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					Overview of Today’s Special
        Education
1999-2000 almost 5.75 million students ages 6-21
received special education

11.4 % of students enrolled received some special
education services

206,000 infants and toddlers or 1.8% of all infants
and toddlers population

590,000 preschool (ages 3-5) of approx 5 % of
preschool population
gender of students
males and females approx equal in enrollment
2/3 of students receiving special education are males
LD and ED boys greatly outnumber girls
Physiological/maturational differences
Education bias
Assessment bias
Distribution for students receiving special
education services 1999-2000

Ages 0-2         3.1%
Ages 3-5         9.0%
Ages 6-11       43.3%
Ages 12-17       40.1%
Ages 18-21        4.3%
Students Served ages 6-21
Specific Learning Disabilities    50.5%
Speech and Language Impairments   19 %
Mental Retardation                10.8%
Emotional Disturbance              8.2%
Multiple disabilities              2.0%
hearing impairments                1.3%
Orthopedic impairment              1.3%
Other health impairments           4.5%
Autism                             1.1%
Visual impairments                  .46%
Traumatic brain injury              .24%
Development delay                   .34%
Deaf-blindness                      .03%
Age 6-21 Spend 40% or more in General Class
Specific Learning Disabilities       83.9%
  Speech or Language Impairments     95.1%
  Mental Retardation                 43.0%
  Emotional Disturbance              48.5%
  Multiple disabilities               27.0%
  Orthopedic impairment               66.1%
  Other health impairments            77.5%
  Autism                              33.5%
  Visual impairments                  68.9%
  Traumatic brain injury               57.5%
  Hearing Impairments                  58.3%
  Deaf-blindness                       23.4%
Labeling and Language


 Possible benefits
 Specifies types of education
 Serves as a protective response
 Facilitates communication with other
 professionals
 Funding
Possible disadvantages of labeling

 Emphasizes disability
 Low expectation
 Poor self-concept
 Disproportionate numbers

 People First Language
Socioeconomic

 Nearly one in five American children 19.9% live in
 poverty
 For kids with disabilities ages 12-17 approx. two-
 thirds < $25,000
 Children living in poverty are increasing in past
 decade
 Single-parent household is greatest concentration
 Trend is stronger in household with child having
 disability
Family educational level

78% of heads of household’s with/out
disabilities have high school diploma

59% with
Ethnic/Racial Trends


 European American 73%
 African American 12%
 Latino 11%
 Asian American 3%
 Native American 1%
African American expect 14.5 % have disability instead
20.3%
34% of which have MR and 27.3 5 have ED

children of diverse background disproportionably
members of families with low incomes
low incomes associated with higher rates of exposure to
dangerous toxins, poor nutrition less stimulating home
and child care and lower birth weight
African American approx 2.5 times more likely than
European Americans
Schools with more children
Lower per-student expenditures
Fewer advances-level academic coursed
Fewer experienced well-trained teachers
Referral Process
  Subjective and result in more referrals for
  Early intervention is important in helping students
  with disabilities

Services
  Some interventions have been found to produce
  positive outcomes for students
  High quality intervention teacher quality, and parent
  advocacy less likely to occur in schools with high
  concentration of disabilities
Law and Special Education

 Early to middle decades of 20th century
 discrimination
 Schools completely excluded or inappropriate or
 ineffective education was provided
 Classified students as having disabilities who
 actually had cultural or divers groups

 Browns vs. board of education 1954 held that
 schools may not segregate by race schools also
 may not segregate or otherwise discriminate by
 ability and disability
1972 federal courts verses commonwealth of
Pennsylvania
provide FAPE
educate students with disability in the same
schools and even in same classroom
can challenge schools not following court orders
1975 IDEA
special education and edibility
eligibility based on need
special education services are provided to
students who need is because of their
impairment at no cost to student or parent
Categories under IDEA
  Specific Learning Disabilities
     Emotional Disturbance
       Mental Retardation
       Multiple Disabilities
         Deaf-Blindness
             Autism
    Other Health Impairments
    Orthopedic Impairments
     Traumatic Brain Injury
Speech and Language Impairments
      Hearing Impairments
       Visual Impairments
Six Principles
 Zero reject rules against excluding any student

 Nondiscriminatory evaluation a rule requiring schools
 to evaluate student fairly to determine if they have a
 disability and, if so, what kind and how extensive.

 Appropriate education a rule requiring schools to
 provide individually tailored education for each
 student based on the evaluation and augmented by
 related services and supplementary aids and services.
Least restrictive environment a rule requiring
schools to educate students with disabilities with
students without disabilities to the maximum extent
appropriate for the students with disabilities

Procedural due process a rule providing safeguards
for students against schools’ actions, including a
right to sue in court

Parental and student participation a rule requiring
schools in collaborate with parents and adolescent
student sin designing and carrying out special
education programs.
Section 504 Rehabilitation Act

 Civil Rights law and prevents discrimination against
 individuals with disability from any institution that
 receives federal funding.

 Provides FAPE

 Schools and workplace
 Not served under IDEA but be considered to have
 significant disability that affects ability
Rehabilitation Act 504

  Guarantees that people with disabilities have the same
  access to facilities and program as people without
  disabilities.

  provides work training, especially supported
  employment

Tech Act
  makes assistive technology available statewide in
  each state
Rehabilitation act, section 504 and the
  Americans with Disabilities Act
  prohibit discrimination solely on the basis of
  disabilities in a wide range of service , both in
  and outside of school
ADA major components
 Employers may not discriminate on basis of disability
 Employers may not ask if have disability
 “reasonable accommodations” must be provided
 Transportation must be accessible
 Public locations must be accessible
 State and local governments may not discriminate
 Communication companies must provide adapted
 communication options
 Colleges and universities provide services
             Collaboration

         - Procedural Due Process
- Zero Reject, Nondiscriminatory Evaluation,
 Appropriate Education, and Least Restrictive
                 Environment
   - Disagreements among stakeholders
       - Parent-Student participation
       - Importance of Collaboration
             - “Student First”
Cascade of Services

  General education classroom
  General education plus supplemental services
  Part-time special class
  Full-time special class
  Special stations
  Homebound
  Hospital/in-patient programs
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

 Not written for students with disabilities, but
 impacts.
 All students participate in state and district
 Testing in math and reading
 100% proficiency within 12 years
 Steady progress
 If school performs poorly…consequences including
 transfer students to another school (expense to
 school)
 Full certification of teachers by 2005…shortage
 implications

				
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