Horace Ode 1.37 Actium (text, commentary, limited vocabulary, study questions) XXXVII Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda tellus, nunc Saliaribus ornare pulvinar deorum tempus erat dapibus, sodales. Antehac nefas depromere Caecubum 5 cellis avitis, dum Capitolio regina dementīs ruinas funus et imperio parabat contaminato cum grege turpium morbo virorum, quidlibet impotens 10 sperare fortunāque dulci ebria. Sed minuit furorem vix una sospes navis ab ignibus, mentemque lymphatam Mareotico redegit in veros timores 15 Caesar ab Italia volantem remis adurgens, accipiter velut mollīs columbas aut leporem citus venator in campis nivalis Haemoniae, daret ut catenīs 20 fatale monstrum. Quae generosius perire quaerens nec muliebriter expavit ensem nec latentīs classe citā reparavit oras; ausa et iacentem visere regiam 25 voltu sereno, fortis et asperas tractare serpentīs, ut atrum corpore conbiberet venenum, deliberatā morte ferocior, saevis Liburnis scilicet invidens 30 privata deduci superbo non humilis mulier triumpho. Alcaeus () 332 ῦ ῆ ύ ί ὲ ί nun che muthusthen kai tina per bian ώ, ἐὶ ὴ ά ύ… ponen, epei de katthane Mursilos…. Odes 1.37 Commentary Horace 1-2: bibendum and pulsanda are gerundives. Apart from the uses of the gerundive which we have reviewed, there is something called the first periphrastic conjugation or more simply called the gerundive with the verb "to-be" (sum...). When the gerundive is used with sum the verbal quality reflects 3 elements: 1) it is passive, 2) it shows necessity, and 3) if there is an agent supplied with the passive verbal, the agent goes into the dative case. Your difficulty here will be aspect number 2 = necessity. How do we in English impart "necessity" to our verbals? Do the same here. You have many options. 1-2: By definition the gerundive, when it is part of the 1st periphrastic conjugation or the gerundive with the verb "to-be", must be in the nominative case. Be careful with your endings. 1: pede libero = yes, the agent of the passive gerundive should be the dative case = point 3 above. But here you can see that Horace has chosen to use the ablative of agent. 4: tempus = nominative case. tempus erat... what part of speech do you expect to follow? 4: erat. erat has been a bone of contention ever since this poem was read for the first time. Perhaps erat has the meaning: "it has been (for a very long time).... _____________________STANZA 2__________________________________________ 5: antehac = purely adverbial and temporal. It contrast with nunc in line 1. 5: nefas = same syntax as tempus erat above. Supply erat from above. This supplied erat has its usual meaning. 5: Caecubum = supply vinum (vinum, vini = wine). Caecuban wine was expensive. Only taken out for special occasions. 6: cellis avitis = ablative of source. If you wish to supply ex, feel free to do so. 6: dum = while or at the time when 7: dementis = demens, dementis = 3rd declension. You have been taught that -es is the ending for nominative/accusative plural in the 3rd declension for masculine and feminine nouns. Not incorrect. But, the Romans felt at ease to switch between long -is and long -es for those endings. As you can see, Horace prefers the former ending. The genitive singular, of course, remains a short -is ending. 8: et = you know my passion for et's! Draw a fence between dum in line 6 and virorum in line 10. What does this et connect? 8: parabat = the imperfect is proper here. Be certain to translate it accurately. 8: imperio = dative of disadvantage = for the empire. _______________STANZA 3________________________________________________ 9: contaminato = modifies grege. Translate it in predicate position. 10: morbo = ablative of means after contaminato! Be careful. 10: quidlibet = accusative. 11: sperare = epexegitical infinitive! I imagine that means nothing to you. That is ok. Latin and Greek like to use infinitives to explain the meanings or complete the meanings of adjectives! Epexegetical infinitives are essentially complementary infinitives, but unlike the traditional complementary infinitive which completes the meaning of a previous verb, the epexegetical infinitive complements an adjective! Therefore, sperare explains impotens, i.e. translate sperare after impotens. 12: dulci = remember, i-stems adjectives make their ablative singular in -i-! 12: minuit: Translate minuit after line 13! ____________STANZA 4____________________________________________________ 13: sospes = translate in predicate position. It is explained by ab ignibus. 14: Mareotico = supply vino just as for Caecubum above. See note 5. 15: redegit = probably a good translation is "reduced" 16: volantem = modifies Cleopatram and is the direct object of adurgens. ____________STANZA 5__________________________________________________ 17: remis = probably ablative of means with volantem. Plus, it is probably a metaphor for naves. 17: mollis = modifies columbas. See note 7. 17-20: for the simile = velut... for the nominatives supply adsurget. 20: nivalis = notice that the -is in nivalis is short! See note 7. 20: daret ut...: word order = ut daret... What type of ut clause is this? ____________________STANZA 6_______________________________________ 21: fatale monstrum = accusative. 22: perire quaerens = take these words together. 22: nec = negates expavit. 23: latentis = long -is! See note 7. ______________________STANZA 7___________________________________ 25: iacentem = lying in ruin 26: vultu sereno = ablative of manner with visere. 26: fortis = fem. nom. sing. modifying an implied Cleopatra. Like impotens above this adjective governs the infinitive tractare. See note 11. 26: et = etiam as often in poetry. Here et(iam) emphasises asperas serpentis. 27: ut = what type of ut-clause here? 28: corpore = ablative of means. I suppose one does drink through the mouth rather than through the body. Perhaps we could translate "into her body". __________________STANZA 8________________________________________ 29: deliberata morte = ablative of cause; it explains why she is/was ferocior. 30: saevis = for her, of course. 30: saevis Liburnis = probably ablative case; ablative of means with deduci. 31: deduci = what form is this? It is the epexegectical accompaniment to invidens! Hint. See note 11. 32: non = only negates humilis. 32: humilis mulier = in apposition to the subject (Cleopatra) of invidens. Horace Odes 1.37 Vocabulary Stanza 1 bibo, bibere = to drink pulso, pulsare = to strike tellus, telluris, FEM., earth/ground orno, ornare = to decorate/to provide Saliaris/e = Salian (the Salii were a college of preists) Salian = priestly pulvinar, pulvinaris, Neut., table dapes, dapium = banquet (the word in Latin is usually plural) sodalis, sodalis = commrade/friend stanza 2 antehac = before = ante = adverb depromo, depromere = bring out nefas = indeclinable noun = a religious crime Caecubus, -a, -um = Caecubian = reference to a geographical area cella, ae = cellar avitus, -a, -um = ancestral demens, -tis = demented/crazy funus, -eris Neut. = death, doom, destruction Stanza 3 contaminatus, -a, -um = contaminated grex, gregis = herd turpis/e = disgraceful quislibet, quaelibet, quidlibet = anything at all impotens = mad, unable to stop, crazy dulcis/e = sweet ebrius, -a, -um = drunk(en) minuo, -ere = lessen Stanza 4 vix = adverb = hardly/barely sospes, sospitis = safe mens, mentis = mind lymphatus, -a, -um = crazed Mareoticus, -a, -um = Egyptian redigo, ere, redegi, redactus = bring back/force volo, are = fly Stanza 5 remus, -i = oar adurgeo, -ere, adurgui, = press towards, pursue closely accipiter, tri Masc. = hawk velut = like mollis/e = soft columba, -ae = dove lepus, -oris = hare citus, -a, -um = quick/swift venator, oris, = hunter nivalis/e = snowy Haemonia, -ae = Greece catena, -ae = chain Stanza 6 fatalis/e = fatal monstrum, -i, Neut. = monster generosus, -a, -um = noble muliebriter = adverb = like a woman expavesco, ere, expavi = dread/fear greatly ensis, ensis, masc. = sword reparo (principal parts = paro) = seek instead ora, -ae = shore Stanza 7 audeo, audere, ausus sum = dare iaceo, iacere, iacui, iacitus = lie viso, visere, visi, visum = look upon, gaze at regia, -ae = palace vultus, vultus (4th declension) = expression/look serenus, -a, -um = serene asper, -a, -um = rough/harsh/savage tracto, are, = handle serpens, entis, = serpent ater, atra, atrum = black combibo = bibo above = to drink (in) Stanza 8 deliberatus, -a, -um = deliberated/planned ferox/ferocis = ferocious saevus, -a, -um = cruel/savage Liburna, -ae = an Egyptian type of ship invideo, ere, invidi, invisum = envy, begrudge, deny deduco, ere, duxi, ductum = to lead away superbus, -a, -um = magnificient, proud, haughty humilis/e = humble mulier, mulieris = wife Questions on Horace's Cleopatra Ode 1. A literary motif is a picture or environment drawn with words. What motifs are found in the first stanza? What picture is Horace trying to portray here? Can you suggest why these images are found here? 2. How is Cleopatra portrayed through line 21. To answer this question look at the nominatives used to name her, look at the adjectives and verbals which describe her personality and actions. What cumulative picture results? What is significant about this picture? 3. Discuss the simile (= the velut-construction) found in stanza 5. What image is found here? Is there any comment written in between the lines? 4. How is Cleopatra portrayed in the last two stanzas? Is this the same picture that we have found above? Can you offer any suggestions why this is the case? 5. What proper names are used in this poem? Any significance? 6. What or who is missing from this poem? 7. Alliteration is the repetition of consonantal sounds. Presumably there is some underlying reason for this musical harmony. Can you detect some significan alliteration in the last two stanzas? Any reason, perhaps? 8. Horace is fond of "ring composition", that is to say he likes to begin a poem on the same note he finishes a poem. The poem, as it were, travels full circle to return to the point at which it begins. Do you find ring composition here? If so, please elaborate on any significance. I realize this last question is vague, but I want you to investigate all possible connections you can make. 9. What images are the most common in this poem? Do you see or recognize any pattern or meaning here. 10. On the surface, this is a celebratory poem over the battle of Actium. Do you believe this poem well reflects the celebration over Actium? If so, why; if not, why? 11. Who is the "star" of this poem?