formulation and implementation of a communication strategy.            25
E.        CONDITIONS AND OBLIGATIONS                                                         26
F.        INPUT                                                                              27
G.        RISKS                                                                              28
H.        LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS                                                                 29
I.        MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REPORTING                                               30
J.        BUDGET                                                                             31
K.        ANNEXES                                                                            36
K.1.      Logical framework                                                                  36
K.2       Work plan                                                                          45
K.3       Job descriptions                                                                   46
K.3.1     ToR International Project Manager (IPM)                                            46
K.3.2     ToR for National Technical Advisor (NTA)                                           48
K.4       Description of the Ecosystem Approach                                              49




                                                                                             4
List of abbreviations and Mongolian terms

ADB              Asian Development Bank
ADRA             Adventist Development and Relief Agency
Aimag            Province
Bag              Sub-district
BMZ              Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (Federal
                 Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development) - Germany
BZ               Buffer Zone
CBD              Convention on Biological Diversity
COP              Conference of Parties
DED              German Development Service
DGIS             General Directorate for international Cooperation of The Netherlands
EPA              Environmental Protection Agency
FAO              Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations
Ger              Mongolian felt tent
GoG              Government of Germany
GoM              Government of Mongolia
GoN/ GoNL        Government of The Netherlands
GTZ              German Technical Assistance Agency
HNP              Hustai National Park
IPM              International Project Manager
IUCN             World Conservation Union
JICA             Japanese International Cooperation Agency
Khot Aïl         Family group
MACNE            Mongolian Association for the Conservation of Nature and the Environment
Maral            Red Deer
MFE              Ministry of Finance and Economy
MNE              Ministry of Nature and Environment (Mongolia)
M.Sc.            Masters of Science
NGO              Non-Governmental organisation
NL               The Netherlands
NTA              National Technical Advisor
NTFP             Non-Timber Forest Resources
OSPA             Otgontenger Special Protected Area
PA               Protected Area
PAA              Protected Area Administration
Ph.D             Doctorate
PR               Public Relations
PRA              Participatory Rural Appraisal
Prodoc           Project Document
RNE              Royal Netherlands Embassy (Beijing, China)
SANKEI           Japanese NGO for development
Sum (or Soum)    District
UB               Ulaanbaatar
UNCED            United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNDP             United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO           United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
USAID            United States Agency for International Development
WB               World Bank
WWF              Worldwide Fund for Nature
Zud              Period of adverse climatic conditions




                                                                                                  5
Figure 1: Map of Mongolia with the Khangai Mountains and the Protected Areas




                                                                               6
    A.   CONTEXTE

    A.1. Description of Khangai Nuruu

The Khangai Nuruu is an important mountain range in the Central part of Western Mongolia. It stretches about
500 km in the East –West direction and 250 km North-South (see map).

    Conservation values
The Khangai mountains are a very old range, and due to their location between Siberia and Central Asia they
form a region with an outstanding biodiversity, i.e. a large variety of habitats, and a rare and endemic fauna and
flora.
The Khangai region hosts 20% of Mongolia’s forests. It is well known for its magnificent outstanding landscape
with a high tourist potential. Many cultural monuments and places of great historical interest can be found here,
such as ancient gravestones and burial grounds, monuments and rock signs, which present vivid testimony to the
various cultures from the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages up to the epoch of the Mongolian empire.
The Khangai mountain is the water tower for most of Western Mongolia. A number of important rivers drain the
area, to the South providing the Gobi desert with major sources of water, and to the North contributing to the
important ecosystem of Lake Baikal in Russia.

There are several designated protected areas in the central Khangai Mountain region which are administred by
two administration units with seats in Uliastay and Tsetserleg. In the following frame the protected areas are
listed from West to East.

Table 1: Protected areas in Khangai Nuruu

               Name                         Category of Protection             Year Established        Size (km2)
 Otgontenger Mountain                 Strictly Procected Area                         1992                       955
 Tarvagatai Mountain                  National Park                                   2000                     5.254
 Noyon Khangai                        National Park                                   1998                       590
 Khorgo Terkhiin Tsagaan Nuur         National Park                                   1965                       773
 Khangai Nuruu                        National Park                                   1996                     8.885
 Bulgan Mountain                      Natural and Historical Monument                 1995                         19
 Khuisiin Naiman Nuur                 Natural and Historical Monument                 1995                       115
 Total                                                                                                        16.591

    Rural economy

About half of Mongolia’s population of 2.500.000 people lives in the countryside and depends directly on the
exploitation of natural resources of the country. But also a large proportion of the city and village dwellers in
Aimag and Sum centres derive a large deal of their income (in money or in kind) from the renewable animal and
plant products harvested in the surrounding area.

The larger share of the rural income has to be raised from animal husbandry practices, and to a lesser extent from
the exploitation and collection of natural resources like wood, wildlife products, fruits, etc.. Dairy products from
the Khangai, in particular Yak cheese, have a good name on the national market, and herdsmen readily sell their
products to traders. Annually large herds of yaks are driven to the slaughterhouses of Ulaanbaatar.

Logging and wood processing have been an important activity in the Khangai Nuruu, providing most of Western
Mongolia with wood and wood products. Of more recent date in Khangai Nuruu are mining activities and
tourism.

With a density of the rural population of about 1 person per km2, one would expect that over-utilisation of
natural resources is not a problem, and that the rural population would live in relative ease. Unfortunately, this is
not the reality.




                                                                                                                    7
Over the last decades the different land- and water use systems, but notably the pastoral system, have suffered
from a number of problems, such as
    • Deteriorating climatic conditions. Rainfall has been far below average, possibly as a consequence of
         global warming. Extreme weather conditions have been frequent, leading to drought in summer and
         severe winters (“Zud”)
    • Overgrazing of grassland, leading to lower primary production, a higher proportion of unpalatable herbs
         and erosion. Before the last Zud (2002) decimated the livestock numbers, in many areas the rising
         number of herding families and the dramatical increase in livestock had clearly led to overgrazing and
         exceeded the carrying capacity.
    • Markets for livestock products have disappeared, notably after the change to a market economy.
         Although new promising markets to replace the Russian one are available such as China and Korea, this
         potential has scarcely been tapped yet, with the exception for the main money earner of today, cashmere
         wool. Income has become more and more dependent on the revenues from other sources than animal
         husbandry especially for those people that have lost all or a good deal of their livestock during the Zuds.
    • Sawmills were set up in richly forested areas and have led to rising illegal logging and deforestation.
    • Gold mining and mining in general has expanded in Mongolia. This has resulted in the sedimentation of
         rivers and lakes, and has led to a general fall in water levels. The turbidity of the rivers due to gold
         washing has worsened through the growing erosion on the mining fields because the latter are not being
         rehabilitated as the law requires but remain entirely without vegetation.
    • The growing, largely unmonitored tourism industry has also damaged nature in its own way by e.g.
         causing rubbish problems, leaving pollutants behind, cutting (fuel) wood and exploiting resources for
         inappropriate building activities.
    • Isolation and bad roads complicate the capitalisation of local investments. Market access is difficult and
         the local market is small. The upward trend in petrol prices adds up to the difficulty of adding value to
         the local produce

As a result of such conditions, the resource base for man and animals has suffered, and in places its very survival
is at stake. Signs of degradation include:
      • Lowering water tables, and pollution of surface waters
      • Signs of accelerated soil erosion that are commonly seen
      • Rare animals and plants have become more and more endangered. In 10 years time numbers of Maral
          have gone down from 170.000 to 6.000! Trophy hunters, a potentially interesting source of rural
          revenue, return home frustrated because the quota can not be hunted since the animals have gone.
      • Reduction in Forest Cover. Forests suffer not only from illegal logging, but also from forest fires,
          destructive practices in the collection of non-timber forest products, in addition to natural causes like
          insects attacking the woods that have become weakened due to the drying out of the environment.

In general, one can say that poverty is on the increase and a high and still growing proportion of “have-nots” are
living in harsh circumstances in the Sum and Aimag centres or moving to Ulaanbaatar to try their luck in city
life.

    Institutions

After democratisation, government institutions have become very weak. NGO’s are small and lack sufficient
means to support their respective target groups. In recent years however, there is a clear tendency of the users of
natural resources to organise themselves in users groups. People realise that they have to take the improvement
of their situation in their own hands and have started a number of initiatives concerning the conservation of
“their” resource base and the enhancement of their quality of life. The cooperative idea has built its ground.

The relevant administrative body in the mining sector (The Environmental Control Agency), whose
responsibility it is to monitor, review and evaluate whether the licence holders comply with and correctly
implement their mitigation measures in accordance with the applicable environmental protection laws and
regulations, lacks the facilities and economic power to solve its tasks effectively and efficiently.
The administrative bodies for the Strictly Protected Areas face a similar plight since their insufficient equipment,
lack of human resources and poor funding situation prevent the efficient control of growing illegal hunting and
logging activities without licences.




                                                                                                                   8
    A.2. Ongoing assistance and other projects

The projects mentioned in table 2 that are active in the Khangai Range itself are involved with rural development
issues. Projects at the national level of special relevance, are mostly dealing with integrated conservation and
management of biological diversity, or with integrated pasture management.

Each of the two international donors of the present project, i.e. Germany and The Netherlands, are actually
financing a technical assistance programme in which sustainable natural resource management is pivotal for a
successful alleviation of poverty. The German Technical Assistance passes mostly through GTZ, while the
Netherlands Programme uses a number of executing agencies already active in Mongolia.

Table 2: International actors in Mongolia and in the Khangai Nuruu with activities of relevance to the
present project

Organisation     Area of intervention         Main activities
GTZ              Khan Khentii                 Conservation and Buffer Zone Development (GoNL co-financing)
                 Gobi Gurvansaikhan           Conservation and Buffer Zone Development
                 Zavkhan                      Regional Economic Development Programme (GoNL co-
                                              financing)
                 Mongolia                     Privatisation of veterinary services
                 Zavkhan                      Renewable Energy
                 Altai                        Conservation
                 Zavkhan & Arkhangai          Electrification
                 Mongolia                     Support to the Environmental Control Agency
                 Arkhangai                    Promotion of SME
World Bank       Mongolia                     Pastoral development (e.g. in Arkhangai & Zavkhan)
                 Selenge, Bulgan              Forest conservation and sustainable use (GoNL funding)
                 Zavkhan                      Vegetable growing
                 Mongolia                     Future fund for the financing of projects on natural resources and
                                              poverty alleviation (financed from GoNL)
FAO              Arkhangai                    Pastoral development
ADRA             Zavkhan                      • Saving and credit schemes
                                              • Vegetable gardening
                                              • Disaster preparedness
USAID            Gobi                         Gobi initiative: Rural development
                 Hovd                         Conservation around Hovsgol
Sankei           Zavkhan                      Livestock rehabilitation after Zud
UNDP             Eastern steppe               Eastern steppe biodiversity project
                 Altai                        Conservation and pastoral development (GoNL co-financing)
                 Mongolia                     Sustainable grassland management project (GoNL co-financing)
WWF              Zavkhan                      Conservation
                 Altai                        Conservation
HNPT             Hustai Biosphere Reserve     GoNL financed:
                                              • Conservation of ecosystem/ Protection of flora and fauna
                                              • Reintroduction of Takhi
                                              • Buffer Zone development
                                              • Training and research
ADB              5 western Aimags             • Rural development
Mercy Corps      Zavkhan Aimag                Rural Agribusiness Support Programme. Funded my United Sates
                                              Department of Agriculture




                                                                                                               9
    A.3. Government policy for the sector

    Poverty alleviation:

In its economic growth support and poverty reduction strategy (July 2003), the Government of Mongolia
adopted the 12 short term priorities, out of which the following are of special relevance for the present project:

    •    to support regional as well as rural development, to intensively develop infrastructure
    •    to reduce unemployment and poverty, to generally improve the living standard of the population
    •    to ensure sustainable development and ecological balance, to maintain nature conservation and
         environmental policies as priorities within regional socio-economic development
    •    to speed up land reforms
    •    to maintain gender dimensions in poverty interventions to promote gender equality

    Conservation

In its nature and environment policy for the period 2000 – 2004, the Government of Mongolia states that it “shall
aim to rationally utilize and rehabilitate natural resources with due consideration of their capacity to ensure an
eco-oriented economic growth; precisely define civil rights and responsibilities related to the utilization and
protection of local natural resources and create a mechanism of nature and environment protection by the
citizens themselves.”
This general statement is worked out in 20 more concrete immediate objectives. Like in the case of the poverty
alleviation policy, the full package of intended measures is of relevance, but the following in particular so:

    •    Determine the eco-economic and deficiency cost and criteria of nature and its main riches, and on this
         basis, adopt and enforce standards for the utilization, protection and rehabilitation of the natural
         resources;
    •    Establish anew fees and dues for the utilization of natural resources and pollution of the nature and
         environment, and on this basis, set up a reliable financial base for the protection and rehabilitation of
         the nature and environment;
    •    The rational utilization, protection and rehabilitation of the forest resources will be intensified. Actions
         will be taken to implement the initial goals set forth in the National Forest program;
    •    Expand the network of protected areas, improve their management. Implement measures to improve the
         living standards of communities living in protected parks and areas;
    •    Expand the rights of citizens to land ownership and utilization, and on this basis the relevant legal
         environment shall be streamlined to ensure that the citizens reap the benefits of the land for a long
         period of time;
    •    Raise interests in employing land for business purposes and improve land utilization in order to ensure
         that citizens and organizations have a long-term ownership of land;
    •    The process of desertification on the territory of Mongolia will be studied within the framework of
         projects and in collaboration with international organizations, and on this basis, desertification and soil
         erosion will be prevented;
    •    Measures will be taken to prevent soil erosion. Actions will be taken to protect cultivated crops from
         hail, increase the level of precipitation for the purpose of increasing the harvest yield and extinguishing
         forest and steppe fires in remote inaccessible areas;
    •    Bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the sphere of nature and environment protection will be
         expanded. Measures will be taken to increase support and assistance from foreign countries and
         international organizations in addressing pressing ecological problems.

At the time of project formulation, a draft summary of what will become MNE’s policy for the coming 5 years,
was made available to the formulation mission. This draft clearly follows up on the objectives of the preceding
period, with more emphasis on species conservation.

The Ministry of Nature and Environment actively pursued a policy to attract international funding to improve the
management of each of its major ecosystems: The Eastern steppe (UNDP), Khentii Mountains (GTZ and NL),
the Gobi (GTZ), the great lakes region (USAID) and the Altai Mountain (UNDP/WWF). With the arrival of
international assistance for the Khangaii Nuruu, the “last” major ecosystem is benefiting from international
technical support.



                                                                                                                     10
    A.4 Institutional environment

    Local government

The Khangai Nuruu is covered by 4 Aimags with Zavkhan, Arkhangai and Bayankhongor Aimags taking the
larger share of the mountain range. The Gobi Altai Aimag and the Khuvsgul Aimag cover small patches of the
Khangai Nuruu, too small to be 0f importance for this project.

                       Arkhangai         Uvurkhangai           Zavkhan         Bayankhongor
 Population             98 000             108 000              85 000            84 000
 No. of Sums              19                 19                   24                20

Each local government entity (Aimag and Sum governments) has a number of political offices (e.g. governor,
councils, etc.) and administrative departments, as well as technical units (including police, fire brigade, etc.).
Most of them can be found at the Aimag level, to a lesser extent also at Sum level. Technical facilities at Bag
level are rare, although environmental inspectors may occasionally be found.

The technical units that have direct involvement in management of natural resources at the Aimag level include:
    • Department of Strategic Planning and Coordination of Policy Implementation
    • Agricultural department
    • Land department
    • Department of Industry and Nature Policy
    • Nature office

Important roles in management of natural resources are with the Sum governments, which may give out licences
for use of natural resources.

    Important national agencies with a local representation

    •    The Environmental Control Agency (which falls directly under the prime minister’s office). The State
         Inspectors of Environment have a monitoring and controlling function.
    •    The Protected Area Administration. The Ministry of Nature and Environment has a Protected Areas
         Administrations (PAA) in Arkhangai and Zavkhan Aimags. The PAA in Tsetserleg (Arkhangai) also
         looks after the Protected Areas in neighbouring Bayankhongor and Uvurkhangai Aimags. Both PAA
         are understaffed, even to the already low standards of MNE (in Arkhangai/ Bayankhongor/Uvurkhangai
         and Zavkhan only 12 rangers each to work in the field). The budgets are far too low (about 20 to 25.000
         $) to train and equip the staff, and their impact in the field remains necessarily limited. Nevertheless,
         the team of rangers is very motivated and in spite of the limitations, quite a few activities are
         undertaken, notably in the field of awareness and environmental education.




                                                                                                                     11
    B. JUSTIFICATION

    B.1. Problem to be solved

Although still in good health, Khangai Nuruu ecosystems are under threat under the combined impacts of
changes in climate and in the human environment (increased poverty, weakened management institutions,
increase in illegal activities, etc.). Conservation of the resource base is urgently needed.
     • Locally, degradation of the natural resources of the Khangai Nuruu is important and measures need to
         be taken for rehabilitation and/or to reverse a downward trend, e.g.:
                   o Overgrazing
                   o Forest destruction through fire and inappropriate exploitation practices
                   o Wildlife depletion
                   o Disappearance of medicinal plants
                   o Extractive mining
     • Equally the downward trend in living standards needs to be reversed. This downward trend can be
         discerned from such phenomena as:
                    o Poverty, which has become general. The definition of the poor and the extremely poor
                         might need to be re-discussed.
                    o Migration of people, draining the emigration area of the better human resources, while
                         increasing human pressure on natural resources in the immigration areas
                    o Infrastructures, that are often in a dilapidated state, hampering economic development
                    o Income generation depending too much on the procuring of raw materials from the
                         exploitation of natural resources
                    o Etc.
     • Management institutions are either not existing (notably at the field level) or are very weak, mainly due
         to a chronic lack of money. There is little cooperation among institutions, even when they work in the
         same area and with the same population. Policies are sometimes inappropriate. Certain anarchy is
         observable, where the less scrupulous elements of the society take the lead to the detriment of the larger
         majority of the population and of the natural resources on which they depend (e.g. rehabilitation of
         mining areas does not take place, reforestation is not executed properly, fines are not paid).

    B.2. Expected improvements at the end of the present phase of the project

The project will adopt a participatory approach. Since all major stakeholders will have to participate in the
decision taking process that will be initiated by the project itself, it is not possible at this stage to describe the
expected output in quantified terms. Progress indicators will be dealt with in more detail in the project logical
framework (annex K.1). Qualitatively, the project’s outcome will be:

    •    More base-line data and better insight in ecosystem functioning and socio-economic situation of
         Khangai Nuruu
    •    More appropriate policies, e.g. on concessions, integrated land-use planning. Active support by the
         different levels of decision taking for the improved management and wise use of natural resources by a
         substantial number of qualified and empowered users groups at the field level
    •    Improved overall management of Khangai Nuruu as one coherent system of Protected Areas, Buffer
         Zones, Corridors and Development Zones
    •    Improved management and protection of PA’s within the context of the Khangai Nuruu ecosystem
    •    Trained and equipped staff of governmental and non-governmental organisations motivated to
         effectively implement the policies and action plans
    •    Pilot activities for income generating through sustainable use of natural resources, offering a “menu” of
         choices for local initiatives
    •    Availability of instruments for raising alternative income possibilities e.g. from saving and credit
         schemes
    •    Functional users groups ready and capable to exploit and manage natural resources on which they
         depend sustainably




                                                                                                                         12
    B.3. Target groups

The ultimate target groups for the project are the rural communities that depend directly on the use of natural
resources. However, to reach these users, and to enable them to improve their livelihoods and to manage their
resources sustainably, it is important that a number of organisations are strengthened that will facilitate the
conservation and sustainable use of the resource base, after when the project will have to come to an end.

         Main target groups:
    •    Local herders and herders organisations
    •    Extremely poor and poor people at the Sum and Aimag centres, in particular users groups of forest
         products (timber and non-timber)

         Facilitating target groups:
    •    PA-administrations
    •    Local government (Sum and Aimag)
    •    Buffer Zone Councils
    •    Government organisations at national level with a mandate to act upon national resources, like MNE
         and the Ministry of Agriculture
    •    Non-Governmental Organisations
    •    Private sector, e.g. Cooperatives, local businessmen and tourism organisations

It is to be noted that there are a number of off-site stakeholders that may not be directly associated with the
project, but that nevertheless have a keen interest in its success. These include:
      • Water users in the downstream areas, notably in the Gobi desert
      • Since the biological diversity is recognised as a global good, the national and international communities
           have a stake in the conservation of the Khangai Nuruu ecosystem. International and national tourism is
           a small, but significant expression of that interest.

    B.4. Strategy and modalities of execution

In this section distinction is made between criteria, orientations and axes of intervention. Criteria are conditions-
sine-qua-non for the project as such, but also for each of the individual activities. Orientations provide guidance
for the implementation of the activities, while the axes of intervention structure the implementation of the project
along the three subsystems i.e. the natural system, the socio-economic system and the institutional system.

    •    Criteria:
           o Sustainability for the project as a whole as well as for individual activities. The “after project
                phase” should be considered from the onset of the project.
           o Synergy between conservation and development. The project should stress the direct link
                between conservation goals and implementation of livelihood improvement measures. In cases of
                conflicts between conservation and development in the short term (for instance in terms of
                exploitation beyond carrying capacity levels to gain short living benefits), these should be
                converted to opportunities in the medium and long-term.

    •    Orientations:
          o Strengthening of decentralised public and private sector structures for joint sustainable
               management of natural resources. Where appropriate structures do not exist, the project will
               develop innovative approaches for the organisation of stakeholders around conservation-cum-
               development approaches.
          o Khangai Nuruu is to be managed as one single ecosystem, with implementation at lower levels of
               aggregation: Protected Area, local government level, i.e. Aimag or Sum/Bag, and field.
          o The project will be explicitly applying the ecosystem approach (adopted by the COP of the CBD)
               as an integrative framework in space, time, across sectors and scientific disciplines. The project
               will be following the 12 principles of Ecosystem Management endorsed by COP/CBD in Nairobi
               (2002).
          o The project will actively promote the participation of stakeholders in all project interventions,
               notably local people, and explicitly so in decision-making processes. While promoting
               participation, the project will apply the lessons of the programme approach, which stresses the
               importance of concrete benefits for the target groups from the onset of the project (“starter
               activities”) next to base-line surveys in the early stages of project implementation (1 to 2 years).


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•   Axes of intervention:
      o Conservation of the resource base for both people and biological diversity in order to ensure
          sustained delivery of ecosystem goods and services (e.g. Components like land, water, flora and
          fauna, but also ecosystem processes like reproduction and exchange between components,
          provision of clean air, gradual release of clean water, etc.)
      o Promoting wise-use of the resource base and offering alternatives. The basic idea here is that
          income generating should not only be improved, as an important means to improve the living
          standard, but also that such be done in a way that future generations can still continue to use the
          natural resources, and that no options will be excluded because of some abuse in the present or
          nearby future. The full chain of a product might be addressed under this axis: from exploitation
          of natural resources (“harvesting”) to marketing.
      o Strengthening/establishing the managing institutions. Priority will be given to a bottom-up
          approach. Organisations at field level (e.g. users groups, PAA staff) will be facilitated, and where
          needed empowered. At Sum and Aimag level, governmental and non-governmental organisations
          will be strengthened, (organisation and policies)




                                                Error!


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Figure 2: Institutional environment for the project




                                                      15
     • Modalities of execution:
Figure 2 gives an overview of the project structure, and in which institutional context it will have to operate. The
project structure itself will be kept as light as possible since the project’s main task will be harmonize
approaches and to guide, to facilitate and to stimulate partner organisations to implement the project’s activities
in accordance with this project document. The project can be compared to a conductor of an orchestra, where the
music itself will be made by the partners and the project will provide instruments and will ensure harmony.

Project Head Quarters will be at Tsetserleg. Located in the middle of the Khangai Nuruu, Tsetserleg town is still
at a convenient distance from Ulaanbaatar as well as Uliastai. The town has a good infrastructure, including an
office of the Protected Areas Administration for Arkhangai, Uvurkhangai and Bayankhongor Aimags.

The project will be led by an International Project Manager (IPM) with a National Technical Advisor. Both will
be employed and therefore nominated by GTZ. Their Terms of Reference are described in Annex K.4. These
senior officers will be supported by a small administrative unit, for administration, logistics and financial
management.
At the time of formulation of this project document, the association of up to two DED experts to the project was
under negotiation. Such persons, when employed, might supervise the project’s programme in the western part
of Khangai Nuruu, working from an office within the PAA at Uliastai, and/or may give more technically
oriented advises as e.g. for participatory forest management around the Bat-Ulzii area.

The project will intervene through the PA-administrations in Arkhangai and Zavkhan Aimags. Outreach to other
sectors than conservation will be assured by association with other government agencies and organisations,
NGOs and other projects.

The project will have special budget lines for the hiring of consultants. Preference will be given to the recruiting
of local experts for consultancies. Only when the required expertise of sufficient standard is not available locally,
consultants will be recruited internationally. All consultants will have to work in close collaboration with local
staff that is involved with the implementation of the project, either through the PAA or through any of the
associated partner organisations.

    B.5. Special considerations

•   The duration of the first phase of the project will be 4 years. Sustainability and the scale of the project
    require a longer implementation period, and a follow-up phase should normally be foreseen, provided that
    project results justify this, and that the international situation is as favourable for such an extension as
    presently is the case.
•   In compliance with the policy of the government of Mongolia (see section A3), the project will pay explicit
    attention to gender issues. Such not only in terms of execution of certain relevant activities, but also in
    consultations, evaluations and decision taking. Women will be duly represented in the users groups and in
    decision taking and advisory bodies representing the stakeholders (such as the Buffer Zone Council) that the
    project will work with.
•   Even though the natural resource base does not include cultural and historical values, these are very
    important for the people in the Khangai Nuruu where tradition and local culture is still in high esteem.
    Cultural values provide a national identity (e.g. the Otgontenger Mountain), as well as potentials for
    generation of local income through tourism. Moreover, some of these cultural/historical values are
    threatened, e.g. by grave robbers.
•   Larger scale development (such as rural electrification schemes) is likely to demand funds that surpass the
    project’s budget. When such large scale investments are deemed necessary to achieve the project’s goals,
    cooperation will be sought with other actors/ projects (e.g. the millennium development account, GTZ
    sustainable energy initiatives).
•   Skilled people are readily available on the labour market. The project will capitalise on this quality of the
    locally available human resources when enhancing rural development

    B.6. Collaboration and cooperation

The project will stimulate existing initiatives, and where necessary create them, that are likely to contribute to
the achievement of the project’s goals. Collaboration will therefore be actively sought with existing
organisations, such as (this list is not exclusive, see also table 1):

    •    At the field level: Cooperatives, Khot Aïls, users groups, etc.



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    •    At the local level: Sum and Aimag governments, police, technicians, NGO’s, other projects, private
         businesses, research stations, education and training centres, etc. .
    •    At the national level: National government agencies, national NGO’s, national projects, research
         stations, education and training centres, private sector (e.g. tour operators), etc..
    •    At the international level: International donors and Cooperation Agencies, International NGO’s in
         Conservation and/ or development. Synergy with the German and Dutch funded programmes in
         Mongolia. The collaboration with the German Development Service (DED) is under discussion (see
         section B.4). Research and education.

    The project will also create platforms for integrated management of natural resources, where coordination
    and harmonisation of approaches can be arranged, in particular for planning and implementation of
    activities, as well as for regular participatory monitoring and evaluation. Such activities include a/o:

    •    The establishment of a technical advisory group (“Project Advisory Committee) at the overall project
         level
    •    Strengthening of Buffer Zone Councils
    •    Contributions to the GTZ Programme on sustainable management of Natural Resources
    •    Regular exchange with other components of the GoNL financed programme in Mongolia

    B.7. Qualifications of executing agencies

          MNE
The project will be attached to the representations of the Ministry of Nature and Environment in the field, i.e.
with the Protected Areas Administration in Zavkhan and Arkhangai. These PAAs have the mandate to manage
the natural resources in the different protected areas and the adjacent buffer zones in order to ensure their
conservation. The application of the ecosystem approach as endorsed under the CBD (see section B.4) require
that they will have to collaborate closely with natural resource users and land-and water managers that cover the
non-protected zones of the Khangai Nuruu and to outreach to other sectors and actors in the region that influence
the survival of the natural resources of the Khangai Nuruu as a whole. They will have to stimulate knowledge
sharing and information gathering with research and education institutes from outside the traditional
environmental realm.

         GTZ
The project will be managed and executed by GTZ. This organisation has a long standing and good record in
natural resource management issues, in particular towards ecosystem management and poverty alleviation in
Mongolia, as demonstrated in the projects in the Khan Khentii, and Gobi Gurvansaikhan areas. This project will
be a component of the GTZ- programme on Conservation and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in
Mongolia, in close cooperation with technical assistance programme in Mongolia. GTZ also executes a number
of projects with activities on livelihood improvement that are of specific interest for the present project. These
include projects on Renewable energy, Self-help cooperatives, Promotion of regional economies (co-funded by
the Netherlands), and privatisation of veterinary services.




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    C. DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE

The project responds to the following policies formulated by the Government of Mongolia:

•   “to ensure sustainable development and ecological balance, to maintain nature conservation and
    environmental policies as priorities within regional socio-economic development”( economic growth report
    and poverty reduction strategy, 2003)

•   “to rationally utilize and rehabilitate natural resources with due consideration of their capacity to ensure
    an eco-oriented economic growth; precisely define civil rights and responsibilities related to the utilization
    and protection of local natural resources and create a mechanism of nature and environment protection by
    the citizens themselves.”(Nature and environment policy, 2000 – 2004)

It is expected that with the future achievements of the project the Khangai Nuruu will qualify to be recognised as
a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO under its Man and Biosphere Programme.




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    D. IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES, RESULTS AND ACTIVITIES

The three immediate objectives of the project reflect the three axes of intervention described in section B.4. For
pragmatic reasons the institutional aspects of protection activities, i.e. the strengthening of the Protected Area
Administration, has been put with the first immediate objective since it would be rather theoretical to separate
protection as an activity from the strengthening of the institution in charge with that activity. For similar reasons
the strengthening or establishing of management bodies at the field level (e.g. cooperatives of users) will be dealt
with under the second immediate objective, dealing directly with poverty alleviation.

The three immediate objectives have to be seen and treated as one package. It is not so that they can be
considered as three subprojects. For instance, policy support is treated under D.3, but lessons learned and to be
considered to adopt more appropriate policies will be derived from activities under D.1 (“Protection”, for
instance on such issues as hunting concessions) and D.2 (“eco-development”). Similarly, an activity of Socio-
economic base-line studies will have to be implemented in and around Protected Areas as well, giving important
insight in people’s activities with natural resources so that protection activities can be better fine-tuned to the
actual situation.

D.1. Immediate objective 1: Ensuring sustained delivery of ecosystem services and products

N.B.: It is an illusion to think that this can be achieved in 4 years time for all aspects of ecosystem management
or use of natural resources. In this first phase it will be a “contribution to”. Nevertheless the formulation of this
objective is maintained to keep the longer term objective in focus.

D.1.1 Product 1: Improved protection

D.1.1.1 Activity 1: Making the Protected Areas Administration more effectively

         •   Training and visits of other conservation projects in Mongolia (management skills, ecological
             knowledge, environmental laws and regulations, communication skills with local populations and
             tourists)
         •   Equipment (transport, communication, uniforms, etc..)
         •   Functioning, notably improve the efficiency of the Ranger System (patrolling frameworks, prime
             systems, rapid analysis of information)
         •   Improve park infrastructures on selected spots (roads, camping areas, toilets, garbage collecting
             system, Hot Springs infrastructures)
         •   Signalisation in the field for the different PA’s and zones

D.1.1.2 Activity 2: Awareness raising and education

N.B. The communication strategy for different target groups defined under D.3.4.2, will be an important
instrument for the realisation of this activity.

         •   Strengthen the role of the population in conservation
         •   Environmental education: Train the trainers, guided tours for pupils and students (in exchange for
             environmental achievements by these pupils or their schools), custom made training courses for
             students, etc.
         •   Feed-back of research activities and inventories to the different target groups
         •   Defining and implementing a communication strategy for different target groups
         •   Promote the creation of Nature Clubs
         •   Info centres/ exhibitions on nature conservation
         •   Put up information boards in Mongolian and English language on tourist spots
         •   Prepare brochures and leaflets about the natural and cultural values of the Khangai Nuruu
         •   Elaborate information materials for locally important subject matters




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D.1.2 Product 2: Improved knowledge about ecosystem composition and functioning

D.1.2.1 Activity 1: Research and inventories

This research is oriented towards the basic needs of the PAAs. Research on conservation-cum-development
issues are dealt with in immediate objective 3 (section D.3.2.1)
         • Flora/vegetation and fauna, with emphasis on vulnerable elements (e.g. riverine forests, pine nut
              trees, degraded pasture land, musk deer, maral, marmot, etc.) for the PAA and the Khangai Nuruu.
         • Forest and NTFP inventories in selected areas (satellite mapping and ground truthing)
         • Base-Line Studies for corridor options
         • Overview of sites with high conservation values and where most violations occur (as illegal
              hunting, fishing and wild plant gathering
         • Overview of potential tourist attractions, i.e. natural values and cultural and historical assets

D.1.2.2 Activity 2: Design and implementation of a monitoring system for a limited number of key parameters

         •   hydrology,
         •   forest extension and condition,
         •   primary production,
         •   large predators and raptors,
         •   tourism carrying capacity, e.g. impact of tourism infrastructures as Ger-Camps, Camping grounds,
             animal disturbances by tourists and changes in animal behaviour, vegetation damage by vehicles,
             litter, etc.

D.1.3 Product 3: Integrated Land-use plan and its implementation

D.1.3.1 Activity 1: Elaborate an integrated land-use plan with map of Khangai Nuruu (overview scale)

N.B.: This activity will be important to strengthen the planned documentation and data base centre (see section
D.3.2.3)

         •   Zoning, e.g. designation of corridors, buffer zones and development zones
         •   Follow the principles of a Biosphere Reserve as laid down by UNESCO
         •   Use of GIS and Remote Sensing data

D.1.3.2 Activity 2: Implementation of an integrated land-use plan
        • Improved protection activities in buffer zones and in corridors. Strengthen the cooperation with the
             Environmental Control Agency, Aimag- and Sum inspectors (see also D.1.1).
        • Rehabilitation of degraded areas
        • Establishment of Tourism Development Plans
        • Concepts for hunting and fishing concessions (see also D.3.3.2)

N.B.: Even though the PAAs will have to take the lead on this activity, collaboration with Sum and Aimag
governments on integrated management on Protected and non-protected areas is essential

D.2. Immediate Objective 2: Improving local livelihoods

For this objective intensive collaboration with other actors in the rural area of the Khangai Nuruu is essential. It
is not only with local government staff, but especially with other projects and NGOs, since the expertise within
the government (including local governments and the PAAs) of aspects of integrated management of resources,
and of participatory approaches is still virtually absent.

D.2.1 Product 1: Socio-economic base-lines

D.2.1.1 Activity 1: Thematic PRAs.

PRAs have the inconvenience that they raise expectations about future project interventions among the rural
communities very high. For that reason it is recommended to limit the subject of a PRA to those aspects of the




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local economy that are of direct importance for the achievement of the project goals, i.e. conservation and use of
natural resources.

D.2.1.2 Activity 2: Socio-economic characterisation of the intervention zone at the onset of the project.

Extensive economic surveys consume a lot of time and money while the concrete benefits in the field remain
very limited. Therefore, the project will study existing data (statistics, consultancy reports, etc.). In case there is
still a need for additional data, a limited survey for only some key parameters in a restricted number of pilot
(sample) areas may be surveyed, that can be the basis for a simple monitoring programme in the future. This
activity might be subcontracting to a national consultancy organisation.

D.2.1.3 Activity 3: Monitoring of socio-economic parameters

It is of importance that statistics are maintained on simple key parameters for socio-economic development. A
number of such data is regularly surveyed by the economic departments of local governments. Additional
surveys may be needed by the project to analyse rends in parameters of importance for the project’s goals.
 It is of importance that parameters can be identified that do not demand highly costly efforts to be monitored
and nevertheless indicate the progress properly

D.2.2 Product 2: Users organisations and cooperatives

The project needs partners organisations in the field that will be able to continue the project’s achievements
without external intervention. Depending on the activity and the area, the project may strengthen existing rural
organisations or establish new ones. Activities on rural organisations require a special expertise that often is
available with NGOs that work on rural development. Such organisations are not very common in the Khangai
Nuruu, and even at the national level they are still relatively rare. Some may have a religious bias. The project
should contact those organisations that look like promising partners, in order to subcontract some of the
activities under this product to these specialised institutions.

D.2.2.1. Activity 1: Training in management and organisation.

Users groups should have a formalised structure with transparent duties and procedures for the management
committee. This includes reporting, financial management, feed-back to the members, election procedures,
decision taking, etc.. This requires training adapted to the specifics of each group.

D.2.2.2 Activity 2: Empowerment

Users groups need to be formally recognised, getting a legal status that enables them to operate as a juridical
body. These groups can than be attributed exclusive access rights, formulation and control of exploitation rules,
management of communal credit systems, etc.. Some equipment might be needed to support the functioning of
these groups (e.g. office equipment, a safe, etc.).
An important condition will be that these users groups will have the government support against external raiders
from outside that simply come to empty an area of its resources before moving on to the next zone.

D.2.3 Product 3: Improved income through wise use of natural resources

D.2.3.1 Activity 1: Participatory planning of resource use

 This is usually a follow-up of a PRA, where the project decides together with the target groups on area planning
aspects (e.g. what pastures should remain reserved, where to rehabilitate wells, etc.), on off-take (e.g. stocking
rate, quota, etc.). This outcome is based on input of knowledge about the resources both quantitatively as well as
qualitatively. The indigenous knowledge of the users is to be tapped (e.g. during PRA). Together with the results
of project executed inventories and existing data, this may lead to a viable plan, recognised by the competent
authorities (Sum governments), on which an exclusive exploitation can be founded. During this planning
process, training-on-the-job will be given on some ecological notions such like carrying capacities, food-webs
and the precautionary principle.




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D.2.3.2 Activity 2: Implementation of local management and/or sustainable use plans.

Since the plan will be the outcome of a participatory process, it must be left to the partners in this process (users,
local government officials, PAA …) to identify which activities will be undertaken. However, based on the
actual local resource use and potential future uses, the following is likely to be undertaken, albeit not at every
pilot site:
          • Development of (eco-)tourism. Khangai Nuruu has an important number of assets to attract both
               national as well as international tourists to this vast area:
                    o Health tourism for the resorts with the warm, volcanic springs,
                    o Cultural tourism for the existing cultural events such as at Otgontenger Mountain, but also
                         historical visits to ancient sites like Kharkhorum, Bronze age grave fields, Deer stones,
                         rock carvings, etc.
                    o Tourism of vision. Wildlife has become rare, but not beyond levels of recovery. The
                         scenery is fantastic.
                    o Mountaineering,
                    o Hunting. In this case, wildlife numbers should be allowed to recover first, and poaching
                         must be controlled sustainably.
               For all these forms of tourism it is important that
                    o environmental regulations are respected,
                    o there will be an important share of the income accruing to PAAs and local inhabitants,
                    o Collaboration will be sought with tour operators with a good record on responsible
                         tourism (e.g. Jan Wigsten)
          • Appropriate harvesting techniques, stocking rates, etc.. Demonstration of better harvesting
               techniques, for instance for nut- and berry collecting, or for uprooting medicinal plants. Lower
               stocking rates of livestock with livestock of a better (= more productive) quality.
          • Improved processing of raw materials:
                    o Livestock products : felt, Yak wool, Cashmere, Yak cheese, leather, etc.. In future in
                         might become an option to crate slaughter houses in the area for the highly appreciated
                         yak meat from the Khangai, instead of the enormous herds being driven to Ulaanbaatar
                         with all the problems on the way (mortality, loss of weight, overgrazing and conflicts with
                         local herdsmen)
                    o Forest Products: Sawn timber, ger-wood, decorticated nuts, jam and wine out of berries,
                         etc.
                    o Medicinal plants: Develop local pharmaceutical products.
                    o Others: Mineral water, salt, fur, souvenirs…
          • Improved marketing. Accessibility of the area being a major problem, marketing should
               concentrate on processed, less perishable goods such as Yak cheese, or dried meat.

The project will not intervene on the use of the same resource uses everywhere. A certain local specialisation is
already present in the area, that should be strengthened, some examples:
         • Ger-wood making in Bat-Ulzii Sum
         • Fruits processing in Tosontsengel Sum
         • Leather in Otgon Sum
         • Domestic tourism (health and cultural) around Otgontenger mountain

The advantages of local specialisation are evident:
        • Local expertise is available that can be further developed
        • Marketing is easier, being more specific
        • Less risk of saturation of markets
        • Less competition, draining the benefits of the activity into the pockets of traders and other
            middlemen.

D.2.4 Product 4: Alternatives for actual natural resource use

D.2.4.1 Activity 1: Income generation options to relieve pressure on natural resources.

In a number of cases, local people do not have real alternatives for the depletion of natural resources, because
they lack the equipment, the investment or the knowledge to look for alternatives. The project might develop a
“menu” of alternative income generating options that could alleviate poverty for these – often mostly depreciated
– groups. In the context of the Mongolian countryside the following options have turned out to be realistic:


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         •   Employment through the stimulation of cottage industries and Small and Medium Enterprises (incl.
             organisation building, training and equipment): e.g. clothes making, bakeries, vegetable gardening.
         •   Saving and credit schemes. In the sparsely populated rural areas it is difficult to set up a
             commercial credit scheme without the necessity to levy high interest rates. A saving and credit
             schemes is more appropriate under such circumstances, in order to provide people with access to
             highly needed cash money. Collaboration with specialised organisations (NGOs) is recommended.
         •   Alternative fuel for heating, e.g. making fuel by mixing saw dust (readily available in the saw
             mills) with cattle dung
         •   others

D.2.5 Product 5: Improved socio-economic infrastructure.

D.2.5.1 Activity 1: Seeking collaboration with other projects, e.g. provision of electricity, opening of export
markets

D.3. Immediate Objective 3: Strengthening the facilitating environment

The target groups for this cluster of activities are in the first place the management and resource use institutions
of the government other than the PAAs. These include the departments within the local governments dealing
with exploitation of natural resources and/ or their protection: For instance, agriculture and livestock
development, forestry, water resources on one hand, and environmental control agency, police and custom on the
other. Also the local government’s political and administrative dignitaries may be addressed with specific
training and information actions (Governors, speakers of parliament and other councillors).
Locally active national and provincial NGO’s on rural development and environmental conservation that the
project will be collaborating with, may also benefit from participation in these courses in order to make them
more efficient and effective.
For a balanced approach on natural resources management in the Khangai Nuruu as a whole, these organisations
need the project’s support in order to create synergy between the work within and outside Protected Areas, and
to make the approaches of the different users groups coherent with each other.

N.B .The strengthening of management institutes for Protected Areas (PAAs) is dealt with under Immediate
Objective 1 (section D.1). Strengthening of organisations of users groups, such as herders cooperatives or khot
aïl(traditional family groups), are treated under Immediate Objective 2 (section D.2).

D.3.1 Product 1: Strengthened management institutions

D.3.1.1 Activity 1: Training of natural resources managers
The target group for this set of activities will be mostly composed of local government officials and staff.
Depending on the characteristics of the participants, the project may opt for a one-day seminar (for instance in
the case of politicians at Aimag level), introductory courses for control agencies like policemen or custom staff,
or for more in depth courses of one week for technical staff such as Agricultural officers or Environmental
inspectors. The communication strategy should provide a clear lead for the most appropriate communication
messages for each target group.
         • Integrated management of natural resources (e.g. principles of wise use, ecosystem approach, etc.):
              courses, seminars, workshops, etc..
         • More in-depth ecological knowledge e.g. on watershed management
         • Participatory approaches

N.B.: Training will be done as much as possible within the framework of the GTZ programme on sustainable
management of natural resources, and in close cooperation with the other Netherlands funded projects in
Mongolia with relevant activities of training and improvement of project staff.

D.3.1.2 Activity 2: Strengthening the role of State Environmental Inspectors (Aimag, Sum and Bag)

    •    Control of illegal operations outside PA’s
                  o Strengthening of status
                  o Training (see also section D.3.1.1).
    •    Equipment



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N.B.: This activity will have to be undertaken in close cooperation with the GTZ component on the
Environmental Protection Agency.

D.3.2 Product 2: Improved knowledge about ecosystem management in the Khangai Nuruu

D.3.2.1 Activity 1: Interdisciplinary research.

The research done under this activity will be facilitating the work with other institutional parties than the PAAs.
Obviously, this type of research will have to be harmonised with inventories and research done under the other
immediate objectives (D.1.2: Ecosystem composition and functioning; and D.2.1: Socio-economic baselines).

    •    Management relevant research on ecosystem management and conservation-cum-development.
    •    The research under this heading will often be of an “action-research” type, i.e. experimental activities of
         a pilot nature will be closely followed in order to extract the lessons and - when the outcome is positive
         - for a future upgrade to a larger scale introduction.

D.3.2.2 Activity 2: Monitoring of management institutions.

The performance of the different management institutions needs to be followed, evaluated and adaptations made,
all as much as feasible in a participatory manner. This could be done by the stimulation of annual internal
evaluations, promotion of a standard for annual reports, etc.

N.B.: In Mongolia it is common practice to give prices and bonuses for the performance of institutes. The project
might use such a system of incentives for its own needs, for instance by organising an annual event for the best
Environmental Inspector, or the best environmental report.

D.3.2.3 Activity 3: Documentation.

The project will make use of existing documents and data and will collect new data and publish research reports
that are of relevance for future planning, but also for future research, assessments, etc.. These documents and
data need to be accessible to all future project partners. In order to strengthen the PAAs position in the integrated
management of the Khangai Nuruu as a whole, the documentation centre and data base should be equipped with
GIS hard-and software, and will be established initially in the PAAs’ premises where the project HQ is located
(i.e. Tsetserleg and Uliastai). However, a more central place later on, e.g. in the Aimag government centre is not
to be excluded beforehand. The project and its partners will have to decide on that.

D.3.3 Product 3: More appropriate policies for ecosystem management

This product is important in support for the following products under Immediate Objectives 1 and 2: D 1.3
(Integrated land-use plan and its implementation), and D.2.3 (Improved income through wise use of natural
resources).

D.3.3.1 Activity 1: Policy support on participatory formulation and adoption of integrated management plans for
land- and water use, and use of natural resources in general (at local, Aimag and National level)

Plans that have been formulated and adopted by the major stakeholders in the field, need to get an official status
provided that they are in accordance with the Mongolian legislation. If this accordance is lacking, plans might be
rejected, or the legislation might need to be adopted. This is a more lengthy process, but worthwhile in terms of
sustainable management of the resources.

D.3.3.2 Activity 2: Policy support to the giving out of future concessions on use of natural resources

New concepts will be developed including the setting of quota, criteria, conditions to be fulfilled by the
concession taker, monitoring and evaluation, e.g. on
    • tourism camps,
    • logging concessions,
    • collection of non-timber forest resources,
    • hunting concessions,
    • fishing rights, but also on
    • sites for winter camps,



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•   access to rehabilitated wells,




                                     25
D.3.3.3 Activity 3: Organisation of workshops to feed results of the project back to the policy making level.

This is typically an activity to be undertaken within the framework of the GTZ programme on the sustainable
management of natural resources, notably for policy support activities at the national level.

D.3.4 Product 4: Effective cross-sectoral cooperation structures are functional

D.3.4.1 Activity 1: Promoting cross-sectoral cooperation

This activity is a more concrete reflection of the strategic provisions mentioned in section B.6. It will be left to
the project to work this out further.

    •    Buffer zone Councils. The law on Buffer Zones requires a Buffer Zone Committee to be established in
         each Sum that has contributed land to a protected area. The project will
         o assist the PAA to develop these buffer Zones Committees into bodies that are truly representing the
              interests of the major stakeholders in the Buffer Zone,
         o it will also strengthen the democratic functioning of these committees in terms of selection of BZ
              Committee members, feed-back to the buffer zone population, gender balance, etc.
    •    Project Advisory Committee. The project will establish a project advisory committee in which the civil
         society and the private sector meet with governmental representatives and representatives from other
         projects under GTZ execution and Netherlands funding, in order to discuss the project’s achievements
         and future plans. This project advisory committee will meet at least once a year during an internal
         evaluation meeting in preparation of the annual tripartite meeting of donors and MNE (see also section
         G).
    •    Technical and political committees at the Sum and Aimag level. Technical committees where technical
         staff (like land use officers, environmental inspectors, meteorologists, but also education experts and
         medical doctors, etc.) will be sitting together, will be preparing the background information for
         decisions on integrated renewable resource management (land, water, vegetation, fauna) to be taken by
         political committees. The project will stimulate these platforms of coordination to be established at Sum
         and Aimag level, in such a way that it may continue after the project will have come to an end. The
         secretariat of such committees should be preferably with the governor’s office, since this organisation
         must have a mandate enabling it to impose coordination when certain groups are reluctant to collaborate
         (for personal, institutional or other reasons).
    •    Other projects and NGOs. Section A2 gives an overview of projects with relevant interventions for the
         conservation and use of the natural resources of the Khangai Nuruu. Most of the activities with these
         partners will be on an ad-hoc basis, either because the expertise required for a certain activity (e.g.
         setting up of credit schemes in cooperation with an NGO specialised in this matter), or because the
         other project is already active in the pilot area of the project (e.g. research activity in a protected area, or
         a rural electrification scheme in a Sum). In all these instances it will be important that the goal and the
         approach of this project will be properly communicated, that progress is reported and fed-back to the
         partners in order to be evaluated jointly.

D.3.4.2 Activity 2: Formulation and implementation of a communication strategy.

This strategy will have define the most appropriate methods and instruments to raise awareness and educate the
different target groups about the importance of ecosystem conservation and sustainable use of natural resources
in the Khangai Nuruu.

It is likely to be a kind of matrix where communication and education instruments are matched against the
priority target groups. For the general public for instance, radio and TV emissions will be more efficient, while
for the highest level of decision taking in the country a person-to-person relation will be more effective.




                                                                                                                       26
    E. CONDITIONS AND OBLIGATIONS

Experience has learnt that Government policies, set at the national level and to a lesser extent at the Aimag and
Sum level, are regularly inappropriate and even counterproductive. The government should be engaged towards
a favourable institutional environment, permitting optimal conditions for the project to achieve its goals and to
redress the situation where such an institutional context is not present. This includes:

    A. Good governance, which is a major concern of international donors. Within the framework of this
       project, it will be required to have transparency not only in terms of the management of financial
       contributions by the different partners (Mongolia, German or Dutch), but also in terms of policy
       decisions that may affect the outcome of the project positively or negatively. This applies in particular
       to the following points:
       • Staff stability. The present Protected Area Administration has a limited number of staff members,
             but these have shown to be capable to realise small wonders on a limited budget with rudimental
             equipment. These persons should remain in place and in function for the duration of the project.
             Where shortages in staffing exist even to the already very low government standards, the
             government should take precautions as to remedy these shortages at the onset of the project
       • For local governments as well as for PAAs, there is no incentive to raise their own income since
             everything has to go into the treasury. There should be an incentive for governmental organisations
             to raise their own income without being punished for the success by a reduction in budget from the
             central government.
       • Because of budget difficulties, the PAA of the Zavkhan Aimag has accumulated an important debt
             (about half of the annual budget). This debt must be sanitised before the start of the project.
       • Proper attention must be paid to the natural values at stake in the Khangai Nuruu when decisions
             are taken at the political level (from the national level to the Sum level). The case of the
             millennium road going for 45 km through the Tarvagatai National Park is a worrisome example.
             Equally the allocation of mining concessions inside or outside PA’s and the non-compliance with
             the environmental law by some mining companies left unpunished by the competent government
             organisations, does not reflect respect at the decision taking levels for natural values for both
             people and nature.
       • Natural resources like grasslands and water are still treated as common resources. This makes it
             difficult to convince users groups to invest into an improved management of such resources since
             everyone else may come and reap the benefits. Some notion of exclusivity needs to be developed
             and legally anchored before it can be applied.
    B. It is permitted to hunt wolves in Protected Areas, and even bonuses are given out. This rule does not
       pay tribute to the important role of large predators in maintaining ecological health of an ecosystem. It
       also keeps the door open to all poachers for other wildlife who will always claim to be hunting for
       wolves when caught with a rifle inside a PA!!
    C. The position of rangers is very weak: Rangers do not have the right to defend themselves properly while
       the creeping trend in increasing violence from illegal trespassers is readily observable. Gas pistols
       increase the insecurity when a ranger is confronted with an armed opponent who might shoot at the
       sight of an arm, not knowing it is just a gas pistol. The authority of the rangers is low since they can not
       arrest the suspect.
    D. Ill-thought rehabilitation of livestock programmes and projects risks to produce overgrazing and
       conflicts again, like before the Zud (e.g. more goats, more animal numbers instead of quality). Short
       term political gains may be quickly won by rebuilding animal numbers, it also increases the risk of
       violence for the control of good pastures and new Zuds, with much more damage each time. Politicians
       should have the vision to develop the countryside based on sound ecological management principles,
       and they should have the political will to guide their voters towards this common goal, which provides a
       realistic basis for sustainable poverty alleviation to the benefit of future generations.




                                                                                                                27
    F. INPUT

In this section, some comments are given about the quality of input required. Details about the quantity are with
the chapter on the budget (section I)

Personnel
    • Priority for local expertise, provided it is available of the required minimum quality.
    • Reservoir of national experts on integrated ecosystem management and participatory approaches is still
       small so that expatriate expertise will be sought for these aspects.
    • Project personnel needs to be evaluated annually.

Material
   • Purchases should preferably done on the local market for products that can be maintained and repaired
         locally. For that reason Russian Jeeps are preferred to Western ones. The project management has to
         define minimum quality requirements for each product, and has to develop a standard for tendering of
         purchases above a certain amount of money.
   • All material bought under the project should be administered properly, and annual evaluations will be
         made on the actual conditions of the items bought.

Financial
    • Contributions from both donors to be managed as one project, not two separate ones. Each donor will
        have full insight in project spending, including the expenses paid for on the contributions of the
        partners.
    • Transparency is required on the contributions from other partners, including MNE, to the achievement
        of the project goals. Project procedures that seek to ensure this transparency should be agreed upon and
        followed by MNE.
    • Income generated by the project must be reinvested in activities that contribute to the achievements of
        the project goals. The same applies to income generated thanks to the project by project partners from
        governmental organisations.
    • Income generated thanks to the project by the private sector, NGOs and users groups should be partly
        reinvested in the purpose for which the project had originally intended its contribution. This should
        clearly be stated in the terms of contracts signed between the project and those partners.
    • Disbursements from the bank must be co-signed by the International Project Manager and the Project
        administrator. The IPM should take measures that the project can continue smoothly in case of his
        prolonged absence.
    • Annual financial audits are required. Good quality independent auditors are available at the national
        level.

Mongolian contribution:

    •    MNE: In kind: staff time, offices, policy adaptations, etc.
    •    Local partners: All partners will be requested to contribute to the activities oriented to improve their
         situation. This can be either in money (e.g. local businesses), in kind (e.g. herdsmen contributing
         livestock-products) or in time and expertise.




                                                                                                                    28
G. RISKS

•   In any region where poverty reigns, successful projects tend to attract newcomers. This immigration
    into the area will dilute the benefits among the increased population which in turn will increase pressure
    on the natural resources. In order to prevent such counterproductive effects, it is important to ensure
    exclusivity of access to the resources for those people only that have invested in their improved
    management. Other measures may be to implement activities distant from the boundary of Protected
    Areas to prevent a pull effect close to the Parks, as foreseen in the Biosphere Reserve concept. Under
    all circumstances, close monitoring of immigration and access to resources remains necessary!
•   The precautionary principle requires to be prepared for unexpected circumstances. This preparedness
    should be part of the project’s philosophy. Nevertheless, climate and weather conditions in the Khangai
    Nuruu like Zud or drought can be so extreme that progress will be seriously hampered if these occur.
•   Widespread alcoholism, poverty and unemployment leading to idleness and desperateness, are believed
    to be one of the major factors for a relatively low but increasing crime rate in the project area.
    Collaboration will be sought with competent bodies and authorities to combat the causes of such
    societal diseases when they occur in the project area.




                                                                                                           29
    H. LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS

The project will be executed under the agreement that the Government of Mongolia signed with the Government
of Germany.

(Text to legal reference to be added by GTZ)




                                                                                                         30
I.   MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REPORTING

•    Annex K.1 (logical framework) gives a number of key-environmental, socio-economic and institutional
     parameters, to be regularly (at least once a year) assessed to measure the project’s progress in terms of
     project impact on biodiversity and livelihood options
•    The project will organise annually an internal evaluation with the Project Advisory Committee (see
     D.3.4), a cross-sectoral platform for the different levels of project execution (pilot communities/sums,
     Aimag and Khangai Nuruu). These internal evaluations will be organised to prepare the annual tripartite
     meeting (RNE, GTZ, MNE) where project’s progress and plans for the following year will be discussed
     among donors and Government of Mongolia.
•    An external evaluation is foreseen at the beginning of the last year of execution with the explicit task to
     formulate recommendations on an eventual future phase.
•    In principle reporting must be done in accordance with the requirements of the two donors. In order to
     avoid that this leads to excessive reporting duties, the donors should agree on the frequency and formats
     of progress and financial reports, so that these fir both donors’ requirements at the same time.
•    Financial audits will have to be conducted by an independent team of auditors annually (see also section
     F).




                                                                                                             31
J. BUDGET




            32
       Code               Description                   Year 1 (Euro)   Year 2      Year 3 (Euro)   Year4 (Euro)   Total (Euro)    Remarks
                                                                        (Euro)
1                  G. PERSONNEL COSTS
1.1.          International Project Manager                   120.000     123.600         127.308        131.127         502.035 Including international travel
                                                                                                                                 and allowances
1.2           National Technical Advisor                        7.200       7.416           7.638          7.868          30.122 Including allowances
1.3           DED expert(s)                                      p.m.        p.m.            p.m.           p.m.            p.m. To be paid from DED funds
1.4           Support staff
1.4.1         Secretary/translator (2)                          7.200       7.416           7.638          7.868          30.122
1.4.2         Drivers (5)                                      10.000      10.300          10.609         10.927          41.836
1.4.3         Others                                           10.000      10.300          10.609         10.927          41.836 Cleaners, guardsmen, etc.
1.5           Local consultants/ subcontracts
1.5.1         Training ( 500 Euro per man month)                1.500       1.545           1.591          1.639           6.275
1.5.2         Research (500 Euro per man month)                 3.000       2.575           2.122          1.639           9.336 Includes inventories and
                                                                                                                                 monitoring
1.5.3         Evaluations and audits (500 Euro/Mm)                500         515             530          1.093           2.638
1.5.4         Technical backstopping (500 Euro/                 2.000       2.060           2.122          2.186           8.368 E.g.: Saving and credit system,
              man month)                                                                                                         rural organisations
1.6           International consultants/ subcontracts
1.6.1         Technical backstopping GTZ (10.000               20.000      20.600          21.280         21.845          83.725
              Euro/ Mm)
1.6.2         International Evaluation expert                                                             20.000          20.000 Including international transport,
                                                                                                                                 allowances, reporting, etc.
1.6.3         Others (10.000 Euro / Man month)                 20.000      20.600          21.280         21.845          83.725 Including international transport,
                                                                                                                                 allowances, reporting, etc.
1.7           Allowances local government staff                10.000      10.300          10.609         10.927          41.836 For project related activities only
1.8           Voluntary rangers                                 6.000       6.180           6.365          6.556          25.101
              Sub total personnel costs                       217.400     223.407         229.701        256.447         926.955

2             MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT
2.1           Transport
2.1.1         Russian Jeeps (4)                                32.000                                                     32.000
2.1.2         Liaison vehicle UB – Khangai (1)                 30.000                                                     30.000
2.1.3         Motor cycles (20)                                20.000                                                     20.000
2.1.4         Horses (20)                                       2.000                       2.122                          4.122
2.2           Protection equipment
2.2.1         Uniformes, boots, etc.                            8.000                                                      8.000
2.2.2         Communication equipment                         100.000                                                    100.000


                                                                                                                                                                  33
2.2.3   Field equipment (binoculars, cameras,     2.000    2.000     500      500      5.000
        compass, GPS, camping material, etc.)
2.3     Office equipment
2.3.1   Furniture                                 5.000    5.000                      10.000
2.3.2   Computers, printers, photocopiers,       20.000   20.000                      40.000
        scanners, etc.
2.3.3   Software                                  3.000    3.000                       6.000
2.4     Buildings
2.4.1   Renovation PAA-offices                   30.000   30.000                      60.000
2.4.2   Renovation Aimag, Sum and Bag            30.000   30.000                      60.000 Only for those offices that are
        offices                                                                              directly involved with project
                                                                                             activities
2.4.3   Gers (6)                                  3.000    3.000                       6.000
2.5     Research, training and public
        awareness equipment
2.5.1   Microscopes, laboratory equipment ,       2.000                                2.000
        etc.
2.5.2   Maps, satellite imagery                   5.000                      5.000    10.000
2.5.3   Documents                                 1.000      500     250       250     2.000
2.5.4   Audio-visual equipment (video camera      4.000    4.000                       8.000
        and DVD player, TV, generator,
        microphone, speaker, etc.)
2.5.5   Reference collections                      500      500      500      500      2.000 Herbarium, taxidermic
                                                                                             collection, etc.
2.5.6   Exhibition material                       1.000      500      500      500     2.500
        Subtotal                                298.500   98.500    3.872    6.750   407.622

3       FUNCTIONING
3.1     Running costs of vehicles                40.000   41.200   42.436   43.709   167.345 Incl. Insurance, petrol, repair,
                                                                                             etc.
3.2     Office running costs                     25.000   25.750   26.523   27.318   104.591 Incl. Electricity, heating,
                                                                                             telephone, fax, stationary, etc.
3.3     Study tours                               2.000    2.060    2.122    2.186     8.368
        Subtotal                                 67.000   69.010   71.081   73.213   280.304

4       RURAL DEVELOPMENT
4.1     Investments                              25.000   25.000   25.000   25.000   100.000
4.2.    Saving and credit schemes                25.000   25.000   25.000   25.000   100.000


                                                                                                                                34
      Subtotal                                    50.000     50.000     50.000     50.000     200.000

5.    MISCELLANEOUS COSTS
5.1   Organisation of seminars                     3.000      3.000      3.000      3.000      12.000
5.2   Production of brochures, booklets, etc.                10.000     10.000     10.000      30.000
5.3   Administrative overhead GTZ (7,5 %)         47.693     34.044     27.574     29.956     139.267
5.4   Unforeseen (5%)                             34.180     24.398     19.761     21.468      99.807
      Subtotal                                    84.873     71.442     60.335     64.424     281.074
      GRAND TOTAL                               717.773    512.359    414.989    450.834    2.095.955




                                                                                                        35
36
K. ANNEXES

K.1. Logical framework




                         37
Objective 1: Ensuring sustained delivery of ecosystem services and products
PRODUCTS                      ACTIVITIES                      INPUT                              EXPECTED OUTPUT                 INDICATORS OF SUCCESS            ASSUMPTIONS
Product 1.1:                  1.1.1 Making the Protected      • Project Leader                   • Competent Park                • Number and categories of       • The respect of the
Improved protection           Areas Administration more
                              effective
                                                              • Cooperating institutions            administration                  staff being trained              environmental laws and
                                                                 (Management Training               (Trained and equipped        • Number of courses                 regulations is politically
                              • Training and visits of other     institutions, Ranger               rangers, Trained and            delivered                        supported
                                  conservation projects in       Training)                          equipped staff of the Park
                                                                                                                                 • The visibility of target       • The jurisdiction follows the
                                  Mongolia (management                                              administrations in
                                  skills, ecological
                                                              • Consultant for                      Tsetserleg and Uliastay)
                                                                                                                                    species (Maral, Ibex,            environmental offences in
                                                                 reorganisation of the                                              Argali) is increasing            a resolute manner
                                  knowledge, environmental                                       • Efficient Control System in                                    • Rangers are in sufficient
                                  laws and regulations,
                                                                 Ranger system
                                                                                                    PA’s and its surroundings
                                                                                                                                 • The violations are rapidly
                                  communication skills with • Collaboration with other                                              recognised, analysed,            numbers available and
                                  local populations and          conservation projects           • Good visibility of the PA’s      communicated and the             have a status that allows
                                                                                                    and its zones in the field                                       them to intervene with
                                  tourists)                   • Manuals, books, etc.                (signboards present at the
                                                                                                                                    response is implemented
                                                                                                                                                                     efficacy
                              • Functioning, notably:         • Logistics                                                        • The number of national
                                                                                                    entries of all roads leading
                                                                                                                                    and international visitors    • There is no decline in the
                                  Improve the efficiency of   • Per diem                            into the PA’s of Khangai)
                                                                                                                                    is increasing                    arrival of international
                                  the Ranger System
                                                              • Legal expert MNE                 • Improved camping areas                                            tourists in Mongolia
                                  (patrolling frameworks,                                                                        • The complaints about bad
                                  prime systems, rapid        • Cars, motorbikes and                and road network
                                                                                                                                    tourist infrastructures are   • Cooperation between
                                  analysis of information)       horses                                                             decreasing                       Park Administration,
                              • Equipment (transport,         • Consultant for Radio                                                                                 Aimag, Sum and Bag
                                                                 Communication                                                                                       remains effective
                                  communication, uniforms,
                                  etc..)                      • Radio equipment                                                                                   • Adequate operational
                              • Provide policy support on • Uniforms                                                                                                 costs will be covered by
                                                                                                                                                                     increasing revenues of the
                                  law and regulations
                                                              • Field equipment                                                                                      Park Administrations
                              • Improve park                  • Contracts with                                                                                       and/or government budget
                                  infrastructures on selected
                                  spots (roads, camping
                                                                 construction companies                                                                           • Political conditions will
                                  areas, toilets, garbage     • Signposts                                                                                            stay stable at least in the
                                                                                                                                                                     medium term, particularly
                                  collecting system, Hot
                                                                                                                                                                     regarding rural areas.
                                  Springs infrastructures)
                              • Signalisation in the field                                                                                                        • Mongolian contributions
                                                                                                                                                                     (budget planning, partner
                                  for the different PA’s and
                                                                                                                                                                     responsibilities) will be
                                  zones
                                                                                                                                                                     made available in
                                                                                                                                                                     sufficient quantity and
                                                                                                                                                                     quality to safeguard the
                                                                                                                                                                     long-term sustainability of
                                                                                                                                                                     project approaches.
                              1.1.2 Awareness raising and       • Consultancies                  • Number of violations          • No. of Nature Clubs that       • Cooperation between
                              education                             (communication strategy,         indicated by the local          undertake conservation          Park Administration,
                              • Defining and                        info-centres, exhibitions,       population                      actions                         Schools, Nature Clubs,
                                  implementing a                    people’s role in nature      •   Guides selected and         •   The local population            TV station and publishing
                                  communication strategy            conservation)                    trained                         indicates environmental         companies is effective
                                  for different target groups   •   Exchange with                •   Guided Tours of pupils          violations increasingly      • Potential guides are
                              • Strengthen the role of the          conservation projects in         take place in a regular     •   No. and categories of           available that speak a
                                  population in conservation        Mongolia                         manner                          publications and radio/TV       minimum of English to



                                                                                                                                                                                                   39
                            • Environmental education:         • Cooperating institutions      • Nature Clubs are active            emissions (brochures,              communicate with
                                                                                                                                    leaflets, articles, radio/TV       international visitors
                                Train the trainers, guided         (BZ Councils,               • Attractive visitor’s               items, etc.)
                                tours for pupils and               Communities, Hot ails,          information centres
                                students (in exchange for          Nature Clubs)                   established or upgraded      •   The demand for
                                environmental                  •   PPP agreements with         •   Information boards are on
                                                                                                                                    brochures, leaflets and
                                achievements by these              publishing houses                                                journals increases
                                                                                                   all famous tourist
                                pupils or their schools)
                                                               •   Rangers                         attractions erected          •   The public (national,
                            • Promote the creation of                                                                               regional and local) is
                                Nature Clubs
                                                               •   Teachers                    •   Brochures, leaflets and
                                                                                                                                    informed about the
                            • Info centres/ exhibitions        •   Journalists                     project publications
                                                                                                                                    importance of
                                                                                                   available
                            • Put up information boards        •   Translators                                                      conservation and the
                                in Mongolian and English       •   Locally made signboards                                          project activities
                                language on tourist spots      •   Brochures and leaflets
                            • Prepare brochures and            •   Exposition materials
                                leaflets about the natural     •   Articles for sale
                                and cultural values of the         (publications, souvenirs,
                                Khangai Nuruu                      postcards,…)
                            • Elaborate information
                                materials for locally
                                important subject matters
Product 1.2:                1.2.1 Research and                 • Research staff                • Computerised data about        • Availability and                 • Cooperation between
Improved knowledge about    inventories
                                                               • Subcontracts with                 the extent and repartition       accessibility of maps and          Park Administration and
ecosystem composition and   • Flora/vegetation and                 cooperating institutions        of vulnerable ecosystem          documents                          local/regional decision-
functioning                     fauna, with emphasis on            (Universities, local            elements and degraded        •   Scientific publications            makers is effective
                                vulnerable elements (e.g.          research Institutes,            zones
                                                                                                                                •   Theses for M.Sc. and           •   Cooperating institutions
                                hydrology, riverine forests,       NGOs,)                      •   Inventory maps of forests        Ph.D. students                     give priority to doing their
                                pine nut trees, degraded
                                pasture land, musk deer,
                                                               •   Consultants (forestry,          and NTFPs
                                                                                                                                •   Management decisions
                                                                                                                                                                       research in Khangai
                                maral, marmot, etc.)
                                                                   NTFPs, socio-economics,     •   Map with proposed                take in count the
                                                                                                                                                                       Nuruu
                                                                   ecology)                        corridor zones, with
                            • Forest and NTFP                                                                                       established zoning of the
                                inventories in selected
                                                               •   Scholarship students,           management                       Khangai Nuruu Area
                                                                                                   recommendations (e.g.
                                areas (satellite mapping
                                                                   trainees
                                                                                                   rehabilitation of forests)
                                                                                                                                •   Established maps, data
                                and ground truthing)           •   Satellite imagery                                                and documents are used
                                                                                               •   Maps showing the high
                            • Base-Line Studies for                                                conservation value and
                                                                                                                                    increasingly by local and
                                                                                                                                    regional decision-makers
                                corridor options                                                   high violation zones
                            • Overview of sites with                                           •   Documents about the
                                high conservation values                                           important wildlife
                                and where most violations                                          populations
                                occur (as illegal hunting,
                                fishing and wild plant
                                                                                               •   Map of potential tourist
                                                                                                   zones
                                gathering)
                            • Overview of potential                                            •   Zoning proposition of
                                                                                                   Khangai Nuruu
                                tourist attractions, i.e.
                                natural values and cultural
                                and historical assets




                                                                                                                                                                                                      40
                               1.2.2 Design and                   • Project team                 • Ecological inventory and      • Frequency and                   • Adequate variables for
                               implementation of a
                               monitoring system for a
                                                                  • Research staff                   computer based                  parameters regularly              monitoring of wildlife and
                                                                                                     biodiversity monitoring         monitored                         of vegetation can be
                               limited number of key              • Consultants (Impact
                               parameters                             Monitoring and
                                                                                                     established and updated     •   An effective Monitoring           defined.
                                                                                                 •   Indicators to monitor           and Evaluation                •   Simple methodologies can
                               • hydrology                            Evaluation, tourism,
                                                                                                     tourism capacity are            Programme allows to               be developed that permit
                                                                      wildlife, forestry)
                               • forest extension and                                                defined                         adapt regularly project           continuation of monitoring
                                                                  •   Cooperating institutions
                                    condition
                                                                      (Universities, local       •   Indicators to monitor the       implementation                    practices after the project
                               • primary production                   research Institutes,           overall impact of the       •   By 2008, an evaluation of         has ended
                               • large predators and                  NGOs, (subcontracts))          project measures are            the project‘s ecological,     •   Cooperation between
                                                                                                     defined                         economic and social               Park Administration and
                                    raptors                       •   Satellite imagery
                                                                                                                                     (gender specific) impact in       local/regional decision-
                               • tourism carrying capacity                                                                           at least two support areas        makers is effective
                               • impact of tourism                                                                                   (pasture management,          •   Cooperating institutions
                                    infrastructures as Ger-                                                                          forestry) will have taken         give priority to doing their
                                    Camps, Camping                                                                                   place in two pilot areas.         research in Khangai
                                    grounds, etc.
                                                                                                                                                                       Nuruu
                               • project impact on
                                    biodiversity and livelihood
                                    options
Product 1.3:                   1.3.1 Elaborate an integrated      • Project team                 • Technical document with       • Land-use plan and               • There will be no
Integrated Land-use plan and   land-use map of Khangai
its implementation             Nuruu (overview scale)
                                                                  • Consultants (Land-use            zoning plan and                 management concept are            interventions in protected
                                                                      planning, tourism,             regulations                     used as a basis for               areas that have a
                               • Zoning, e.g. designation             concessions)               •   (Draft) policy documents        decision-makers                   negative, long-term
                                    of corridors, buffer zones
                                                                  •   Research staff                 on concessions and          •   Land-use plans and                impact on the fragile
                                    and development zones                                            tourism development             management guidelines             ecosystems (e.g. mining
                               • Establishment of Tourism         •   Aimag and Sum                                                                                    of mineral resources).
                                                                                                 •   Denomination of Khnagai         are institutionalised and
                                    Development Plans
                                                                      Environmental Inspectors
                                                                                                     Nuruu as a Biosphere            legally accepted              •   Competent staff of Control
                               • Concepts for hunting and         •   Environmental Control
                                                                                                     Reserve by UNESCO                                                 Agency, Aimag- and Sum
                                                                      Agency                                                                                           inspectors
                                    fishing concessions
                               • Zoning, e.g. designation         •   Land-use departments of
                                                                      Aimags and Sums
                                    of corridors, buffer zones
                                    and development zones         •   Satellite imagery
                               • Follow the principles of a
                                    Biosphere Reserve as laid
                                    down by UNESCO
                               • Use of GIS and Remote
                                    Sensing data
                               1.3.2 Implementation of an         • Project team                 • Rehabilitated areas (e.g.     • Hectares rehabilitated          • Animal numbers should
                               integrated land-use plan
                                                                  • Consultants (Land-use            forests, degraded               under natural                     have build up sufficiently
                               • Improved protection                  planning, tourism,             pastures)                       regeneration                      to make a hunting
                                    activities in buffer zones        concessions)               •   Ecological exchange         •   Hectares rehabilitated            concession a viable option
                                    and in corridors
                                                                  •   Research staff                 between protected areas         with active interventions     •   Tour operators are
                               • Rehabilitation of degraded                                          improved                        (e.g. plantations)                interested in investing in
                                                                  •   Aimag and Sum
                                    areas
                                                                      Environmental Inspectors   •   Pilots for fishing                                                Khangai Nuruu, while
                                                                                                                                                                       respecting the regulations



                                                                                                                                                                                                      41
                                                              • Environmental Control            concessions and possibly                                        • Competent staff of Control
                                                                  Agency                         hunting                                                             Agency, Aimag- and Sum
                                                              •   Land-use departments of    •   Tourism development at                                              inspectors is present.
                                                                  Aimags and Sums                designated areas


Objective 2: Improving local livelihoods
PRODUCTS                       ACTIVITIES                     INPUT                          EXPECTED OUTPUT              INDICATORS OF SUCCESS                  ASSUMPTIONS
Product 2.1: Socio-economic     2.1.1 Thematic PRAs.          • Project Direction            • Descriptive assessment of • Adoption of PRA by                    • Socially coherent
base-lines                     • Conservation-cum-            • Aimag and Sum staff             communal goods, socio-       partners and project as                communities can be
                                   development issues                                           economic environment,        basis for analysis and                 selected for pilot activities
                                                              • Consultants
                               • Feed-back to users                                             local management             planning                            • Starter activities will
                                   groups
                                                              • Users groups                    institutions                                                        motivate population to
                                                              • Logistics                    • Computerised socio-                                                  collaborate for their own
                                                                                                economic data                                                       development
                              2.1.2 Socio-economic            • statistics                   • Concise document with      • Reports                              • Data are accessible
                              characterisation of the
                              intervention zone
                                                              • existing reports                data and analyses of      • Adoption of reports by               • Existing data are of good
                                                                                                strengths, weaknesses,
                              • existing data                 • consultants                     opportunities and threats
                                                                                                                             project partners                       quality

                              • limited additional surveys                                      for economic development
                                                                                                of the countryside
                              • feed-back to the partners
                              2.1.3 Monitoring of socio-      • Consultants                  • Statistics on simple key         • Trend analysis of              • Parameters can be
                              economic parameters
                                                              • Socio-economic                   parameters for socio-              observed data                    identified that do not
                                                                  departments of local           economic development                                                demand highly costly
                                                                  governments                                                                                        efforts to be monitored
                                                                                                                                                                     and nevertheless indicate
                                                              •   NGOs
                                                                                                                                                                     the progress properly
Product 2.2: Users            2.2.1. Organisation training.   • Project staff                • Increase of public               • Number of training             •   Socially coherent
organisations and             • Group selection               • consultants                      awareness among                    sessions                         communities can be
cooperatives
                              • financial management          • Local associations of
                                                                                                 herders and other groups       •   Number and category of           selected for pilot activities
                              • reporting, feed-back to the       agricultural cooperatives;
                                                                                                 about the concept,                 participants (e.g. women)    •   Starter activities will
                                                                                                 efficiency and profitability
                                  members                     •   Local Employment offices;      of cooperatives
                                                                                                                                •   Appreciation of the              motivate population to
                                                                                                                                                                     collaborate for their own
                              • election procedures           •   Other projects, NGOs
                                                                                                                                    training by participants
                                                                                                                                                                     development
                              • decision taking                                              Derived output:                    •   Cooperatives to be
                                                                  (subcontracted)                                                                                •   Training centres, NGOs or
                                                              •   Local Professional         • Strengthening the                    established different
                                                                                                                                                                     others can be identified
                                                                                                                                    spheres: e.g. livestock;
                                                                  Inspection Offices             technical and training                                              with the proper
                                                                                                                                    vegetable growing;
                                                              •   Aimag training centres         centre in Aimag centres
                                                                                                                                    veterinarian; construction       background to be
                                                                                                                                                                     associated to this activity
                              2.2.2 Empowerment               • consultants              • Officially registered users          • No. of registered groups       •   government support to
                              • legal status                  • legal experts MNE, Aimag   groups                               • Contracts for exclusive            participatory control
                              • access rights                   centres                  • Exclusive access rights                  access based on                  against trespassers that
                                                                                                 granted to users groups            sustainable management           do not respect the rules
                                                                                                                                    and wise use principles      •   Exclusivity of access can
                                                                                                                                                                     be anchored in the law




                                                                                                                                                                                                     42
Product 2.3: Improved income    2.3.1Participatory planning of   • NGOs                            • Maps indicating zones            • No. of community              • Compromises can be
through wise use of natural     resource use
                                                                 • Consultants                         with different uses of             members involved in             found on conflicting uses
resources                       • area planning for                                                    community land                     planning process            • Feed-back to
                                                                 • Aimag and Sum staff
                                    communal lands                                                 •   Rules and regulations for      •   Hectares covered by             stakeholders (follow-up of
                                • off-take                                                             sustainable exploitation           plans                           earlier PRA)
                                • training on the job                                                  adopted by community           •   Agreement by all
                                • use of indigenous                                                •   Consultants reports                stakeholders on proposed
                                    knowledge                                                                                             management
                                2.3.2 Implementation of local    • contributions from all          • range of options                 • better quality products    • local specialisation
                                management and/or
                                sustainable use plans.
                                                                     partners (in kind and/or in       developed to raise the         • more constant provision of • re-investment of part of
                                                                     money)                            standard of living while           products                        the profits is needed
                                • Eco-tourism/ ger-tourism       •                                     conserving the resource
                                                                     PAAs                                                             • higher prices for             • No free-riders are
                                • financial management           •   NGOs
                                                                                                       base
                                                                                                                                          producers                       allowed:
                                • harvesting techniques,                                           •   rehabilitation of depleted
                                                                 •   Private enterprise
                                                                                                       natural resources (grazing
                                                                                                                                      • Number of people                  • immigration can be
                                    stocking rates
                                                                 •   Other projects                    land, forests, wildlife, …)
                                                                                                                                          reached                              controlled
                                • Sustainable management                                                                              • Quantity of investments           • exclusive access to
                                    and wise use of forests
                                                                 •   Local governments             •   trespassers are punished
                                                                                                                                          by each partner from the             resources for
                                    (timber and NTFP)                                              •   functional management              rural community                      investors can be
                                • processing of raw                                                    committees are controlling
                                                                                                                                      •   Percentage of poor and               assured
                                                                                                       the exploitation of the
                                    materials
                                                                                                       resources
                                                                                                                                          very poor people in         •   carrying capacity principle
                                • marketing                                                                                               project intervention area       is respected
                                • training on the job                                                                                     going down
Product 2.4: Alternatives for   2.4.1 Income generation          •   NGOs                          • menu of viable options to        • economic activities in the    • local specialisation
actual natural resource use     options to relieve pressure on
                                natural resources.
                                                                 •   Private enterprise                improve living conditions          area are being taken up     • re-investment of part of
                                                                                                       to relief the resource base        by other people (oil drop
                                • Cottage industries/ SME        •   Other projects                                                                                       the profits is needed
                                                                                                   •   successful starter                 effect)
                                                                                                                                                                      • immigration can be
                                • Saving and credit              •   Local governments
                                                                                                       activities to motivate the     •   Number of people                controlled
                                    schemes                                                            population to participate in       reached
                                                                                                                                                                      • contributions from all
                                • Others (e.g. alternative                                             the project                    •   Quantity of investments         partners (in kind and/or in
                                    fuel)                                                                                                 by each partner from the        money)
                                                                                                                                          rural community
                                                                                                                                      •   Percentage of poor and
                                                                                                                                          very poor people in
                                                                                                                                          project intervention area
                                                                                                                                          going down
Product 2.5: Improved socio-    2.5.1 Seeking collaboration      • PAAs                            • Conditions for project           •   New dynamic in economic     • immigration can be
economic infrastructure.        with other projects, e.g.
                                provision of electricity,
                                                                 • Local Government                    investments in sustainable         activities                      controlled
                                opening of export markets        • Other projects
                                                                                                       economic development           •   Local statistics
                                                                                                       greatly improved
                                • rural electrification
                                • opening of export markets




                                                                                                                                                                                                        43
Objective 3: Enabling environment
PRODUCTS                       ACTIVITIES                           INPUT                        EXPECTED OUTPUT               INDICATORS OF SUCCESS           ASSUMPTIONS
Product 3.1: Strengthened      3.1.1Training of resource            • Consultants                • More competent local        • No. of people trained         • Participants will have the
management institutions        managers
                                                                    • Training institutes           Government staff           • No. of courses given             opportunity to put the
                               • Integrated management of                                        • Better educated NGO                                            lessons learnt into
                                    natural resources
                                                                    • Other projects                                           • Appreciation of courses          practice
                                                                                                    staff
                               • More in-depth ecological           • GTZ programme on                                            by participants
                                                                                                                                                               • Joint training to be
                                                                       sustainable management
                                    knowledge                                                                                                                     organised with other
                                                                       of natural resources
                               • Participatory approaches                                                                                                         German and Dutch
                                                                                                                                                                  funded projects in
                                                                                                                                                                  Mongolia
                                3.1.2 Strengthening the role of     • PAAs                       • More efficient              • No. of Environmental          • State Control Agency is
                                State Environmental Inspectors
                                                                    • Environmental Inspectors      environmental                  Inspectors trained             willing to cooperate
                                • Control of illegal operations                                     organisations within       • No. of courses given          • Inspectors give priority to
                                     outside PA’s
                                                                    • Environmental Control         government
                                                                        Agency                                                                                    this training
                                • Equipment
                                                                    • Field equipment,
                                                                        uniforms, transport
Product 3.2: Improved           3.2.1 Interdisciplinary research.   • Research institutes        • Answers to management       • Research reports              • Research on the natural
knowledge about ecosystem
management in the Khangai
                                                                    • National/ international       questions on ecosystem     • Recommendations for               system sec will be treated
                                                                        Universities                management in the              management                      under objective 1
Nuruu                                                                                               Khangai Nuruu context
                                                                    •   consultants
                                3.2.2 Monitoring of management      •   Project staff            • Reports                     • Feed-back to observed         • Monitoring of the natural
                                institutions.
                                                                    •   Management consultants                                     management institutions         system: see objective 1
                                                                                                                                   should permit these to      • Socio-economic
                                                                                                                                   improve their performance       monitoring: see objective
                                                                                                                                                                   2
                                3.2.3 Documentation.                •   Consultants              • Data base                   • Improved access to new        •   access to data and
                                • Data base                         •   Libraries                • Library                         and existing data               documentation must be
                                • Documentation centre              •   Other projects
                                                                                                                                                                   properly organised
Product 3.3: More appropriate   3.3.1 Policy support on             •   legal departments of     • more appropriate policies   •   number of workshops         • Important role for the GTZ
policies for ecosystem          participatory formulation and
management                      adoption of integrated
                                                                        national and local          for sustainable            •   national seminars               Programme on the
                                                                        governments                 management of natural                                          sustainable management
                                management plans for land- and                                                                 •   adapted legal texts
                                                                    •   institutional experts       resources in Mongolia                                          of natural resources
                                water use, and use of natural                                       and/or the Khangai Nuruu   •   consultancy reports
                                resources in general                •   legal consultants




                                                                                                                                                                                                44
                                  3.3.2 Policy support to the giving    • legal departments of             • criteria and standards for      • Reports                       • Exclusivity of access can
                                  out of future concessions on use
                                  of natural resources
                                                                            national and local                 concessions, quota            • Sets of standards and             be anchored in the law
                                                                            governments                        setting, long term leases,        criteria adopted by         • Important role for the GTZ
                                  • tourism camps,                      •   institutional experts              etc.                              governments                     Programme on the
                                  • logging concessions,                •   legal consultants              •   EIA requirements                                                  sustainable management
                                  • collection of non-timber            •   private enterprise             •   Monitoring and control                                            of natural resources
                                       forest resources,
                                                                        •   users groups
                                  • hunting concessions,
                                  • fishing rights, but also on
                                  • sites for winter camps,
                                  • access to rehabilitated
                                       wells
                                  3.3.3 Organisation of workshops       • GTZ Programme on                 • The project will participate • No. of workshops                 • The policy making level
                                  to feed results of the project back       sustainable management             actively and regularly in         organised                       should be open to
                                  to the policy making level.               of natural Resources               national and regional         •   Participation in other          suggestions
                                                                                                               discussions on                    workshops, seminars, etc.   •   Politicians participate
                                                                                                               environmental policies
                                                                                                                                         •       Discussion notes                actively in the discussions
Product 3.4: Effective cross-     3.4.1 Promoting cross-sectoral        • All major stakeholders           • Different platforms at each •       Functioning of BZC, PAC     • Project should combine a
sectoral cooperation structures   cooperation
                                                                        • Initial small investments            level (field, Sum, Aimag,         and other committees            number of committees
are functional                    • BZC                                     paid for by the project, but       Khangai Nuruu and             •   Number of meetings              where meetings and
.
                                  • PAC                                     functioning costs by the           Nation)
                                                                                                                                             •   Minutes made
                                                                                                                                                                                 related reporting may
                                  • Technical and Political                 participating organisations    •   Distinction between                                               otherwise consume too
                                                                            and persons.                       technical advisory
                                                                                                                                             •   Follow-up to minutes            much time
                                       Committees at local
                                       governments                                                             committees and political
                                                                                                               bodies with more decision
                                  • Other projects and NGOs                                                    taking capacities
                                  3.4.2 Formulation and                 • P.R. consultant                  •   Awareness and                 • matrix strategy for           • communication must go
                                  implementation of a
                                  communication strategy                • Brochures, booklets, etc.            information about the             matching communication          both ways
                                                                                                               Khangai Nuruu, and the            instruments with target
                                  • communication instruments                                                  project’s process among           groups formulated and
                                  • target groups                                                              the different target groups       implemented




                                                                                                                                                                                                               45
46
    K.2 Work plan

    This work plan gives an indication of the activities as they might be planned for each three monthly period
    by the project management.

    It is assumed that the project will start in July 2005.
          • Period 1 runs from July – September
          • Period 2 runs from October – December
          • Period 3 runs from January – March
          • Period 4 runs from April - June

Code                           Activity                          Year 1  Year 2  Year 3  Year 4
                                                                1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1.1.1 Making the Protected Areas Administration more            x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
       effectively
1.1.2 Awareness raising and education                             x x           x x         x x          x x
1.2.1 Research and inventories                                            x x         x x          x x            x
1.2.2 Design and implementation of a monitoring system                    x x           x            x
       for a limited number of key parameters
1.3.1 Elaborate an integrated land-use plan with map of           x x x
       Khangai Nuruu (overview scale)
1.3.2 Implementation of an integrated land-use plan                         x x          x x          x x
2.1.1 Thematic PRAs.                                              x x         x
2.1.2 Socio-economic characterisation of the intervention       x x x
       zone at the onset of the project.
2.1.3 Monitoring of socio-economic parameters                                   x           x            x
2.2.1. Training in management and organisation                        x           x           x            x
2.2.2 Empowerment                                                 x             x x         x x          x x
2.3.1 Participatory planning of resource use                          x           x           x            x
2.3.2 Implementation of local management and/or                           x x         x x          x x
       sustainable use plans
2.4.1 Income generation options to relieve pressure on            x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
       natural resources/ including starter activities.
2.5.1 Seeking collaboration with other projects                 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
3.1.1 Training of natural resources managers                        x       x       x       x
3.1.2 Strengthening the role of State Environmental               x x     x x     x x     x x
       Inspectors (Aimag, Sum and Bag)
3.2.1 Interdisciplinary research.                                         x x x x     x x     x
3.2.2 Monitoring of management institutions.                                x       x       x
3.2.3 Documentation.                                            x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
3.3.1 Policy support on participatory formulation and                     x       x       x
       adoption of integrated management plans for land-
       and water use, and use of natural resources in general
       (at local, Aimag and National level)
3.3.2 Policy support to the giving out of future concessions      x x           x x         x x          x x
       on use of natural resources
3.3.3 Organisation of workshops to feed results of the            x x           x x         x x          x x
       project back to the policy making level.
3.4.1 Promoting cross-sectoral cooperation                      x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
3.4.2 Formulation and implementation of a communication           x     x x x x x x x x x x x x
       strategy.




                                                                                                               47
K.3 Job descriptions

K.3.1 ToR International Project Manager (IPM)

Under the general supervision and guidance of the GTZ representative in Mongolia, the International Project
Manager will have the end-responsibility for the overall performance of the project.

General tasks:

•   General Project management, including:
       o Supervision of project administration
       o Budgetplanning and Supervision of bookkeeping based on agreed standards
       o Personnel management
       o Organisation and implementation of a project impact monitoring system and project evaluations
       o Project progress reviews and reporting
       o Supervision of local experts, project assistants, staff seconded to the project for on-the-job
            experience
       o Plan consultants‘ inputs, design ToRs, comment and evaluate reports
       o Etc.

Specific tasks:

•   Witin the context of the GTZ-Programme on conservation and sustainable management of natural resources
    in Mongolia, the IPM will be supporting the national and local partner organisations on the implementation
    of the project at national, aimag and sum level. He/she will
         o advise the park administrations in Tsetserleg and Uliastay on nature conservation policy and
             relevant legislature, park management, concessions, collaborative and participatory conservation
             and management of natural resources as well as policies for sustainable resource use
         o develop together with the park administrations in Tsetserleg and Uliastay an operational plan for
             the Protected Areas in the Khangai Mountain Region and its surroundings as well as possible
             corridor areas in co-ordination with the overall team, review and adapt on a regular basis.
         o be advising project partners and implementing structures on regional and local level on the
             development of a comprehensive nature conservation system and sustainable forestry in discussion
             with civilian society and the private sector.
         o develop co-operation with private enterprise (PPP – private public partnership, development
             partnerships with trade and industry).
         o consolidate local and regional experience for specific advisory inputs concerning policy and
             institutional development on the aimag and sum level.
         o organise training and further education interventions for partners and project staff (seminars,
             excursions and training courses, as well as the organisation of study tours)
         o plan and supervise of project relevant research activities
         o Etc.

•   Promotion of international co-operation
        o with relevant German and Dutch development projects
        o with other donors/implementing organisations to further specific project activities
        o Collaboration with the German Development Service (DED)
        o Participation in national and international for a
        o Organisation and handling of project visits


Profile

    •     The IPM should have solid knowledge and positive experience with project management.
    •     The International project manager should have a background in participatory natural resource
          management: His/her technical skills should ideally include on one side aspects of nature conservation,
          park management, pasture and forest management, land-use plans, and on the other side cooperation
          with rangers and inspectors, and participatory approaches with local resource users. Scientific education
          and actual field experience should be complementary, e.g. an educational background in Biology or
          Forestry should be complimented by active field experience in working with communities on


                                                                                                                48
        community based natural resource management, or an anthropologist with working experience in
        Protected Areas management.


    •   He/she should have proven abilities to stimulate team work, should be an inspirational leader, and
        should have a creative and flexible approach towards project managemnt in order to achieve the
        project’s goals.

    •   He/she should have a minimum of 5 years working experience in Community Based Natural Resource
        Management, preferably in Central Asia, such as Integrated Forest Management, Participatory
        Approaches in Protected Area Management, or working with nomadic groups of herdsmen.

Duty station and language

The IPM’s duty station will be in Tsetserleg, Arkhangai province.

The IPM should be fluent in English (writing, speaking and listening). The capacity to communicate in
Monoglian, German and/or Russian will be an asset.




                                                                                                             49
K.3.2 ToR for National Technical Advisor (NTA)


The National Technical Advisor will be working under the direct guidance and supervision of the International
Project Manager.
General tasks:
    •    He/she will assist the IPM in his/her tasks of general management of the Project as delegated to him/her
         by the IPM.. He/she will represent the International Projekt Manager in case of absence.
         This includes a/o:
         o Participate in project administration and steering work.
         o In collaboration with the International Project Manager advise and support the implementation of
              the project at aimag and sum level.
         o Facilitate access of the project to local partners, and integration of the project in the national and
              local institutional context
         o Plan consultants‘ inputs, draft ToRs, comment and evaluate reports.
         o Participate in the planning and supervision of project relevant research activities.
         o Participate in the implementation of a project impact monitoring system, in project evaluations and
              project progress reviews.
Specific tasks:
• Within the context of the GTZ-Programme on conservation and sustainable management of natural
    resources in Mongolia, the NTA will be supporting the national and local partner organisations on the
    implementation of the project at national, aimag and sum level. He/she will
         o Advise project partners and implementing structures on regional and local level on the
              development of a comprehensive nature conservation system in discussion with civilian society and
              the private sector.
         o Promote actively the participation of stakeholders in all project interventions, especially in the
              decision-making processes.
         o Promote co-operation with private enterprises (PPP – private public partnership, development
              partnerships with trade and industry).
         o Strengthen organisations at field level (User group’s, Protected Area Administration staff).
         o Promote the creation of Nature Clubs.
         o Participate together with the park administrations in Tsetserleg and Uliastay in the operational
              planning for the Protected Areas in the Khangai Mountain Region and its surroundings as well as
              possible corridor areas in co-ordination with the overall team, review and adapt on a regular basis.
         o Support the establishment of integrated management plans for land- and water use, and natural
              resources in general.
         o Participate in the organisation of training and further education interventions for partners and
              project staff (seminars, excursions and training courses, as well as the organisation of study tours).
• Promote international cooperation:
         o Participate in national and international fora.
         o Support the organisation and handling of project visits to other donor funded projects in Mongolia.

Profile
The IPM and the NTA should have different main areas (in the working field – sectorial – and geographical ), so
that are complementary to each other in terms of education and expertise. For instance, when the IPM is strong
in the more technical aspects of natural resource management, the NTA maw have more skills in using
participatory methods, in cooperation work with local groups, with entrepreneurs, market knowledge.
The NTA could use the skills in empowering the herders organisations, the buffer zone councils, work on
income generating activities and on legal aspects or vice versa.
The NTA should have a positive record in nature conservation issues in Mongolia.


Duty Station and language
Tsetserleg or Uliastay. This is to be decided by the IPM in consultation with the NTA and the GTZ programme.
He/she should be able to communicate in English without difficulty. The knowledge of the German language
will be an asset.




                                                                                                                 50
     K.4 Description of the Ecosystem Approach as endorsed by CBD

UNEP/CBD/COP/5/23

DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION ON
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AT ITS FIFTH MEETING
Nairobi, 15-26 May 2000
Decision V/6

ECOSYSTEM APPROACH

The Conference of the Parties,
1. Endorses the description of the ecosystem approach and operational guidance contained in sections A and C
    of the annex to the present decision, recommends the application of the principles contained in section B of
    the annex, as reflecting the present level of common understanding, and encourages further conceptual
    elaboration, and practical verification;

2.   Calls upon Parties, other Governments, and international organisations to apply, as appropriate, the
     ecosystem approach, giving consideration to the principles and guidance contained in the annex to the
     present decision, and to develop practical expressions of the approach for national policies and legislation
     and for appropriate implementation activities, with adaptation to local, national, and, as appropriate, regional
     conditions, in particular in the context of activities developed within the thematic areas of the Convention;

3.   Invites Parties, other Governments and relevant bodies to identify case-studies and implement pilot projects,
     and to organise, as appropriate, regional, national and local workshops, and consultations aiming to enhance
     awareness, share experiences, including through the clearing-house mechanism, and strengthen regional,
     national and local capacities on the ecosystem approach;

4.   Requests the Executive Secretary to collect, analyse and compare the case-studies referred to in paragraph 3
     above, and prepare a synthesis of case-studies and lessons learned for presentation to the Subsidiary Body
     on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice prior to the seventh meeting of the Conference of the
     Parties;

5.   Requests the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, at a meeting prior to the
     seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties, to review the principles and guidelines of the ecosystem
     approach, to prepare guidelines for its implementation, on the basis of case-studies and lessons learned, and
     to review the incorporation of the ecosystem approach into various programmes of work of the Convention;

6.   Recognises the need for support for capacity-building to implement the ecosystem approach, and invites
     Parties, Governments and relevant organisations to provide technical and financial support for this purpose;

7.   Encourages Parties and Governments to promote regional co-operation, for example through the
     establishment of joint declarations or memoranda of understanding in applying the ecosystem approach
     across national borders.

                                     A. Description of the ecosystem approach

1.   The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that
     promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Thus, the application of the ecosystem
     approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention: conservation; sustainable
     use; and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources.

2.   An ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels
     of biological organisation, which encompass the essential structure, processes, functions and interactions
     among organisms and their environment. It recognises that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an
     integral component of many ecosystems.

3.   This focus on structure, processes, functions and interactions is consistent with the definition of "ecosystem"
     provided in Article 2 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "'Ecosystem' means a dynamic complex of
     plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional



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     unit." This definition does not specify any particular spatial unit or scale, in contrast to the Convention
     definition of "habitat". Thus, the term "ecosystem" does not, necessarily, correspond to the terms "biome" or
     "ecological zone", but can refer to any functioning unit at any scale. Indeed, the scale of analysis and action
     should be determined by the problem being addressed. It could, for example, be a grain of soil, a pond, a
     forest, a biome or the entire biosphere.

4.   The ecosystem approach requires adaptive management to deal with the complex and dynamic nature of
     ecosystems and the absence of complete knowledge or understanding of their functioning. Ecosystem
     processes are often non-linear, and the outcome of such processes often shows time lags. The result is
     discontinuities, leading to surprise and uncertainty. Management must be adaptive in order to be able to
     respond to such uncertainties and contain elements of "learning-by-doing" or research feedback. Measures
     may need to be taken even when some cause-and-effect relationships are not yet fully established
     scientifically.

5.   The ecosystem approach does not preclude other management and conservation approaches, such as
     biosphere reserves, protected areas, and single-species conservation programmes, as well as other
     approaches carried out under existing national policy and legislative frameworks, but could, rather, integrate
     all these approaches and other methodologies to deal with complex situations. There is no single way to
     implement the ecosystem approach, as it depends on local, provincial, national, regional or global
     conditions. Indeed, there are many ways in which ecosystem approaches may be used as the framework for
     delivering the objectives of the Convention in practice.

                                     B. Principles of the ecosystem approach

The following 12 principles are complementary and interlinked:

Principle 1:      The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal
choice.
    Rationale: Different sectors of society view ecosystems in terms of their own economic, cultural and
    societal needs. Indigenous peoples and other local communities living on the land are important
    stakeholders and their rights and interests should be recognised. Both cultural and biological diversity are
    central components of the ecosystem approach, and management should take this into account. Societal
    choices should be expressed as clearly as possible. Ecosystems should be managed for their intrinsic values
    and for the tangible or intangible benefits for humans, in a fair and equitable way.

Principle 2:      Management should be decentralised to the lowest appropriate level.
    Rationale: Decentralised systems may lead to greater efficiency, effectiveness and equity. Management
    should involve all stakeholders and balance local interests with the wider public interest. The closer
    management is to the ecosystem, the greater the responsibility, ownership, accountability, participation, and
    use of local knowledge.

Principle 3:     Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or potential) of their activities on
adjacent and other ecosystems.
    Rationale: Management interventions in ecosystems often have unknown or unpredictable effects on other
    ecosystems; therefore, possible impacts need careful consideration and analysis. This may require new
    arrangements or ways of organisation for institutions involved in decision-making to make, if necessary,
    appropriate compromises.

Principle 4:      Recognising potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and
manage the ecosystem in an economic context. Any such ecosystem-management programme should:
                  (a)      Reduce those market distortions that adversely affect biological diversity;
                  (b)      Align incentives to promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use;
                  (c)      Internalise costs and benefits in the given ecosystem to the extent feasible.
    Rationale: The greatest threat to biological diversity lies in its replacement by alternative systems of land
    use. This often arises through market distortions, which undervalue natural systems and populations and
    provide perverse incentives and subsidies to favour the conversion of land to less diverse systems.

     Often those who benefit from conservation do not pay the costs associated with conservation and, similarly,
     those who generate environmental costs (e.g. pollution) escape responsibility. Alignment of incentives




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     allows those who control the resource to benefit and ensures that those who generate environmental costs
     will pay

Principle 5:     Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem
                 services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem approach.
     Rationale: Ecosystem functioning and resilience depends on a dynamic relationship within species, among
     species and between species and their abiotic environment, as well as the physical and chemical
     interactions within the environment. The conservation and, where appropriate, restoration of these
     interactions and processes is of greater significance for the long-term maintenance of biological diversity
     than simply protection of species.

Principle 6:      Ecosystems must be managed within the limits of their functioning.
    Rationale: In considering the likelihood or ease of attaining the management objectives, attention should
    be given to the environmental conditions that limit natural productivity, ecosystem structure, functioning
    and diversity. The limits to ecosystem functioning may be affected to different degrees by temporary,
    unpredictable or artificially maintained conditions and, accordingly, management should be appropriately
    cautious.

Principle 7:      The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal
scales.
    Rationale: The approach should be bounded by spatial and temporal scales that are appropriate to the
    objectives. Boundaries for management will be defined operationally by users, managers, scientists and
    indigenous and local peoples. Connectivity between areas should be promoted where necessary. The
    ecosystem approach is based upon the hierarchical nature of biological diversity characterised by the
    interaction and integration of genes, species and ecosystems.

Principle 8:     Recognising the varying temporal scales and lag-effects that characterise ecosystem
processes, objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term.
    Rationale: Ecosystem processes are characterised by varying temporal scales and lag-effects. This
    inherently conflicts with the tendency of humans to favour short-term gains and immediate benefits over
    future ones.

Principle 9:     Management must recognise that change is inevitable.
    Rationale: Ecosystems change, including species composition and population abundance. Hence,
    management should adapt to the changes. Apart from their inherent dynamics of change, ecosystems are
    beset by a complex of uncertainties and potential "surprises" in the human, biological and environmental
    realms. Traditional disturbance regimes may be important for ecosystem structure and functioning, and may
    need to be maintained or restored. The ecosystem approach must utilise adaptive management in order to
    anticipate and cater for such changes and events and should be cautious in making any decision that may
    foreclose options, but, at the same time, consider mitigating actions to cope with long-term changes such as
    climate change

Principle 10:       The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration
of, conservation and use of biological diversity.
     Rationale: Biological diversity is critical both for its intrinsic value and because of the key role it plays in
     providing the ecosystem and other services upon which we all ultimately depend. There has been a tendency
     in the past to manage components of biological diversity either as protected or non-protected. There is a
     need for a shift to more flexible situations, where conservation and use are seen in context and the full range
     of measures is applied in a continuum from strictly protected to human-made ecosystems.

Principle 11:     The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant information, including
scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices.
     Rationale: Information from all sources is critical to arriving at effective ecosystem management
     strategies. A much better knowledge of ecosystem functions and the impact of human use is desirable. All
     relevant information from any concerned area should be shared with all stakeholders and actors, taking into
     account, inter alia, any decision to be taken under Article 8(j) of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
     Assumptions behind proposed management decisions should be made explicit and checked against
     available knowledge and views of stakeholders.




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Principle 12:     The ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific
disciplines.
     Rationale: Most problems of biological-diversity management are complex, with many interactions, side-
     effects and implications, and therefore should involve the necessary expertise and stakeholders at the local,
     national, regional and international level, as appropriate.

                       C. Operational guidance for application of the ecosystem approach

In applying the 12 principles of the ecosystem approach, the following five points are proposed as operational
guidance.

    1. Focus on the functional relationships and processes within ecosystems

The many components of biodiversity control the stores and flows of energy, water and nutrients within
ecosystems, and provide resistance to major perturbations. A much better knowledge of ecosystem functions and
structure, and the roles of the components of biological diversity in ecosystems, is required, especially to
understand: (i) ecosystem resilience and the effects of biodiversity loss (species and genetic levels) and habitat
fragmentation; (ii) underlying causes of biodiversity loss; and (iii) determinants of local biological diversity in
management decisions. Functional biodiversity in ecosystems provides many goods and services of economic
and social importance. While there is a need to accelerate efforts to gain new knowledge about functional
biodiversity, ecosystem management has to be carried out even in the absence of such knowledge. The
ecosystem approach can facilitate practical management by ecosystem managers (whether local communities or
national policy makers).



    2. Enhance benefit-sharing

Benefits that flow from the array of functions provided by biological diversity at the ecosystem level provide the
basis of human environmental security and sustainability. The ecosystem approach seeks that the benefits
derived from these functions are maintained or restored. In particular, these functions should benefit the
stakeholders responsible for their production and management. This requires, inter alia: capacity-building,
especially at the level of local communities managing biological diversity in ecosystems; the proper valuation of
ecosystem goods and services; the removal of perverse incentives that devalue ecosystem goods and services;
and, consistent with the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity, where appropriate, their
replacement with local incentives for good management practices.

    3. Use adaptive management practices

Ecosystem processes and functions are complex and variable. Their level of uncertainty is increased by the
interaction with social constructs, which need to be better understood. Therefore, ecosystem management must
involve a learning process, which helps to adapt methodologies and practices to the ways in which these systems
are being managed and monitored. Implementation programmes should be designed to adjust to the unexpected,
rather than to act on the basis of a belief in certainties. Ecosystem management needs to recognise the diversity
of social and cultural factors affecting natural-resource use. Similarly, there is a need for flexibility in policy-
making and implementation. Long-term, inflexible decisions are likely to be inadequate or even destructive.
Ecosystem management should be envisaged as a long-term experiment that builds on its results as it progresses.
This "learning-by-doing" will also serve as an important source of information to gain knowledge of how best to
monitor the results of management and evaluate whether established goals are being attained. In this respect, it
would be desirable to establish or strengthen capacities of Parties for monitoring.

    4. Carry out management actions at the scale appropriate for the issue being addressed, with
    decentralisation to lowest level, as appropriate

As noted in section A above, an ecosystem is a functioning unit that can operate at any scale, depending upon the
problem or issue being addressed. This understanding should define the appropriate level for management
decisions and actions. Often, this approach will imply decentralisation to the level of local communities.
Effective decentralisation requires proper empowerment, which implies that the stakeholder both has the
opportunity to assume responsibility and the capacity to carry out the appropriate action, and needs to be
supported by enabling policy and legislative frameworks. Where common property resources are involved, the



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most appropriate scale for management decisions and actions would necessarily be large enough to encompass
the effects of practices by all the relevant stakeholders. Appropriate institutions would be required for such
decision-making and, where necessary, for conflict resolution. Some problems and issues may require action at
still higher levels, through, for example, transboundary co-operation, or even co-operation at global levels.

    5. Ensure intersectoral co-operation

As the primary framework of action to be taken under the Convention, the ecosystem approach should be fully
taken into account in developing and reviewing national biodiversity strategies and action plans. There is also a
need to integrate the ecosystem approach into agriculture, fisheries, forestry and other production systems that
have an effect on biodiversity. Management of natural resources, according to the ecosystem approach, calls for
increased intersectoral communication and co-operation at a range of levels (government ministries,
management agencies, etc.). This might be promoted through, for example, the formation of inter-ministerial
bodies within the Government or the creation of networks for sharing information and experience.




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