April 2009 – CLBMON#23a by PaulMellor

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									  Columbia River Project Water Use Plan

  Middle Columbia River (Year 2)
  Reference: CLBMON-23A

  White Sturgeon Spawn Monitoring Study: 2008 Investigations


  Study Period: July and August 2008




  Michael Hildebrand
  Golder Associates Ltd.
  250-365-0344 ext. 222
  mhildebrand@golder.com




April 17, 2009
          April 2009




         CLBMON-23A: MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER




         White Sturgeon Spawn
         Monitoring Study: 2008
         Investigations

         Submitted to:
         BC Hydro, Environment and Social Issues
         1200 Powerhouse Road
         P.O. Box 500
         Revelstoke, BC
         V0E 2S0
REPORT




         Report Number:         08-1480-0029
         Distribution:
         6 copies - BC Hydro, Revelstoke
         3 copies - Golder Associates Ltd., Castlegar
                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                     SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


Cover photo:     Downstream view of the historic egg deposition area adjacent to the Revelstoke golf course.




Suggested Citation:       Golder Associates Ltd. 2009. Middle Columbia River white sturgeon spawn monitoring
                             study: 2008 investigations. Report prepared for BC Hydro, Revelstoke, B.C. Golder
                             Report No. 08-1480-0029F: 24 p. + 2 app.




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                              MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                   SPAWN
                              MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks are extended to BC HYDRO as the funding source for the project and to Karen Bray (BC Hydro,
Revelstoke) for support, advice, and assistance. Editorial review provided by Karen Bray and James Crossman.



The following employees of GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD. contributed to the collection of data and the
preparation of this report.



        Michael Hildebrand, B.Sc., R.P.Bio.               Intermediate Fisheries Biologist, Author

        Larry Hildebrand, B.Sc., R.P.Bio.                 Senior Fisheries Biologist, Editor

        Bob Westcott, B.S.F                               Senior Biologist, Editor

        Teal Moffat, B.Sc.                                Fisheries Biologist

        Sarah Stephenson                                  Biological Technician



The following employees of OKANAGAN NATION ALLIANCE contributed to the collection of data and/or the
preparation of this report.



        Howie Wright, M.Sc., R.P.Bio.                     Senior Fisheries Biologist

        Heidi McGregor, M.Sc.                             Aquatic Habitat Biologist

        Natasha Audy, Tech. Dipl.                         Biological Technician

        Jayna Pooley, Tech. Dipl.                         Biological Technician

        Casmir Tonasket                                   Biological Technician

        Willow Alexis                                     Biological Technician
        Keith Lewis                                       Biological Technician

        Skyeler Folks                                     Biological Technician




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                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                      SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Arrow Lakes Reservoir supports a small population of white sturgeon that has been studied since 1995.
These studies indicate that spawning occurs intermittently (approximately 6 km downstream of Revelstoke
Dam), but recruitment of juveniles from these spawning events has not been detected. In 2006, populations of
white sturgeon in the Canadian portion of the Columbia River were listed as a Schedule 1 species (endangered)
under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA).

The present study, the second year of an ongoing monitoring program, is a component of the Columbia River
Water Use Plan, and complements a companion study assessing the feasibility of Dual-frequency Identification
Sonar (DIDSON) to monitor the presence of white sturgeon in the Revelstoke spawning area. The primary
objectives of this study were to assess sturgeon egg incubation sites and conditions downstream of Revelstoke
Dam, determine the risk of egg stranding, select and implement the most effective method for ongoing
monitoring, and provide input to recommendations for the water allocation schedule for white sturgeon spawning
and incubation.

White sturgeon spawn monitoring was conducted below Revelstoke Dam weekly from 17 July to 29 August
2008. Egg collection mats (29 stations) and D-ring drift net sampling were used to monitor white sturgeon
spawning. Remote telemetry stations within the study area were downloaded periodically to check for sonic-
tagged white sturgeon moving into the spawning area and associated holding areas.

In total, eight white sturgeon eggs were collected. Developmental staging of eggs and back-calculation to
estimate spawn timing indicated that two spawning events occurred (31 July and 21 August 2008). The
21 August spawning event coincides with later spawning events detected in past studies, and represents the
latest known timing of spawning throughout the species range.

Data from previous spawn monitoring studies conducted in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2006, and 2007 were
examined and compared to the present study results. The estimated timing of past spawning events was re-
examined to attempt to narrow down the timing and determine potential spawning cues. An additional, previously
unreported spawning event was estimated to have occurred in 1999, which increased the total number of
spawning events detected since 1999 to eight (3 in 1999, 2 in 2003, 1 in 2006, and 2 in 2008). It was determined
that the cold (6.4 to 13.6°C, range for all years), variable water temperatures in the spawning area below
Revelstoke Dam confound estimates of spawn timing by creating uncertainty in the amount of time required by
embryos to reach certain stages of development.

Discharge, temperature, and reservoir elevation data from these years were examined to identify possible
spawning cues. The highly variable flow and water temperature conditions below Revelstoke Dam made this
difficult and the low number of detected spawning events precluded statistical analysis. The only potential
spawning cue observed was that spawning appeared to occur during periods of increasing water temperatures.
This finding was confounded by the uncertainties mentioned above in terms of accurately estimating spawn
timing.




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Report No. 08-1480-0029                               iii
                                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                                                                          SPAWN
                                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS



Table of Contents

1.0   INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................................1

      1.1         Background ..........................................................................................................................................................1

      1.2         Objectives ............................................................................................................................................................1

      1.3         Study Area ...........................................................................................................................................................2

      1.4         Study Period.........................................................................................................................................................2

2.0   METHODS.........................................................................................................................................................................6

      2.1         Discharge, Water Temperature and Reservoir Elevations ...................................................................................6

      2.2         Sample Methods ..................................................................................................................................................6

      2.2.1             Egg Collection Mats........................................................................................................................................6

      2.2.2             D-ring Sampling ..............................................................................................................................................7

      2.2.3             Sonic Telemetry .............................................................................................................................................7

      2.2.4             White Sturgeon Egg Stranding .......................................................................................................................8

      2.2.5             Egg Preservation, Staging and Estimation of Spawn Timing..........................................................................8

      2.2.6             Examination of Historical Spawning Data .......................................................................................................8

3.0   RESULTS ..........................................................................................................................................................................9

      3.1         Discharge, Water Temperature and Reservoir Elevations ...................................................................................9

      3.2         Sampling ..............................................................................................................................................................9

      3.2.1             Egg Collection Mats........................................................................................................................................9

      3.2.2             D-rings ..........................................................................................................................................................10

      3.2.3             Sonic Telemetry ...........................................................................................................................................10

      3.2.4             White Sturgeon Egg Stranding .....................................................................................................................10

      3.3         White Sturgeon Spawning ..................................................................................................................................11

      3.3.1             Egg Developmental Stages ..........................................................................................................................11

      3.3.2             Estimated Spawn Timing and Number of Spawning Events in 2008 ............................................................11

      3.3.3             Historical Spawning Summary......................................................................................................................11

      3.3.3.1              1998 Studies .............................................................................................................................................12

      3.3.3.2              1999 Studies .............................................................................................................................................12

      3.3.3.3              2000 Studies .............................................................................................................................................12


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                                              MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                                                                     SPAWN
                                              MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


        3.3.3.4             2001 Studies .............................................................................................................................................12

        3.3.3.5             2003 Studies .............................................................................................................................................13

        3.3.3.6             2006 Studies .............................................................................................................................................13

        3.3.3.7             2007 Studies .............................................................................................................................................13

        3.3.4            Historic White Sturgeon Egg Capture Locations ..........................................................................................13

        3.3.5            Re-calculation/Estimation of Spawning Event Timing ..................................................................................14

4.0     DISCUSSION ..................................................................................................................................................................16

        4.1         Physical Parameters and Possible Spawning Cues ...........................................................................................16

        4.1.1            Detection of and Other Potential Indications of Spawning ............................................................................16

        4.1.2            Comparison to Spawning in the Lower Columbia River (Waneta) ................................................................18

        4.2         Issues with the Estimation of Spawn Timing ......................................................................................................18

        4.3         Flow Treatments ................................................................................................................................................19

        4.4         Conclusions and Summary ................................................................................................................................19

5.0     RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING ...................................................................................................20

6.0     LITERATURE CITED ......................................................................................................................................................22



TABLES
Table 1: Summary of sampling activities for the middle Columbia River white sturgeon spawn monitoring study, 17
          July to 29 August 2008. .............................................................................................................................................3

Table 2: Summary of physical parameters below Revelstoke Dam during the spawning period (July and August) in
          years white sturgeon spawn monitoring was conducted. .........................................................................................17



FIGURES
Figure 1: Overview of Revelstoke reach of the Middle Columbia River. .....................................................................................4

Figure 2: White sturgeon spawn monitoring program study area and sample locations, 2008. ..................................................5

Figure 3: Hourly discharge and water temperature in the Columbia River below Revelstoke Dam (REV), and Arrow
           Lakes Reservoir (ALR) water surface elevation(WSE) during the white sturgeon spawning period, 1 July to
           31 August 2008..........................................................................................................................................................9

Figure 4: Egg collection mat and D-ring locations where white sturgeon eggs were recorded during spawn monitoring
           studies below Revelstoke Dam, 1999, 2003 and 2008. ...........................................................................................15




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                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                        SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
2008 Sample Data

APPENDIX B
Summary of Previous Spawning Studies (1998 - 2007) and Physical Parameters During the White Sturgeon Spawning
Period




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                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                        SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS



1.0      INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background
The construction of hydro electric dams in the Columbia River basin resulted in fragmentation of white sturgeon
(Acipenser transmontanus) populations in Canada and the United States. In Canada, Hugh L. Keenleyside Dam
(HLK; completed in 1968) and Mica Dam (completed in 1973) on the mainstem Columbia River in Canada, were
constructed following ratification of the Columbia River Treaty between Canada and the U.S. These dams
formed large reservoirs to provide storage for hydro generation and flood control as required by the Treaty.
Revelstoke Dam, a non-treaty generation facility, was completed by BC Hydro in 1984.

In 1995, the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (currently the Ministry of Environment) initiated
reconnaissance level surveys to assess the status of white sturgeon in Arrow Lakes Reservoir (ALR), based on
anecdotal reports of the presence of this species (R.L. & L. 1996). This, along with subsequent studies, indicated
that a small, remnant population, estimated to consist of 52 individuals (95% CI = 37 to 92; Golder 2006), was
present in ALR between HLK and Revelstoke Dam. Although successful spawning has been documented for
these fish, the level of recruitment to the larval and juvenile stages from these spawning events is still unknown
and does not occur at a rate sufficient to maintain the population. In 2006, populations of white sturgeon in the
Canadian portion of the Columbia River were listed as a Schedule 1 species (Endangered) under the federal
Species at Risk Act (SARA).

In 1999, several sexually mature, sonic-tagged adult white sturgeon were tracked to an area approximately 6 km
downstream of Revelstoke Dam, adjacent to the Revelstoke golf course. These movements were interpreted as
spawning-related and resulted in the deployment of egg collection mats in the area. Fertilized white sturgeon
eggs were captured, which confirmed spawning use of the area by this species (Golder 2006). This was the first
documentation of white sturgeon spawning between Revelstoke Dam and HLK and represents the only known
spawning area in this section of the Columbia River to date. Egg collection mats were deployed in the mouth of
the Incomappleux River in 1998 and at the mouth of the Illecillewaet River in 2000; spawning was not
documented in either of these locations (Golder 2006). Spawning investigations were also conducted in this area
(hereafter referred to as the Revelstoke spawning area) in 2000, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, and 2008 (the present
study). During these subsequent studies, white sturgeon spawning was recorded in 2003, 2006, and 2008
(Golder 2006; Tiley 2006a).

The present study (2008) represented the second year of ongoing white sturgeon spawn monitoring in the
Revelstoke area as a component of the middle Columbia River Water Use Plan (WUP). This report provides a
summary of work conducted in the 2008 field season (Year 2) for BC Hydro under the project: CLBMON-23A
Middle Columbia River White Sturgeon Egg Mat Monitoring, with comparisons to past studies and other white
sturgeon populations. The present study complements a companion study (CLBMON-23B) that assessed the
feasibility of underwater videography or other remote sensing techniques to monitor the presence of white
sturgeon spawners in the Revelstoke spawning area (Tiley et al. 2008; Johnson et al. 2009).



1.2       Objectives
The primary objectives of the 2008 spawn monitoring study were to:

    1. assess white sturgeon spawning and incubation sites and conditions downstream of Revelstoke Dam;
    2. relate egg stranding risk to discharge from the dam and water elevation of ALR; and,

    3. provide input to recommendations for the water allocation schedule for white sturgeon spawning and
       incubation.



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                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                       SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


In addition to these objectives, the following management question (as taken from the terms of reference) was
considered during this study: Can modifications be made to operations of Revelstoke Dam and ALR to protect or
enhance white sturgeon incubation habitat?

The present study was designed to provide additional baseline data rather than test management hypotheses or
measure biological responses to specific flow treatments. Data obtained during the present study will aid in
determining how current dam and reservoir operations affect spawning and incubation success, associated
habitat availability and suitability, and whether changes to operations have the potential to improve these
conditions.



1.3       Study Area
The study area consisted of the Columbia River between Revelstoke Dam and the mouth of the Illecillewaet
River (Figures 1 and 2). Egg collection mats were deployed along the left and right upstream banks (LUB and
RUB, respectively) and in mid-channel locations within this area, with a focus on the area where eggs have been
collected during past studies, adjacent to the Revelstoke golf course (Golder 2006; Tiley 2006a). A D-ring station
was established mid-channel, just upstream of Big Eddy. UTM coordinates (Zone 11U) for sample sites and
VR2W stations are provided in Appendix A, Table A1.



1.4       Study Period
The field component of the study was conducted from 17 July to 29 August 2008, during the white sturgeon
spawning period below Revelstoke Dam (Table 1). Travel from Castlegar to Revelstoke occurred on the first day
of each sample session and return travel after sampling activities were completed on the second day. To
determine if sonic-tagged adult white sturgeon had begun spawning related movements, data from the VR2W
array in the middle Columbia River was downloaded and examined on 16 July as a component of the juvenile
and sonic-tagged adult monitoring study (CLBMON-21).




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                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                      SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


Table 1: Summary of sampling activities for the middle Columbia River white sturgeon spawn monitoring
         study, 17 July to 29 August 2008.
  Date       Activities
  16 Jul.      Download and maintenance of VR2W array (under separate contract).
  17 Jul.      Deploy egg collection mats.
  18 Jul.      Deploy egg collection mats.
  24 Jul.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats.
  25 Jul.      Deploy remaining egg collection mats, check and redeploy mat at Salmon Rocks.
  31 Jul.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats.
   1 Aug.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats, deploy D-ring anchor system, D-ring sampling.
   7 Aug.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats, D-ring sampling.
   8 Aug.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats.
  14 Aug.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats, D-ring sampling.
  15 Aug.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats.
  21 Aug.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats, D-ring sampling.
  22 Aug.      Check and redeploy egg collection mats, D-ring sampling.
  28 Aug.      Check and remove egg collection mats, D-ring sampling.
  29 Aug.      Check and remove egg collection mats and D-ring anchor system.




April 2009
Report No. 08-1480-0029                                3
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   Middl e Columbia River White Sturgeon Spawn
      Moni tori ng Study, 2008 I nvestigations                                                                                                                                                                          Beaton Flats

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                                                                                     .
Legend                                                                                                        Projec t                                                  08-1480-0029
                                                                                                                  Middle Columbia River White Sturgeon Spawn
   !     Egg Mat Locations                        Islands                                                            Monitoring Study, 2008 Investigations
                                                  Sand / Gravel Bar
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                                                  Rivers / Streams
   #     VR2W Locations
                                                  Spawning Area
         Railroads                                                                                                     White Sturgeon Spawn Monitoring Progr am
         Roads                                                                         1:40,000                         Study Area and Sample Locations, 2008
          Bridge                                                                                                                                              Des ign: S S      9-Jan-09
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British Columbia Hydro. Datum: NAD 83 Projection: UTM Zone 11
                                                                                                                                                 Figure 2
                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                         SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS



2.0      METHODS
2.1      Discharge, Water Temperature and Reservoir Elevations
Hourly discharge data for the Columbia River at Revelstoke Dam and ALR water surface elevations were
obtained from BC Hydro Power Records. Hourly water temperature data were obtained from temperature
loggers (onset StowAway Tidbits™; ±0.2°C), that were deployed in Big Eddy (at approximately 8 m depth). On
sample days, surface water temperatures were obtained using a mercury (±0.1°C) hand-held thermometer.



2.2       Sample Methods
2.2.1       Egg Collection Mats
White sturgeon are broadcast spawners that exhibit a protracted spawning period, which allows for the collection
of eggs using passive sampling techniques such as egg collection mats. Egg collection mats are a proven
method of collecting white sturgeon eggs (McCabe and Beckman 1990; McCabe and Tracey 1993) and were the
main method used to capture white sturgeon eggs during this study. Studies conducted in the Waneta area of
the Columbia River since 1993 have suggested that egg collection mats are the most effective and cost efficient
method of collecting eggs spawned by white sturgeon (Golder 2007). The egg collection mats used in this study
consisted of a 0.77 by 0.77 m steel frame that enclosed latex coated animal hair filter material. Egg collection
mats were deployed on the river bottom to collect drifting eggs that become entrapped in the filter material.

White sturgeon spawn monitoring was conducted weekly, for a total of seven sample sessions (Table 1). The
present study utilized methods and equipment similar to those used during previous spawning studies in the
area (Golder 2006, 2008a). This study focussed on the known egg deposition area adjacent to the Revelstoke
golf course, with coverage extending upstream to the former Steamboat Rapids area and downstream to the
mouth of the Illecillewaet River/Salmon Rocks area. In total, 29 egg collection mat stations (10 mid-channel and
19 shore stations) were established in 2008 (Figure 2). To maximize the likelihood of documenting spawning if it
occurred, 13 egg collection mat stations were established (five mid-channel and eight shore stations) adjacent to
the Revelstoke golf course, the area where eggs have been collected during past studies (Golder 2006;
Tiley 2006a). In addition, seven stations were established upstream of the known egg deposition area (two mid-
channel and five shore) and nine stations were established downstream of this area (three mid-channel and six
shore). The purpose of sampling the areas upstream and downstream of the known egg deposition area was to
examine the possibility that spawning may occur in other areas of the flowing section of the Columbia River
below Revelstoke Dam.

Mid-channel egg mats were attached to float and anchor lines using carabineers, similar to the 2007 study
(Golder 2008a), but with additional weight added to help maintain their position. If mid-channel stations drifted
downstream, they either were left where they were found (if the location was considered a useful sample
location) or moved back to their original location. Egg collection mats were retrieved, checked for eggs and
double checked by a different crew member before being redeployed. This process generally took 10 to
20 minutes per mat. For the majority of mid-channel stations, the egg collection mat was detached from the
anchor system and replaced with a spare egg mat before the retrieved egg mat was checked for eggs. This
saved time by preventing the need to re-pull the float line to redeploy the egg collection mat after it was checked
for eggs. To reduce the likelihood that mats at certain shore stations would drift into the shallows near shore, 5 to
10 kg of weight were added to the upstream facing end of the mats. In addition, these mats were deployed with
slack in the shore line to allow the mats to reach the river bottom before the shore line pulled taught.

Information collected from each egg collection mat station included set and retrieval date and time, water
temperature, depth, catch, and comments. Information was recorded on sample forms designed for the project.
Data entered into electronic format (MS Excel™) were checked and verified for quality assurance/quality control.


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                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                       SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


2.2.2       D-ring Sampling
D-ring drift nets were used to sample for emergent white sturgeon free embryos and larvae. Sturgeon free
embryos and larvae have been collected extensively using this system in the Roosevelt Reach (Howell and
McLellan 2006) and in the lower Columbia River in Canada (Golder 2008b, Golder 2009), as well as for other
sturgeon species (Auer and Baker 2002; Smith and King 2005). The D-ring sampler consisted of a D-ring frame
(0.8 m wide at the base and 0.4 m high) to which a drift net was attached (3.6 m long, 0.16 cm knotless mesh,
tapered to an 11.4 cm diameter collection bottle). A cable bridle was attached to the D-ring frame to allow the D-
ring sampler to be connected to the anchor system using a carabineer. The D-ring sampler was weighted at the
front corners (4.5 kg lead weight attached to each corner) and a General Oceanics flow meter was affixed to the
D-ring frame (over the opening) to measure the volume of water sampled. The anchor system used to maintain
the position of the D-ring while sampling was similar to that used by the Washington Department of Fish and
Wildlife (WDFW) in the Roosevelt Reach (Canada - U.S. border to Grand Coulee Dam) in recent years (Howell
and McLellan 2006).

One D-ring station was established approximately 400 m upstream of Big Eddy, at the downstream end of the
spawning area (Station D1; Figure 2). The D-ring station consisted of the anchor system, which remained in the
river after deployment until the conclusion of the study, and the D-ring sampler which was deployed and
retrieved on the day sampling was conducted. The D-ring was sampled for 1.8 to 2.3 hours (average set duration
was 2.1 hours) in the afternoon (when sampled on the first day of a session) or the morning (if sampled on the
second day of a session). The D-ring station drifted downstream approximately 20 m during sampling on
1 August (Station D1a; Figure 2), and approximately 50 m after sampling on 7 August (Station D1b), and then
remained in position until the anchor system was removed at the conclusion of the study.

The D-ring sampler was deployed at the start of the sample day and allowed to sample while other activities
were conducted (i.e., egg collection mat sampling and telemetry activities). D-ring samplers were retrieved using
a winch mounted on the bow of a river boat. Upon retrieval of the D-ring sampler, the contents of the collection
bottle and drift net were emptied into a white sample tray, examined, sorted, and identified. Data recorded
included the time of D-ring set and pull, the start and end readings of the flow meter (for calculation of the
volume of water sampled), details of the catch (species, life stage, number, detritus load), depth, and any drift
exhibited by the D-ring/anchor system. Data were recorded in a waterproof field book and on sample forms
designed for the project, which were later photocopied and stored in fire-proof filing cabinets. Data entered from
                                         TM
hard copy to electronic format (MS Excel ) were checked and verified for quality assurance/quality control.



2.2.3       Sonic Telemetry
Sonic telemetry was used to determine if sonic-tagged adult white sturgeon undertook movements towards the
spawning area. Monitoring of sonic-tagged adults was conducted using an array of stationary remote telemetry
receivers (VR2Ws manufactured by Vemco Ltd.). The array was deployed in the middle Columbia River and
maintained under separate contract to monitor movements of sonic-tagged hatchery juvenile white sturgeon
released downstream of Revelstoke Dam in May 2007 and April 2008, as well as adults tagged during past ALR
studies.

The four most upstream VR2Ws in the array were located in the study area as follows: one in the eddy
immediately downstream of Scales Creek (Scales Eddy) at river kilometre (RKm) 232.3, one in the immediate
vicinity of the Revelstoke spawning area (RKm 230.2), one in Big Eddy (RKm 228.3), and one at Salmon Rocks
(RKm 223.5; Figure 2). An additional VR2W was deployed in the Revelstoke spawning area for the duration of
the white sturgeon spawning period to provide additional coverage.




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Report No. 08-1480-0029                                 7
                           MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                     SPAWN
                           MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


The entire VR2W array was downloaded the day before sampling began for this study. The VR2Ws from Salmon
Rocks to Scales Creek (232.3; Figure 2) were downloaded in the middle of the study period and the entire array
was again downloaded several days after this study was concluded.



2.2.4       White Sturgeon Egg Stranding
In the event that spawning was recorded, white sturgeon egg stranding was to be assessed. This assessment
involved visual examination of the exposed riverbed downstream of the spawning area at night when flows from
Revelstoke Dam are typically reduced. White sturgeon spawning was recorded during the present study, but
high ALR water levels precluded an egg stranding assessment (see Section 3.2.4).



2.2.5       Egg Preservation, Staging and Estimation of Spawn Timing
White sturgeon eggs captured during the present study were preserved in Prefer, a buffered glyoxal/ethanol
preservative. The developmental stages of preserved eggs were assessed with a dissecting microscope based
on published rates of white sturgeon egg development (Beer 1981, Conte et al. 1988, Wang et al. 1985). The
determination of developmental stage of eggs allowed back calculation to estimate the number and timing of
spawning events.



2.2.6       Examination of Historical Spawning Data
Data from past white sturgeon spawning studies were reviewed to provide additional information on white
sturgeon spawning below Revelstoke Dam. Developmental stage data of captured embryos, estimated spawn
timing, discharge, water temperature, and ALR elevation data were examined to determine potential influences
and/or cues for white sturgeon spawning. The estimates of spawn timing from previous studies were reviewed as
part of this assessment. These estimates generally ranged from a period of one to two days and were re-
examined to determine if the time period could be narrowed down to assist in identifying potential spawning
cues.




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Report No. 08-1480-0029                               8
                                          MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                                      SPAWN
                                          MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS



3.0                   RESULTS
3.1                   Discharge, Water Temperature and Reservoir Elevations
From 1 July to 31 August 2008, discharge in the Revelstoke Dam tailwater area exhibited substantial daily
fluctuations (Figure 3). Mean daily water temperatures increased gradually over this time, although several
instances of rapid increases and decreases were noted. Arrow Lakes Reservoir water surface elevations
remained high throughout the study period, creating a backwater effect as far upstream as the mouth of Moses
Creek.




                    2000                                                                                    14
                                     Hourly Water Temp.
                                     Hourly Discharge from REV
                                                                                                                                    440
                                     Hourly ALR WSE                                                         13
                                     Spawning Event
                                     Mean Daily Discharge                                                                           438
                    1500                                                                                    12

                                                                                                                                    436




                                                                                                                                          Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                                 Temperature (°C)
 Discharge (m3/s)




                                                                                                            11

                                                                                                                                    434
                    1000                                                                                    10

                                                                                                                                    432
                                                                                                            9


                    500                                                                                     8                       430


                                                                                                            7                       428


                       0                                                                                    6                       426
                    01/Jul/08    11/Jul/08     21/Jul/08     31/Jul/08       10/Aug/08   20/Aug/08   30/Aug/08

                                                                 Date

Figure 3: Hourly discharge and water temperature in the Columbia River below Revelstoke Dam (REV), and Arrow Lakes
           Reservoir (ALR) water surface elevation(WSE) during the white sturgeon spawning period, 1 July to 31 August
           2008.



3.2                   Sampling
3.2.1                      Egg Collection Mats
From 17 July to 29 August 2008, 27 009 mat-hours of sample effort were expended at 29 locations within the
study area (Figure 2). In total, four white sturgeon eggs were captured, which resulted in a catch-per-unit-effort
(CPUE) of 0.004 eggs/mat-day (24 mat-hours; Appendix A, Table A2). White sturgeon eggs were captured by
egg collection mats on 1 August (n = 3, station 228.9M) and 22 August (n = 1, station 230.6M). One egg



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Report No. 08-1480-0029                                                  9
                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                         SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


collection mat was lost during the study (both float lines frayed on this mid-channel station), which resulted in an
estimated 167 mat-hours of sample effort being lost.

On 1 August, one white sturgeon egg was captured during D-ring sampling (Section 3.2.2). In consultation with
the contract authority (Karen Bray), it was decided that the remaining effort of the sample session would be
better spent re-checking egg collection mats in the spawning area rather than retrieving egg collection mats in
the downstream portion of the study area where flow was minimal due to high ALR water levels. As a result,
seven egg collection mats believed to be the most likely to have captured eggs from the same spawning event,
based on the location of the D-ring station, were retrieved and examined for a second time during the sample
session (these mats had been examined the day before, on 31 July), and the five most downstream mats in the
study area were not re-examined. Three white sturgeon eggs were found on one of the mats (228.9M; Figure 2).



3.2.2       D-rings
                                                                                                         3
D-rings were fished for a total of 12.6 hours during the study and sampled an estimated 2600 m of water
(Appendix A, Table A3). Four white sturgeon eggs were captured by D-ring sampling: one each on 1 and
7 August, and two on 21 August. The overall catch-rate for D-ring sampling was 0.3 eggs/hour sampled, or
               3
0.2 eggs/100 m of water sampled.



3.2.3       Sonic Telemetry
Spawning related movements by sonic-tagged adult white sturgeon were not detected in 2007 or 2008. Based
on expected expiry dates and the lack of detections of any of these fish since December 2007, all tags implanted
in ALR adult white sturgeon have likely expired. Since 1997, 26 adult white sturgeon have been implanted with
sonic tags in ALR. Of these tags, five Vemco coded pingers (ID codes 64, 87, 88, 89, and 90) may still have
been active during the present study. The adult white sturgeon implanted with tag ID 64 (fish 64; tag expected to
expire in June 2008) has never been detected by the VR2W array. The remainder of these tags were expected
to expire in August 2008. Fish 88 was last detected at Beaton Flats in October 2007 and fish 87, 89, and 90
were last detected at Beaton Flats in December 2007.

Adult white sturgeon were observed in and around the Revelstoke spawning area during the DIDSON feasibility
study conducted by LGL Limited in 2008 (Johnson et al. 2009). In 2007, sturgeon were recorded during 70% of
the days sampled, from 1 to 30 August, inclusive (Tiley et al. 2008).



3.2.4       White Sturgeon Egg Stranding
After the capture of white sturgeon eggs on 1 August, the potential for white sturgeon egg stranding associated
with daily flow fluctuations was examined. To determine the vertical reduction in water levels likely to occur that
night and if an egg stranding survey was necessary, the Revelstoke Dam operator was called to obtain
information regarding discharge from the dam. At approximately 01:00 the previous night, flows were reduced to
their lowest level and remained at that level until 07:00. The water surface elevation in the tailrace of Revelstoke
Dam was 439.4 m above sea level (ASL) during these low flows. The tailrace elevation was 2.8 m higher at
12:45 on 1 August (442.2 m ASL).

The contract authority (Karen Bray) was then called to discuss sampling priorities for the remainder of the
session (Section 3.2.1) and to determine if an egg stranding survey could be conducted. Ms. Bray used a flow
model to obtain an estimate of how far the water would drop in the spawning area that night. The difference in
water surface elevation in the spawning area between full and minimum discharge was projected to be 0.5 m.
The depth of water over the shallow bar at the downstream end of the spawning area (the area of concern for

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Report No. 08-1480-0029                                 10
                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                        SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


egg stranding) was over 1 m, which indicated this area would not be dewatered that night. Operating conditions
at Revelstoke Dam and ALR elevations were similar during subsequent days when white sturgeon eggs were
captured; therefore, egg stranding surveys were not conducted due to a lack of dewatered river channel.

During the 1999 study, it was also noted that the backwater influence from the high ALR water levels prevented
significant dewatering of eggs during the low flow periods at night on 2 and 3 August, following the 31 July
spawning event (R.L. & L. 2000). Surface velocities during these low flow periods were reduced by over 1 m/s,
based on visual estimation.



3.3       White Sturgeon Spawning
3.3.1       Egg Developmental Stages
In total, eight white sturgeon eggs were captured during the study (Appendix A, Tables A2 and A3). Of these
eggs, two were unfertilized and one was damaged (to a sufficient degree to prevent its developmental stage
from being determined) during processing of the D-ring sample. As a result, developmental stages were
determined for five white sturgeon eggs (Appendix A, Table A4).

The developmental stage of the three white sturgeon eggs captured on egg collection mat 228.9M (Figure 2) on
1 August 2008 was late cleavage. On 21 August 2008, two eggs were captured during D-ring sampling. One of
these eggs was unfertilized and the developmental stage of the remaining egg was post-fertilization (i.e., the egg
was spawned and fertilized almost immediately prior to its capture; animal pole light with dark center spot and
vegetal pole darkly coloured; Beer 1981). On 22 August 2008, one egg was captured on egg collection mat
230.6M; the developmental stage of this egg was determined to be first cleavage. Based on field observations,
the egg captured during D-ring sampling on 7 August 2008 and damaged during handling, appeared to be in a
later developmental stage and was considered to be from the same spawning event as the eggs captured on
1 August 2008.



3.3.2       Estimated Spawn Timing and Number of Spawning Events in 2008
Based on the five eggs for which developmental stage could be determined, it was estimated that a minimum of
two white sturgeon spawning events occurred in the Revelstoke spawning area in 2008. The first spawning
event was estimated to have occurred on 31 July 2008 at approximately 16:00. This was based on an estimated
22 hour period to attain late cleavage in 10°C water (Beer 1981, Conte et al. 1988, Wang et al. 1985). The
second spawning event was estimated to have occurred on 21 August 2008 at approximately 17:00. This
estimate was based on the post-fertilization egg captured during D-ring sampling on 21 August and the egg in
the early cleavage stage (15 hours of development) captured on 22 August. The post-fertilization egg captured
on 21 August was at the earliest stage of development of all white sturgeon eggs captured in spawning studies
conducted below Revelstoke Dam and likely resulted in the most accurate estimate of spawn timing in this area
to date (Golder 2004, R.L. & L. 2000, Tiley 2006a, 2006b).



3.3.3       Historical Spawning Summary
White sturgeon spawn monitoring studies in the Revelstoke spawning area within the middle Columbia River
have been conducted in 1999 (R.L. & L. 2000), 2000 (R.L. & L. 2001), 2001 (Golder 2001), 2003 (Golder 2004,
Tiley 2006b), 2006 (Tiley 2006a), 2007 (Golder 2008a), and 2008 (present study; Appendix B, Table B1). Spawn
monitoring studies were also conducted in the Incomappleux River in 1998 (R.L. & L. 1999) and the Illecillewaet
River in 2000 (R.L. & L. 2001); spawning was not detected during these studies.



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Report No. 08-1480-0029                                11
                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                      SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


For studies conducted in the Revelstoke spawning area, white sturgeon spawning was detected in 1999, 2003,
2006, and 2008 (four out of seven years). Results of white sturgeon studies in the middle Columbia River from
1995 to 2003 were compiled in a synthesis report (Golder 2006). A review of these studies indicated that seven
spawning events have been detected in the Revelstoke spawning area (2 in 1999, 2 in 2003, 1 in 2006, and 2 in
2008) since spawn monitoring studies began. A synopsis of relevant findings from previous studies is provided in
the following sections.



3.3.3.1        1998 Studies
During the spawning period in 1998, a sonic-tagged, late vitellogenic female white sturgeon moved from Beaton
Flats to near the mouth of the Incomappleux River at the end of Beaton Arm (Appendix B, Table B2;
R.L. & L. 1999). Habitat conditions in the mouth of the Incomappleux River were potentially suitable for white
sturgeon spawning, which led to the spawning study conducted there in 1998. White sturgeon spawning was not
detected during this study.



3.3.3.2        1999 Studies
In 1999, five reproductively mature fish (two females and three males) moved from the Beaton Flats/Beaton Arm
area to an area adjacent to the Revelstoke golf course, where conditions appeared suitable for white sturgeon
spawning (R.L. & L. 2000; Appendix B, Table B2). Egg collection mats deployed in this area captured 82 white
sturgeon eggs during 4156 mat-hours of sample effort (0.5 eggs/24 mat-hours; Appendix B, Table B3).

Of the 79 white sturgeon eggs preserved in 1999, developmental stages were determined for 59 eggs
(Appendix B, Table B4). Back calculation to estimate the timing of spawning was conducted and two spawning
events were reported (31 July and 20 August 1999; R.L. & L. 2000). The estimated timing of the 31 July
spawning event was based on 39 eggs in the late neurulation stage that were captured on 4 August. During re-
examination of data from the 1999 study, it was noted that three eggs in the early yolk plug stage were also
captured on 4 August (Appendix B, Table B4). Back calculation of the spawn timing of these eggs during the
present study indicated that a third spawning event had likely occurred on 2 August 1999.



3.3.3.3        2000 Studies
In 2000, five reproductively mature, sonic-tagged white sturgeon undertook potentially spawning related
movements (R.L. & L. 2001; Appendix B, Table B2). From mid-June to mid-July one female and three males
moved upstream to the Revelstoke spawning area. The remaining female was detected near the mouth of the
Illecillewaet River in late June and several times throughout July.

The white sturgeon movement data led to spawn monitoring in the lower Illecillewaet River in addition to
monitoring at the Revelstoke spawning area in an attempt to confirm that spawning activity recorded there in
1999 was not an isolated event. During the 2000 spawning period, 15 egg collection mats were deployed in the
Revelstoke spawning area from 5 July to 30 August (15 764 mat-hours) and four were deployed in the lower
Illecillewaet River from 27 July to 30 August (2569 mat-hours; Appendix B, Table B1). White sturgeon eggs were
not collected at either location.



3.3.3.4        2001 Studies
In 2001, sonic-tagged white sturgeon were not detected in the Revelstoke spawning area (Appendix B,
Table B1; Golder 2001). The furthest upstream detection of a sonic-tagged adult during the 2001 spawning

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Report No. 08-1480-0029                               12
                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                        SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


period was near Greenslide Creek. In total, 23 465 mat-hours of sample effort were expended in the Revelstoke
spawning area from 11 July to 30 August; white sturgeon eggs were not collected.



3.3.3.5        2003 Studies
In 2003, three sonic-tagged white sturgeon (a ripe female and two males potentially in spawning condition) were
detected in the Revelstoke spawning area during the spawning period (Golder 2004, Tiley 2006b; Appendix B,
Table B2). In total, 25 egg collection mats were deployed from 3 July to 27 August within a 5 km section of river
that encompassed the Revelstoke spawning area. This resulted in 32 810 mat-hours of sample effort and the
collection of 50 white sturgeon eggs and one larva (0.04 eggs/24 mat-hours; Appendix B, Table B5).

Developmental staging of eggs and back calculation of development rates indicated that a minimum of two
spawning events occurred (Appendix B, Table B6). The first was estimated to have occurred on 2 to 3 August
and the second on 13 to 14 August. The sonic-tagged female and one of the males were detected within the
spawning area on 30 July and 5 August, dates which bracketed the estimated timing of the first spawning event.
The presence of these fish in the spawning area during that time was interpreted as evidence of spawning
activity by these fish.



3.3.3.6        2006 Studies
In 2006, four sonic-tagged white sturgeon (one female and three males) were detected in the vicinity of the
Revelstoke spawning area (Tiley 2006a; Appendix B, Table B2). In total, eight egg collection mats were
deployed in the Revelstoke spawning area, which resulted in 5375 mat-hours of sample effort and the collection
of one white sturgeon egg (0.004 eggs/24 mat-hours; Appendix B, Table B1). Developmental abnormalities
prevented the staging of this embryo; therefore, an estimate of spawn timing was not possible.



3.3.3.7        2007 Studies
In 2007, sonic-tagged white sturgeon were not detected in the vicinity of the Revelstoke spawning area
(Golder 2008a; Appendix B, Table B2). Based on expected tag-life, six Vemco pingers should have still been
active and one Sonotronics tag may have been active (expected to expire in June 2007). In total, 25 818 mat-
hours of sample effort were expended at 30 locations between Revelstoke Dam and Big Eddy, and 24.7 hours of
D-ring sampling were conducted. White sturgeon eggs were not collected.

The first year of a study to assess the feasibility of Dual-frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) to monitor
white sturgeon use of the Revelstoke spawning area was conducted by LGL Limited from 1 to 30 August 2007
(Tiley et al. 2008). Observations of adult white sturgeon in the vicinity of the spawning area were recorded during
70% of the days sampled.



3.3.4       Historic White Sturgeon Egg Capture Locations
With the exception of one egg that was captured approximately 1 km upstream of the known egg deposition area
during the 2008 study, all white sturgeon eggs captured to date have been collected within an approximately
800 m section of the Columbia River adjacent to the Revelstoke golf course (Figure 4). The egg collected
approximately 1 km upstream of the Revelstoke spawning area was on egg collection mat 230.6M which was
located mid-channel. All other eggs were captured nearer to the right upstream bank (RUB). The majority (87%)
of white sturgeon eggs have been collected within the 200 m section of river beginning across from the mouth of
the Jordan River and extending upstream nearer to RUB (egg collection mat sites SM-A5 to SM-A3/SM-19,

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Report No. 08-1480-0029                                 13
                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                       SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


inclusive). The greatest catch-rate (n = 46 eggs) was recorded at mat site SM-A5 in 1999 (1.3 eggs/24 mat-
hours; Appendix B, Table B7).



3.3.5       Re-calculation/Estimation of Spawning Event Timing
A review of past spawn monitoring studies below Revelstoke Dam indicated that a minimum of seven spawning
events have occurred (2 in 1999, 2 in 2003, 1 in 2006, and 2 in 2008; R.L. & L. 2000, Golder 2004, Tiley 2006a
and 2006b; Appendix B, Table B8). Estimated spawn timing was generally reported as a day or two days over
which spawning was estimated to have occurred. This made it difficult to identify potential spawning cues
because discharge and temperature conditions below Revelstoke Dam can vary substantially over a period of
several hours. Data from these past studies were re-examined in the present study as a check on the back-
calculations to estimate spawn timing and to determine if the estimated range of spawn timing could be
narrowed. These data were then compared to physical parameters in the spawning area in an attempt to identify
potential spawning cues and similarities/differences between years when spawning was or was not detected.

Re-examination of these past studies identified what appeared to be a third spawning event in 1999
(Appendix B, Tables B4 and B8). Three white sturgeon eggs in the early yolk plug stage of development were
collected on 4 August 1999, in addition to 39 eggs at the late neurulation stage. The spawning time of the late
neurulation eggs was estimated to have occurred on 31 July 1999. The re-calculated estimate (31 July 1999 at
00:00, range between 18:00 on 30 July and 05:00 on 31 July) agreed with the original estimate of spawn timing.
During the present study, the spawn timing of the three early yolk plug eggs was calculated to be 2 August 1999
at 06:00 (1 August 18:00 to 2 August 18:00), 2 days after the 31 July event.

The estimated timing of the third spawning event (second event reported in R.L. & L. 2000) in 1999 differed by
approximately 2 days with that previously reported (Appendix B, Table B8). The estimates were based on eggs
captured on 25 August 1999 in the early yolk plug, late yolk plug, and early neurulation stage of development.
The time of spawning was calculated to be 09:00 on 22 August (between 17:00 on 21 August and 02:00 on
23 August) during the present study compared to the 20 August estimate previously reported. The estimate of
spawn timing during the present study was based on 58 hours to reach the early yolk plug stage (early range) in
10°C water, 75 hours to reach late yolk plug, and 91 hours to reach early neurulation (late range).

Re-examination of the timing of spawning events in 2003 (Appendix B, Table B8) matched the estimates
reported by Golder (2004) and Tiley (2006b). In these reports, spawning events were estimated to have occurred
on 2 – 3 August and 13 - 14 August. Re-examination of these events in 2008 estimated that they occurred
between 2 August 13:00 and 3 August 16:00 (calculated: 3 August 00:00) and between 13 August 12:00 and
14 August 13:00 (calculated: 14 August 01:00).

There appeared to be two general times of year when spawning occurred in 1999, 2003, and 2008: late
July/early August (first and second event in 1999, first events in 2003 and 2008) and the second or third week in
August (second events in 1999, 2003, and 2008).

As more information is collected and additional studies conducted to relate physical parameters to white
sturgeon spawning and egg incubation, estimates of spawn timing may be further refined. This may assist in
determining spawning cues and provide a clearer picture of white sturgeon spawning activity below Revelstoke
Dam.




April 2009
Report No. 08-1480-0029                                14
                                                        Mo s
                                                        Mo s
                                                      e




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                                                                                                                                     Revelstoke
                                                                                                                                     Dam


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                             S c al e
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                                 sC
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                                        r ee
                                               k
                                                                                                                                                                             SM-A1!




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                                                                                                                                      !



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                                                                   R iv




                                                                                                    SM-19 ! !
            da
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                                                                                                  SM-A4 !     SM-A3
                                                                   ia
                n R.
                n R.




                                                              mb




                                                                                               SM-20                    50                                                                   1.4
                                                                                                       !
                                                                                                                        45
                                                                                      228.9M!
                                                         lu




                                                                                                                                                                                             1.2
                                                                                                                                  N o. WSG Eggs
                                                                                                                        40
                                                       Co




                                                                                     SM-A5 !                                      N o. Eggs/ 24 Mat-h rs
                                                                                                                                                                                             1.0
                                                                                                                        35
                                         230.6M                                                                         30




                                                                                                                                                                                                     No. Eggs/24 Mat hrs.
                                                !                                                                                                                                            0.8
                                                                                                             No. Eggs




                                                                                                                        25

                                                                                                                                                                                             0.6
                                                                                       DR1                              20
                                                                                    $
                                                                                                                        15
                                                                              DR1a $                                                                                                         0.4

                             !                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                                                                                             0.2
                         !                                                   DR1b $                                      5

                     !                                                                                                   0                                                                   0.0
                                                                                                                             230.6M SM-A1 SM-A2 SM-18 SM-A3 SM-19 SM-A4 SM-20 228.9M SM-A5
               !
              !!
            !!
            !
                                        REVELSTOKE                                                                                                            Station

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   


       $$
       $




                                                                              .
                                                                                                            Projec t                                                            08-1480-0029
Legend
                                                    Islands                                                     Middle Columbia River White Sturgeon Spawn
  !  1999 Egg Mat Locations                         Sand / Gravel Bar                                              Monitoring Study, 2008 Investigations
  !  2003 Egg Mat Locations                         Rivers / Streams                                        Tit le
  !  2008 Egg Mat Locations
                                                    Estimated Spawning Area                                  Egg Collec tion Mat an d D-ring Location s Where White
  $  2008 D-ring Locations
                                                                                                                Stu rgeo n Egg s Were R ecorded Durin g Spawn
         Railroads                                                                                           Mon itorin g Stu dies b elow Revelstoke Dam , 1999, 2003
                                                                                 1:25,000
         Roads                                                                                                                        an d 2008.
            Bridge                                                      0      460               920                                                                    Des ign: S S   1 4-J an-09
                                                                                                   Meters
REFERENCE                                                                                                                                                                  G IS : SS   1 4-J an-09

Digital Data Sets 082M.010, 082M.009, 082L.099 and 082L.100 from                                                                Cast legar, BC                          Rev iew: MH    1 5-J an-09
British Columbia Hydro. Datum: NAD 83 Projection: UTM Zone 11
                                                                                                                                                           Figure 4
                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                        SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS



4.0      DISCUSSION
4.1      Physical Parameters and Possible Spawning Cues
The only consistent potential spawning cue that has been observed during years when spawning was detected
was that most spawning events appeared to occur during periods of increasing water temperatures (Appendix B,
Figure B4). Water temperature data during the spawning period was unavailable prior to 4 August 1999. For the
five spawning events when water temperature data was available (4 to 30 August 1999, 2003, and 2008), the
estimated time of spawning occurred during a period of rising water temperatures. Tiley (2006b) also reported
that increases in water temperatures appeared to be associated with spawn timing in 2003. However, this
relationship assumes that the estimated time of spawning for the spawning events that have been detected is
accurate (Section 4.2).

White sturgeon spawning below Revelstoke Dam has been detected during higher (1999), moderate (2003 and
2006) and lower (2008) flow years (based on daily mean discharge during July and August of each year;
Appendix B, Figure B1). Daily mean and hourly discharges from Revelstoke Dam exhibit substantial fluctuations
due to load factoring operations (Figure 3). Discharge from Revelstoke Dam can vary on a daily basis from over
        3
1700 m /s to zero, often over several hours. Water temperatures in the spawning area vary in response to
discharge and the degree of backwatering from Arrow Lakes Reservoir (ALR), which depends on the water
surface elevation of ALR. Water temperatures in 2008 were slightly lower during the white sturgeon spawning
period than previous years since 1999 (Appendix B, Figure B2). In 2008 ALR elevations were among the highest
exhibited since 1994 (Appendix B, Figure B3). During years when spawn monitoring was conducted, there was
no apparent pattern in discharge, water temperature, or ALR elevations between years when white sturgeon
spawning was detected and years when spawning was not detected (Appendix B, Figures B4 and B5).

In 1999, two of the three estimated spawning events occurred during periods of higher sustained discharge from
Revelstoke Dam (Appendix B, Figure B6). However, the range of the estimated spawning event on 2 August
1999 encompassed a zero flow period. Considering known white sturgeon spawning habitat preferences (depths
over 4 m, most suitable velocities over 1.3 m/s; Parsley et al. 1993, Parsley and Beckman 1994) the spawning
                                                                                          3
event most likely occurred during the discharge increase from zero to approximately 1500 m /s on that day.

In 2003, the two spawning events were estimated to have occurred during periods when minimum flows were
                     3
approximately 250 m /s (Appendix B, Figures B4 and B7). Both of these spawning events appeared to have
occurred during periods of increasing water temperatures.

In 2008, the two spawning events were estimated to have occurred during discharge peaks between periods of
zero or near zero flows (Appendix B, Figures B4 and B8). Both of these spawning events also appeared to have
occurred during periods of increasing water temperatures. Due to the very early developmental stage (post-
fertilization; i.e., the egg was captured within hours of being spawned) of one white sturgeon egg captured in the
D-ring on 21 August, the estimated timing of the associated spawning event likely provided the most accurate
estimate of the timing of a spawning event since spawn monitoring began in 1998.



4.1.1       Detection of and Other Potential Indications of Spawning
Aside from the potential spawning cue of increasing water temperatures, associations between Revelstoke Dam
discharge, water temperatures, and Arrow Lakes Reservoir water levels (short or longer term) and white
sturgeon spawn timing below Revelstoke Dam were not qualitatively observed. Physical conditions below
Revelstoke Dam differed substantially among the years when spawning was detected. The highest average
                   3
discharge (1230 m /s) during the spawning period (July and August) of the years spawn monitoring was
                                                                                                 3
conducted occurred in 1999 (Table 2). Spawning was also detected during lower flow years (901 m /s in 2003,
      3                      3
939 m /s in 2006, and 712 m /s in 2008). Average discharge was also variable in years when spawning was not


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                                  MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                SPAWN
                                  MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


detected. Patterns were not apparent during the spawning period when water temperature, water surface
elevation, or the number of zero flow events preceding spawning were examined (Table 2).

The number of sonic-tagged white sturgeon in potential spawning condition detected in the spawning area also
did not appear to influence whether spawning was detected that year (Appendix B, Table B2). Five sonic-tagged
fish were detected in the spawning area in both 1999 and 2000, but spawning was only detected in 1999, even
though over three times the egg collection mat sample effort was expended in 2000.

During the DIDSON feasibility studies conducted by LGL Limited in 2007 and 2008, higher numbers of white
sturgeon were observed in the vicinity of the spawning area in 2007 compared to 2008 (Tiley et al. 2008;
Johnson et al. 2009). Spawning was detected in 2008, but not 2007. A potential reason for this may have been
the locations of egg collection mats. In 2007, 30 egg collection mats were evenly distributed in transects (mats
located at each bank and mid-channel) located approximately every 500 m beginning just upstream of Big Eddy
and extending over 5 km upstream to above Moses Creek. Not including egg collection mats near the spawning
area on the left upstream bank or downstream of the mouth of the Jordan River, this resulted in only four mats
that were situated within the known egg deposition area. In 2008, more focus was placed on sampling within the
spawning area, where 9 mats were deployed (in addition to 20 more in other locations between Salmon Rocks
and the old Steamboat Rapids).


Table 2: Summary of physical parameters below Revelstoke Dam during the spawning period (July and
         August) in years white sturgeon spawn monitoring was conducted.
       Parameter                    1999*          2000    2001    2003*       2006*        2007        2008*
             3
Discharge (m /s)        Mean        1230           1139    682      901         939         1185         712
                        Max.        1838           1635    1612    1667        1630         1773        1752
                        Min.          0              0      0        0           0           0            0


Water Temperature       Mean        10.3a                   9.8     9.5                      9.7         9.2
(°C)                    Max.        11.6a                  13.1    13.6                     12.9         11.8
                        Min.         9.2a                  6.38     6.9                      4.5         6.7


ALR Water Surface       Mean        438.0          438.9   429.4   438.0       438.5        437.5       439.2
Elevation at Nakusp     Max.        440.0          440.0   430.4   439.0       439.8        438.6       439.9
(m ASL)                 Min.        437.2          437.6   427.3   436.2       435.2        435.3       438.7


No. Zero Flow Events                  25              8     36      36          12           8           49
a
  Temperatures were only available from 4 to 31 August.
* Indicates years when spawning was detected.



The white sturgeon egg captured in 2008 on egg collection mat 230.6M (approximately 1 km upstream of the
area eggs had previously been collected) suggested that spawning may occur further upstream than previously
thought and/or that the location of spawning may vary among years. Whether the location of white sturgeon
spawning below Revelstoke Dam changes in response to discharge, high ALR elevations, or other variables is
unknown. Boat operation during spawn monitoring in the area may interrupt spawning by spooking fish, either
causing them to move to other areas or possibly even disrupting spawning activity. The spawning area is quite
shallow and spawning could also be disrupted if unfavourable conditions arise such as decreases in discharge
and/or water temperature.

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                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                      SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


Another example of the potential difficulty in detecting spawning below Revelstoke Dam occurred on 1 August
2008. One white sturgeon egg was collected in the D-ring on this day. As a result, seven mats that were pulled
the day before were pulled again to check for eggs. The seven mats thought most likely to have collected eggs
were chosen based on the location of the D-ring and flow patterns. Three white sturgeon eggs were found on
one egg collection mat (228.9M). If the D-ring had been fished an hour earlier or later, or if mat 228.9M was
located in a slightly different location, it is possible that this spawning event would not have been detected.
During a given year, all, some, or none of the factors discussed above may influence the location of spawning
and the likelihood of collecting white sturgeon eggs.



4.1.2       Comparison to Spawning in the Lower Columbia River (Waneta)
At the confluence of the Columbia and Pend d’Oreille rivers (the Waneta area), white sturgeon spawn monitoring
studies have been conducted in 12 of the 15 years from 1993 to 2007 (Golder 2007). Spawning was detected in
each year that monitoring has been conducted. The number of spawning events has ranged from 4 to 12 and
does not include the removal of fish in pre-spawning condition for hatchery broodstock purposes.

The environmental cues that stimulate spawning are poorly understood. Based on data collected at Waneta from
1993 to 2003, cues are suspected to be related to a combination of freshet timing (spawning has always
occurred on the descending limb of the hydrograph), water temperature (spawning has always occurred at
temperatures of 14°C), and length of day (over 80% of spawning occurred during the two weeks prior to and
after the spring solstice; second week of June to first week of July; Golder 2005). Investigations to more
accurately determine spawning cues for white sturgeon in the Waneta area using 1993 to 2001 data did not
reveal statistically significant correlations between spawn timing and frequency with the discharge and water
temperature variables examined (Golder 2002). Analyses of variance completed with two additional years of
data (1993 to 2003) also did not show a strong or consistent relationship between the timing of white sturgeon
spawning and the physical environmental factors included in the analysis.

There was some indication that cumulative discharge from the Columbia and Pend d’Oreille rivers and
accumulated thermal units have some influence on the timing of spawning (Golder 2005). Analysis of data from
1993 to 2001 provided some indication that the temperature of the Pend d’Oreille River in the Waneta Dam
tailwater area was the only significant environmental factor correlated with initiation of spawning activity
(Golder 2002).

The sample size of spawning events detected below Revelstoke Dam is too small for statistical analyses to be
conducted. If spawning cues cannot be determined based on the substantially greater data set available from the
Waneta area, it is highly unlikely that they can be determined based on the eight spawning events detected
during 7 years of sampling below Revelstoke Dam, an area that exhibits even greater variability in environmental
parameters.



4.2       Issues with the Estimation of Spawn Timing
Several factors reduce the accuracy of spawn timing estimates in the Revelstoke spawning area. The main
factor is the lack of information on the effect of variable water temperatures on the development of white
sturgeon embryos. Tiley (2006b) used the developmental model described in Wang et al. (1985) to predict
incubation periods for white sturgeon eggs incubated in situ in 2003. The observed time to hatch for the
2/3 August spawning event was over 16 days, about 2 to 3 days longer than the predicted 13.7 days (for
embryos reared at 10.1°C mean temperature). The observed time to hatch for the 13/14 August spawning event
was 14 to 15 days, also about 2 days longer than the 12.2 days predicted (for embryos reared in 11°C mean



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                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                        SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


temperature). These results suggest that the variable water temperatures often experienced in the Revelstoke
spawning area likely result in longer development times for white sturgeon embryos and larvae.

Another potentially confounding factor is the cold water temperatures below Revelstoke Dam (generally 9 to
13°C during the spawning period) that result in longer egg development times. For example, in 10°C water, 256
to 333 hours (about 10 to 14 days) are required to reach pre-hatch stage. Longer development times likely
increase the variability in developmental timing and extend the range of estimates of spawn timing, thereby
reducing the accuracy of these estimates. There is also a lack of literature on the development of white sturgeon
eggs in water that is less than 10°C, conditions which are often present for a portion of the spawning period
below Revelstoke Dam.



4.3       Flow Treatments
Regarding the management question: Can modifications be made to operations of Revelstoke Dam and ALR to
protect or enhance white sturgeon incubation habitat? we offer the following:

A minimum flow during the spawning and egg incubation period may mitigate or partially mitigate the apparent
delay in larval development caused by fluctuating water temperatures that are a result of variable discharges
from Revelstoke Dam. This could improve the survival of white sturgeon embryos and larvae by reducing
development times and negative developmental effects, thereby improving larval fitness. Minimum flows may
also reduce predation of white sturgeon eggs and larvae, which also would improve survival. The volume of
minimum flow required to achieve substantial increases in egg and larval survival is unknown, but further work
that addresses the effect of varying flow regimes on factors associated with spawning and egg incubation is
needed. In addition, the effects of minimum flows would likely be reduced by higher ALR levels.



4.4       Conclusions and Summary
In total, eight white sturgeon eggs were collected during the present study. The two spawning events detected
are similar to the number detected during previous years of study (one to three). The timing of spawning (31 July
and 21 August) was also similar to previous years. In 2008, the distribution of white sturgeon eggs was slightly
different, based on one egg collected mid-channel, approximately 1 km upstream of the area eggs have
previously been recorded. This may have been a result of the high water levels of ALR (mean elevation at
Nakusp = 439.2 m ASL; Table 2) during the spawning period, which reduced water velocities in the area
adjacent to the golf course (based on visual observations and less downstream drift of sample gear in 2008).

The main reason for the low number of eggs collected in 2008 (and other years sampled) was likely the small
size of the white sturgeon population in ALR (estimated at 52 individuals, 95% C.I. 37 to 92; Golder 2006). In
addition, the population is comprised of a higher proportion of males to females (1.6:1; Golder 2006). It has been
observed that only 10 to 20% of individuals within white sturgeon populations are reproductive in any given year
(Apperson and Anders 1991). Based on the 95% C.I. of the population estimate, four to nine white sturgeon in
ALR may be in spawning condition in a given year. This was supported by the numbers of white sturgeon in
potential spawning condition recorded in the vicinity of the Revelstoke spawning area in 1999 (n = 5), 2000
(n = 5), and 2003 (n = 3; Golder 2006).

The spawning interval for mature white sturgeon females (3 to 7 years) and males (1 to 3 years) differs
(Beamesderfer et al. 1995; DeVore et al. 1995; Welch and Beamesderfer 1993; Rochard et al. 1990;
Chapman 1989; Semakula and Larkin 1968). Research into the Transboundary white sturgeon population
suggested that females capable of spawning generally do so regardless of discharge and temperature conditions
(Golder 2002). The spawning interval of female white sturgeon in ALR is unknown, but based on colder water


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                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                         SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


temperatures, may be longer than that for other populations. If food resources are limited in ALR, this could also
potentially increase the spawning interval. The small ALR population is also made up of older fish (successful
recruitment of year-classes has not been detected since the 1960s; Golder 2006). As a result of these factors,
the number of times female white sturgeon in ALR spawn over their life span may be lower than females in other
populations.

However, numbers of eggs collected in 2008 were still low compared to 1999 (n = 82) and 2003 (n = 50), when
similar numbers of spawning events were recorded (Golder 2006). The reason for the comparatively low number
of eggs collected in 2008 compared to 1999 and 2003 is unknown, but may be related to several factors. The
second spawning event detected in 2008 (21 August) occurred upstream of the historic egg deposition area.
White sturgeon eggs from the first spawning event detected in 2008 (31 July) were collected by egg mats and
the D-ring in the same area as in past studies. The low number of eggs collected may be an indication that
spawning occurred in the same general area as in previous years, but further upstream as a result of high ALR
water levels and the associated reduction in water velocities adjacent to the golf course. Reduced velocities may
have also resulted in less downstream drift of spawned eggs and differences in drift patterns. Another possibility
is a disruption of spawning events, which could be caused by a variety of factors. One factor is changes in
physical parameters during spawning. Tiley (2006b) reported that spawning by male white sturgeon held for
conservation aquaculture could be temporarily suspended by reducing water temperatures to approximately 9°C
(cited from Upper Columbia White Sturgeon Recovery Team meeting minutes in July 2005). Such conditions can
occur below Revelstoke Dam during the white sturgeon spawning period.

The examination of data from previous spawning studies indicated that a third, previously unreported spawning
event may have occurred in 1999 (Appendix B, Tables B4 and B8; R.L. & L. 2000). Examination of discharge,
water temperature, and ALR elevation data during spawning events detected from 1999 to 2008 indicated a
possible association between spawn timing and increases in water temperature (Appendix B, Figures B4 and B6
to B8). The small sample size (made smaller by water temperature data gaps and the developmental
abnormalities of the egg collected in 2006) precluded statistical analyses. Uncertainties regarding the time
required by white sturgeon eggs collected below Revelstoke Dam to reach a particular developmental stage
(Section 4.2) created some doubt with regards to this observation.




5.0      RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING
The following are recommendations for the 2009 white sturgeon spawn monitoring program in the middle
Columbia River to improve the overall understanding of spawning and recruitment in this area.

Recommendations for 2009 studies:

    •   Continue egg collection mat sampling with similar levels of sample effort as 2007 and 2008. Focus on
        the historic egg deposition area adjacent to the Revelstoke golf course and the new or expanded egg
        deposition area discovered in 2008 (i.e., across from the mouth of the Jordan River upstream to the old
        Steamboat Rapids area).

    •   Continue D-ring sampling. Although D-rings captured the same number of white sturgeon eggs (with
        less effort) as egg collection mats in 2008, it is considered unlikely that an intensive D-ring program will
        provide adequate coverage of spawning activity compared to mats “fished” 24 hours a day for 7 days a
        week. If the 2009 monitoring program remained similar to the 2008 program (i.e., two days of sampling
        per week), but focussed on D-rings, there would be 5 days a week where the main sample method was
        not conducted. D-rings provide an additional sample method to collect drifting eggs (e.g., eggs displaced



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                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                       SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


        as a result of discharge increases) as well as free embryos and larvae, which may provide information
        on hatch success. The following locations are recommended for D-ring stations in 2009:

             o   Same location as 2008 (downstream of the mouth of the Jordan River, but upstream of Big
                 Eddy); and,

             o   Downstream of the old Steamboat Rapids area, near where the white sturgeon egg was
                 collected on the mid-channel mat (230.6M) in 2008.

    •   Conduct preliminary staging of white sturgeon eggs in the field as they are collected and laboratory
        staging the same week they are captured. This may help reduce the effect of the potential deterioration
        of preserved eggs on the ability to stage them. Preliminary staging in the field would provide some data
        in the event that eggs are damaged during handling or in the laboratory.

    •   Consider increasing the frequency of sampling. Increasing the number of sample sessions may improve
        the estimates of spawn timing because collected eggs would more likely be in earlier stages of
        development. Eggs at early developmental stages provide a more reliable indicator of spawn timing
        because of the narrower range of time required to reach early developmental stages (Golder 2007).

    •   Add additional water temperature logger stations. This would provide backup temperature data if a
        thermister is lost or malfunctions.

    •   Conduct white sturgeon egg stranding surveys if discharge and ALR elevation conditions allow.
        Information collected would help identify egg deposition and distribution patterns, as well as the degree
        of egg stranding.



Recommendations for improving general knowledge of white sturgeon spawning and recruitment that could be
used to help interpret results of spawn monitoring studies in the middle Columbia River include:

    •   Conduct additional research into white sturgeon egg developmental rates in relation to water
        temperature. This was identified as a necessary step to obtain estimates of variance associated with egg
        development rates during the 2007 white sturgeon spawn monitoring study at Waneta (Golder 2007), as
        well as during the present study. This could involve experiments to:

             o   determine the effects of variations in water temperature on the development of eggs, either
                 through in situ experiments below Revelstoke Dam or simulated conditions in the laboratory;

             o   determine the Accumulated Thermal Units (ATUs) required to reach hatch. This would aid in
                 solving the problem of staging eggs exposed to variable water temperatures; and,

             o   determine the effects of water temperatures less than 10°C on the development of white
                 sturgeon eggs.

    •   Develop a standard egg and larval staging protocol for the middle Columbia River. Additional data from
        experiments described above should improve the accuracy of egg/larval staging and provide for better
        estimates of spawn timing. This would in turn improve the likelihood of determining environmental
        spawning cues.

    •   Examine the feasibility of conducting spot releases of 100 000 to 1 000 000 fertilized white sturgeon
        eggs to simulate spawning events while the array of egg collection mats and D-ring stations is present in
        the river. This would provide data on egg dispersal and identify gaps in sampling coverage. Such an
        experiment would likely have to be conducted before the white sturgeon spawning period (early to mid-
        June) to make use of eggs obtained from collected broodstock and to avoid confounding results from

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                             MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                         SPAWN
                             MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


        natural spawning activities. Such a study would need to be examined in terms of logistics and required
        information (how to release eggs at a location in the water column, the availability of eggs, the buoyancy
        if fertilized versus unfertilized eggs, etc.). Additional egg mat and D-ring stations could also be deployed
        during these experiments. This could provide information such as the distribution of deposited eggs and
        the rate and patterns of drift.




6.0      LITERATURE CITED
Apperson, K. and P.J. Anders. 1991. Kootenai River white sturgeon investigations and experimental culture.
     Annual progress Report FY 1991. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR. Contract DE-A179-
     88BP93497.

Auer, N.A. and E.A. Baker. 2002. Duration and drift of larval lake sturgeon in the Sturgeon River, Michigan.
      Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 18: 557 – 564.

Beamesderfer, R.C., T.A. Rien, and A.A. Nigro. 1995. Differences in the dynamics and potential production of
    impounded and unimpounded white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. Transactions of the
    American Fisheries Society. 124: 857 – 872.

Beer, K.E. 1981. Embryonic and larval development of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). MS Thesis,
      UC Davis. 93 p.

Chapman, F.A. 1989. Sexual maturation and reproductive parameters of wild and domestic stocks of white
     sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Doctoral dissertation. University of Clifirnia, Davis.
Conte, F.S., S.I. Doroshov, P.B. Lutes, and E.M. Strange. 1988. Hatchery manual for the white sturgeon,
      Acipenser transmontanus Richardson with application to other North American Acipenseridae.
      Cooperative Extension, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication
      3322: 103 p.
DeVore, J.D., B.W. James, C.A. Tracy, and D.A. Hale. 1995. Dymanics and potential production of white
     sturgeon in the unimpounded lower Columbia River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 124:
     845 – 856.

Golder Associates Ltd. 2001. White sturgeon investigations in Arrow Reservoir and the Columbia River, B.C.,
      2001 study results. Data report prepared for BC Hydro, Castlegar, B.C. Golder Report No. 0128994D:
      19 p. + 4 app.

Golder Associates Ltd. 2002. White sturgeon spawning at Waneta, 2001 investigations and historical data
      summary. Report prepared for Columbia Power Corporation, Castlegar, B.C. Golder Report No.
      0128966F: 46 p. + 7 app.

Golder Associates Ltd. 2004. White sturgeon investigations in Arrow Lakes Reservoir, B.C., 2002 - 2003 study
      results. Data report prepared for BC Hydro, Castlegar, B.C. Golder Report No. 031480045/
      0228056/022807F: 27 p. + 4 app.

Golder Associates Ltd. 2005. White sturgeon spawning in relation to the White Sturgeon Flow Augmentation
      Program. Report prepared for Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., Trail Operations, Trail, B.C. Golder Report No.
      041480068F: 33 p. + 4 app.




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                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                       SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


Golder Associates Ltd. 2006. A synthesis of white sturgeon investigations in Arrow Lakes Reservoir, B.C. 1995 -
      2003. Report prepared for BC Hydro, Castlegar, B.C. Golder Report No. 041480016F: 61 p. + plates + 11
      app.

Golder Associates Ltd. 2007. White sturgeon spawning at Waneta, 2007 investigations. Report prepared for
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Golder Associates Ltd. 2008a. Middle Columbia River white sturgeon spawn monitoring study: 2007
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      0053F: 12 p. + plates + 2 app.

Golder Associates Ltd. 2008b. Lower Columbia River white sturgeon early life history sampling: 2007
      investigations. Report prepared for BC Hydro, Revelstoke, B.C. Golder Report No. 07-1480-0036F: 13 p.
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Golder Associates Ltd. 2009. Lower Columbia River adult white sturgeon monitoring: 2008 investigations data
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Howell, M.D. and J.G. McLellan. 2006. Lake Roosevelt white sturgeon recovery project, Annual Progress
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     Administration, Environment, Fish and Wildlife. Project Number 1995-027-00. 103 p. + 4 app.

Johnson, P. N., M. H. Tiley, S. LeBourdais and R.C. Bocking. 2009. Monitoring Study No. CLBMON#23b. Mid
     Columbia River White Sturgeon Underwater Videography Feasibility Study 2008 – 2009 Final Report.

McCabe, G.T. and L.G. Beckman. 1990. Use of an artificial substrate to collect white sturgeon eggs. California
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McCabe, G.T. and C.A. Tracy. 1993. Spawning characteristics and early life history of white sturgeon Acipenser
    transmontanus in the lower Columbia River. Report A, pages 19 – 46. In: R.C. Beamesderfer and A.A.
    Nigro (editors). Volume 1: Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the
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Parsley, M.J., L.G. Beckman and G.T. McCabe Jr. 1993. Spawning and rearing habitat use by white sturgeon in
      the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:
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Parsley, M.J. and L.G. Beckman. 1994. White sturgeon spawning and rearing habitat in the lower Columbia
      River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14: 812 - 827.

R.L. & L. Environmental Services Ltd. 1996. The distribution and status of white sturgeon in isolated water
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      Environment, Lands and Parks. R. L. & L. Report No. 468aD: 12 p. + 2 app.

R.L. & L. Environmental Services Ltd. 1999. White sturgeon investigations in Arrow Reservoir, B.C. Report
      prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. R.L. & L. Report No. 634F: 27 p. + 4 app.

R.L. & L. Environmental Services Ltd. 2000. White sturgeon investigations in Arrow Reservoir and the Columbia
      River, B.C., 1999 study results. Report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks,
      Nelson, B.C. R.L. & L. Report No. 754F: 38 p. + 4 app.

R.L. & L. Environmental Services Ltd. 2001. White sturgeon investigations in Arrow Reservoir and the Columbia
      River, B.C., 2000 study results. Data report prepared for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks,
      Nelson, B.C. R.L. & L. Report No. 840F: 23 p. + 4 app.

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                            MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                      SPAWN
                            MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS


Rochard, E., G Castelnaud, and M. Lepage. 1990. Sturgeons (Pisces: Acipenseridae); threats and prospects.
     Journal of Fish Biology. 37A: 123 – 132.

Semakula, S.N. and P.A. Larkin. 1968. Age, growth, food, and yield of the white sturgeon (Acipenser
    transmontanus) of the Fraser River, British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
    25: 2589 – 2602.

Smith, K.M. and D.K. King. 2005. Dynamics of larval lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens drift in the Upper Black
      River, Michigan. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 21: 161 – 168.

Tiley, M. 2006a. Habitat use of Arrow Lakes Reservoir pre-spawning and spawning adult white sturgeon
       (Acipenser transmontanus), timing of spawning and embryo and larval survival. Prepared for World
       Wildlife Fund Canada Endangered Species Recovery fund. 14 p.

Tiley, M. 2006b. Arrow Lakes Reservoir white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) spawning periodicity and
       embryo and larval development downstream of Revelstoke Dam and estimated effects of river
       impoundment on the timing of spawning. Prepared for World Wildlife Fund Canada Endangered Species
       Recovery fund. 45 p.

Tiley, M.H., P.N. Johnson and R.C. Bocking. 2008. Monitoring Study No. CLBMON#23b. Mid Columbia River
       white sturgeon underwater feasibility study 2007 annual report (final).

Wang, Y.L., F.P. Binkowski, and S.I. Doroshov. 1985. Effect of temperature on early development of white and
     lake sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus and A. fulvescens. Environmental Biology of Fishes 14: 43 - 50.

Welch, D.W. and R.C. Beamesderfer. 1993. Maturation of female white sturgeon in lower Columbia River
     impoundments. Report F, pages 89 – 108 In: R.C. Beamesderfer and A.A. Nigro (eds.). Status and habitat
     requirements of the white sturgeon downstream from McNary Dam. Volume II. Final Report to Bonneville
     Power Administration, Portland, OR.




April 2009
Report No. 08-1480-0029                               24
                                               MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON                                                      SPAWN
                                               MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS



Report Signature Page


GOLDER ASSOCIATES LTD.




Michael Hildebrand                                                  Larry Hildebrand
Intermediate Fisheries Biologist                                    Principal, Senior Fisheries Biologist


MH/LH/cm




n:\active\8000\2008 projects\08-1480-0029 mcr wsg spawn monitoring 2008\reports\final report\text\clbmon-23a final report text v2.docx




April 2009
Report No. 08-1480-0029
                          MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON    SPAWN
                          MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS




APPENDIX A
2008 Sample Data




April 2009
Report No. 08-1480-0029
Table A1                      UTM locations of egg collection mats, D-ring samplers and VR2W remote telemetry
                              stations during the 2008 middle Columbia River white sturgeon spawn monitoring
                              program.

                                                                                                    UTM Coor dinates
                                                           Dates (2008, unless
         Station Type               Station Namea                                                      (Zone 11U)
                                                            other wise noted)
                                                                                            Easting                   Northing
      Egg Collection Mat                  223.5M            18 July to 29 Aug.              414861                    5648488
                                           223.6L           25 July to 29 Aug.              414773                    5648607
                                           225.0R           25 July to 29 Aug.              415281                    5649668
                                           226.0R           25 July to 29 Aug.              415387                    5650395
                                           226.4R           25 July to 29 Aug.              415045                    5650793
                                          226.6M            18 July to 29 Aug.              414730                    5651063
                                           228.1L           25 July to 29 Aug.              413389                    5651163
                                          228.1M            18 July to 29 Aug.              413431                    5651283
                                           228.1R           25 July to 29 Aug.              413402                    5651321
                                          228.7M            17 July to 7 Aug.               413166                    5651439
                                      228.7MAb                14 to 29 Aug.                 413209                    5651408
                                       228.7R               17 July to 29 Aug.              413274                    5651596
                                           228.8L           25 July to 29 Aug.              413150                    5651754
                                          228.8M               17 to 24 July                413174                    5651561
                                      228.8MAb                   31 July                    413129                    5651332
                                      228.8MBb                 7 to 14 Aug.                 413185                    5651496
                                      228.8MCb                21 to 29 Aug.                 413226                    5651546
                                       228.9L               25 July to 28 Aug.              413210                    5651830
                                          228.9M            17 July to 14 Aug.              413275                    5651676
                                      228.9MAb                21 to 29 Aug.                 413262                    5651648
                                       228.9R               17 July to 29 Aug.              413280                    5651631
                                          229.0M            17 July to 28 Aug.              413344                    5651797
                                           229.0R           17 July to 28 Aug.              413343                    5651728
                                           229.1L           25 July to 28 Aug.              413346                    5651969
                                          229.1M            17 July to 28 Aug.              413456                    5651864
                                           229.1R                17 July                    413435                    5651825
                                          229.1RAb          24 July to 28 Aug.              413430                    5651828
                                           229.3R           17 July to 28 Aug.              413614                    5651956
                                           230.1R           17 July to 28 Aug.              413854                    5652129
                                           230.6L           25 July to 28 Aug.              414179                    5652553
                                          230.6M               18 to 31 July                414230                    5652494
                                      230.6MAb                 8 to 28 Aug.                 414276                    5652502
                                       230.6R               25 July to 28 Aug.              414270                    5652390
                                          231.1M            18 July to 1 Aug.               414851                    5653211
                                                    b
                                      231.1MA                     8 Aug.                    414854                    5653207
                                      231.1MBb                   15 Aug.                    414667                    5652902
                                      231.1MCb                22 to 28 Aug.                 414652                    5652887
                                       231.1R               17 July to 28 Aug.              414941                    5653280
                                           231.2L           25 July to 28 Aug.              414898                    5653432
            D-Ring                          DR1                   1 Aug.                    413218                    5651527
                                           DR1Ab                  7 Aug.                    413209                    5651507
                                           DR1Bb           14, 21, 22, 28 Aug.              413197                    5651459
            VR2W                           232.3          23 Apr. 07 to present             414647                    5654430
                                           230.2          23 Apr. 07 to present             413937                    5652192
                                           229.5c            16 July to 6 Sep.              413537                    5651902
                                          Big Eddy        23 Apr. 07 to present             413239                    5651069
                                    Salmon Rocks          23 Apr. 07 to present             414822                    5648468

a
    See Figure 1 for station locations.
b
    An "A", "B", or "C" indicates that the station drifted downstream. Dates indicate the period the station was known to be located at the
    associated UTM coordinates. The station was still sampling between the dates listed. For example, Station 228.7M drifted downstream
    between 7 and 14 August, but was in the water and sampling during this time.
c
    VR2W station 229.5 was deployed in the white sturgeon spawning area to provide additional coverage during the spawning period.
Table A2 Summary of white sturgeon (WSG) egg collection mat sampling in the middle Columbia River near Revelstoke, 17 July
         to 29 August 2008.

                                   Date & Time                           Set            Water           Mat                Catch Summar y
     Station a                                                       Dur ation        Temp. (°C)       Depth      WSG          Sizeb            Comments
                            Set                     Pull                                                (m)                            CPUE c
                                                                         (h)         Set      Pull                Eggs         (mm)
      229.1M          17-Jul-08 13:38         24-Jul-08 17:47          172.1         9.0       8.5       5.8
      229.0M          17-Jul-08 14:16         24-Jul-08 16:53          170.6         9.0       8.5       5.5
      228.9M          17-Jul-08 14:44         24-Jul-08 16:21          169.6         9.0       8.5       5.3
      228.8M          17-Jul-08 16:03         24-Jul-08 15:56          167.9         9.0       8.5       5.7
      228.7M          17-Jul-08 16:28         24-Jul-08 15:27          167.0         9.0       8.5       5.2
      230.1R          17-Jul-08 16:57         24-Jul-08 18:13          169.3         9.0       8.5       4.3
      231.1R          17-Jul-08 17:23         24-Jul-08 18:39          169.3         9.0       8.5      10.5
      229.3R          17-Jul-08 17:50         24-Jul-08 18:00          168.2         9.0       8.5       5.0
      229.1R          17-Jul-08 18:05         24-Jul-08 17:18          167.2         9.0       8.5       4.1
      229.0R          17-Jul-08 18:18         24-Jul-08 16:32          166.2         9.0       8.5       4.3
      228.9R          17-Jul-08 18:35         24-Jul-08 16:07          165.5         9.0       8.5       3.8
      228.7R          17-Jul-08 18:47         24-Jul-08 15:41          164.9         9.0       8.5       2.6
      223.5M          18-Jul-08 10:48         25-Jul-08 09:27          166.7         9.0       9.0       8.8
      226.6M          18-Jul-08 11:22         24-Jul-08 19:11          151.8         9.0       8.5       5.2
      228.1M          18-Jul-08 11:55         24-Jul-08 15:13          147.3         9.0       8.5       4.8
      231.1M          18-Jul-08 12:30         24-Jul-08 18:53          150.4         9.0       8.5       6.2
      230.6M          18-Jul-08 12:59         24-Jul-08 18:26          149.4         9.0       8.5       4.6
                          Session 2 Total                              2783.4                                          0                0.00    Session 1 = deployment
      228.1M          24-Jul-08 15:23         1-Aug-08 11:32           188.2         8.5      10.5       4.5
      228.7M          24-Jul-08 15:37         31-Jul-08 15:53          168.3         8.5       8.0       5.2
      228.7R          24-Jul-08 15:52         31-Jul-08 16:21          168.5         8.5       8.0       2.0
      228.8M          24-Jul-08 16:04         31-Jul-08 16:09          168.1         8.5       8.0       5.4
      228.9R          24-Jul-08 16:19         31-Jul-08 16:38          168.3         8.5       8.0       3.4
      228.9M          24-Jul-08 16:29         31-Jul-08 16:52          168.4         8.5       8.0       5.1
      229.0R          24-Jul-08 16:43         31-Jul-08 17:44          169.0         8.5       8.0       4.4
      229.0M          24-Jul-08 17:05         31-Jul-08 17:31          168.4         8.5       8.0       5.2
      229.1R          24-Jul-08 17:43         31-Jul-08 17:59          168.3         8.5       8.0       4.2                                    moved ~10 m d/s
      229.1M          24-Jul-08 17:57         31-Jul-08 18:10          168.2         8.5       8.0       5.5
      229.3R          24-Jul-08 18:09         31-Jul-08 18:33          168.4         8.5       8.0       6.5
      230.1R          24-Jul-08 18:23         31-Jul-08 18:46          168.4         8.5       8.0       4.4
      230.6M          24-Jul-08 18:33         31-Jul-08 19:08          168.6         8.5       8.0       4.1
      231.1R          24-Jul-08 18:51         1-Aug-08 10:30           183.7         8.5      10.5       9.8
      231.1M          24-Jul-08 19:01         1-Aug-08 10:59           184.0         8.5      10.5       5.5
      226.6M          24-Jul-08 19:19         1-Aug-08 12:00           184.7         8.5      10.5       4.8
      228.1R          25-Jul-08 11:18         1-Aug-08 11:40           168.4         8.5      10.5       5.2
      228.1L          25-Jul-08 11:42         1-Aug-08 11:13           167.5         8.5      10.5       7.0
      228.9L          25-Jul-08 12:01         31-Jul-08 17:20          149.3         8.5       8.0       3.1
      229.1L          25-Jul-08 12:53         31-Jul-08 18:21          149.5         8.5       8.0       2.8
      231.2L          25-Jul-08 13:16         1-Aug-08 10:46           165.5         8.5      10.5       3.0
      230.6R          25-Jul-08 13:39         31-Jul-08 18:56          149.3         8.5       8.0       2.8
      230.6L          25-Jul-08 13:51         31-Jul-08 19:18          149.5         8.5       8.0       3.4
      228.8L          25-Jul-08 14:13         31-Jul-08 17:06          146.9         8.5       8.0       3.1
                                                                                                                                                                     Continued...
a
    See Figure 1 for station locations.
b
    Mean size, if more than one egg was captured.
c
    CPUE = Catch-per-unit-effort (number of egg/24 mat-hours).
d
    Retrieved again = these mats were retrieved on 31 July and again on 1 August after a WSG egg was captured in the D-ring.
e
    RR plate added = a railraod plate (~10 - 15 lbs.) was added to this set to keep it from drifting into shore in the current.
f
    Full retrieval = the entire anchor system was retrieved due to loss of float(s) or the need to move the station.
Table A2 Continued.

                                   Date & Time                           Set            Water           Mat                Catch Summar y
               a
     Station                                                         Dur ation        Temp. (°C)       Depth      WSG          Sizeb            Comments
                            Set                     Pull                                                (m)                            CPUE c
                                                                         (h)         Set      Pull                Eggs         (mm)
      228.7M          31-Jul-08 16:06         1-Aug-08 15:12            23.1         8.0      10.5       4.8                                    retrieved againd
      228.7R          31-Jul-08 16:35         1-Aug-08 13:28            20.9         8.0      10.5       2.1                                    retrieved againd
      228.9R          31-Jul-08 16:50         1-Aug-08 14:32            21.7         8.0      10.5       2.8                                    retrieved againd
      228.9M          31-Jul-08 17:04         1-Aug-08 13:42            20.6         8.0      10.5       4.7           3        4.0     3.49    retrieved againd
      229.0M          31-Jul-08 17:43         1-Aug-08 14:13            20.5         8.0      10.5       5.0                                    retrieved againd
      229.0R          31-Jul-08 17:55         1-Aug-08 15:45            21.8         8.0      10.5       2.2                                    retrieved againd
      229.1M          31-Jul-08 18:18         1-Aug-08 15:28            21.2         8.0      10.5       5.4                                    retrieved againd
                          Session 3 Total                              4156.9                                          3                0.02
      223.5M          25-Jul-08 09:38         8-Aug-08 15:32           341.9         9.0      10.0       8.5
      223.6L          25-Jul-08 09:53         8-Aug-08 15:22           341.5         9.0      10.0      16.4
      225.0R          25-Jul-08 10:24         8-Aug-08 15:08           340.7         9.0      10.0      13.3
      226.0R          25-Jul-08 10:41         8-Aug-08 14:47           340.1         9.0      10.0       7.4
      226.4R          25-Jul-08 10:59         8-Aug-08 14:42           339.7         9.0      10.0       7.4
      228.8M          31-Jul-08 16:18         7-Aug-08 15:17           167.0         8.0       9.5       4.2
      228.8L          31-Jul-08 17:17         7-Aug-08 17:08           167.9         8.0       9.5       2.4
      228.9L          31-Jul-08 17:28         7-Aug-08 18:28           169.0         8.0       9.5       2.5
      229.1R          31-Jul-08 18:07         7-Aug-08 18:40           168.6         8.0       9.5       3.2
      229.1L          31-Jul-08 18:30         7-Aug-08 19:01           168.5         8.0       9.5       2.4
      229.3R          31-Jul-08 18:41         8-Aug-08 10:33           183.9         8.0      10.0       3.6
      230.1R          31-Jul-08 18:52         8-Aug-08 10:57           184.1         8.0      10.0       4.6
      230.6R          31-Jul-08 19:05         8-Aug-08 12:27           185.4         8.0      10.0       2.7
      228.7R          1-Aug-08 13:38          7-Aug-08 16:48           147.2         10.5      9.5       1.8
      228.9M          1-Aug-08 14:10          7-Aug-08 17:47           147.6         10.5      9.5       4.8
      229.0M          1-Aug-08 14:30          7-Aug-08 18:16           147.8         10.5      9.5       5.0
      230.6M          31-Jul-08 19:08         8-Aug-08 12:41           185.5         8.0      10.0       4.1
      230.6L          31-Jul-08 19:23         8-Aug-08 12:17           184.9         8.0      10.0       2.9
      231.1R          1-Aug-08 10:44          8-Aug-08 13:49           171.1         10.5     10.0       9.6
      231.2L          1-Aug-08 10:54          8-Aug-08 14:09           171.2         10.5     10.0       2.8
      231.1M          1-Aug-08 11:00          8-Aug-08 13:15           170.3         10.5     10.0       4.4
      228.1L          1-Aug-08 11:28          8-Aug-08 09:56           166.5         10.5     10.0       7.2
      228.1M          1-Aug-08 11:32          8-Aug-08 09:43           166.2         10.5     10.0       4.1
      228.1R          1-Aug-08 11:53          8-Aug-08 09:29           165.6         10.5     10.0       4.0
      226.6M          1-Aug-08 12:00          8-Aug-08 14:39           170.7         10.5     10.0       4.5
      228.9R          1-Aug-08 14:47          7-Aug-08 16:56           146.2         10.5      9.5       2.8
      228.7M          1-Aug-08 15:25          7-Aug-08 16:28           145.1         10.5      9.5       5.3
      229.1M          1-Aug-08 15:40          7-Aug-08 18:54           147.2         10.5      9.5       5.3
      229.0R          1-Aug-08 15:54          7-Aug-08 17:57           146.1         10.5      9.5       4.0
                          Session 4 Total                              5677.1                                          0                0.00
      228.8M          7-Aug-08 16:18         14-Aug-08 16:09           167.9         9.5      10.5       4.6                                    moved to new location
      228.7M          7-Aug-08 16:29         14-Aug-08 15:36           167.1         9.5      10.5       5.0                                    moved to new location
      228.7R          7-Aug-08 16:53         14-Aug-08 16:19           167.4         9.5      10.5       1.3
      228.9R          7-Aug-08 17:05         14-Aug-08 16:29           167.4         9.5      10.5       2.8                                    RR plate addede
      228.8L          7-Aug-08 17:16         14-Aug-08 16:48           167.5         9.5      10.5       2.5
                                                                                                                                                                        Continued...
a
    See Figure 1 for station locations.
b
    Mean size, if more than one egg was captured.
c
    CPUE = Catch-per-unit-effort (number of egg/24 mat-hours).
d
    Retrieved again = these mats were retrieved on 31 July and again on 1 August after a WSG egg was captured in the D-ring.
e
    RR plate added = a railraod plate (~10 - 15 lbs.) was added to this set to keep it from drifting into shore in the current.
f
    Full retrieval = the entire anchor system was retrieved due to loss of float(s) or the need to move the station.
Table A2 Continued.

                                   Date & Time                           Set            Water           Mat                Catch Summar y
               a
     Station                                                         Dur ation        Temp. (°C)       Depth      WSG          Sizeb            Comments
                            Set                     Pull                                                (m)                            CPUE c
                                                                         (h)         Set      Pull                Eggs         (mm)
      228.9M          7-Aug-08 17:48         14-Aug-08 16:41           166.9         9.5      10.5       4.7
      229.0R          7-Aug-08 18:11         14-Aug-08 17:12           167.0         9.5      10.5       3.8                                    RR plate added
      229.0M          7-Aug-08 18:16         14-Aug-08 17:01           166.7         9.5      10.5       4.8
      228.9L          7-Aug-08 18:36         14-Aug-08 17:27           166.8         9.5      10.5       2.8
      229.1R          7-Aug-08 18:50         14-Aug-08 18:21           167.5         9.5      10.5       3.2                                    swapped for large mat
      229.1M          7-Aug-08 18:54         14-Aug-08 18:12           167.3         9.5      10.5       4.9                                    swapped for small mat
      229.1L          7-Aug-08 19:19         14-Aug-08 18:35           167.3         9.5      10.5       2.4
      228.1R          8-Aug-08 09:39         15-Aug-08 09:12           167.5         10.0     10.0       4.6
      228.1M          8-Aug-08 09:43         15-Aug-08 09:23           167.7         10.0     10.0       4.2
      228.1L          8-Aug-08 10:06         15-Aug-08 09:32           167.4         10.0     10.0       5.3
      229.3R          8-Aug-08 10:45         14-Aug-08 18:47           152.0         10.0     10.5       4.1
      230.1R          8-Aug-08 11:26         14-Aug-08 18:59           151.5         10.0     10.5       4.5
      230.6L          8-Aug-08 12:24         15-Aug-08 10:14           165.8         10.0     10.0       1.2
      230.6R          8-Aug-08 12:34         15-Aug-08 09:31           165.0         10.0     10.0       2.8
      230.6M          8-Aug-08 13:05         15-Aug-08 10:05           165.0         10.0     10.0       3.8
      231.1M          8-Aug-08 13:44         15-Aug-08 10:27           164.7         10.0     10.0       5.9                                    drifted d/s ~400 m
      231.1R          8-Aug-08 14:03         15-Aug-08 10:54           164.9         10.0     10.0       9.9
      231.2L          8-Aug-08 14:18         15-Aug-08 11:15           165.0         10.0     10.0       2.8
      226.6M          8-Aug-08 14:39         15-Aug-08 11:32           164.9         10.0     10.0       4.6
      226.4R          8-Aug-08 14:54         15-Aug-08 11:42           164.8         10.0     10.0       4.3
      226.0R          8-Aug-08 15:04         15-Aug-08 12:00           164.9         10.0     10.5       6.8
      225.0R          8-Aug-08 15:16         15-Aug-08 12:14           165.0         10.0     10.5      12.2
      223.6L          8-Aug-08 15:29         15-Aug-08 12:31           165.0         10.0     10.5      18.2
      223.5M          8-Aug-08 15:33         15-Aug-08 12:42           165.1         10.0     10.5       8.3
                          Session 5 Total                              4793.2                                          0                0.00
      228.7M         14-Aug-08 16:03         21-Aug-08 15:33           167.5         10.5      9.0       3.2
      228.8M         14-Aug-08 16:11                lost                lost         10.5      9.0       4.7                                    both floats missing
      228.7R         14-Aug-08 16:26         21-Aug-08 15:47           167.3         10.5      9.0       1.2
      228.9R         14-Aug-08 16:37         21-Aug-08 16:02           167.4         10.5      9.0       2.6
      228.9M         14-Aug-08 16:42         21-Aug-08 16:20           167.6         10.5      9.0       4.9                                    full retrievalf
      228.8L         14-Aug-08 16:58         21-Aug-08 17:03           168.1         10.5      9.0       2.3
      229.0M         14-Aug-08 17:02         21-Aug-08 17:18           168.3         10.5      9.0       4.8
      229.0R         14-Aug-08 17:23         21-Aug-08 17:32           168.1         10.5      9.0       3.9
      228.9L         14-Aug-08 17:35         21-Aug-08 19:00           169.4         10.5      9.0       2.5
      229.1M         14-Aug-08 18:13         21-Aug-08 19:33           169.3         10.5      9.0       4.8
      229.1R         14-Aug-08 18:30         21-Aug-08 19:45           169.2         10.5      9.0       3.6
      229.1L         14-Aug-08 18:42         21-Aug-08 19:15           168.6         10.5      9.0       2.1
      229.3R         14-Aug-08 18:55         22-Aug-08 09:49           182.9         10.5     10.5       3.5
      230.1R         14-Aug-08 19:06         22-Aug-08 10:00           182.9         10.5     10.5       3.6
      228.1R         15-Aug-08 09:20         22-Aug-08 12:11           170.9         10.0     10.5       4.1
      228.1M         15-Aug-08 09:23         22-Aug-08 12:01           170.6         10.0     10.5       3.9
      228.1L         15-Aug-08 09:44         22-Aug-08 11:47           170.1         10.0     10.5       4.0
      230.6R         15-Aug-08 10:02         22-Aug-08 10:10           168.1         10.0     10.5       2.7
                                                                                                                                                                        Continued...
a
    See Figure 1 for station locations.
b
    Mean size, if more than one egg was captured.
c
    CPUE = Catch-per-unit-effort (number of egg/24 mat-hours).
d
    Retrieved again = these mats were retrieved on 31 July and again on 1 August after a WSG egg was captured in the D-ring.
e
    RR plate added = a railraod plate (~10 - 15 lbs.) was added to this set to keep it from drifting into shore in the current.
f
    Full retrieval = the entire anchor system was retrieved due to loss of float(s) or the need to move the station.
Table A2 Concluded.

                                   Date & Time                           Set            Water           Mat                Catch Summar y
               a
     Station                                                         Dur ation        Temp. (°C)       Depth      WSG          Sizeb            Comments
                            Set                     Pull                                                (m)                            CPUE c
                                                                         (h)         Set      Pull                Eggs         (mm)
      230.6M         15-Aug-08 10:05         22-Aug-08 10:20           168.2         10.0     10.5       3.6           1        3.5     0.14
      230.6L         15-Aug-08 10:21         22-Aug-08 10:38           168.3         10.0     10.5       1.0
      231.1M         15-Aug-08 10:49         22-Aug-08 10:49           168.0         10.0     10.5       4.4                                    had drifted downstream
      231.1R         15-Aug-08 11:11         22-Aug-08 11:04           167.9         10.0     10.5      13.4
      231.2L         15-Aug-08 11:23         22-Aug-08 11:19           167.9         10.0     10.5       2.8
      226.6M         15-Aug-08 11:33         22-Aug-08 12:29           168.9         10.0     10.5       4.4
      226.4R         15-Aug-08 11:56         22-Aug-08 12:35           168.7         10.0     10.5       4.6
      226.0R         15-Aug-08 12:09         22-Aug-08 12:47           168.6         10.5     11.0       6.9
      225.0R         15-Aug-08 12:24         22-Aug-08 12:58           168.6         10.5     11.0      11.4
      223.6L         15-Aug-08 12:37         22-Aug-08 13:12           168.6         10.5     11.0      12.9
      223.5M         15-Aug-08 12:42         22-Aug-08 13:23           168.7         10.5     11.0       9.1
                          Session 6 Total                              4748.8                                          1                0.01
      228.7M         21-Aug-08 15:34         29-Aug-08 11:48           188.2         9.0       9.0       3.2
      228.7R         21-Aug-08 16:00         29-Aug-08 11:40           187.7         9.0       9.0       1.7
      228.9R         21-Aug-08 16:14         29-Aug-08 11:05           186.8         9.0       9.0       2.9
      228.9M         21-Aug-08 16:39         29-Aug-08 11:17           186.6         9.0       9.0       4.9
      228.8L         21-Aug-08 17:14         29-Aug-08 11:31           186.3         9.0       9.0       2.8
      229.0M         21-Aug-08 17:19         28-Aug-08 19:27           170.1         9.0       9.5       5.0
      229.0R         21-Aug-08 17:40         28-Aug-08 18:58           169.3         9.0       9.5       3.8
      228.8M         21-Aug-08 18:48         29-Aug-08 12:27           185.7         9.0       9.0       4.2                                    replaced set; RR plate added
      228.9L         21-Aug-08 19:11         28-Aug-08 19:17           168.1         9.0       9.5       2.8
      229.1L         21-Aug-08 19:28         28-Aug-08 19:07           167.6         9.0       9.5       2.7
      229.1M         21-Aug-08 19:34         28-Aug-08 18:36           167.0         9.0       9.5       5.2
      229.1R         21-Aug-08 19:55         28-Aug-08 17:30           165.6         9.0       9.5       3.4
      229.3R         22-Aug-08 09:57         28-Aug-08 17:16           151.3         10.5      9.5       4.8
      230.1R         22-Aug-08 10:07         28-Aug-08 17:05           151.0         10.5      9.5       3.9
      230.6R         22-Aug-08 10:17         28-Aug-08 16:36           150.3         10.5      9.5       2.8
      230.6M         22-Aug-08 10:20         28-Aug-08 16:48           150.5         10.5      9.5       3.4
      230.6L         22-Aug-08 10:45         28-Aug-08 16:27           149.7         10.5      9.5       2.9
      231.1M         22-Aug-08 10:50         28-Aug-08 16:11           149.3         10.5      9.5       4.2
      231.1R         22-Aug-08 11:16         28-Aug-08 16:01           148.7         10.5      9.5      11.8
      231.2L         22-Aug-08 11:26         28-Aug-08 15:46           148.3         10.5      9.5       3.1
      228.1L         22-Aug-08 11:59         29-Aug-08 12:44           168.8         10.5      9.0       8.2
      228.1M         22-Aug-08 12:02         29-Aug-08 13:09           169.1         10.5      9.0       4.1
      228.1R         22-Aug-08 12:23         29-Aug-08 12:55           168.5         10.5      9.0       3.7
      226.6M         22-Aug-08 12:29         29-Aug-08 13:30           169.0         10.5      9.0       4.5
      226.4R         22-Aug-08 12:44         29-Aug-08 13:40           168.9         10.5      9.0       4.2
      226.0R         22-Aug-08 12:54         29-Aug-08 13:48           168.9         11.0      9.5       7.1
      225.0R         22-Aug-08 13:06         29-Aug-08 14:29           169.4         11.0      9.5      13.2
      223.6L         22-Aug-08 13:19         29-Aug-08 14:39           169.3         11.0      9.5      14.4
      223.5M         22-Aug-08 13:23         29-Aug-08 14:52           169.5         11.0      9.5       8.9
                          Session 7 Total                              4849.8                                          0                0.00
                           Gr and Total                               27009.2                                          4               0.004

a
    See Figure 1 for station locations.
b
    Mean size, if more than one egg was captured.
c
    CPUE = Catch-per-unit-effort (number of egg/24 mat-hours).
d
    Retrieved again = these mats were retrieved on 31 July and again on 1 August after a WSG egg was captured in the D-ring.
e
    RR plate added = a railraod plate (~10 - 15 lbs.) was added to this set to keep it from drifting into shore in the current.
f
    Full retrieval = the entire anchor system was retrieved due to loss of float(s) or the need to move the station.
Table A3         Summary of D-ring drift net (Station DR1, river km 228.7; see Figure 1.1) sampling in the Columbia River near Revelstoke, 1 to 28 August 2008.

                                                Set                     Pull                Set        Volume                  Water                                D-r ing Catch a
                                                                                                                    Depth
       Date        Site    Session              Flowmeter                Flowmeter       Dur ation    Sampled                  Temp.              WSG Eggs                   CPUE               UNID     CC
                                       Time                    Time                                                  (m)
                                                 Reading                  Reading           (h)            3
                                                                                                        (m )                     (°C)      Cap.     Pr es.   Size        /hr     /100m      3
                                                                                                                                                                                                Lar v.   YOY
    1-Aug-08      DR1         3        10:06      687600       12:14       914028           2.1         370.2         3.8        10.5        1        1       3.9        0.5       0.3            3
                                                                                                                                                               b
    7-Aug-08      DR1a        4        15:11      251309       17:20       542419           2.1         475.9         4.1        9.5         1        1       -          0.5          0.2                 1
    14-Aug-08     DR1b        5        15:25      542422       17:41       814498           2.3         444.8         4.1        10.5
    21-Aug-08     DR1b        6        15:31      814516       17:45       169126           2.2         579.7         4.2        9.0         2        2      3.25        0.9          0.3
    22-Aug-08     DR1b        6        9:46       169122       11:33       362156           1.8         315.6         3.7        10.5
    28-Aug-08     DR1b        7        15:40      362159       17:42       608983           2.0         403.5         3.5        9.5
                                                                                           12.6         2590                                 4        4                  0.3          0.2         3       1

a
    WSG = white sturgeon; Cap. = no. captured; Pres. = no. preserved; size = mean size of eggs captured in mm; CPUE = catch-per-unit-effort; UNID = not identified to species; Larv. = larvae;
    CC = sculpin spp.; YOY = young-of-the-year.
b
    This egg was squished during processing; therefore size and stage were unable to be determined.
Table A4                Developmental stages of white sturgeon eggs captured during the 2008 middle Columbia River white
                        sturgeon spawn monitoring study.


                                                                     No. White          Developmental Stageb             Hour s to Reach
          Date                  Time              Station a
                                                                   Stur geon Eggs                                            Stage
                                                                                    Stage No.         Descr iption
        1-Aug-08                12:14                D1                  1              -             unfertilized              -
        1-Aug-08                13:42             228.9M                 3             17            late cleavage             22
        7-Aug-08                17:20               D1a                  1              -               damaged                 -
       21-Aug-08                17:45               D1b                  1              -             unfertilized              -
                                                                         1             12           post fertilization          0
       22-Aug-08                10:20             230.6M                 1             15            early cleavage             8

a
    See Figure 1 for sample site locations.
b
    Based on Beer 1981, Wang et al. 1985, and Conte et al. 1988.
                          MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER WHITE STURGEON    SPAWN
                          MONITORING STUDY: 2008 INVESTIGATIONS




APPENDIX B
Summary of Previous Spawning Studies (1998 - 2007) and
Physical Parameters During the White Sturgeon Spawning Period




April 2009
Report No. 08-1480-0029
Table B1            Summary of white sturgeon spawn monitoring studies conducted in the middle Columbia River, 1998 to 2008.

                                                                                             Effor t     No.                                  Spawning Events
                                     a              a                                                             a           a
    Study Year            Location         Method                   Per iod                 (Sample-    WSG           CPUE        Estimated     Date of          Date of           Refer ences
                                                                                             hour s)    Eggs                       Number         Fir st         Second
        1998            Incomappleux R.     ECM                3 June - 21 July               4131                                                                               R.L. & L. 1999
        1999            Rev spawn area      ECM                 28 July - 1 Sep.              4156        82           0.5            2         31-Jul-99       20-Aug-99        R.L. & L. 2000
        2000            Rev spawn area      ECM                5 July - 30 Aug.              15764                                                                               R.L. & L. 2001
                        Illecillewaet R.    ECM                27 July - 30 Aug.              2569
        2001            Rev spawn area      ECM                11 July - 30 Aug.             23465                                                                                Golder 2001
                                                                                                              b
        2003            Rev spawn area      ECM                3 July - 27 Aug.              32810       51           0.04            2        2-3 Aug 03   13-14 Aug 03    Golder 2004, Tiley 2006b
        2006            Rev spawn area      ECM               28 July - late Aug              5375        1           0.004           1        unknownc                           Tiley 2006a
        2007            Rev spawn area      ECM                 25 July - 5 Sep.             25818                                                                                Golder 2008a
                        Rev spawn area     D-ring          1, 7, 14, 21, 22, 28 Aug.         24.7d
        2008            Rev spawn area      ECM                17 July - 29 Aug.             27009        4           0.004           2         31-Jul-08       21-Aug-08         present study
                                                                                                    e
                        Rev spawn area     D-ring        16,23,24,29,30 Aug., 4,5 Sep.        12.6        4            0.3
Revelstoke Spawning Ar ea ECM Total                                                          134397      138          0.02            7
Revelstoke Spawning Ar ea D-r ing Total                                                       37.3        4           0.11

a
    Rev Spawn area = Revelstoke spawning area; ECM = egg collection mats; WSG = white sturgeon; CPUE = catch-per-unit-effort (no. eggs/24 mat-hours for ECM; no. eggs/hour for D-rings).
b
    Includes 1 larva.
c
    Developmental abnormalities prevented staging of embryo; spawn timing could not be estimated.
d
    Estimated volume sampled = 2900 m3.
e
    Estimated volume sampled = 2600 m3; CPUE = 0.15 eggs/m3.
Table B2                Summary of suspected spawning related movements exhibited by sonic-tagged adult white sturgeon during the years spawn monitoring studies were
                        conducted in the middle Columbia River, 1998 - 2008.

    Study    No.                                Matur ity                      Sonic
                    a
                         Sex                                            b
                                                                                      Movement Descr iption and Notes
    Year     Fish              Code        Descr iption          Date         Tag IDc
    1998       1          F     14       late vitellogenic      5-Oct-97       3-5-6 Beaton Flats to end of Beaton Arm (Incomappleux R.); likely not actually spawning related
    1999       5          F     14       late vitellogenic      27-Oct-98     2-4-4-4 Beaton Arm to spawning area
                          F     14       late vitellogenic      28-Oct-98      3-4-6        Beaton Flats to spawning area
                          M     02           maturing           2-Oct-97       2-5-7        Beaton Arm to spawning area
                          M     03      early reproductive      24-Oct-97      4-4-6        downstream of Beaton Flats to spawning area
                          M     03      early reproductive      23-Oct-98       6-10        Beaton Flats to spawning area
    2000       5          F     13       early vitellogenic     24-Oct-98       8-8         Beaton Arm to spawning area
                          F     13       early vitellogenic     28-Oct-98      4-5-9d       Mulvehill Cr. area to Illecillewaet R. (overwintered at Beaton Flats)
                          M     02           maturing           6-Jun-00       3-4-5e       Tank Cr. area to spawning area (overwintered at Beaton Flats)
                                                                                        f
                          M     03      early reproductive      27-Oct-98     3-3-3-5 Arrowhead to spawning area (overwintered at Beaton Flats)
                          M     03      early reproductive      28-Oct-98      4-6-8 Tank Cr. area to spawning area (overwintered at Beaton Flats)
    2001       0
    2003       3          F     15             ripe             19-Jun-03      3-3-4        Beaton Flats to spawning area
                          M     02           maturing           24-Oct-02       91g         Mulvehill area to spawning area
                          M     03      early reproductive     30-Aug-02       4-4-7        Beaton Arm to spawning area
    2006       4          M     03      early reproductive     30-Aug-03         89         Det. At Salmon Rocks & Big Eddy on 22 Jun, plunge pool on 6 Aug; Big Eddy primary holding area
                          M     03      early reproductive     29-Aug-03         88         Det. At Scales Creek on 5 July; Big Eddy primary holding area
                          M     02           maturing           24-Oct-02        91         u/s Steamboat Rapids on 4 Aug; Big Eddy primary holding area
                          F     15             ripe             19-Jun-03      3-3-4        near Big Eddy & spawning area
    2007       0
    2008       0

a
    Number of fish suspected of making spawning related movements.
b
    Date of most recent maturity assessment (prior to spawning period of study year).
c
    Sonic Tag ID Codes: dashed numbers (e.g., 3-5-6) = Sonotronics tag; two digit numbers (e.g., 91) = Vemco tag.
d
    This fish was subsequently implanted with tag 3-5-6 on 31 August 2002.
e
    This fish was previously implanted with tag 3-7-4 on 22 October 1997, and subsequently implanted with tag 64 on 17 June 2003.
f
    This fish was subsequently implanted with tag 89 on 30 August 2003.
g
    This fish was previously implanted with tag 3-3-7 on 6 June 2000.
Table B3          Summary of egg collection mat sampling in the Columbia River below Revelstoke Dam, 28 July
                  to 1 September 1999.

                                                UTM Coor dinates          Total         Total No.              CPUE c
     Station a      Sample Per iod b                                                         c
                                              Easting     Nor thing     Effor t (h)    WSG Eggs         (No. Eggs/24 Mat-hr s)
      SM-A1           28 Jul - 1 Sep          413787       5652074        830.9           2                       0.1
      SM-A2           28 Jul - 1 Sep          413709       5651991        831.0             10                    0.3
      SM-A3           28 Jul - 1 Sep          413406       5651784        831.3             14                    0.4
      SM-A4           28 Jul - 1 Sep          413357       5651761        831.8             10                    0.3
      SM-A5           28 Jul - 1 Sep          413258       5651646        831.5             46                    1.3
                                                                          4156.4            82                    0.5

a
    See Figure 3 for sample site locations.
b
    Egg mats were deployed on 28 July, checked on 4, 10, 18, and 25 August, and checked/removed on 1 September.
c
    WSG = white sturgeon; CPUE = catch-per-unit-effort.
Table B4 Developmental stages of white sturgeon eggs collected below Revelstoke Dam, 4 August to 25 August 1999. Individual spawning events are outlined with darker borders.

                                                                                                                      Number of Eggs in Each Developmental Categor y (Stage)c
                                 No. of White Stur geon Eggsb
                                                                     Post-          Ear ly       Late         Ear ly          Late          Ear ly Yolk   Late Yolk        Ear ly          Late
       Date            Sitea                                                                                                                                                                           Hear t   Pr e-Hatch
                                              Unstage-             Fer tilized     Cleavage    Cleavage    Gastr ulation   Gastr ulation       Plug         Plug         Neur ulation   Neur ulation
                                 Pr es.                  Staged
                                                able               (Stage 12)      (13 - 16)   (17 - 18)       (19)            (20)            (21)          (22)               (23)      (24 - 25)     (26)     (27 - 28)
     04-Aug            SM-A3        9                      9                                                                                     1                                           8
     04-Aug            SM-A4       10                      10                                                                                                                                10
     04-Aug            SM-A5       32            9         23                                                                                    2                                           21
     10-Aug            SM-A5        9            6         3                                                                                                                                                        3
     18-Aug            SM-A5        1            1         0
     25-Aug            SM-A1        1                      1                                                                                     1
     25-Aug            SM-A2       10            3         7                                                                                     2             1                 4
     25-Aug            SM-A3        4                      4                                                                                                   3                 1
     25-Aug            SM-A5        2                      2                                                                                     1             1
      01-Sep           SM-A1        1            1         0
               Total               79            20        59           0             0           0              0               0               7             5                 5           39          0          3

a
    See Figure 3 for sample site locations.
b
    Pres. = preserved; unstageable refers to unfertilized, damaged or fungussed.
c
    See Conte et al. 1988 for a description of developmental stages.
Table B5          Summary of egg collection mat sampling in the Columbia River below Revelstoke Dam, 3 July
                  to 22 August 2003.

                                              UTM Coor dinates              Total       Total No.          CPUE c
     Station a      Sample Per iod b                                                        c
                                           Easting         Nor thing      Effor t (h)   WSG Eggs    (No. Eggs/24 Mat-hr s)
       SM 1          3 Jul - 21 Aug         415209          5655550         1315.3
       SM 2          3 Jul - 21 Aug         415121          5655482         1315.1
       SM 3          3 Jul - 21 Aug         414939          5655308         1315.2
       SM 4          3 Jul - 21 Aug         414811          5655129         1315.4
       SM 5          3 Jul - 21 Aug         414728          5654993         1315.4
       SM 6          3 Jul - 22 Aug         414582          5654760         1315.8
       SM 7          3 Jul - 22 Aug         414576          5654666         1315.6
       SM 8          3 Jul - 22 Aug         414634          5654463         1315.2
       SM 9          3 Jul - 22 Aug         414678          5654209         1315.7
      SM 10          3 Jul - 22 Aug         414824          5653925         1315.6
      SM 11          3 Jul - 21 Aug         414869          5653132         1316.1
      SM 12          3 Jul - 21 Aug         414820          5653031         1315.7
      SM 13          3 Jul - 21 Aug         414349          5652459         1316.9
      SM 14          3 Jul - 21 Aug         414208          5652363         1316.8
      SM 15          3 Jul - 21 Aug         413985          5652241         1316.6
      SM 16          3 Jul - 22 Aug         413913          5652173         1317.0
      SM 17          3 Jul - 22 Aug         413859          5652136         1316.9
      SM 18          3 Jul - 22 Aug         413479          5651874         1317.0          5                0.1
      SM 19          3 Jul - 22 Aug         413376          5651792         1316.9         33                0.6
      SM 20          3 Jul - 22 Aug         413320          5651695         1317.0       12 (1)c             0.2
      SM 21            4 - 23 Jul           414941          5653549         628.0
      SM 22          4 Jul - 22 Aug         414878          5653421         1297.0
      SM 23          4 Jul - 22 Aug         414817          5653292         1297.7
      SM 24          4 Jul - 22 Aug         414745          5653149         1297.2
      SM 25            4 - 23 Jul           414645          5653023         628.6
      SM 26         30 Jul - 22 Aug         413779          5652051         670.1
      SM 27         30 Jul - 22 Aug         413672          5651986         670.3
Total                                                                      32810.3        50 (1)             0.04

a
    See Figure 3 for sample site locations where eggs were captured.
b
    Egg mats were retrieved, checked and redeployed once pre week during this time.
c
    WSG = white sturgeon; CPUE = catch-per-unit-effort; number in brackets = larva.
Table B6            Developmental stages of white sturgeon eggs collected below Revelstoke Dam, 7 to 27 August 2003
                    (data from Tiley 2006b and Golder 2004).

                                              No.      Developmental
        Date             Sitea                                           Notes
                                              Eggs          Stage
     07-Aug-03          SM 19                  7         neurulation     These 13 embryos were at a similar stage of development indicating a
     07-Aug-03          SM 20                  6                         single spawning event.
     14-Aug-03          SM 18                  4          cleavage
                                                                         These 24 embryos were at a similar stage of development indicating a
     14-Aug-03          SM 19                  15
                                                                         second, separate spawning event.
     14-Aug-03          SM 20                  5
     22-Aug-03          SM 19                 10b      early pre-hatch   These embryos were considered to have come from the same spawning
     22-Aug-03          SM 20                  1                         event as those collected on 14 August.
     27-Aug-03          SM 18                  1        late pre-hatch
                                                                         These embryos were considered to have come from the same spawning
     27-Aug-03          SM 19                  1
                                                                         event as those collected on 14 August.
     27-Aug-03          SM 20                  1c
Total                                          51

a
    See Figure 3 for sample site locations.
b
    10 eggs according to Golder 2004; 4 eggs according to Tiley 2004b.
c
    Larva according to Golder 2004; egg according to Tiley 2006b.
Table B7 Locations, sample effort, catch and catch-per-unit-effort for sample sites where white sturgeon eggs were collected during spawning studies
         in 1999, 2003, 2006, and 2008 (pre-2008 data from R.L. & L. 2000, Golder 2004, and Tiley 2006a and 2006b).

                                                         UTM Coor dinates          Total      Volume           Total No.                                  CPUE
                                                    a                                         Sampled
Study Year          Sample Per iod       Station                                   Effor t                 WSG        WSG        (No. eggs/ 24   (No. eggs/   (No. eggs/   (No. lar vae/ 24
                                                        Easting     Nor thing
                                                                                    (h)         (m3)       Eggs      Lar vae       mat-hr s)       hour )        100 m3)      mat-hr s)
      1999           28 Jul - 1 Sep       SM-A1         413787       5652074       830.9                      2                       0.06
                                          SM-A2         413709       5651991       831.0                     10                       0.29
                                          SM-A3         413406       5651784       831.3                     14                       0.40
                                          SM-A4         413357       5651761       831.8                     10                       0.29
                                          SM-A5         413258       5651646       831.5                     46                       1.33
                               1999 Total for mats that captur ed WSG eggs        4156.4                     82                       0.47
      2003          3 Jul - 27 Aug        SM 18         413479       5651874      1317.0                      5                       0.09
                                          SM 19         413376       5651792      1317.0                     33                       0.60
                                          SM 20         413320       5651695      1317.0                     12          1            0.22                                      0.02
                               2003 Total for mats that captur ed WSG eggs        3951.0                     50          1            0.30                                      0.01
      2006          28 Jul - 24 Aug                                                671.8b                     1                       0.04
                               2006 Total for mats that captur ed WSG eggs         671.8                      1                       0.04
      2008          17 Jul - 29 Aug      228.9M         413275       5651676      1027.4                      3                       0.07
                                         230.6M         414276       5652502       987.3                      1                       0.02
                               2008 Total for mats that captur ed WSG eggs        2014.7                      4                       0.05
      2008               1 Aug                DR1       413218       5651527        2.1         370.2         1                                    0.47           0.27
                         7 Aug            DR1a          413209       5651507        2.1         475.9         1                                    0.47           0.21
                   14,21,22,28 Aug        DR1b          413197       5651459        8.3        1743.7         2                                    0.24           0.11
                                                        2008 Total for D-r ings     12.6       2589.8         4                                    0.32           0.15

a
    See Figure 3 for sample site locations.
b
    Site locations and sample effort at each site were not available for 2006. Effort estimated based on total effort/8 egg collection mats.
Table B8                    Comparison of the estimated time of spawning calculated during past studies in the Revelstoke spawning area (1999, 2003, 2006) and
                            re-calculations conducted during the present study (2008).

                                                                                                                                                      Based On (Hour s to Reach Stage)a :
    Study     Spawning                                                                  Estimated Spawn Timing
                                        Refer ences                                                                                          Ear ly Range       Actual Event         Late Range
    Year      Event No.
                                                                      Ear ly Range             Actual Event             Late Range         Hr s     Stage       Hr s       Stageb      Hr s     Stage
    1999           1                  R.L. & L. 2000                                             31-Jul-99
                                       present study                 30-Jul-99 18:00          31-Jul-99 00:00          31-Jul-99 05:00     107     24 (LN)      112.5    24.5 (LN)     118     25 (LN)
                                                                                                      c
                   2                  R.L. & L. 2000                                                -
                                       present study                 1-Aug-99 18:00           2-Aug-99 06:00           2-Aug-99 18:00      46d                   58      21 (EYP)      70d
                   3                  R.L. & L. 2000                                            20-Aug-99
                                       present study                21-Aug-99 17:00          22-Aug-99 09:00          23-Aug-99 02:00       58    21 (EYP)       75      22 (LYP)      91      23 (EN)
    2003           1             Golder 2004, Tiley 2006b                                       2-3 Aug 03
                                       present study                 2-Aug-03 13:00           3-Aug-03 00:00           3-Aug-03 16:00       91     23 (EN)       107      24 (LN)      118     25 (LN)
                   2             Golder 2004, Tiley 2006b                                      13-14 Aug 03
                                       present study                13-Aug-03 12:00          14-Aug-03 01:00          14-Aug-03 13:00       3      13 (EC)       15       16 (EC)      28      18 (LC)
    2006           1                    Tiley 2006a                                    unable to determine spawn timing due to developmental problems with single embryo collected
    2008           1                   present study                 31-Jul-08 11:00          31-Jul-08 15:42          31-Jul-08 22:00      15     16 (EC)       22       17 (LC)      28      18 (LC)
                   2e                  present study                21-Aug-08 15:45          21-Aug-08 17:45                     -e         -e                    0       12 (PF)

a
    All calculations are based on developmental rates in 10°C water (Beer et al. 1981, Conte et al. 1988, Wang et al. 1985). LN = late neurulation; EYP = early yolk plug; LYP = late yolk plug;
    EN = early neurulation; EC = early cleavage; LC = late cleavage; PF = post-fertilization.
b
    Developmental stages with a decimal point (e.g., 24.5) represent the mid-point of the range of two stages (e.g., 24 - 25).
c
    This was not reported as a separate spawning event in the 1999 report.
d
    The early and late range of spawning were assigned to 12 hours before and after the calculated spawn timing to provide a 24 hour period during which spawning was most likely to have occurred.
e
    The estimated timing of the second spawning event detected in 2008 was based on the time the egg was collected (i.e., zero hours to reach post-fertilization stage). The early range of spawn timing
    was calculated by subtracting 2 hours from the estimate to allow time for the egg to drift downstream to where it was collected.
                      2000


                      1800


                      1600


                      1400
                                                                                                                                                             1999
   Discharge (m3/s)




                      1200                                                                                                                                   2000

                                                                                                                                                             2001
                      1000
                                                                                                                                                             2003
                      800
                                                                                                                                                             2006

                      600                                                                                                                                    2007

                                                                                                                                                             2008
                      400


                      200


                        0
                         01-Jul                      16-Jul                       31-Jul                      15-Aug                       30-Aug

                                                                                  Date


Figure B1                Mean daily discharge from the Revelstoke Dam on the Columbia River during the white sturgeon spawning period (July and August) in
                         years spawn monitoring was conducted (1999 - 2001, 2003, and 2006 - 2008). Years when white sturgeon spawning was detected are
                         presented with solid lines.
                           14


                           13


                           12
  Water Temperature (°C)




                                                                                                                                                     1999
                           11                                                                                                                        2001
                                                                                                                                                     2003
                           10                                                                                                                        2006
                                                                                                                                                     2007
                                                                                                                                                     2008
                           9


                           8


                           7


                           6
                            01-Jul                      16-Jul                    31-Jul                     15-Aug                    30-Aug
                                                                                    Date

Figure B2                       Mean daily water temperatures in the Columbia River below Revelstoke Dam during the white sturgeon spawning period
                                (July and August) in years spawn monitoring was conducted (1999, 2001, 2003, and 2006 - 2008). Years when white
                                sturgeon spawning was detected are presented with solid lines. Data for 2000 was unavailable.
                                442



                                440



                                438
  Elevation at Nakusp (m ASL)




                                                                                                                                     1999

                                                                                                                                     2000
                                436
                                                                                                                                     2001

                                434                                                                                                  2003

                                                                                                                                     2006

                                432
                                                                                                                                     2007

                                                                                                                                     2008
                                430



                                428



                                426
                                  01-Jul   16-Jul            31-Jul                   15-Aug                    30-Aug

                                                               Date


Figure B3 Hourly water surface elevations (m above sea level; m ASL) of Arrow Lakes Reservoir at Nakusp during the white sturgeon spawning
          period (July and August) in years spawn monitoring was conducted (1999 - 2001, 2003, and 2006 - 2008). Years when white sturgeon
          spawning was detected are presented with solid lines.
                    2000                                                                                 14
                                                                                                 1999                            440
                                                                                                         13
                                                                                                                                 438




                                                                                                                                        Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                              Temperature (°C)
Discharge (m3/s)
                    1500                                                                                 12
                                                                                                                                 436
                                                                                                         11
                                                                                                                                 434
                    1000                                                                                 10
                                                                                                         9                       432

                     500                                                                                 8                       430

                                                                                                         7                       428

                       0                                                                                  6                      426
                    01/Jul/99    11/Jul/99    21/Jul/99    31/Jul/99    10/Aug/99    20/Aug/99    30/Aug/99

                    2000                                                                                 14
                                                                                                 2003                            440
                                                                                                         13




                                                                                                              Temperature (°C)
                                                                                                                                 438




                                                                                                                                        Elevation (m ASL)
Discharge (m3/s)




                    1500                                                                                 12
                                                                                                                                 436
                                                                                                         11
                                                                                                                                 434
                    1000                                                                                 10
                                                                                                         9                       432

                     500                                                                                 8                       430

                                                                                                         7                       428

                       0                                                                                  6                      426
                    01/Jul/03    11/Jul/03    21/Jul/03    31/Jul/03    10/Aug/03    20/Aug/03    30/Aug/03
                    2000                                                                                 14
                                                                                                 2006                            440
                                                                                                         13
                                                                                                                                 438




                                                                                                                                       Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                              Temperature (°C)
 Discharge (m3/s)




                    1500                                                                                 12
                                                                                                                                 436
                                                                                                         11
                                                                                                                                 434
                    1000                                                                                 10
                                                                                                         9                       432

                     500                                                                                 8                       430

                                                                                                         7                       428

                       0                                                                                  6                      426
                    01/Jul/06    11/Jul/06    21/Jul/06    31/Jul/06   10/Aug/06    20/Aug/06    30/Aug/06

                    2000                                                                                 14
                                                                                                  2008                           440
                                                                                                         13
                                                                                                                                 438


                                                                                                                                        Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                              Temperature (°C)
 Discharge (m /s)




                    1500                                                                                 12
3




                                                                                                                                 436
                                                                                                         11
                                                                                                                                 434
                    1000                                                                                 10
                                                                                                         9                       432

                     500                                                                                 8                       430

                                                                                                         7                       428

                       0                                                                                  6                      426
                    01/Jul/08    11/Jul/08    21/Jul/08    31/Jul/08    10/Aug/08    20/Aug/08    30/Aug/08

                                                              Date

      Figure B4                 Hourly discharge and water temperature in the                      Hourly Temperature
                                Columbia River below Revelstoke Dam, and                           Hourly Discharge
                                Arrow Lakes Reservoir water surface elevation                      Hourly Elevation
                                during the white sturgeon spawning period in years                 Spawning Event
                                spawning was detected (1999, 2003, 2006, 2008).
                                                                                                   Mean Daily Temperature
                                Egg developmental stage data for 2006 was unavailable.
                     2000
                                                                                                   2000                             440

                                                                                                                                    438
                     1500




                                                                                                                                          Elevation (m ASL)
 Discharge (m /s)




                                                                                                                                    436
3




                                                                                                                                    434
                     1000
                                                                                                                                    432

                      500                                                                                                           430

                                                                                                                                    428

                        0                                                                                                           426
                      01/Jul/00    11/Jul/00    21/Jul/00    31/Jul/00   10/Aug/00    20/Aug/00   30/Aug/00
                     2000                                                                                 14
                                                                                                   2001                             440
                                                                                                          13
                                                                                                                                    438
                     1500                                                                                 12




                                                                                                                                          Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                               Temperature (°C)
 Discharge (m /s)




                                                                                                                                    436
                                                                                                          11
3




                                                                                                                                    434
                     1000                                                                                 10

                                                                                                          9                         432

                      500                                                                                 8                         430

                                                                                                          7                         428

                        0                                                                                 6                         426
                      01/Jul/01    11/Jul/01    21/Jul/01    31/Jul/01   10/Aug/01    20/Aug/01   30/Aug/01
                     2000                                                                                 14
                                                                                                   2007                             440
                                                                                                          13
                                                                                                                                    438
                     1500                                                                                 12



                                                                                                                                          Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                                 Temperature (°C)
Discharge (m3/s)




                                                                                                                                    436
                                                                                                          11
                                                                                                                                    434
                     1000                                                                                 10

                                                                                                          9                         432

                      500                                                                                 8                         430

                                                                                                          7                         428

                        0                                                                                  6                        426
                      01/Jul/07    11/Jul/07    21/Jul/07    31/Jul/07   10/Aug/07    20/Aug/07   30/Aug/07
                                                                 Date
                    Figure B5 Hourly discharge and water temperature in the Columbia
                                                                                                    Hourly Temperature
                              River below Revelstoke Dam, and Arrow Lakes Reservoir
                                                                                                    Hourly Discharge
                              water surface elevation during the white sturgeon spawning
                                                                                                    Hourly Elevation
                              period in years spawn monitoring was conducted, but spawning
                                                                                                    Mean Daily Discharge
                              was not detected (2000, 2001, 2007). Temperature data for
                              2000 was not available.
                    2000                                                                                      14
                                                                                                                                      440
                                                                                                              13
                                                                                                                                      438
                    1500                                                                                      12

                                                                                                                                      436




                                                                                                                                            Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                                   Temperature (°C)
Discharge (m /s)




                                                                                                              11
3




                                                                                                                                      434
                    1000                                                                                      10

                                                                                                                                      432
                                                                                                              9


                     500                            Temperature                                               8                       430
                                                    Discharge
                                                    Elevation
                                                    Spawning Event                                            7                       428
                                                    Mean Daily Discharge


                        0                                                                                     6                       426
                   28/Jul/99 18:00    30/Jul/99 06:00   31/Jul/99 18:00 02/Aug/99 06:00 03/Aug/99 18:00
                                                                   Date
                    2000                                                                                      14
                                                                                                                                      440
                                                                                                              13
                                                                                                                                      438
                    1500                                                                                      12

                                                                                                                                      436




                                                                                                                                               Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                                   Temperature (°C)
Discharge (m /s)




                                                                                                              11
3




                                                                                                                                      434
                    1000                                                                                      10

                                                                                                                                      432
                                                                                                              9
                                                                              Temperature
                                                                              Discharge
                     500                                                      Elevation                       8                       430
                                                                              Spawning Event
                                                                              Mean Daily Temperature
                                                                              Mean Daily Discharge            7                       428


                   0                                                                                          6                       426
              19/Aug/99 17:00             21/Aug/99 05:00         22/Aug/99 17:00       24/Aug/99 05:00

                                                                   Date


                   Figure B6         Hourly and mean discharge and water temperature and hourly ALR water
                                     surface elevation during the 48 hours prior to and following the estimated timing
                                     of white sturgeon spawning events in the Revelstoke spawning area, 1999.
                         2000                                                                                        14
                                                                                                                                             440
                                                                                                                     13
                                                                                                                                             438
                         1500                                                                                        12

                                                                                                                                             436




                                                                                                                                                   Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                                          Temperature (°C)
Discharge (m /s)




                                                                                                                     11
3




                                                                                                                                             434
                         1000                                                                                        10

                                                                                                                                             432
                                                                                                                     9
                                              Temperature
                                              Discharge                                                                                      430
                           500                Elevation                                                              8
                                              Spawning Event
                                              Mean Daily Temperature
                                                                                                                     7                       428
                                              Mean Daily Discharge


                             0                                                                                       6                       426
                         31-Jul-03 13:00         02-Aug-03 01:00            03-Aug-03 13:00      05-Aug-03 01:00

                                                                            Date

                          2000                                                                                       14
                                                                                                                                             440
                                                                                                                     13
                                                                                                                                             438
                          1500                                                                                       12

                                                                                                                                             436




                                                                                                                                                     Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                                          Temperature (°C)
      Discharge (m /s)




                                                                                                                     11
3




                                                                                                                                             434
                          1000                                                                                       10

                                                                                                                                             432
                                                                                                                     9


                           500                     Temperature
                                                                                                                     8                       430
                                                   Discharge
                                                   Elevation
                                                   Spawning Event                                                                            428
                                                                                                                     7
                                                   Mean Daily Temperature
                                                   Mean Daily Discharge

                         0                                                                                           6                       426
                    11/Aug/03 12:00               13/Aug/03 00:00            14/Aug/03 12:00      16/Aug/03 00:00

                                                                            Date

                     Figure B7             Hourly and mean daily discharge and water temperature and hourly ALR water
                                           surface elevation during the 48 hours prior to and following the estimated timing
                                           of white sturgeon spawning events in the Revelstoke spawning area, 2003.
                     2000                                                                                       14
                                                                                                                                        440
                                                                                                                13
                                                                                                                                        438
                                           Temperature
                     1500                                                                                       12
                                           Discharge
                                           Elevation
                                                                                                                                        436




                                                                                                                                              Elevation (m ASL)
                                           Spawning Event




                                                                                                                     Temperature (°C)
                                                                                                                11
 Discharge (m /s)




                                           Mean Daily Temperature
3




                                           Mean Daily Discharge
                                                                                                                                        434
                     1000                                                                                       10

                                                                                                                                        432
                                                                                                                9


                      500                                                                                       8                       430


                                                                                                                7                       428


                         0                                                                                      6                       426
                    29/Jul/08 11:00     30/Jul/08 11:00     31/Jul/08 11:00 01/Aug/08 11:00 02/Aug/08 11:00

                                                                       Date


                     2000                                                                                       14
                                        Temperature
                                                                                                                                        440
                                        Discharge
                                        Elevation                                                               13
                                        Spawning Event
                                        Mean Daily Discharge                                                                            438
                     1500               Mean Daily Temperature                                                  12

                                                                                                                                        436




                                                                                                                                               Elevation (m ASL)
                                                                                                                     Temperature (°C)
Discharge (m /s)




                                                                                                                11
3




                                                                                                                                        434
                     1000                                                                                       10

                                                                                                                                        432
                                                                                                                9


                      500                                                                                       8                       430


                                                                                                                7                       428


                   0                                                                                           6                        426
              19/Aug/08 02:00            20/Aug/08 02:00         21/Aug/08 02:00   22/Aug/08 02:00   23/Aug/08 02:00

                                                                       Date


             Figure B8                Hourly and mean daily discharge and water temperature and hourly ALR water
                                      surface elevation during the 48 hours prior to and following the estimated timing
                                      of white sturgeon spawning events in the Revelstoke spawning area, 2008.
Golder Associates Ltd.
201 Columbia Avenue
Castlegar, British Columbia, V1N 1A8
Canada
T: +1 (250) 365 0344

								
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