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					             NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY
             TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP
MARCH 2011
Roadmap Participants and Support Staff
Chief Technology Innovation Officer                                                   Participants
Terry Oliver, Bonneville Power Administration                                            1.    Mike Bailey            Ecos
                                                                                         2.    Mark Brune             PAE Consulting Engineers
                                                                                         3.    Jack Callahan          Bonneville Power Administration
Energy Efficiency Engineering Manager                                                    4.    Dan Colbert            U.C. Santa Barbara, Institute for E.E.
Ryan Fedie, Bonneville Power Administration                                              5.    Todd Currier           WSU Extension Energy Program
                                                                                         6.    Phil Degens            Energy Trust of Oregon
Project Manager                                                                          7.    Ryan Fedie             Bonneville Power Administration
Joshua Binus, Bonneville Power Administration                                            8.    Fred Gordon            Energy Trust of Oregon
                                                                                         9.    Charlie Grist          NW Power & Conservation Council
                                                                                         10.   Jeff Harris            NW Energy Efficiency Alliance
Strategy Consultant                                                                      11.   Reid Hart              PECI
Tugrul Daim, Portland State University, Department of Engineering and                    12.   Ray Hartwell           Bonneville Power Administration
Technology Management                                                                    13.   Rem Husted             Puget Sound Energy
                                                                                         14.   Mike Hoffman           Pacific NW National Laboratory
                                                                                         15.   Dave Holmes            Avista
Technical Support                                                                        16.   Gary Keyes             PCS UtiliData
 Ji Sun Kim and Ibrahim Iskin, Portland State University, Department of                 17.   Bill Koran             Quest
  Engineering and Technology Management                                                  18.   Mark Leddbetter        Pacific NW National Laboratory
 Rob Penney, WSU Extension Energy Program                                               19.   Carol Lindstrom        Bonneville Power Administration
 Jack Zeiger, WSU Extension Energy Program                                              20.   Bill Livingood         Nat. Renewable Energy Laboratory
 Jonathan Livingston, Livingston Energy Innovations                                     21.   Jonathan Livingston    Livingston Energy Innovations
                                                                                         22.   Terry Oliver           Bonneville Power Administration
Facilitation & Logistics Support                                                         23.   Nick O’Neil            Energy Trust of Oregon
 Energetics (Jan Brinch, Ndeye Fall, and Brian Marchionini)                             24.   Laurence Orsini        PECI
 Mark Rehley, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance                                      25.   Graham Parker          Pacific NW National Laboratory
                                                                                         26.   Pete Pengilly          Idaho Power
                                                                                         27.   Rob Penney             WSU Extension Energy Program
2011 R&D Gap Analysis                                                                    28.   Tom Reddoch            Electric Power Research Institute
E Source (Peter Criscione, Katie Elliott, Mary Horsey, Bryan Jungers, Leland             29.   Mark Rehley            NW Energy Efficiency Alliance
Keller, Ira Krepchin, Andrea Patterson, Essie Snell, Jay Stein, and Tim Stout)           30.   Dave Roberts           Nat. Renewable Energy Laboratory
                                                                                         31.   Mary Smith             Snohomish PUD
Graphic Design                                                                           32.   James Thomas           Glumac
 Cover design/style sheet: Carol Lindstrom, Bonneville Power                            33.   Kim Thompson           Bonneville Power Administration
  Administration                                                                         34.   Jeremy Wilson          PCS UtiliData
 Roadmap graphics (in consultation with Ji Sun Kim): Jaeyoung Jung,                     35.   Jack Zeiger            WSU Extension Energy Program
  Freelance Designer




                                                                             [BACK TO TOP]              NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ i
Special Thanks
                  While the Bonneville Power Administration funded and managed the overall development of the Northwest Energy Efficiency
                  Technology Roadmap, the effort would not have been possible without the active engagement of thirty-five representatives
                  from twenty organizations. In particular, the members of the newly formed Regional Emerging Technology Advisory Committee
                  played a key role the roadmap’s creation. Those members include representatives from Bonneville Power Administration,
                  Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Electric Power Research Institute, Pacific
                  Northwest National Laboratory, Washington State University Extension Energy Program, Energy Trust of Oregon, Puget Sound
                  Energy, Snohomish Public Utility District, Seattle City Light, Idaho Power, and Avista. Thanks as well to the project team, who
                  worked behind the scenes to plan, coordinate, analyze, evaluate, revise, and prepare everything needed to pull this roadmap
                  together in such a short amount of time. Without the help of contractors from the Department of Engineering and Technology
                  Management at Portland State University, the Washington State University Extension Energy Program, Livingston Energy
                  Innovations, and Energetics this roadmap would look very different than it does today. Finally, a special thanks to the staff at
                  E Source, who brought their collective experience to bear in helping us evaluate the current status of the R&D gaps for the
                  March 2011 revision of the roadmap.



                  For more information about the Northwest Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap, contact:
                  Joshua Binus, jdbinus@bpa.gov, 503.230.5298




ii ■ MARCH 2011
Foreword
Technology has played a central role in the Northwest’s development, from               Far more minds are needed to contribute; hence the document is public,
the Federal Columbia River Power System to technology giants like Boeing,               freely available for use by others in process, form, and content. As always,
Microsoft and Intel to thousands of businesses, universities and                        we are distributing this draft with a request: Please evaluate these findings
laboratories. In the Northwest, irrigation is high tech.                                with a critical mind and send us your comments. We are especially
                                                                                        interested in filling in any holes in regard to existing research and
This savvy has allowed the region to meet half of its load growth through               development programs. We are not interested in duplicating efforts already
cost-effective investments in energy efficiency for more than thirty years.             underway elsewhere.
Through the leadership of the region’s utilities, labs, universities, energy
organizations and private businesses, the Northwest has been able to
successfully deliver energy efficiency as a reliable resource.

The Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Sixth Power Plan calls for               We will be collecting feedback on this draft on an ongoing basis. Any
roughly 85 percent of the region’s power needs to be met with energy                    and all comments can be sent directly to our project manager, Joshua
efficiency by 2030. In order to meet these goals, we must find ways to                  Binus (jdbinus@bpa.gov, 503.230.5298).
increase the adoption rates of existing products and services. At the same
time, we must also strategically target the region’s research and
development resources into efforts that will produce the technologies                                                                                       Sincerely,
needed to enable the products of tomorrow.

Beginning in December 2009, thirty-five experts from twenty organizations
pooled their efforts to develop an energy efficiency technology roadmap that
would define a research agenda for the Northwest. The results of the
intensive ten-week effort, along with revisions based on critical comments
received following the releases of the March and July 2010 drafts, are
contained in the following March 2011 version of the Northwest Energy                                                                                    Terry Oliver
Efficiency Technology Roadmap. The roadmap will always be a draft; it is                                                          Chief Technology Innovation Officer
intended as a living document, continuously refined as we move forward.                                                              Bonneville Power Administration




                                                                               [BACK TO TOP]              NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ iii
Table of Contents
Roadmap Participants and Support Staff .......................................... i                                        Task/Ambient Lighting Application and Control.............................................45
Foreword............................................................................................. iii                  Lighting Controls (Dimming, Occupancy Sensors) .........................................47
                                                                                                                           Luminaires .......................................................................................................49
Introduction/Using the Roadmap ......................................................v
                                                                                                                           Day Lighting......................................................................................................51
Roadmap Organizational Chart .........................................................vi
                                                                                                                           V. Electronics Roadmaps..................................................................54
Roadmap Key ...................................................................................... 1
                                                                                                                           Sleep Mode ......................................................................................................55
I. High Priority R&D Roadmap............................................................ 2                                 DC Power Source .............................................................................................57
II. Retrofit Building Design/Envelope Roadmaps ............................ 6                                              Use and Virtuallization.....................................................................................59
                                                                                                                           Component Level Efficiency ............................................................................61
Deep Retrofits for Residential and Commercial ...............................................7
                                                                                                                           Complete Electronic System ...........................................................................63
Labeling ..............................................................................................................9
                                                                                                                           Interlock Devices to Manage Energy Use .......................................................65
Retrofit and New Construction Windows ....................................................... 11
Transformative Building Materials ................................................................. 13                     VI. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Roadmaps .............68
Solar/Smart Roofing ....................................................................................... 15             Fault Detection and Predictive Maintenance.................................................69
Retrofit Insulation............................................................................................ 17         Heat Recovery and Economizer Optimization ................................................75
Insulated Shades ............................................................................................ 19           Variable Refrigerant Flow ................................................................................77
Retrofit and New Construction Air Sealing..................................................... 21                          HVAC Motors and Drives .................................................................................79
Infrared Scanning............................................................................................ 23           Modeling, Lab and Field Testing .....................................................................81
III. New Construction Building Design/Envelope Roadmaps........ 26                                                         VII. Sensors, Meters, and Energy Management
Net Zero Energy Home .................................................................................... 27               System Roadmaps.............................................................................86
Labeling ........................................................................................................... 29    Smart Device-Level Controls Responsive to User and Environment.............87
New Construction Insulation........................................................................... 31                  Easy/Simple User Interface Controls..............................................................89
Eliminating Home Penetrations...................................................................... 33                     Consumer Energy Management Services ......................................................91
Day Lighting Walls ........................................................................................... 35          Low-Cost Savings Verification Technique .......................................................93
Manufactured Housing ................................................................................... 37                Real-Time Smart Electric Power Measurement of Facilities..........................95
IV. Lighting Roadmaps...................................................................... 40                             Enterprise Energy and Maintenance Management Systems ........................97

Lighting (General) ............................................................................................ 41         Abbreviations.....................................................................................99
Solid State Lighting ......................................................................................... 44




iv ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                             1.   Barriers to the wider adoption of existing products/services; and
Introduction                                                                                 2.   Necessary components to future market intervention programs and
                                                                                                  other initiatives to increase adoption rates for these targeted
                                                                                                  products/services.
Technology roadmaps are created to develop tactical research and
development (R&D) plans to meet the strategic goals of industries and                 In order to avoid confusion, the findings articulated by participants in these
organizations ranging from electronics to government services. The                    latter efforts, including a prioritized top-15 list, are located in the appendix.
Northwest Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap is essentially a snapshot
of stakeholders’ current perspectives in regard to a shared research agenda           By creating a regional technology roadmap, the Northwest has taken an
for the next twenty years. It has been primarily developed in order to                important step toward the goal of creating continuity between its R&D
provide clarity on:                                                                   efforts to bring non-existing technologies to market, ongoing work in
                                                                                      emerging technologies, and present and future market intervention
    1.   Key drivers (environmental/global, market, policy and regulatory,            strategies.
         and technology innovation) affecting the Northwest in regard to
         energy efficiency:
    2.
    3.
         Products/services needed to address identified drivers;
         Technologies needing developed in order to bring non-existing
                                                                                      Using the Roadmap
         products to market;
                                                                                      The Northwest Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap is a reference tool
    4.   Gaps in existing R&D programs designed to address identified
                                                                                      designed to be a living, working document. It was not crafted with any
         technology needs; and
                                                                                      expectation that it would be read from beginning to end like a traditional
    5.   Regional priorities in regard to the treatment of R&D gaps.
                                                                                      report or narrative. Rather, it was designed in order to allow for the quick
Ultimately, the goal of identifying and prioritizing R&D gaps allows for a more       referencing of research agendas concerning technology development in
rational dedication of limited funding and resources by organizations such            regard to specific energy efficiency products/services.
as the BPA, national labs, research universities, private businesses, and
venture capitalists.                                                                  The majority of content has been organized into six sections, with multiple
                                                                                      product/service-level roadmaps within each section. The six sections are:
BPA’s Office of Technology Innovation has already made quick use of the                      1.   Retrofit Building Design/Envelope;
roadmap by using it to guide its annual solicitation for proposals for energy                2.   New Construction Building Design/Envelope;
efficiency R&D projects. (This annual solicitation typically reopens every                   3.   Lighting;
year in March. Proposals not linked to technology needs identified in the                    4.   Electronics;
roadmap are not eligible for awards.) Of course, because the roadmap is a                    5.   Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning; and
shared public resource, any organization can use it to guide their own                       6.   Sensors, Meters, and Energy Management Systems.
research efforts with some confidence that their work fits into a larger
research agenda crafted and vetted by technical experts from across the               Additionally, one cross-cutting roadmap was crafted to convey the top-15
country.                                                                              regional priorities in regard to the treatment of R&D gaps identified in all of
                                                                                      the six sections noted above. (See the organizational chart below.) All other
In the process of identifying gaps in existing energy efficiency R&D                  supporting documents are in the Appendices.
programs, roadmapping participants also identified a list of
products/services that were already available in the marketplace but not
widely adopted due to various technical and/or market barriers. While
treating this group of products/services was not the primary purpose of the
roadmapping endeavor, some effort was dedicated to articulate:




                                                                             [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ v
                                                                                                      NORTHWEST ENERGY
                                                                                                    EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                                           ROADMAP



                                                                                                     Top 15 R&D Gaps to
                                                                                                          Address *



    Retrofit Building                        New Construction                           Lighting                                 Electronics                   Heating, Ventilation, and Air           Sensors, Meters, and Energy
    Design/Envelope                     Building Design/Envelope                                                                                                      Conditioning                       Management Systems




                  Deep Retrofits for Residential            Net Zero Energy Home                       Lighting (General)                          Sleep Mode                          Fault Detection and               Smart Device-Level Controls
                        and Commercial                              8, 15                                                                                                            Predictive Maintenance               Responsive to User and
                                 5                                                                                                                                                                                              Environment


                             Labeling                              Labeling                            Solid State Lighting                      DC Power Source                      Heat Recovery and                   Easy/Simple User Interface
                                                                                                                                                                                    Economizer Optimization                       Controls
                                                                                                                                                                                                2                                    12

                      Retrofit and New                    New Construction Insulation              Task/Ambient Application                    Use and Virtualization               Variable Refrigerant Flow                Consumer Energy
                    Construction Windows                                                                 and Control                                                                           1, 11                        Management Services
                              9, 13                                                                             7

                    Transformative Building                    Eliminating Home                    Lighting Controls (Dimming,                   Component-level                     HVAC Motors and Drives                   Low-Cost Savings
                           Materials                              Penetrations                         Occupancy Sensors)                           Efficiency                                                              Verification Technique



                        Solar/Smart Roofing                   Day Lighting Walls                           Luminaires                      Complete Electronic System                Modeling, Lab and Field               Real-Time Smart Electric
                                                                     10                                                                                                                     Testing                        Power Measurement of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Facilities


                         Retrofit Insulation                Manufactured Housing                          Day Lighting                     Interlock Devices to Manage                                                     Enterprise Energy and
                                14                                    4                                                                             Energy Use                                                            Maintenance Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Systems


                         Insulated Shades
                                                                                   * In order to maximize the region’s investments in R&D programs, roadmap participants scored and prioritized
                                                                                   only the identified R&D programs yet to be developed (as opposed to existing programs already underway).
                                                                                   These priorities will be reevaluated, along with the drivers, products/services, technologies, and R&D programs
                       Retrofit and New                                            through formal workshops every year or two. (BPA is currently working with the Regional Emerging Technology
                    Construction Air Sealing                                       Advisory Committee to establish a workable strategy in this regard.)
                               3, 6
                                                                                   Numbers corresponding to the Top 15 Priority R&D program gaps are shown according to their respective
                         Infrared Scanning                                         product-level roadmaps.



vi ■ MARCH 2011
Roadmap Key
 Product/Service Area :                                Product or Service Area                                                  Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                Technology Roadmap

                                                  Specific Product or Service Roadmap

                                        GAP
Product/Service
 Performance                            Product or service performance gap
                                        needing addressed
    GAP

                                        GOAL

Product/Service                         Targeted Performance for the product or service identified above
 Performance                            ST=Short Term (0-5 yrs; MT=Mid-Term (6-10 yrs); LT=Long Term (11+ yrs)

    GOAL




                            EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES                            TECHNOLOGY GAPS
 Technology                 Technologies fulfilling the gaps above           Technologies needed to fulfill the gaps above




                             EXISTING R&D PROGRAMS                            R&D PROGRAM GAPS

                             R&D Programs in progress                         R&D Programs required to develop the technologies needed      #
    R&D
  Program




                                                                                                                             Priority Score of R&D Gap
         Technology Gap (R&D need)           R&D Gap (No known R&D)               Current R&D (R&D underway)          #      (Max=100)


                                                                     [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 1
High Priority R&D Roadmap




2 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                     High Priority R&D Programs
Product & Service                                                                                                                                                         NEW CONSTRUCTION BUILDING                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SENSORS,
                                     RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LIGHTING                                                                                 HVAC
      Area                                                                                                                                                                     DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    METERS, & EMS

                    Environmental & Global Drivers: 1. Climate change; 2. Peak oil; 3. Energy security; 4. Water scarcity and cost, related health concerns; 5. Increasing cost and decreasing availability of raw materials; 6. Environmental impact of centralized power
                    generation; 7. Fuel switching from combustion to electric
                    Market Drivers: 1. Increasing and uncertain future cost of electricity and gas; 2. Proliferation of consumer electronics (increased plug loads); 3. More and cheaper products due to globalization of manufacturing; 4. Increase in available funding for EE; 5.
                    Increased adoption of LEED; 6. Changes in types of industries in the Northwest; 7. Market awareness (e.g., BPA E3T, utility demos and outreach); 8. Increased interest in and availability of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles; 9. Energy efficiency promoted
                    through mainstream media
                    Behavior / Social Drivers: 1. Employer pressure to increase productivity; 2. Consumer desire to be “green” and reduce embedded & used energy; 3. Consumer desire for comfort and aesthetics; 4. Changing demographics impacting purchasing choices
    Driver          and behavior; 5. Personal energy independence/interest in living off the grid; 6. Increased awareness of impact of behavior on energy usage; 7. Aging workforce, lack of trained workforce; 8. Pushback against over-regulation; 9. People like cool, new
                    technologies; 10. People more "plugged in" electronically, digital information, social networking
                    Policy & Regulatory Drivers: 1. Carbon emissions penalties and/or incentives; 2. Use of codes to lock in efficiency gains; 3. Increasing budgets for emerging technology R&D; 4. American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; 5. Integrated resource
                    planning; 6. Increased interest among legislators in efficiency and renewables; 7. Limits to existing transmission and generation capacity; 8. Smart grid technology development
                    Technology Innovation Drivers: 1. Diffusion of common communication protocols into energy-consuming devices; 2. Integration of info, communication & entertainment devices; 3. Availability of new technologies such as solid state lighting;
                    4. Availability of cross-cutting, low-cost technology building blocks (i.e. wireless, ultra compact heat exchangers, advanced controls, ASDs)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Design                                                                                                                                              Not tie d to buildin g needs/l oads
                                          rai
                                         T ning / meth ods             Awareness – iden tificati on o f need           rai
                                                                                                                      T ning i mprov ements i n                                                                       Measurable
                                                                                                                                                                        Education a nd trai ning                                         cost/com plexit y
                                         and tech nolo gies            at a low cos t, easier to ins tall             identif yi ng me tho ds of e ffectiv e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Don’t c urrentl y o ptimize use of am bient or
                                                                                                                      air sealing are too co mplex a nd                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Current hi gh-e nerg y use f or distrib utio n of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       indoor co nditi ons, e.g., ec ono mizer,
                                                                                                                      poorl y un dersto od b y man y                     Effectiv e          New                                                                                                                                                                                             heat and c oolin g be yon d actual v ent nee d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       indoor v entilatio n con trols, hea t recov ery
 Product/Service                                                                                                      practitioners                                      design              technol og y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Follo w codes/co de
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Weak understan ding of h ow t o weav e task
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              /ambient func tions toge ther; Need con trol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Does no t consider demo graphic
                                        Lower cos t & be tter tech nolo g y                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Informa tion on energ y perfor mance,                  operabilit y
  Performance                                                                                                                                                            Architect an d engi neers,
                                                                                                                                                                         installers, code/ma nufac turin g
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       improv ement                                           strategies tha t are easy to desi gn & i nstall, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              that make i t eas y for users to sav e energy while
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Need reliable and c ost-ef fectiv e sensors,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        controls, an d algori thms                            optimizati on, an d mini -split s ys tem
                                        Concep ts for nex t generati on “same                            Buildin g air sealing is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             control best practices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Panels that can easil y                                ensuring v isual comf ort                                                                                                                                              Make user experience as
                                        R-v alue as a wall” or ZNE win do ws                             too o ften poorl y d one
     GAP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       installed – spra y o n                                                                                                                                                                                                        importa nt t o E MS man ufacturers
                                                                                                         by c ontract ors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            as it is to In tuit an d Son y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VRF energ y sav ings pote ntial, co ntrol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Eliminatio n of duct work                                                                                                                optimizati on n ot well un derstoo d
                        Awareness / traini ng /
                        technol og y



                                                                                  Easier to use, aff ordable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Need the eq uiv alent of ASH RAE Manual c hapter o n
                                                                                  insulatio n materials                                                             New applia nce energ y                                                                                                                                                                    VRF design, c ontr ol, and ener g y sav ings                                           Surv ey consumer needs
                                                                                                                                                                    standards an d sup porti ng                  Cheap, streamli ned co nstruc tion a nd                                                                                                      optimizati on
                                                                                                                                                                    technol ogies and i nstallati on             installatio n of e nerg y efficie nt                         Easy-t o-desi gn, ins tall, imple men t task /
 Product/Service    Cheap, streamli ned tes ting a nd
                    retrofitti ng o f existin g
                                                                                                                                                                    techniq ues to eli minate                    manufac tured housi ng – reflecti ng                         ambient s ys tems t hat sav e significan t energ y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Clarify v ariable refrigerant flo w s ystem e nerg y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Control mana gemen t s ystem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     should be imple mente d where
                                                                     Better insula ted                                                                              v ampire loads in the h ome                  best practices in other manu facturin g                      and impr ov e v isual comfort relativ e to
  Performance       buildin gs to ac hiev e optimu m
                    sav ings at minimu m t otal cos t
                                                                     wind ows                             Data bet ter/met hods                                                                                  industries                                                   alternativ es
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              benefits, trade-o ffs, an d op timal co ntrol s trategies                              appropriate, re flect user/occ upan t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     known preferences

                                                                                                                         Streamlined, si mpler
    GOAL                                  A wind ow that ca n
                                          effectiv ely cut e nerg y use i n
                                                                                                                         metho dolo g y for air sealin g                                   Mini mize po wer conv ersion losses
                                                                                                                                                                                           among l oads an d zones; assess                     Better desig n sup port                                                                     Controls to meet in door air needs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Deliv ery of onl y what the space of occ upan t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                needs (L T)
                                          both heatin g and c ooling                                                                                                                       buildin g stock for DC power                        tools                                                                                       – no excess v ented air beyond
                                          climates                                                                                                                                         oppor tuni ties                                                                                                                                 occupan t needs                                      Maxim um e fficient distrib utio n of HVAC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (don’ t use d ucts if yo u do n’t nee d the m)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Make cost -effec tiv e and reliable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            heat recov ery av ailable in R TUs                   Clarify v ariable refrigerant flo w s ystem
                                                               Window frames be tter                                                                              Smarter electrical plugs,                                                                                                                                                 and ot her HVAC s yste ms
                                                                                                          Hav e specialists                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      energy benefi ts, trade -of fs, and o pti mal
                      A “taxono m y” of b uilding              insulated than fiberglass                                                                          program mable, ad dressable (in                                             Easier, cheaper dayli ght
                                                                                                          perform air sealin g                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   control stra tegies f or mini -split A C and
                      types tha t elimina tes                                                                                                                     dev elopment)                                                               modelin g to ols tha t giv e                                                                                                                       heat pu mps
                      guesswork and red uces                                                                                                                                                                                                  energy benefi ts
                      retrofit tes t and
                      recommen datio n op tions                                     New ma terials,                                                                                                 Low po wer, DC wire d
                                                                                    cheaper and easier to                                                                                           homes                                                                            Task / a mbien t lumi naires designs to                                       Need to d ownscale what’s av ailable
                                                                                    install                                                                                                                                                                                          prov ide both lig htin g fu nctio ns                                          on big c hiller for smaller units an d

 Technology                                                                         Dev ice or method t o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mo dular, pre-i nsulate d wall,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     synergis ticall y                                                             integrate with main tenance s yste ms

                                                                                    better insula te walls                                                                                                                                                                           Task /a mbien t con trols to e nsure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   floor, and ceili ng u nits                                                                                                                       Variable refrigerant fl ow s yste ms
                                           Next-ge n coatin gs for                                                                                                                                                                                                                   energy sav ings relativ e to sim ply                                           and con trols
                                           triple-glazed I Gs wi th                                                                                                                                                                                                                  adding task ligh ting
                                           superior SHGC and U -                                                                                                                                                   Auto mated/r obo tic assembl y
                                                                                                                         An aff ordable, “idio t-pr oof”
                                           factor ratin gs (R5+ )
                                                                                                                         metho dolo g y for air sealin g                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Variable refrigerant fl ow s yste ms and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Reliable & effec tiv e economizers                        controls f or mi ni-split AC an d heat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             controls & s ys tems                                      pump a pplicati ons

                                                              What is there beyond                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Heat recov ery opti mizatio n                            Variable speed ev erythin g wi th lo w
                                                              fiberglass that has                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            controls an d algori thms                                cost, hig h reliabilit y
                                                              excellent insulation                                                                             Develop cheap and reliable smart
                    Categorize building stock                 characteristics and is
                                                                                                     Research to move air                                      plugs; create protocols for
                    for better, easier testing                lightweight and durable
                                                                                                     sealing to prescriptive                                   appliance compatibility with smart                   Innovative shop floor
                    @ DOE, EPA, Energy Star                   in window
                                                                                                     and into hands of                                         plugs; study human factors for                       technologies similar to
                    and E Source              5               applications?
                                                                                                     quality control and out                                   design, installation, and use of                     auto indu stry @ Toyota                                          Human factor (usability and
                                                              Aerogels?            13                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Heat recovery optimization
                                                                                                     of contractors                                            smart plugs                                          and Panasonic
     R&D                                                                                                                            3
                                                                                                                                                                                                 8                                          4                                        comfort) @ PG&E           7                     routines such that economizer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     performance is not impacted   2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Better mini-split controls for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           variable refrigerant flow
   Program                         Next-generation coatings for triple
                                   glazed IGs with low SHGC and U-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (VRF) applications           1
                                   factor ratings @ LBNL              9                                              Application technology that
                                                                                                                     is easy and inexpensive     6                                     Low power, DC-wired homes to
                                                                                                                                                                                       reduce conversion losses     15                       Cheaper and simpler self-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             calibrating dimming                                                                                            Variable refrigerant flow (VRF), more
                                                                              “Smart” material that fills all                                                                                                                                controls @ Watt Stopper/                                                                                       information about energy use, improving                                               Study of what energy
                                                                              cavities, is mistake-free, and                                                                                                                                 NEMA Lighting Controls                                                                                         controls @ BPA, EPRI, SCE et al.                                                      management devices people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11                                              actually use
                                                                              inexpensive                     14                                                                                                                                                             10                                                                                                                                                                                                           12



                                                        Product and Service Performance Gap                                                                                     Current Technology                                                                                        Technology Gap (R&D need)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       #        Priority Ranking (1 to 15)
                                                        Product and Service Performance Goal                                                                                    Current R&D (R&D under way)                                                                               R&D Gap ( No known R&D)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       [BACK TO TOP]                                           NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 3
High Priority R&D Programs
1. Better mini-split controls for variable refrigerant flow (VRF) applications: VRF and mini-splits, particularly with improved controls, can more efficiently
respond to space conditioning needs than conventional HVAC systems with air ducts. To successfully realize the opportunity associated with broad interest and
increasing application of variable refrigerant flow systems, more R&D is needed to optimize controls for mini-split system energy savings.

2. Heat recovery optimization routines such that economizer performance is not impacted: Make better use of exhaust air heat recovery and economizers.
Develop algorithms that would most efficiently optimize the use of both systems.

3. Research to move air sealing to prescriptive and into hands of quality control and out of contractors: Building air sealing is too often poorly done by
contractors. By having highly trained specialists perform air sealing, average infiltration rates will drop.

4. Innovative shop floor technologies similar to auto industry: Manufactured housing is generally overlooked. It can generate big energy and financial benefits
with some optimization and lessons from other industries. Apparently, most of the work being done, to date, has been happening in Japan under the leadership
of Toyota and Panasonic (http://www.joplinglobe.com/dailybusiness/x1383437018/Toyota-Panasonic-sally-into-nascent-green-housing-sector). NOTE: Prior to
the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

5. Categorize building stock for better, easier testing: If a wide range of building stock is sorted into categories, energy assessments can be performed more
expeditiously. DOE and EPA have collaborated on a national Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey that collects information on the stock of U.S.
commercial buildings, their energy-related building characteristics, and their energy consumption and expenditures (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/). The
EPA has designed an Energy Star portfolio manager tool to help facility managers track and benchmark energy and water consumption across an entire portfolio
of buildings (http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_portfoliomanager). DOE’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey
characterizes U.S. homes through such data as structural features, fuels used, heating and cooling equipment, appliances, and energy usage patterns
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/). E Source’s EnFocus system integrates geographic information system (GIS) data with utility billing records and could be
used to categorize building stock and identify individual buildings (contact Michael Shepard at 303.345.9129). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the
roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

6. Application technology that is easy and inexpensive: If a common methodology for air sealing common building envelope types could be developed, a wider
range of builders could implement it more effectively and consistently.

7. Human factor (usability and comfort): The elements for broad application are present - need human factors R&D on design and control approaches to realize
the potential. This work could potentially be informed by researchers such as Joan Roberts, of Fordham, and Jennifer Veitch at the National Research Council of
Canada, who are both working on designing healthy workplaces. PG&E also completed a study of how occupants respond to task-ambient lighting systems in
2009 (http://www.etcc-ca.com/component/content/article/21/2892-high-efficiency-office-low-ambienttask-lighting-large-office-). There is still much to be
explored in this R&D space. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

8. Develop cheap and reliable smart plugs. Create protocols for appliance compatibility with smart plugs; study human factors for design, installation, and
use of smart plugs: Make smart outlets a standard feature in new construction requires innovation in technology and building industry practices. Research is
needed primarily to develop the ability of plugs to turn off equipment when not in use; secondarily, to enable participation in demand response events. The
University of Florida at Gainesville has conducted some limited research on smart plugs and smart environments that addresses the design of the plugs, their
capabilities, and their installation. In this research, the ability of the home operating system is explored, but their integration with the smart grid for demand
response is not addressed.



4 ■ MARCH 2011
9. Develop next-generation coatings for triple-glazed windows with low SHGC and R-value over 5: Develop a glazing product with high R-value and low SHGC
that performs well in all seasons and climates. LBNL (High Performance Building Façade Solutions) is engaged in ongoing research into new coatings and highly
insulated window technologies for both commercial and residential applications. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was
identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

10. Cheaper and simpler self-calibrating dimming controls: Making daylighting cost-effective continues to be a challenge. Cheaper, easier to use, and self-
calibrating controls can help to make daylighting more attractive. Dorene Maniccia of Watt Stopper (and chair of the NEMA Lighting Controls) is researching dual-
loop daylight control systems that self commission and offer continual calibration. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was
identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

11. Variable refrigerant flow (VRF), more information about energy use, improving controls: Develop reliable engineering and technical information on how to
optimize VRF energy savings while assuring comfort and reliability. BPA, EPRI, Southern California Edison, and others met in February 2011 to develop a short-
term (2 – 3 year) roadmap for variable capacity heat pumps. This roadmap will be integrated into the Northwest Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap as early
as the end of March 2011. Other projects being carried out by BPA and EPRI are conducting VRF assessments and demos and analyzing the market position of
VRF systems in the U.S. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

12. Study of what energy management devices people actually use: Creating standard, easy-to-use EMS interfaces can move them from fairly clunky software
that is only occasionally accessed to being regularly used by maintenance personnel along with other duties. Human factors and usability studies will allow for
optimization of device design, interface design, and communication protocols for the end user.

13. What is there beyond fiberglass that has excellent insulation characteristics and is lightweight and durable in window applications?: Other materials
may be available to allow a more effectively insulated frame. E Source has identified aerogels as being among the lightest materials made, with great potential
for a variety of building applications, ranging from insulating building studs (to reduce thermal bridging) to use in skylights and other daylighting applications.

14. “Smart” material that fills all cavities, is mistake-free, and inexpensive: Overall, the cost of sprayed insulation is still around twice that of installing
fiberglass batting (http://www.toolbase.org/pdf/techinv/insulationalternatives_techspec.pdf).

15. Low power, DC-wired homes to reduce conversion losses: Design homes with both AC and DC outlets so that DC-ready electronic appliances can use the
DC directly, eliminating conversion losses.




                                                                             [BACK TO TOP]                  NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 5
Retrofit Building Design/Envelope Roadmaps




6 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                          RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                     Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                       Technology Roadmap

                                      Deep Retrofits for Residential & Commercial Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                 Easier methods to determine needs, financing, product
                   Awareness / training / technology                                             development, codes and enforcement certification and branding
Product/Service
 Performance
                                                             Lack of waste heat recovery in
    GAP                                                                                                                   Non-utility weatherization funding
                                                             commercial buildings


                    Cheap, streamlined testing and
                                                                                                                        50% less energy consumption (LT)
                    retrofitting of existing buildings to
Product/Service     achieve optimum savings at minimum
 Performance        total cost                               Better capture and utilization of waste                       10% of market 30% savings (MT)
   GOAL                                                      heat from commercial buildings

                                                                                                                            5% of market 30% savings (ST)

                                                                                              Self-programmable        Technology exists, need to apply it at an
                                                                                              Smart Thermostats        acceptable cost for homeowners
                       A “taxonomy” of building types
                       that eliminates guesswork and
                       reduces retrofit test and                                                              Existing building commissioning tools;
                                                              Mixed use: use heat from commercial             Building screening tools;
Technology             recommendation options                 for residential, integrate markets              Energy savings and estimates (CA Pier Project)


                                                                                       District heat        Controls, demand            Building control
                                                                                       planning, sharing    response on                 schedule/strategy



                                                             Research commercial heat recovery
                                                             options for providing space and domestic
                                                             water heating for adjacent residential
                                                             buildings
                                                                                                       69
    R&D
  Program            Categorize building stock for better,
                     easier testing @ DOE, EPA, Energy
                     Star, and E Source                 95




                  Performance Gap               Current Technology                            Technology Gap (R&D need)             Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                               #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal              Current R&D (R&D underway)                    R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 7
R&D Project Summaries
   Categorize building stock for better, easier testing: If a wide range of building stock is sorted into categories, energy assessments can be performed more
    expeditiously. DOE and EPA have collaborated on a national Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey that collects information on the stock of U.S.
    commercial buildings, their energy-related building characteristics, and their energy consumption and expenditures (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/).
    The EPA has designed an Energy Star portfolio manager tool to help facility managers track and benchmark energy and water consumption across an entire
    portfolio of buildings (http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_portfoliomanager). DOE’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey
    characterizes U.S. homes through such data as structural features, fuels used, heating and cooling equipment, appliances, and energy usage patterns
    (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/). E Source’s EnFocus system integrates geographic information system (GIS) data with utility billing records and could
    be used to categorize building stock and identify individual buildings (contact Michael Shepard at 303.345.9129). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of
    the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Research commercial heat recovery options for providing space and domestic water heating for adjacent residential buildings: With co-located
    commercial and residential buildings, commercial waste heat recovery can be more cost effective by utilizing it for adjacent residential use.




8 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                        RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                   Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                   Technology Roadmap

                                                          Labeling Technology Roadmap


Product/Service
                            Determine what it is                                                              Strong branding
 Performance

    GAP                                                        Get stakeholders to adopt
                                                                                                              Develop national/regional stakeholder




Product/Service             Consensus on labels (ST)                                                          Mandatory (LT)
 Performance

   GOAL                                                        20% of homes meet
                                                               standard (MT)



                            Labeling                                                                          Data aggregation systems




Technology                             Energy benchmarking tools              Applications that make testing easier to do




    R&D
  Program
                                                          Test – new tools for modeling that are
                                                          attempting new approaches to
                                                          computer applications @ LBNL, DOE




                  Performance Gap             Current Technology                       Technology Gap (R&D need)                Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                            #   (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal            Current R&D (R&D underway)               R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                       [BACK TO TOP]                  NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 9
R&D Project Summaries
   Test – new tools for modeling that are attempting new approaches to computer applications @ LBNL, DOE: In order to achieve wide-spread adoption of a
    consistent energy labeling program, better modeling tools are needed. DOE maintains a Building Energy Software Tools Directory that provides a
    comprehensive list of currently available software tools (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/).




10 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                           Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                                 RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                                                  Technology Roadmap

                                              Retrofit and New Construction Windows Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                                                        Code national/regional (day lighting)       Design – education
                        Lower cost & better            Concepts for next generation “same R-value as a wall”                            specs                                       training
Product/Service         technology                     or ZNE windows
 Performance
                                                                                                                                        Shift industry focus from residential to commercial performance
    GAP                                                Address seamless PV integration into fenestration                                standards


                                                                                                                                                                                Better labeling
                                                     Electrochromic issues such as cost, life, performance

                                                                                                                                                                             Increase window codes
                                                                                                                                                                             residential and commercial (ST)
Product/Service
 Performance
                                                                    Switchable window/PV 5% of replacement market (ST)                                                          Residential envelope
    GOAL            A window that can effectively cut                                                                                        Better insulated windows           performance standards (MT)
                    energy use in both heating and cooling
                    climates                                        Net energy producing 50% market Skylights become
                                                                    alternative for lighting (LT)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Fiberglass frames


                    Next-gen coatings for triple-glazed IGs                                                                                                                         SH6 with low-E windows
                                                                                     Self-powered electrochromic-PV
                    with superior SHGC and U-factor ratings                          windows
                    (R5+)
                                                                                                                                                                                    Methods to facilitate
Technology                                                                                                                                  Heavily insulated                       orientation specific
                                                             Integral low-E and PV                                                          electrochromic windows                  glazing
                                                             windows
                                                                                                                      Glazing, vacuum filled 1-
                                                                                                                      pane, low-E windows                          Window frames better
                                                                                                                                                                   insulated than fiberglass


                                                                               Add a small PV panel to
                   Develop next-generation                                                                                              Heavily insulated
                                                                               electrochromic windows that will
                   coatings for triple glazed                                                                                           electrochromic windows
                                                                               increase tinting proportionally
                   windows with low SHGC and R-                                                                                                                         79
                                                                               or insulate during the cooling
                   value over 5 @ LBNL
                                                        91                     season @ NREL                   80
    R&D                                                                                                                                                What is there beyond fiberglass that
  Program                                                                                                                                              is highly insulated & lightweight?
                                                                                                                                                       Aerogels?                          84
                                                    Integral low-E and PV windows
                                                    @ Brookhaven and Los Alamos                                       Glazing, vacuum filled
                                                    Natl. Labs                                                        1-pane, low-E
                                                                                              80
                                                                                                                      windows              75

                  Performance Gap                      Current Technology                                        Technology Gap (R&D need)                             Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                               #       (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                     Current R&D (R&D underway)                                R&D Gap (No known R&D)



                                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                        NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 11
R&D Project Summaries
   Develop next-generation coatings for triple-glazed windows with low SHGC and R-value over 5: Develop a glazing product with high R-value and low SHGC
    that performs well in all seasons and climates. LBNL (High Performance Building Façade Solutions) is engaged in ongoing research into new coatings and
    highly insulated window technologies for both commercial and residential applications. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box
    was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   What is there beyond fiberglass that is highly insulated and lightweight?: Other materials may be available to allow a more effectively insulated frame. E
    Source has identified aerogels as being among the lightest materials made, with great potential for a variety of building applications, ranging from insulating
    building studs (to reduce thermal bridging) to use in skylights and other daylighting applications.

   Integral low-E and PV windows: By applying a thin, clear PV film on windows, power can be generated to help buildings achieve Net Zero Energy status.
    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory are collaborating on the development of a new type of transparent thin-film PV material
    referred to as large area polymer honeycomb thin films (http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-11-transparent-material-power-generating-windows.html).
    NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Add a small PV panel to electrochromic windows that will increase tinting proportionally or insulate during the cooling season: An electrochromic
    window powered by a small PV panel can vary tint with solar heat during the cooling system without low-voltage power distribution. NREL is developing a
    prototype window with an integrated PV panel used to control and power the windows (http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/electrochromic_activities.html). NOTE:
    Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Glazing, vacuum-filled 1-pane, low-E windows: Combining the insulating property of vacuum between panes and low-E coatings results in a higher R-value
    glazing. According to E Source, Guardian Industries is developing a vacuum-filled window product; however, there is currently no data available.

   Heavily insulated electrochromic windows: Adding electrochromic tinting to a high R-value glazing allows a window to block heat transfer and selectively
    block solar radiation.




12 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                        Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                        RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                        Technology Roadmap

                                             Transformative Building Materials Technology Roadmap

                                                                                  Make it easy for inexperienced               Reduce carbon footprint of typical
Product/Service                 Prefab components for low-cost ZNE                workers to build right                       materials
 Performance                    construction

    GAP


                                     Affordable, widely available
                                     construction materials with
Product/Service
                                     outstanding insulating and/or
 Performance
                                     energy storage characteristics
   GOAL



                                                                                             Modular, pre-insulated wall,        Self heating insulation
                                                                                             floor, and ceiling units

                      Insulating sheetrock              Insulated building exterior                      Products that may or may not have EE components but
                      alternative                       material                                         improve building designs and improve techniques that
Technology                                                                                               can save energy


                                                                                         PCM wall board, etc.,              Transitive building envelope designs,
                                                                                         phase change material              load shape



                   Develop cost-competitive insulated
                   sheetrock alternatives          71

    R&D
  Program                                         Develop insulated building exterior
                                                  material @ NAHB Research Center       81




                  Performance Gap              Current Technology                        Technology Gap (R&D need)                   Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal             Current R&D (R&D underway)                R&D Gap (No known R&D)



                                                                           [BACK TO TOP]                     NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 13
R&D Project Summaries
   Develop insulated building exterior material: A cost-effective insulating material that can be applied to building exteriors would help achieve Net Zero
    Energy retrofits in buildings for which interior insulation is impractical. The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center currently has two
    R&D programs underway. One is focused on the development of an exterior insulation finishing system that can provide added insulation and can provide
    architectural benefits to buildings. The other is focused on developing insulated vinyl siding products. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap,
    this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Develop cost-competitive insulated sheetrock alternatives: A cost-effective, insulated alternative to sheetrock would help achieve Net Zero Energy retrofits
    in buildings where wall cavities are shallow. E Source has identified “phase change materials” as a possibility for exploration. These materials are designed
    to absorb and release energy into the surrounding environment, thereby saving energy and shifting HVAC loads to off-peak times.




14 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                          RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                        Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                          Technology Roadmap

                                                       Solar / Smart Roofing Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                                                   Distribution / adoption
                                                           Need to match up home locations with Google Maps,
Product/Service
 Performance          Technology / price / standards       GPS, or equivalent, plus site-specific data collection by
                                                           non-technical auditors, possibly the homeowner                          Local restrictions
    GAP
                                                                                                                                   Data / easy to install

                     Products readily available in
Product/Service                                                   Intelligent buildings with PV (MT)                   Buildings codes that required solar (LT)
                     marketplace at a low cost (ST)
 Performance

   GOAL



                   Cool / PV / solar water heating                                                                     Modular PV installation systems, including
                   roofing                                                                                             electronics



                                                     Solar shingles                                                    Water collection systems
Technology

                                                                        Solar survey mobile
                                                                        application for residential
                                                                        (exists for commercial)

                   Cool / PV / solar water heating
                   roofing @ NREL, Florida Solar
                   Energy Center, and Oak Ridge
                   National Laboratory
                                                74

    R&D                                       Efficient, cost-competitive solar
  Program                                     shingles                       72

                                                                      Solar survey mobile application
                                                                      for residential @ NREL        60


                  Performance Gap               Current Technology                           Technology Gap (R&D need)                 Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                  #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal              Current R&D (R&D underway)                   R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                           [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 15
R&D Project Summaries
   Cool/PV/solar water heating roofing: Develop affordable roofing systems with integrated solar PV and solar collectors for domestic hot water (DHW) while
    shading the building. According to E Source, NREL, Florida Solar Energy Center, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on building-integrated solar
    systems involving both PV and solar thermal. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored
    accordingly.

   Efficient, cost-competitive solar shingles: Building-integrated PV helps make solar power more affordable and easier to incorporate into a building.
    Although there are currently solar shingle products in the market, they tend to have relatively low efficiencies and higher costs when compared with standard
    small PV systems.

   Solar survey mobile application for residential: A simple, inexpensive, accurate approach to surveying residential buildings' solar potential will assist in
    owners' decision-making and reduce overhead costs for installers. NREL’s In My Backyard (IMBY) system estimates PV electricity production based on such
    factors as location and system size. The IMBY system uses a Google Maps interface to allow users to easily choose a system location with pinpoint accuracy
    (http://www.nrel.gov/eis/imby/). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.




16 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                          RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                          Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                            Technology Roadmap

                                                          Retrofit Insulation Technology Roadmap


                                                                                      Awareness – identification of need at
Product/Service            Training / methods and technologies
 Performance
                                                                                      a low cost, easier to install

    GAP


                   Develop cost-effective methods
                   to quickly increase market
Product/Service    penetration of insulation
 Performance       augmentation                                                              Easier to use, affordable
                                                                                             insulation materials
   GOAL
                                        Comprehensive, affordable building survey for
                                        missing or ineffective insulation

                                                                                                                                         Neighborhood scale
                                                                                         New materials, cheaper and easier to            approaches
                   Community aerial infrared scan +                                      install
                   GPS data systems
                                                                                                                                       Insulation optimization via IR
Technology                                                                                    Device or method to better               scanning & analysis software
                                                                                              insulate walls
                                                Device that scans infrared and
                                                calculates heat load




                   Utilize aerial infrared scanning
                   with GPS and GIS to quickly
                   prioritize attic and roof insulation                          “Smart” material that fills all cavities and is
                   opportunities in a community 73                               mistake-free and inexpensive                          87
    R&D
  Program
                                            Device that scans infrared and
                                            calculates heat load                 79



                  Performance Gap                Current Technology                        Technology Gap (R&D need)                    Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                   #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal               Current R&D (R&D underway)                R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                         [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 17
R&D Project Summaries
   “Smart” material that fills all cavities and is mistake-free and inexpensive: The NAHB Research Center provides info on both sprayed fiber and foam
    insulation, including cost data, factors to consider, and even a couple case studies. Overall, the cost of sprayed insulation is still around twice that of
    installing fiberglass batting (http://www.toolbase.org/pdf/techinv/insulationalternatives_techspec.pdf).

   Device that scans infrared and calculates heat load: With a bit more data input and programming capability, an infrared camera could translate surface
    temperature into heat load.

   Utilize aerial infrared scanning with GPS and GIS to quickly prioritize attic and roof insulation opportunities in a community: Implementation costs of
    weatherization programs may be reduced and impacts greatly improved by utilizing aerial infrared scanning to quickly prioritize opportunities within a
    community.




18 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                       RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                           Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                          Technology Roadmap

                                                    Insulated Shades Technology Roadmap


Product/Service    Better
 Performance                                         Aesthetically appealing
                   product/awareness
    GAP




Product/Service
 Performance

   GOAL




                   New materials for thin,             Window-integrated                   PV-integrated window
                   super-insulating fabrics            insulating shades                   shades
Technology




    R&D
  Program




                  Performance Gap             Current Technology                     Technology Gap (R&D need)         Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                   #   (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal            Current R&D (R&D underway)             R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                     [BACK TO TOP]              NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 19
R&D Project Summaries
   No R&D projects identified as of June 2010




20 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                            RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                       Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                           Technology Roadmap

                                           Retrofit & New Construction Air Sealing Technology Roadmap

                             Building air sealing is too often
Product/Service              poorly done by contractors
 Performance
                                                                       Training improvements in identifying
    GAP                                                                Methods of effective air sealing are too complex and
                                                                       poorly understood by many practitioners


                                  Data better/methods
Product/Service
 Performance
                                                                              Streamlined, simpler methodology for air
   GOAL                                                                       sealing



                          Have specialists perform air sealing                                                       Next-gen substitute for blower door testing –
                                                                                                                     cheap & easy



Technology                                                                   An affordable, “idiot-proof” methodology for
                                                                             air sealing



                                                                                                                               Checklists (test effectiveness)

                   Research to move air sealing to prescriptive and into
                   hands of quality control and out of contractors      97


    R&D
  Program                                                              Application technology that is easy and inexpensive
                                                                                                                              95




                  Performance Gap                 Current Technology                         Technology Gap (R&D need)                  Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                   #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                Current R&D (R&D underway)                 R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                          [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 21
R&D Project Summaries
   Research to move air sealing to prescriptive and into hands of quality control and out of contractors: Building air sealing is too often poorly done by
    contractors.

   Application technology that is easy and inexpensive: If a common methodology for air sealing common building envelope types could be developed, a wider
    range of builders could implement it more effectively and consistently.




22 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                          RETROFIT BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                  Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                    Technology Roadmap

                                                       Infrared Scanning Technology Roadmap

                     Need affordable, widely-available IR                                         Identifying need at a lower cost – part of labeling
Product/Service      photography capability
 Performance
                                                                              Lower cost/more awareness                    Similar to Carfax
    GAP

                                                                                                         Cheap products widely available to realtors and
                          Comprehensive, affordable building                                             contractors (ST)
Product/Service
                          survey for missing or ineffective
 Performance              insulation
                                                                                                                      Thermal overlay major meter areas
   GOAL                                                                                                               (MT)




                   Infrared Smart phone                              Insulation optimization via infrared scanning & analysis software


                                                                     Community aerial IR scan + GPS data systems               Google street view w/ IR
Technology
                                                                     Aerial photos to target




                   Marry the energy technology with smart
                   phone/device technology                     76


    R&D
  Program




                  Performance Gap               Current Technology                    Technology Gap (R&D need)                  Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                           #     (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal              Current R&D (R&D underway)            R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                     [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 23
R&D Project Summaries
   Marry the energy technology with smart phone/device technology: To make infrared scanners more effective, find a way to link them to smart phones or
    devices, or develop a cell phone application that would allow the cell phone to function as an IR camera.




24 ■ MARCH 2011
[BACK TO TOP]   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 25
New Construction Building Design/Envelope




26 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                Northwest Energy Efficiency
Product/Service Area :                    NEW CONSTRUCTION BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                                             Technology Roadmap

                                                              Net Zero Energy Home Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                                                                                     Code change
Product/Service           Effective design                    New technology
 Performance                                                                                                                                         Encouraging high density
                                                                                                       Education and training
    GAP                                    Architect and engineers,
                                           installers, code/manufacturing                                                                        Branding urban areas and
                                                                                                                                                 certification / commissioning

                     Easy-to-use tools and techniques to            New appliance energy standards and supporting technologies and                       5% - 50% better than code (ST)
Product/Service      optimize contributions of energy               installation techniques to eliminate vampire loads in the home
 Performance         efficiency and renewable generation on                                                                                              20% - 50% or better of that 50% are net
                     an individual dwelling unit scale                                                                                                   zero after that code (MT)
   GOAL                                                                                              Minimize power conversion losses among loads
                                                                                                     and zones; assess building stock for DC power          Building America – risk lies going
                                                    All new construction zero                        opportunities                                          from 50% to 70%
                                                    energy by 2030 (LT)

                                                                                                                                              Non-conductive framing members

                   Design & analysis tools to integrate components and predict                                                                              Non stick built homes
                   whole-system energy performance
                                                                                                                                                           R10 structural sheeting
Technology
                                                                      Smarter electrical plugs, programmable,                                    Micro heat exchangers that can
                                                                      addressable (in development)                                               handle low temp waste heat

                                                                                                              Low power, DC-wired homes                          Renewable building
                                                                                                                                                                 materials

                      Predictive modeling to
                      determine what knobs to have                   Develop cheap and reliable smart plugs; create
                      and control – work at USCB,                    protocols for appliance compatibility with smart
                      LBNL                                           plugs; human factors R&D for design,
                                                                     installation, and use of smart plugs            92
    R&D
  Program

                                           2030 Challenge, DOE, PNNL,                                  Low power, DC-wired homes to reduce
                                           NREL, ORNL, LBNL                                            conversion losses                                   88


                  Performance Gap                    Current Technology                                  Technology Gap (R&D need)                        Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                     #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                   Current R&D (R&D underway)                          R&D Gap (No known R&D)


                                                                                     [BACK TO TOP]                        NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 27
R&D Project Summaries
   Develop cheap and reliable smart plugs; create protocols for appliance compatibility with smart plugs; human factors R&D for design, installation, and
    use of smart plugs: Make smart outlets a standard feature in new construction requires innovation in technology and building industry practices. Research is
    needed primarily to develop the ability of plugs to turn off equipment when not in use; secondarily, to enable participation in demand response events. The
    University of Florida at Gainesville has conducted some limited research on smart plugs and smart environments that addresses the design of the plugs, their
    capabilities, and their installation. In this research, the ability of the home operating system is explored, but their integration with the smart grid for demand
    response is not addressed.

   Low power, DC-wired homes to reduce conversion losses: Design homes with both AC and DC outlets so that DC-ready electronic appliances can use the DC
    directly, eliminating conversion losses.

   Predictive modeling to determine what knobs to have and control – work at USCB, LBNL: Integrating and operating the variety of energy technologies
    required to achieve ZNE requires advanced modeling and controls.

   2030 Challenge, DOE, PNNL, NREL, ORNL, LBNL: To achieve carbon-neutrality by 2030 requires buildings, which contribute almost 50 percent of
    greenhouse gas emissions, to be designed to 50 percent of current average energy use for the building type and region.




28 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                NEW CONSTRUCTION BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                        Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                        Technology Roadmap

                                                             Labeling Technology Roadmap

                   Get stakeholders to adopt                              Determine what it is                 Develop national/regional stakeholder
Product/Service
 Performance                                                                                                            Standards for labeling
    GAP



                   Have labels (ST)                                        20% are using labels (ST)                              Net zero label (LT)
Product/Service
 Performance
                                                                                                  Labeling mandatory increasing to meet zero energy (MT)
   GOAL



                   Energy benchmarking tools                                        Data aggregation systems                   Faster/cheaper approaches



                                                                                    Uniform MLS Requirement                    Valuation of label
Technology
                                                                                    Access to utility billing data




                       Cal Arch, Energy I2 Action, Ecotype tool




    R&D
  Program                                           Energy information systems –
                                                    numerous existing (see LBNL reports)




                  Performance Gap              Current Technology                          Technology Gap (R&D need)                 Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                              #
                                               Current R&D (R&D underway)                  R&D Gap (No known R&D)                    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal

                                                                       [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 29
R&D Project Summaries
   Cal Arch, Energy I2 Action, Ecotype tool: The broad adoption of building energy labels requires better energy modeling tools.

   Energy information systems – numerous existing (see LBNL reports): Energy information and systems to collect and make it available to building designers
    and facility management staff are key to achieving carbon-neutrality by 2030, which requires buildings, which contribute almost 50 percent of greenhouse
    gas emissions, to be designed to 50 percent of current average energy use for the building type and region. The establishment of building energy labeling
    requires sharing of enough building energy performance data to establish performance benchmarks in addition to ratings.




30 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                  NEW CONSTRUCTION BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                       Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                         Technology Roadmap

                                                 New Construction Insulation Technology Roadmap

                    Better modeling / technology              Better materials with higher EE         Modular homes
Product/Service                                               value
 Performance        Easier to install
    GAP



                          Affordable, widely available
Product/Service
 Performance              construction materials with outstanding
                          insulating characteristics
   GOAL



                   Foam/siding attachment
                                                                                    Insulation optimization via IR scanning & analysis software


                                                                                    Insulating structural panels

Technology




                   Application technology, “easy and cheap” @ CA
                   PIER, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab, Ec Manufacturing, and
                   MIT                                           82

    R&D
  Program




                  Performance Gap                Current Technology                         Technology Gap (R&D need)                 Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                #     (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal               Current R&D (R&D underway)                 R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                           [BACK TO TOP]                  NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 31
R&D Project Summaries
   Application technology, “easy and cheap”: To achieve widespread use of more efficient building insulation, develop new materials that are cost-competitive
    with existing materials and that are easy to install. California’s Public Interest Energy Research program is exploring the feasibility of using a low-cost perlite
    based ceramic insulator material for buildings (http://www.energy.ca.gov/pier/portfolio/Content/06/EISG/Improved%20Insulation%20for%20Buildings.htm). Oak
    Ridge National Laboratory is developing a panelized wall system with foam core insulation that can be easily assembled, airtight, and extremely energy
    efficient (http://www.ornl.gov/adm/partnerships/factsheets/10-G01077_ID1581.pdf). Ec Manufacturing is developing studs made from insulated lumber
    (http://www.jetsongreen.com/2010/10/new-thermally-broken-rstud-lumber.html#). MIT has been researching insulated concrete forms to determine the
    advantages over conventional wood-framed construction (http://web.mit.edu/cshub/news/pdf/BuildingsLCAsummaryDec2010.pdf). NOTE: Prior to the
    March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.




32 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                 NEW CONSTRUCTION BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                 Technology Roadmap

                                               Eliminating Home Penetrations Technology Roadmap

                   Better designs                      Codes/products/technology              Training
Product/Service
 Performance

    GAP




Product/Service
 Performance

   GOAL



                    Modular, pre-insulated wall, floor, and
                                                                   Surface mount electrical              Double wall systems
                    ceiling units


                                                                   With foam based framing, how do you
Technology          Products unrelated to energy savings
                                                                   remove or add material for wiring,
                    but eliminate wall penetrations
                                                                   plumbing, and how do you wire it?




    R&D
  Program




                  Performance Gap               Current Technology                       Technology Gap (R&D need)             Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                        #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal              Current R&D (R&D underway)               R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                         [BACK TO TOP]               NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 33
R&D Project Summaries
   No R&D projects identified as of June 2010




34 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                  Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                 NEW CONSTRUCTION BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                 Technology Roadmap

                                                        Day Lighting Walls Technology Roadmap


Product/Service
                                 Cost, ease of use,
 Performance                                                          Measurable          Design cost/complexity
                                 predictable benefits
    GAP




Product/Service
 Performance              Affordable, widely-available day
                          lighting options
   GOAL                                                                    Better design support tools




                   Devices for deeper penetration of light into                                                  Retrofitable exterior window shades
                   spaces, i.e.: light shelf


Technology                                                              Easier, cheaper daylight modeling tools that
                                                                        give energy benefits




                    Devices for deeper penetration into space @
                    UBC, LBNL



    R&D
  Program                                                              Develop easier, cheaper daylighting models
                                                                       that determine energy saving benefits @
                                                                       Architectural Energy Corporation           91




                  Performance Gap                Current Technology                   Technology Gap (R&D need)                Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                          #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal               Current R&D (R&D underway)           R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                      [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 35
R&D Project Summaries
   Develop easier, cheaper daylighting models that determine energy savings benefits: Affordable daylighting design and commissioning software with
    intuitive design features for ease of usability will assist in optimum placement of sensors and optimum daylight harvesting, promoting successful and long-
    lasting applications. The Architectural Energy Corporation’s Sensor Placement and Optimization Software (SPOT) has been in development since 2005, with
    funding from multiple organizations from California and the Pacific Northwest (http://www.archenergy.com/SPOT/) . According to the company, “SPOT is
    intended to assist a designer in quantifying the existing or intended electric lighting and annual daylighting characteristics of a given space and to help
    establish the optimal photosensor placement for the space relative to annual performance and annual energy savings. The software was developed with
    classroom daylighting in mind, but can be used for all types of spaces. SPOT™ handles top and side daylight sources and can model any electric lighting
    source. The software uses a Microsoft® Excel platform with a RADIANCE engine and is available at no cost.” The Daylighting Collaborative also maintains a
    list of all current daylighting modeling software (http://www.daylighting.org/designaids.php#computer). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the
    roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Devices for deeper penetration into space @ UBC, LBNL: For more effective daylighting, develop devices to transfer daylight deeper into building spaces.




36 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                  NEW CONSTRUCTION BUILDING DESIGN/ENVELOPE                                                  Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                    Technology Roadmap

                                                      Manufactured Housing Technology Roadmap


Product/Service           Follow codes/code             Panels that can be easily
                                                                                          Elimination of duct work       Retro structurally engineered
 Performance              improvement                   installed – spray on

    GAP




Product/Service
 Performance                Cheap, streamlined construction and installation of energy efficient manufactured
                            housing – reflecting best practices in other manufacturing industries
   GOAL




                          Modular, pre-insulated wall, floor, and
                          ceiling units                                   Automated/robotic assembly


Technology




                                                 Innovative shop floor technologies similar to
                                                 auto industry @ Toyota and Panasonic       97
    R&D
  Program




                  Performance Gap                Current Technology                         Technology Gap (R&D need)            Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                            #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal               Current R&D (R&D underway)                 R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 37
R&D Project Summaries
   Innovative shop floor technologies similar to auto industry: Manufactured housing is generally overlooked. It can generate big energy and financial
    benefits with some optimization and lessons from other industries. Apparently, most of the work being done, to date, has been happening in Japan under the
    leadership of Toyota and Panasonic (http://www.joplinglobe.com/dailybusiness/x1383437018/Toyota-Panasonic-sally-into-nascent-green-housing-sector).
    NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.




38 ■ MARCH 2011
[BACK TO TOP]   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 39
Lighting Roadmaps




40 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                  LIGHTING                                                         Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                          Technology Roadmap

                                                       Lighting (General) Technology Roadmap

                   Optimize use of fluorescent, SSL, halogen IR                           Optimized design of lamp, ballast / driver, luminaire, controls
Product/Service    technologies by application                                            for ease of installation, operation, maintenance
 Performance

    GAP



                   80% reduction in avg. lighting electric use in new buildings (through combination of more efficient light sources, more efficient luminaires,
Product/Service    better controls, better application, and more use of natural light (LT)
 Performance

   GOAL



                   Hybrid fluorescent / SSL technologies for           Red LED integrated into FCL for
                                                                                                                            Luminaire optics for plasma light
                   optimum performance, cost & aesthetics              improved CRI



Technology




                    Lighting productivity research                     Red LED integrated into CFL for
                    @ LRC, Heschong Mahone                             improved CRI                        67


    R&D                                                                                                   Self-cleaning luminaires @
  Program                                    Study health impacts of                                      Holophane and Schreder        77
                                             lighting @ LRC, others

                                                                                                                            Luminaire optics for plasma light      69


                  Performance Gap               Current Technology                          Technology Gap (R&D need)                  Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                  #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal              Current R&D (R&D underway)                  R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 41
R&D Project Summaries
   Self-cleaning luminaires: Explore surface films and treatments to reduce reductions in luminaire reflectivity and transmittance due to surface deterioration
    and contamination. Both Holophane (the Prismpack, see http://www.holophane.co.uk/downloads/Prismpack_UK.pdf) and Schreder (the Furyo, see
    http://www.schreder.com/272-1-259-520/product/print_fiche.aspx) have developed self-cleaning luminaries. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the
    roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Luminaire optics for plasma light: Plasma lighting claims 120 lumens per watt and 30,000 hour life. Research on luminaire optics is needed to take better
    advantage of this new lamp technology. According to E Source a number of luminaires were shown at LightFair for the Luxim plasma lamp.

   Red LED integrated into CFL for improved CRI: Research the combination of red LEDs into CFLs to raise color rendering index (CRI), making it closer to that
    of incandescent, which is still the current favorite for residential applications.

   Lighting productivity research @ LRC, Heschong Mahone: To expand the utilization of some efficient lighting techniques, research is needed to better
    document positive impacts on productivity, building on work by Heschong-Mahone and the Lighting Resource Center.

   Study health impacts of lighting @ LRC, others: To expand the utilization of some efficient lighting techniques, research is needed to better document
    positive impacts on human health, building on work by Lighting Resource Center and others.




42 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                      Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                                                               LIGHTING                                                                        Technology Roadmap

                                                                Solid State Lighting Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                                                                                         Better understanding
                          Reduce cost                                                                                                                                    by lighting
Product/Service                                                                          Better CRI
 Performance                                                                                                                                                             professionals
                            Increase efficiency                                          Improve stability over time                    Improve lumen
    GAP                                                                                                                                 maintenance                      Full dimming while
                                                                                                                                                                         maintaining all of the
                                                                                                                                                                         qualities above


Product/Service
                   Standardized, affordable, reliable SSL
 Performance       components allowing fixture designers                                                               Target early, cost-effective
                                                                  200 lm/W for 3500 CCT (50% of 80% goal) (LT)
                   wide freedom to innovate and meet                                                                   applications
   GOAL            consumer needs
                                                                                                                                                                SSL that can operate on AC
                                                                                                                                                                power without rectification, or an
                                                                                                                                                                ultra-efficient DC to DC converter
                                                                                                                                                                well-suited to SSL driver
                                                            Thermoelectric                                       Demonstrations                                 applications
                    Better lens designs to aim
                    light without excessive glare
                                                            generation mounted
                                                            on LED driver chip to
                                                            reduce power                                         Training / education
                                                            requirements and
                                                            waste heat output                                                                                                           Tiny lights
Technology

                     Fixture design for many                                  Super-SSL – next generation L-prize winner                              Manufacturing
                     different applications that use                          meeting all needs identified in Gap column                              methods



                                                        Thermoelectric heat                                                                                        Electric system
                                                        recovery from LEDs @                                                                                       compatibility @
                                                        Nextreme and ITRI                                                                                          Emerge Alliance,
                        Can it focus                                                60                                                                             LRC, Lunera
                        better? @                                                                                                                                  Lighting, Redwood
                        Philips, Cree, etc.                                 Improved light                              SSL life extension @                       Systems, and Nextek
    R&D                                                                     extraction @ Philips,                       Philips, Cree, etc.
  Program                                                                   Cree, etc.
                                                                                                                                                                                            72

                                         Better fixture                                                                                          Substrate growth
                                         design @ many                                      SSL heat dissipation @                               improvements @ DOE
                                         luminaire mfgs.                                    Philips, Cree, NSC, etc.                             contractors


                  Performance Gap                      Current Technology                                   Technology Gap (R&D need)                            Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                            #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                     Current R&D (R&D underway)                           R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                                       [BACK TO TOP]                         NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 43
R&D Project Summaries
   Electric system compatibility: Unlike most other light sources, most LED products require conversion of AC to DC power, which introduces system
    inefficiencies. Multiple parties are researching this issue. Emerge Alliance is developing standards for DC power for commercial buildings, which would
    provide an environment where LEDs could be used directly (http://www.emergealliance.org/). The Lighting Research Center is researching electronic walls
    and ceilings that are compatible with LEDs (http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/or_adaptableSSL.asp). Lunera Lighting and Redwood systems are
    also engaged in R&D on this topic. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Thermoelectronic heat recovery from LEDs: Heat dissipation is essential to good performance of LED lighting. One approach suggested for dissipating the
    heat is to actually generate electricity from the generated heat using thermoelectric (or thermoelectronic) devices (similar to PV, but they operate on heat, not
    light), increasing the effective efficiency of the system. Nextreme is developing the ability to cool high-power LED packages with thin-film thermoelectric
    technology (http://www.ledjournal.com/images/PDFs/Online%20Issues/Articles/LED_Sept_Oct08_Nextreme.pdf). The Industrial Technology Research
    Institute in Taiwan has also reported through IEEE of the cooling performance of a silicon-based thermoelectric device on high power LEDs
    (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?reload=true&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F10188%2F32527%2F01519885.pdf%3Farnu
    mber%3D1519885&authDecision=-203). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored
    accordingly.

   Substrate growth improvements @ DOE contractors: LEDs are grown on substrates and there is ongoing research to improve the process for such things as:
    higher external quantum efficiency performance, better electrostatic discharge durability, simple low-cost fabrication, high product yield with high brightness,
    and better heat management (DOE SSL).

   SSL life extension @ Philips, Cree, etc.: Electrical and thermal design of the LED system or fixture determine how long LEDs will last and how much light they
    will provide. Driving the LED at higher than rated current will increase relative light output but decrease useful life. Operating the LED at higher than design
    temperature will also decrease useful life significantly. (DOE SSL)

   SSL heat dissipation @ Philips, Cree, NSC, etc.: Excess heat directly affects both short-term and long-term LED performance. The short-term (reversible)
    effects are color shift and reduced light output, while the long-term effect is accelerated lumen depreciation and thus shortened useful life. (DOE SSL)

   Improved light extraction @ Philips, Cree, etc.: Constant development of higher efficacy LED/driver packages is ongoing with the goal of more lumens/watt
    without sacrificing lamp life.

   Can it focus better? @ Philips, Cree, etc.: Designing luminaires that take best advantage of SSL characteristics to deliver luminous flux on the task rather
    attempting to mimic traditional fixtures leads to the best performance. The DOE and other groups are sponsoring a variety of design competitions.

   Better fixture design @ many luminaire manufacturers: Designing luminaires that take best advantage of SSL characteristics rather than look like
    traditional fixtures leads to the best performance. Dealing with replacement parts for premature failure is an issue. Lack of interchangeability will hamper the
    market. The DOE and other groups are sponsoring a variety of design competitions.




44 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                     LIGHTING                                                       Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                           Technology Roadmap

                                     Task/Ambient Lighting Application and Control Technology Roadmap

                                                                                     Better user control of task lighting, including user-
Product/Service      Weak understanding of how to weave task /ambient                moveable luminaires
 Performance         functions together
                     Need control strategies that are easy to design &
    GAP                                                                              Ability to have task lighting quantifiable reduce
                     install, and that make it easy for users to save energy
                                                                                     overall light levels and lighting energy consumption
                     while ensuring visual comfort



Product/Service
                     Easy-to-design, install, implement task / ambient             (15% of 80% goals) Establish as standard
 Performance
                     systems that save significant energy and improve              practice: reduced ambient light levels coupled
   GOAL              visual comfort relative to alternatives                       with increased use of task lighting (LT)


                                                                                   Training/education                                      Codes



                          Task / ambient luminaires designs to provide
                          both lighting functions synergistically

Technology                                                                        User-aware controls that reduce
                          Task /ambient controls to ensure energy savings         ambient levels for task and energy
                          relative to simply adding task lighting                 optimization                                       Avoid “cave effect”

                                                                                  Fine light for office lighting and
                                                                                  classrooms integrated



                            Human factor (usability and comfort) @
                            PG&E                                                                                                      Design standards @ IES
                                                                     95
    R&D
  Program                                                                                                 Lighting systems for school, office, etc. @
                                                                                                          Finelight / PIER


                                                                                   Hospital lighting systems       79


                  Performance Gap                Current Technology                         Technology Gap (R&D need)                   Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                 #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal               Current R&D (R&D underway)                 R&D Gap (No known R&D)


                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 45
    R&D Project Summaries
    Human factor (usability and comfort): The elements for broad application are present - need human factors R&D on design and control approaches to
     realize the potential. This work could potentially be informed by researchers such as Joan Roberts, of Fordham, and Jennifer Veitch at the National Research
     Council of Canada, who are both working on designing healthy workplaces. PG&E also completed a study of how occupants respond to task-ambient lighting
     systems in 2009 (http://www.etcc-ca.com/component/content/article/21/2892-high-efficiency-office-low-ambienttask-lighting-large-office-). There is still
     much to be explored in this R&D space. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored
     accordingly.

    Hospital lighting systems: Optimize lighting in hospitals by reducing ambient lighting and instituting effective task lighting.

    Design standards @ IES: Utilize design standards as they become available from IES for applications in task and ambient applications.

    Lighting systems for school, office, etc. @ Finelight/PIER: Review research from existing programs that adopt the Integrated Classroom Lighting System
     (and similar classroom lighting systems) and the Personal Lighting System (and related lighting systems) for offices. These maximize the effectiveness of
     lighting, reducing the need for over-lighting.




46 ■ MARCH 2011
Product/Service Area :                                                     LIGHTING                                                         Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                            Technology Roadmap

                                                                                            Roadmap
                                  Lighting Controls (Dimming, Occupancy Sensors) Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                                        More reliable controls
Product/Service
 Performance          Better human interface                             Cheaper controls
    GAP                                                                                                                 Training and education




Product/Service
 Performance           50% reduction (25% of 80% goal) (LT)
   GOAL



                                                                                                                       Improved sensing technology to make
                                                                                                                       controls more natural for users (poss. military-
                                                                                                                       derived)
                       Adjust lighting levels to                                   Easy to change
                       time of day                       Sensors don’t light       setting on sensors
                                                                                                                 Link to HVAC and Plug Load Controls
Technology                                               empty spaces
                       Sensors that do not turn                                    Cheaper, simpler self
                                                                                   calibration                    Better location of occupancy of sensors
                       off when occupied

                                                                                                                                Building-wide user fixtures



                     Predictive modeling for
                     dynamic lighting needs @ MIT
                                                    77                  R&D for Cheaper, simple self-calibration @
    R&D                                                                 MIT                                       84
  Program

                                           Dynamic control of occupancy-based lighting
                                           [Wattstopper, Lithonia?]



                  Performance Gap                  Current Technology                        Technology Gap (R&D need)                   Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                   #     (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                 Current R&D (R&D underway)                R&D Gap (No known R&D)



                                                                               [BACK TO TOP]               NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 47
R&D Project Summaries
   Cheaper, simpler self-calibration: Some controls try to adjust settings according to the habits of the user. Cheaper, simpler, and more effective ways of
    doing this will be helpful. This will likely take advantage of better predictive modeling. MIT’s Media Lab is currently researching feedback controlled solid
    state lighting, with a specific focus on “low-cost sensing modalities that are attuned to human factors such as user context, circadian rhythms, or productivity
    [and integrating] these data with atypical environmental factors to move beyond traditional lux measurements.”
    (https://www.media.mit.edu/research/groups/responsive-environments) NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified
    as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Predictive modeling for dynamic lighting needs: Research on modeling that will better predict lighting needs by taking into account the time of day and day
    of the week will make lighting controls more useful and more acceptable to users. MIT’s Media Lab is currently researching feedback controlled solid state
    lighting, with a specific focus on “low-cost sensing modalities that are attuned to human factors such as user context, circadian rhythms, or productivity [and
    integrating] these data with atypical environmental factors to move beyond traditional lux measurements.”
    (https://www.media.mit.edu/research/groups/responsive-environments) NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified
    as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Dynamic control of occupancy-based lighting [WattStopper, Lithonia?]: Likely using the modeling from above, controls that dynamically predict lighting
    needs by taking into account the time of day and day of the week for the user will make lighting controls more useful and more acceptable to users.




48 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                   LIGHTING                                                            Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                              Technology Roadmap

                                                            Luminaires Technology Roadmap


Product/Service                 Market needs to be rewarded for           Change common metrics from source             Use FTE for outdoor
 Performance                    efficient luminaires                      efficacy to luminaire efficacy                lighting
    GAP

                                       Better light quality as perceived by users


Product/Service                                                                     In residential sector, begin shifting emphasis from
 Performance         Design lighting and                                            efficient sources, to efficient luminaires
                                                     Make mesopic
                     luminaires to optimize the
   GOAL                                              lighting standards
                     effectiveness for the task      accessible to
                     from the user's point of        appropriate users
                     view



                            Metrics for light delivered, task and aesthetic performance,         Ballast for CFL with low on/off          Higher lumen watt stick
                            not light emitted                                                    penalty                                  forecast
Technology




                                                   Legitimize mesopic                                         Change IES metrics @
                                                   lighting @ LRC                                             IES


                     Human factors – research on
    R&D              parameter for optimizing ? @ LRC
  Program

                                                                Review and audit of various luminaire designs for
                                                                various lighting applications @ DOE




                  Performance Gap                 Current Technology                          Technology Gap (R&D need)                    Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                   #       (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                Current R&D (R&D underway)                  R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                          [BACK TO TOP]                     NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 49
R&D Project Summaries
   Review and audit of various luminaire designs for various lighting applications.: The importance of luminaires has often been overlooked in specifications
    and codes. Need to rate luminaires so better data are available, then educate architects and designers on which luminaires to use for which applications to
    improve efficiency and effective lighting. DOE’s Commercial Lighting Solutions provides good tools in this area
    (https://www.lightingsolutions.energy.gov/comlighting/login.htm).

   Human factors – research on parameters for optimizing @ LRC: Regardless how efficient lighting is, it's only useful if it actually helps humans. Research on
    the relevant human factors is important and may apply to luminaires.

   Legitimize mesopic lighting @ LRC: Mesopic lighting, to be fully accepted by the market, needs to have standards changed to legitimize it. Provide data to
    support IES standards modifications.

   Change IES metrics @ IES: Metrics and standards have evolved as we learn more about how humans use light most effectively. More work needs to be done
    to continue to improve IES metrics.




50 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                      LIGHTING                                                         Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                              Technology Roadmap

                                                                Day Lighting Technology Roadmap


Product/Service             Better light quality as perceived          More responsive controls, esp. for            Easier to design, commission and
 Performance
                            by users                                   horizontal day lighting                       operate
    GAP

                                                                                        More responsive, reliable,
                                                                                        long-lived controls for
Product/Service                                                                         vertical day lighting
 Performance

   GOAL
                          80% reduction in avg. lighting electric use in part due to combination of better            Affordable, widely available day
                          controls, better application, and more use of natural light                                 lighting options




                     Next gen ambient and task                   Core day lighting                                           Cheaper and more simple self
                                                                                              Day lighting sensors
Technology           lighting sensors and controls               system                                                      calibrating dimming controls



                                                                                              Skylight design



                    Research human and technology                                      Skylight design @ CLTC &
                    barriers @ LRC                                                     CEDR                   78

                                                                    Optimize daylighting with PC         Software for daylight design –
    R&D                                                             use @ LRC?                           sensor placement @ CEC PIER
  Program
                                                                                                                                   Cheaper and simpler self-
                                                   Core Lighting project @                                                         calibrating dimming controls @
                                                   UBC & CLTC                                                                      Watt Stopper/NEMA Lighting
                                                                                                                                   Controls                       81


                  Performance Gap                 Current Technology                          Technology Gap (R&D need)                    Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                      #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                Current R&D (R&D underway)                  R&D Gap (No known R&D)



                                                                                [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 51
R&D Project Summaries
   Cheaper and simpler self-calibrating dimming controls: Making daylighting cost-effective continues to be a challenge. Cheaper, easier to use, and self-
    calibrating controls can help to make daylighting more attractive. Dorene Maniccia of Watt Stopper (and chair of the NEMA Lighting Controls) is researching
    dual-loop daylight control systems that self commission and offer continual calibration. NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box
    was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Skylight design: Making daylighting cost-effective continues to be a challenge. Effective, affordable, leak-resistant skylight design could help make
    daylighting easier and more affordable to adopt. The California Lighting Technology Center is researching core sunlighting systems
    (http://cltc.ucdavis.edu/content/view/796/409/) and is working to improve the solatube tubular skylight (http://cltc.ucdavis.edu/content/view/113/139/).
    California’s Energy Design Resources is also working to design skylights for facilities with suspended ceilings
    (http://www.energydesignresources.com/media/1786/EDR_DesignBriefs_skysuspceil.pdf). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D
    box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Research human and technology barriers @ LRC: Investigate both human factors and technical barriers to adopting daylighting.

   Core Lighting project @ UBC & CLTC: Daylighting has traditionally concentrated on perimeter zones (near windows). Current research is finding ways to use
    daylighting in core zones. More research is needed to find more affordable and effective ways of doing this.

   Optimize daylighting with PC use @ LRC: Research on how to effectively use personal computers to monitor and control daylighting.

   Software for daylight design – sensor placement @ CEC PIER: Develop good, affordable software for designing daylighting systems, including determining
    optimum placement of sensors.




52 ■ MARCH 2011
[BACK TO TOP]   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 53
Electronics Roadmaps




54 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                       Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                                             ELECTRONICS                                                        Technology Roadmap

                                                          Sleep Mode Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                                                               Retain
                                                                                             Integration of sleep mode application with        intelligence
Product/Service           Responsive to user needs and            Minimal user
                                                                                             product standby software and hardware
 Performance              preferences                             interaction required
                                                                                             configurations                                    Capability to
    GAP                                                                                                                                        restore to full
                                                                                                                                               functionality


                                                                                                                    Require sleep mode features that reduce
                                 Optimize sleep mode energy               Reduce overall energy use by              energy usage by 90% (ST-MT)
Product/Service
                                 impacts without degrading user           65% relative to "always on"
 Performance
                                 experience                               baseline
   GOAL                                                                                                             Work with manufacturing community as in
                                                                                                                    trade associations and interest groups


                                                                                                                                 Sleep-mode chip or
                     User-sensing and user-          Sleep mode more responsive to late      Google App to reset                 equivalent design standard
                     aware controls                  night network admin. updated            sleep mode

                                                                                                                                 Preset sleep mode to energy
Technology                                                                                                                       efficiency best practices
                                                Video games with sleep mode
                                                are also losing score

                                                                                                              Software compatibility
                                                                                                              with stand-by modes

                                                             Responsive to gamers’         Accessible and simple
                                                             needs                         interface controls @ LBNL
                                                                                    70
                      User sensing controls –                                                                      76
                      underway @ TV mfgs,
                      however this R&D is                                                                    Software compatibility with
    R&D               not accessible for            Optimize user         Network management for             stand-by modes
  Program                                                                 computer networks
                                                                                                                                          75
                      collaboration                 interface  73

                                                                                           Responsive to late-night
                                   Behavior economics for how                              network updates @ UC San
                                   people use devices        82                            Diego and Microsoft          68

                  Performance Gap               Current Technology                        Technology Gap (R&D need)               Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                             #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal              Current R&D (R&D underway)                R&D Gap (No known R&D)


                                                                         [BACK TO TOP]                   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 55
R&D Project Summaries
   Behavior economics for how people use devices: To facilitate wide-spread adoption of sleep-mode technology, study the way the most common user groups
    interact with electronic devices so the sleep-mode technology will be compatible with their behavior.

   Accessible and simple interface controls: To facilitate widespread adoption of sleep mode technology, develop controls that are as simple or accessible as
    possible. If they're complicated or a hassle, they won't get used. LBNL has developed and is promoting IEEE standard #1621, related to power management
    controls. The purpose of the standard is “to accomplish a similarity of experience of power controls across all electronic devices so that users will find them
    easier to use and be more likely to utilize power management features that save energy.” (http://eetd.lbl.gov/Controls/1621/) NOTE: Prior to the March
    2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Software compatibility with stand-by modes: To facilitate widespread adoption of sleep mode technology, it's not enough that it works well with end users
    and network administrators; ensure it's compatible with all the commonly used software applications and video games. According to E Source, the ongoing
    work in this area seems to be primarily occurring within the software and hardware developers (e.g. Microsoft, Dell, etc.); open demonstrations of research
    are unknown at this time.

   Optimize user interface: Facilitate widespread adoption of sleep mode technology and optimized user interface. As with accessible and simple interface
    controls, LBNL is promoting IEEE standard #1621; however, there is still much research needed in this space.

   Responsive to gamers’ needs: Video games with sleep mode are losing scores. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the power
    consumption of various gaming consoles
    (http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_230564_317_205_776_43/http%3B/uspalecp604%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/power_
    play__epri_analysis_reveals_that_video_game_consoles_differ_in_energy_consumption_da_753432.html); however, this research question is focused on
    the development of a sleep mode that will not disrupt a player’s game, allowing them to sleep their equipment rather than keeping it running for hours
    without play.

   Responsive to late-night network updates: Sleep mode must become more responsive to late-night network administrative updates. U.C. San Diego is
    exploring a method of hosting a light-wight image of each PC on he server that can allow the individual PCs to remain in sleep mode longer, but still remain
    accessible for waking (http://mesl.ucsd.edu/yuvraj/research/sleepserver.html). Microsoft’s “sleep proxy” allows PCs to remain in sleep mode, on average,
    about 50% more of the time without sacrificing employee or IT accessibility (http://research.microsoft.com/en-
    us/um/people/padhye/publications/sleepproxy.pdf). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was
    scored accordingly.

   User sensing controls – underway @ TV manufacturers, however this R&D is not accessible for collaboration: To facilitate widespread adoption of sleep
    mode technology, study the way the most common user groups use electronic devices so the sleep mode technology will be compatible with their behavior
    and not cause user inconveniences.

   Network management for computer networks: To facilitate widespread adoption of sleep mode technology, it's not enough that it works well with end users.
    Sleep mode also needs to meet the needs of network administrators; otherwise, they will not support (or will even disallow) its use.




56 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                              ELECTRONICS                                                                            Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                            Technology Roadmap

                                                                  DC Power Source Technology Roadmap

                    Evidence that DC has predictable
                    energy savings benefits compared to              Access to DC              Lack of DC network
Product/Service     AC, and under what conditions                    powered end use           infrastructure
 Performance                                                                                                                                                                                Need a good,
                                                                                                                                                          Need safety education
                                                                                                                                                                                            affordable way
                                                                                                                    Need cost-effective                   and training for designers,
    GAP                                                                                                             technology and standards for          installers, code officials,
                                                                                                                                                                                            to transmit
                                                                                                                                                                                            control signals
                                                                                                                    hardware and implementation           end-users
                                                                         Establish that using a DC                                                                                          on a DC network
                      Investigate alternative, perhaps simpler,
                      alternatives to DC power, such as higher           power source is in fact a
                      voltage AC, to see if they are as effective        valid way to achieve
                      before committing to changing to DC power          significant energy savings           Affordable, widely-available DC power
Product/Service                                                                                               options for retrofit and new construction                                 Determine viability of and
 Performance                                                                                                  installations with well-documented energy                                 establish standards for
                                                                                                              saving characteristics                                                    power line carrier signals
   GOAL                                                                                                                                                                                 on a DC system
                                                      Affordable, widely-available
                      Determine feasibility of        DC power options of things          Develop access to DC power
                      using a companion DC            that currently use AC in            sources to simplify AC/DC                         Work with state/‌‌local entities to
                      power system in homes           order to reduce the need for        conversions and reduce                            invoke codes and standards
                                                      both systems                        losses (MT-LT)

                                                                                                                                                                                         DC-compatible power
                                                                                                                                                                                         line carrier control
                                                                                                                                                                                         systems and protocols
                                                                                         Buildings wired with AC
Technology                                                                               and DC power

                                                                                                                                                                     Standard uninterruptible
                     AC equipment                  Standard DC system products for voltage conversion, facility level                                                power supply interface
                     adaptor for DC power                                                                                   DC to DC “transformer”                   hardware and control
                                                   distribution and device connection
                                                                                                                                                                     protocols to accept power
                                                                                                                                                                     from photovoltaic and
                                                                                                                                                                     other DC distributed
                                                                                                                                                                     generation sources

                                                                           DC loss reduction                            Direct PV to DC
                                                                           – basic R&D @                                equipment integration
                                                                           EPRI
                                                                                                 56                                                                   UPS – PV integration
                    Higher voltage                                                                                                      DC safety @ Emerge            (large or small) @ Heart
                                                                                                            Universal plug              Alliance et al
    R&D             conversion AC as an                                                                                                                    64         Transverter, Gridpoint,
                                                                                                            adapter for DC –
                    alternative to DC (230v) –                                                                                                                        and iPower
  Program                                             Explore DC appliances with                            underway @                                                                       60
                    underway @ EPRI                   speed control                                         EPRI
                                                                                 61
                                                                                            Data center
                                  Research how much “stuff” in                                                                                                                Power line carrier performance
                                                                                            requirements for DC only
                                  home is DC vs. AC at the core                                                                                                               over DC lines
                                                                    59                      - underway @ EPRI                                                                                                 51

                  Performance Gap                      Current Technology                                      Technology Gap (R&D need)                                Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                                 #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                     Current R&D (R&D underway)                              R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                                          [BACK TO TOP]                          NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 57
R&D Project Summaries
   DC Safety: DC acts very differently from AC, so we need a whole new set of safety standards, education, and training so that people understand and
    implement DC safely. The Emerge Alliance and other interested stakeholders (e.g. EPRI) are working to develop DC power standards for commercial
    buildings, which include safety concerns (http://www.emergealliance.org/). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was
    identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Explore DC appliances with speed control: Since variable speed is easy to do with DC motors, having DC in the building may allow the possibility of using
    many more DC motors for variable-speed applications. The economic advantages are greatest when there is a large number of DC motors or DC electronic
    loads that can all operate, or be easily adapted to operate, on the same DC voltage.

   UPS – PV integration (large or small): One of the things that could change with providing DC to data centers is the UPS system. It is likely that many data
    centers will convert to DC UPS systems. Solar PV systems, too, may supply DC directly rather than converting to AC and back again. Research is needed to
    determine how to most effectively do that. Heart Transverter developed a 2kw power management device and control hardware for integrating PV, electric
    vehicles, battery banks, and some other combinations of AC or DC within its power range (http://www.transverter.com/). Gridpoint seems to have designed a
    product that is specifically meant to integrate with PV (http://www.gridpoint.com/home.aspx). iPower’s offering promises to tailor its UPS to specific
    distributed generation systems for an added cost (http://ipowerltd.com/). NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified
    as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Research how much “stuff” in home is DC vs. AC at the core: Do some basic analysis to see if there is enough DC equipment in a typical home to justify
    having a DC supply in homes. It is unlikely that the load of DC in a home is enough to justify supplying DC.

   DC loss reduction – basic R&D: The concept of using DC power supply in a data center makes intuitive sense, but it is not well tested, especially in
    comparison to other approaches such as using higher AC supply voltage (230V.). Basic proof-of-concept and maybe some small trials are needed before
    expanding further. EPRI is assessing efficiency and loss-reduction potential for distribution technologies in general, including for DC power. NOTE: Prior to
    the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Power line carrier performance over DC lines: Power line carrier solutions for controls are attractive. Do some basic research to see if this is viable on DC
    systems; would likely need to avoid jumping AC-DC or DC-AC converters.

   Direct PV to DC equipment integration: Solar PV systems may supply DC directly rather than converting to AC and back again. This will be most effective if
    the voltage of the PV system is matched with the most common voltage needed by the DC equipment. Research is needed to determine how to most
    effectively do that.

   Data center requirements for DC only – underway @ EPRI: Since the idea of using DC for data centers is new, standards need to be developed before
    deploying widely.

   Universal plug adapter for DC – underway @ EPRI: One of the issues with converting to DC is that it is totally non-standard. The development of a universal
    plug for DC will greatly aid adoption.

   Higher voltage conversion AC as an alternative to DC (230v) – underway @ EPRI: As an alternative to converting data centers to DC, some researchers
    have suggested that we could save more energy by simply converting data centers to 230 V. The change would be simple and would require no equipment
    changes, since computer equipment is typically provided with a 115V/230V switch. Evaluate this thoroughly before committing to DC data centers.



58 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                             ELECTRONICS                                                                            Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                           Technology Roadmap

                                                                Use and Virtualization Technology Roadmap

                     Information on current baseline                Data on the energy savings potential for software and
                     performance and metrics, current trends,       systems that automatically summarize information for                                   Standard calculation
Product/Service      and ongoing R&D related to usability,          users vs. transmission, receipt and possibly printing of                               methods to predict savings
 Performance         energy use, and virtualization potential       more extensive information

    GAP
                                            Optimal approach for                                                  Standard approaches to maintain reliability and
                                            delivering all three media:                                           performance with reduced energy use
                                            cable, TV, and phone



Product/Service
                                    Minimize energy use for electronics by
 Performance                        combining all function on one port into
                                    the home (and one display device)
   GOAL                                                                                          Optimize energy use by servers,
                                                                                                                                                       Comfortable virtual reality
                                                                                                 routers, PCs and other devices
                                                                                                                                                       goggles to replace larger
                       Create advanced internal (to the device) energy management                involved in Internet interactions
                                                                                                                                                       and more energy-intensive
                       systems (virtualization) to reduce energy usage (M)                       without degrading user experience
                                                                                                                                                       screens

                                                                                                                                                                               Eliminate display partly or
                                                                                                                           Optimal visual experience for
                                                                                                                                                                               completely by routing
                                                                                                                           TV and computer users with
                                                                                                                                                                               images directly to eye or
                                                                                                                           minimum display energy
                                                                                                                                                                               the human nervous system
                       Software, hardware and protocols that enable virtualization for computing at all scales             consumption
Technology
                                                                                                                                                      Goggles similar to virtual
                                                                                                                                                      reality goggles that are
                                                                                                                                                      comfortable for viewing for
                                                                                                                                                      long periods
                                                                      More efficient
                                                                      server use                                                                                                      Human - device
                                                                                                                        Display devices (such as TVs and
                                                                                                                                                                                      interface
                                                                                                                        computer screens) that provide
                                   Integrate cable, TV and                                                              optimal image quality for human
                                   phone to the internet                      Improving information                     perception of text and images
                                                                              management
                                                                                                        66
                                                                                                                                                      User comfort w ith VR goggles
                                                                                                                                                      @ MIT Media Lab
                                                                                                      Network/web energy usage
    R&D                                                                                               research leading to better
  Program                                                                                             awareness of energy use
                                                                                                      of Googling, e-ma il, etc @               Visual performance
                    Assess current                                                                                                              impacts with micro-                  Optic nerve
                                                                                                      LBNL                                                                           connect @where?
                    secondary research                                                                                                          screens
                    on state-of-the-art                                                                                                                               56
                    information displays           Information synopsis for
                                                   energy savings                                                        Ergonomic research on right-sized
                                                                            62                                           TV and computer displays
                                                                                                                                                           57

                  Performance Gap                      Current Technology                                        Technology Gap (R&D need)                             Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                                #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                     Current R&D (R&D underway)                                R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                                        [BACK TO TOP]                          NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 59
R&D Project Summaries
   Improving information management: Perform a literature search to identify the manufacturers, national labs, and other organizations involved with R&D on
    information displays.

   Information synopsis for energy savings: Perform a literature search and primary research needed to identify potential energy savings by systems and
    software that automatically summarize lengthy documents for users.

   Ergonomic research on right-sized TV & computer displays: The trend in TV and computer displays seems to be "bigger is better," which increases energy
    use. Research "right-sized" displays.

   Visual performance impacts with micro-screens: Using smaller computer screens saves energy, but for some applications performance may be reduced
    such that this is not feasible. Research user feedback.

   Assess secondary research on state-of-the-art information displays: Perform a literature search to identify the manufacturers, national labs, and other
    organizations involved with R&D on information displays as a potential path to energy savings.

   More efficient server use: To greatly cut energy use for data center servers and cooling, research "virtualization," which increases the sharing of servers so
    fewer servers and power supplies are needed.

   User comfort with VR goggles @ MIT Media Lab: Virtual reality (VR) goggles can replace displays using much more energy, but research is needed on user
    comfort with VR goggles. Also examine the potential savings, comfort, and usability of miniaturized displays embedded in traditional eyeglass frames.

   Integrate cable, TV and phone to the internet: Using one appliance to do computing, cable TV, and phone could conceivably save energy. Research to
    examine the extent that that full function is maintained or improved would be useful.

   Optic nerve connect @ where?: Perform a literature search to identify the manufacturers, national labs, and other organizations involved with R&D on the
    broader use of optical data transfer, which is more energy efficient than metal cables.

   Network/web energy usage research leading to better awareness of energy use of Googling, e-mail, etc @ LBNL: Many users consider it environmentally
    benign to transfer info electronically rather than with paper, but there is substantial energy use for this; research this and raise user awareness. As a
    subtopic, perform a literature search to identify the manufacturers, national labs, and other organizations involved with R&D on the broader use of optical
    data transfer, which is more energy efficient than metal cables.




60 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                            ELECTRONICS                                                                          Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                        Technology Roadmap

                                                         Component Level Efficiency Technology Roadmap

                    Disclosure by component and system               Knowledge of the state of the art of energy performance and                        Knowledge of the state of the art of existing
Product/Service     manufacturers of how interactive effects         potential beneficial interactions among components                                 memory chip energy performance and potential
 Performance        increase or cancel out energy savings                                                                                               beneficial interactions among components

    GAP                                                                                                                      performance and potential beneficial
                                                                   Knowledge of the state of the art of existing             interactions among components
                                                                   component energy performance and potential
                                                                   beneficial interactions among components
                     Optimize energy use at the level of chips
Product/Service      and other electronic components as a                                                                 Optimize energy use at the level of power
                     precursor to optimizing whole-device                                                                 supplies and other electronic components as a
 Performance
                     efficiency                                                                                           precursor to optimizing whole-device efficiency
   GOAL
                                                                  Development of low loss components for electric
                                                                  devices (example: substitute LED lighting for
                                                                                                                                                       Optimize energy use at the level of memory chips
                                                                  fluorescent back light in LDCD TW) (MT)
                                                                                                                                                       and other electronic components as a precursor to
                                                                                                                                                       optimizing whole-device efficiency




Technology          Tools for modeling component interactive energy impacts                                                             Optoelectronics/ Photonics




                                                                                                      Power supply
                                                                                                      efficiency @ PIER

                                              Chip efficiency @
                                              AMD, Intel

    R&D                                                                       Broad research on
                       Integrated solutions for device                        component level efficiency
  Program              component on/off state                                 opportunities in electronics
                                                          72
                                                                                                               Memory efficiency @
                                              Simpler and more energy efficient PCs that still meet            SanDisk, others
                                              needs of 70% of users @ Dell, HP, Apple?




                  Performance Gap                        Current Technology                                    Technology Gap (R&D need)                             Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                              #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                       Current R&D (R&D underway)                            R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                                         [BACK TO TOP]                          NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 61
R&D Project Summaries
   Integrated solutions for device component on/off state: Develop "whole-device" approaches and technologies that minimize or eliminate component
    standby losses in any operational state.

   Broad research on component-level efficiency opportunities in electronics: Explore a wide range of approaches to component efficiencies utilizing
    untapped and underutilized opportunities.

   Power supply efficiency @ PIER: Continue advancing R&D efforts that target power supply efficiency.

   Memory efficiency @ SanDisk, others: Continue advancing R&D efforts that target memory efficiency, including development of new, lower-power memory
    technologies.

   Chip efficiency @ AMD, Intel: Continue advancing R&D efforts that target microprocessor and other chip efficiencies.

   Simpler and more energy efficient PCs that still meet needs of 70 percent of users @ Dell, HP, Apple?: Explore innovative approaches to reducing energy
    use by mass-market PCs.




62 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                                        ELECTRONICS                                                               Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                                         Technology Roadmap

                                                     Complete Electronic System Technology Roadmap


Product/Service                                                                 Turn off all home electronics w/o disrupting
 Performance              Make saving energy without                                                                                          Needs an interface to the
                                                                                functionality – smart strip equivalent software or
                          sacrificing user experience a CEO goal                                                                              smart grid feature
                                                                                chip that can be built into any product
    GAP




Product/Service
 Performance         Reduction of 50% in energy usage based on
                     today’s performance (MT)
   GOAL


                                                                                                                                     Benchmark high-performance (energy and user
                                                                                                                                     experience) products in each category – e.g., TVs,
                               Software optimization to drive                                  Super efficient                       video games, DVRs, etc.
                                                                    Super efficient servers
                               system efficiency                                               TV/display
                                                                                                                                     Optoelectronics/ Photonics

                                                                                              Super efficient desktop
Technology                                                          Efficient set – top box
                                                                                              PC
                                                                                                                                     Thermometer heat recovery for near zero appliances


                                                                                                                                     20 year goal and 90% reduction in energy use


                                                                                                                                     Design mass software for efficient operation



                       Integrated design @
                       mfgs.                                    Integrate algorithms with device
                                                                architecture @ NetApps, others
    R&D
  Program                                                                                     Rebound effect – which technologies are most
                                                                                              susceptible? @ behavior, M&V specialists
                              Broad research on system-level
                              efficiency opportunities in electronics 73



                  Performance Gap                    Current Technology                                 Technology Gap (R&D need)                    Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                              #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                   Current R&D (R&D underway)                         R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                                     [BACK TO TOP]                      NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 63
R&D Project Summaries
   Broad research on system-level efficiency opportunities in electronics: Explore a wide range of approaches to product efficiencies utilizing untapped and
    underutilized opportunities.

   Integrated design @ manufacturers: Develop tools and approaches to help manufacturers do whole-system designs that achieve ultra-low energy
    consumption.

   Integrate algorithms with device architecture @ NetApps, others: Develop software-hardware hybrid approaches to minimize servers' and other electronic
    systems' energy use.

   Rebound effect – which technologies are most susceptible? @ behavior, M&V specialists: Perform human factors R&D to determine which combinations
    of products and users are most likely to cancel out intended energy savings.




64 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                                             ELECTRONICS                                                       Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                      Technology Roadmap

                                        Interlock Devices to Manage Energy Use Technology Roadmap


Product/Service                             Convenient not inconvenient for users           Designed in, not added on to systems
 Performance

    GAP                                                                      Not cost-effective for hospitality
                                                                             industry to install and operate



Product/Service
 Performance                               Develop low cost systems that permit      Provide incentives to help
                                           “quick” adoption (ST)                     bring devices to market
   GOAL

                                                                                                         Enable home automation to allow "permission-based"
                                                                                                         deep energy savings in plug loads, residential
                                                                                                         appliances, HVAC, and lighting.


                                                          Standard interlock systems & components
Technology                                                available to OEMs for their products
                                                                                                                   Monitoring and control devices
                                                                                                                   and systems for home automation
                     Standardized power monitoring and control
                     hardware, software, and protocols to enable
                     device sleep / standby modes


                                                Automated systems to shut down all                                                                   78
                                                electrical devices not in use @ various
                                                products
    R&D
  Program                 Requirement standards for sleep
                          modes/stand-by @ CEC, PG&E                          Use of hotel keys to activate room
                          consultants, LBNL, ENERGY STAR                      power @ commercial products




                  Performance Gap              Current Technology                         Technology Gap (R&D need)                Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                              #
                                               Current R&D (R&D underway)                 R&D Gap (No known R&D)                   (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal
                                                                         [BACK TO TOP]                  NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 65
R&D Project Summaries
   Behavioral issues/opportunities for coming generation of “smart homes”: Perform human factors R&D to develop understanding of opportunities and
    barriers for energy reductions in home automation using current and emerging technologies.

   Automated systems to shut down all electrical devices not in use @ various products: Advance current best practices for products that turn themselves off
    when not in use.

   Use of hotel keys to activate room power @ commercial products: Continue advancing key-based systems that disable lighting, HVAC and other energy
    uses in hotel rooms when not occupied.

   Requirement standards for sleep modes/stand-by @ CEC, PG&E consultants, LBNL, ENERGY STAR: Develop equipment and code-based approaches to
    eliminating product energy consumption when not in use.




66 ■ MARCH 2011
[BACK TO TOP]   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 67
Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Roadmaps




68 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                              Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                                 HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                                            Technology Roadmap

                                                         Fault Detection and Predictive Maintenance (1 of 3)


                          Don’t currently have “on-board” diagnostics or data streams         Don’t currently optimize use of ambient or indoor conditions, e.g.,
Product/Service           to collect                                                          economizer, indoor ventilation controls, heat recovery
 Performance

    GAP                     Don’t have redundant or corrective hardware                       Doesn’t communicate (2-way) well with building controls
                                                                                              relative to performance issues in equipment and systems

                                                                                              Not tied to building needs/loads



Product/Service                                                                      Ventilation/temperature/humidity delivery matched to actual uses at granular
 Performance           Predictive maintenance in 100%
                                                                                     level so controls can be designed appropriately with monitoring (MT)
                       of new sales (ST)
   GOAL                                                                              Intelligent controls connected/communicating with buildings & spaces so unit
                       Predictive controls to optimize                               delivers only what spaces need (MT)
                       operation (MT)

                       Intelligent Systems with predictive, diagnostic               Initial self-                     Pattern recognition/learning
                       controls & self-healing processes (LT)                        healing/correcting (MT)           system (MT)

                                                                            100% of new construction self-diagnosing controls for the packaged HVAC unit (ST)



Technology
                          Predictive maintenance                    User-aware & self-                                        Self optimizing controls              User Aware, self-program
                                                                    diagnosing controls        Reliable & effective                                                 thermostat
                                                                    for the packaged           economizers controls &
                                                                                               systems                        Expand spec regular            Some research on neural Nets
                          User notification of status               HVAC unit
                                                                                                                              use of closed loop             enot conclusive – need more
                                                                                                                              controls                       algorithm development




                      No current MTBF testing, case (Title
                      24 goal for 2013)

    R&D                                                    74                                                                                                                         69
  Program

                                                   Hardware is available;, need more reliable fault
                                                   detection and diagnostics controls at smaller
                                                   scale to drive market acceptance



                  Performance Gap                        Current Technology                                      Technology Gap (R&D need)                                Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                                    #
                                                         Current R&D (R&D underway)                              R&D Gap (No known R&D)                                   (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal

                                                                                          [BACK TO TOP]                           NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 69
R&D Project Summaries
   No current mean time between failures (MTBF) testing, part of CEC CASE study (Title 24 goal for 2013): Need better information on the mean time
    between failures (MTBF) for different equipment in order to inform predictive maintenance programs and controls.

   Some research on neural networks, etc. not conclusive – need more algorithm development: More research on neural networks and artificial intelligence
    is needed to help inform design of self-healing and learning HVAC controls systems.

   Hardware is available; need more reliable fault detection (FDD) and diagnostics controls at smaller scale to drive market acceptance: Though hardware
    is available for sophisticated controls, more work is needed on software and thoughtful design and application of fault detection and diagnosis controls.




70 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                            Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                              HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                                             Technology Roadmap

                                                        Fault Detection and Predictive Maintenance (2 of 3)

                      Don’t currently have “on-board” diagnostics or data streams to
                      collect
Product/Service
 Performance          Doesn’t communicate (2-way) well with building controls relative to
                      performance issues in equipment and systems
    GAP
                      Don’t currently optimize use of ambient or indoor conditions, e.g.,             Current high-energy use for distribution of heat and
                      economizer, indoor ventilation controls, heat recovery                          cooling beyond actual vent need




Product/Service
 Performance          100% of new construction self-diagnosing controls           Initial self-healing/correcting (MT)                           Packaged equipment (up to 20 tons capacity) for 100%
                      for the packaged HVAC unit (ST)                                                                                            of new construction, to capture all lost opportunities in
   GOAL                                                                           Intelligent Systems with predictive, diagnostic controls
                                                                                                                                                 the new and replacement market (LT)
                      Economizer controls & systems (seals, actuators,            & self-healing processes (LT)
                                                                                                                                                 Controls to meet indoor air needs – no excess vented
                      dampers) that are reliable & effective (ST)                                                                                air beyond occupant needs (LT)
                                                                                  Intelligent controls connected/communicating with
                      Predictive controls to optimize operation                   buildings & spaces so unit delivers only what spaces           Predictive maintenance in 100% of new sales (ST)
                      (MT)                                                        need (MT)

                      Pattern recognition/learning system (MT)


Technology


                     User aware, self-program
                                                                  User-aware & self-diagnosing controls for the packaged HVAC unit               Expand spec regular
                     thermostat
                                                                                                                                                 use of closed loop
                                                                  Reliable & effective economizers controls & systems                            controls
                     User notification of status
                                                                  Self optimizing controls




    R&D
  Program                     Hardware available; software development                                                           BPA now testing simple FDD and RTU
                              needed @ Purdue                                                                                    sequences




                  Performance Gap                      Current Technology                                         Technology Gap (R&D need)                             Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                                 #
                                                                                                                  R&D Gap (No known R&D)                                (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                     Current R&D (R&D underway)

                                                                                             [BACK TO TOP]                         NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 71
R&D Project Summaries
   Hardware is available; software development is needed @ Purdue: Much of the hardware useful for implementing self-diagnoses of HVAC equipment
    controls is available. The biggest remaining need is good software and design.

   BPA is now testing simple fault detection and diagnostics sequences on RTUs: Research is currently underway at BPA on roof-top units with special
    attention being paid to controls and fault detection and diagnostics.




72 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                     Northwest Energy Efficiency
Product/Service Area :                                 HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                                    Technology Roadmap

                                                           Fault Detection and Predictive Maintenance (3 of 3)

                                                                                                                            Don’t currently have “on-      Don’t have
                          Don’t currently have “on-board”                Doesn’t communicate (2-way) well                   board” diagnostics or          redundant or
Product/Service           diagnostics or data streams to collect         with building controls relative to                 data streams to collect        corrective hardware
 Performance                                                             performance issues in equipment
                                                                         and systems                                        Doesn’t communicate (2-way) well with building
                          Don’t have redundant or corrective
    GAP                   hardware
                                                                                                                            controls relative to performance issues in
                                                                                                                            equipment and systems



                                                                        100% of new construction self-diagnosing controls
                         Predictive maintenance in 100% of
                                                                        for the packaged HVAC unit (ST)
Product/Service          new sales (ST)
 Performance
                         Initial self-healing/correcting (MT)           Economizer controls & systems (seals, actuators,
                                                                        dampers) that are reliable & effective (ST)                      Predictive controls to
   GOAL                  Intelligent Systems with predictive,                                                                            optimize operation (MT)
                         diagnostic controls & self-healing
                                                                        Intelligent controls connected/communicating with
                         processes (LT)
                                                                        buildings & spaces so unit delivers only what                    Predictive maintenance in
                                                                        spaces need (MT)                                                 100% of new sales (ST)

                                                                        Predictive controls to optimize operation (MT)

                                                                        Pattern recognition/learning system (MT)


                                                                                                                                     Predictive maintenance
Technology
                                                                User-aware & self-diagnosing                                         User notification of status
                                                                                                  Self optimizing
                                                                controls for the packaged         controls
                             Predictive maintenance             HVAC unit                                                            Predictive energy use, alerts
                                                                                                                                     when not meeting targets
                                                                Reliable & effective economizers controls & systems
                             User notification of status                                                                             Self optimizing controls

                                                                Predictive energy use, alerts when not meeting targets




                           Research to reduce maintenance @
                           WCEC, NIST, ETO
    R&D
                                                                                                                                      Fault response on compressor related
  Program                                                                                                                             to US companies
                                                                                                                                                                             66
                                                                 Air conditioning Rx Sentinel @
                                                                 CEC PIER field study




                  Performance Gap                          Current Technology                                  Technology Gap (R&D need)                           Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                           #
                                                                                                                R&D Gap (No known R&D)                             (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                         Current R&D (R&D underway)
                                                                                         [BACK TO TOP]                      NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 73
R&D Project Summaries
   Fault response on compressors related to US companies: One of the important areas to develop right now is self-diagnostic controls. An important aspect
    of that is to develop and implement fault response on compressors.

   Research to reduce maintenance @ WCEC, NIST, ETO: Reducing maintenance on energy-efficient equipment can help expedite uptake of the equipment.
    Downtime in itself can be wasteful and reduces service. Replacing equipment prematurely likewise increases embedded energy of equipment and reduces
    service.

   Air Conditioning Rx Sentinel @ CEC PIER field study: Developing and testing self-diagnostic controls for air conditioning will help increase reliability and
    efficiency of HVAC systems.




74 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                       Northwest Energy Efficiency
Product/Service Area :                               HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                                        Technology Roadmap

                                                                Heat Recovery and Economizer Optimization

                    Need reliable and cost-effective sensors,
                    controls, and algorithms                       Don’t currently optimize use of ambient or        Not tied to building needs/loads
Product/Service                                                    indoor conditions, e.g., economizer, indoor
 Performance                                                       ventilation controls, heat recovery               Current high-energy use for distribution                    Case studies to
                                                                                                                     of heat and cooling beyond actual vent                      validate system energy
    GAP                                                                                                              need                                                        savings and reliability




                         Controls to meet indoor
Product/Service                                       Ventilation/temperature/humidity delivery
                         air needs – no excess                                                       Delivery of only what the space
                                                      matched to actual uses at granular level so                                          Maximum efficient
 Performance             vented air beyond                                                           of occupant needs (LT)
                                                      controls can be designed appropriately                                               distribution of HVAC (don’t
                         occupant needs (LT)
                                                      with monitoring (MT)                                                                 use ducts if you don’t need          Reduce or eliminate
   GOAL                                                                                              Economizer controls & systems         them) (L)                            space heating and/or
                                                      Predictive controls to optimize operation      (seals, actuators, dampers) that                                           water heating
                         Make cost-effective and      (MT)                                           are reliable & effective (ST)         Packaged equipment (up to            requirements in grocery
                         reliable heat recovery
                                                                                                                                           20 tons capacity) for 100%           stores and supermarkets
                         available in RTUs and
                                                                                                                                           of new construction, to              by recovering waste heat
                         other HVAC systems
                                                                                                     Work with manufacturing               capture all lost opportunities       from refrigeration and AC
                                                                                                     community as in trade                 in the new and replacement           equipment
                                                                                                     associations and interest groups      market (LT)



Technology

                            Reliable & effective                                                                                                                                Modular heat recovery
                            economizers controls &                                                                                 Compact and reliable                         heat exchangers and
                                                                   Reliable & effective                                            condensing burner /
                            systems                                                                                                                                             controls
                                                                   economizers controls &                                          furnace for RTU
                                                                   systems                                                         application
                            Heat recovery
                            optimization controls
                                                                   Fast, accurate controls for
                            and algorithms
                                                                   enthalpy and air flow

                                                                                                                               Condensing gas pack RTUs @
                                                                                                                               NRCAN, CEE
                     Heat recovery optimization routines
    R&D              such that economizer performance is
                     not impacted
  Program
                                                         98
                                                                                                                                                          Modularize grocery and supermarket
                                                                                                                                                          waste-heat recovery for space and
                                                                  Reliability of enthalpy                                                                 domestic water heating
                                                                  controls @ NBI
                                                                                                                                                                            New gap not scored



                  Performance Gap                      Current Technology                                    Technology Gap (R&D need)                             Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                            #
                                                                                                             R&D Gap (No known R&D)                                (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                     Current R&D (R&D underway)
                                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                     NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 75
R&D Project Summaries
   Heat recovery optimization routines such that economizer performance is not impacted: Developing controls and system designs to optimize heat
    recovery and use of outside air can reduce or eliminate HVAC compressor and burner operation for many hours per year.

   Modularize grocery and supermarket waste-heat recovery for space and domestic water heating: Do a field study of using heat recovery from grocery
    refrigeration or air conditioning to use for space heating in other areas or to pre-heat domestic hot water.

   Reliability of enthalpy controls @ NBI: Good enthalpy control is important for efficient control of economizers. To date, enthalpy controls have been found to
    have notorious reliability issues. Developing and testing a reliable enthalpy control could help save significant energy in the Northwest.

   Condensing gas pack RTUs @ NRCAN, CEE: Roof-top units (RTUs) with condensing gas heat will be much more efficient than non-condensing. Field test as
    necessary and encourage implementation in the Northwest.




76 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                        Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                                  HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                                                     Technology Roadmap

                                                                             Variable Refrigerant Flow*

                                                               Trained            Don’t have redundant or
                                                                                                                      Don’t currently optimize use of ambient or
                                                               technicians        corrective hardware
                                                                                                                      indoor conditions, e.g., economizer, indoor
Product/Service
                           VRF energy savings potential,       Don’t currently have “on-board” diagnostics            ventilation controls, heat recovery
 Performance
                           control optimization not well       or data streams to collect
                           understood                                                                                         Not tied to building needs/loads                       Information on energy
    GAP                                                                                                                                                                              performance, optimization,
                                                               Doesn’t communicate (2-way) well with                   Current high-energy use for distribution of                   and mini-split system
                                                               building controls relative to performance               heat and cooling beyond actual vent need                      control best practices
                                                               issues in equipment and systems


                       Need the equivalent of
Product/Service        ASHRAE Manual chapter on
                                                               Ventilation/temperature/humidity delivery
 Performance           VRF design, control, and                matched to actual uses at granular level so
                                                                                                               Clarify variable refrigerant flow system energy             Variable speed control on ALL
                       energy savings optimization                                                             benefits, trade-offs, and optimal control strategies        systems, fans, compressors,
                                                               controls can be designed appropriately
                                                                                                               for mini-split AC and heat pumps                            pumps, e(ST)
   GOAL                                                        with monitoring (MT)

                       Clarify variable refrigerant
                                                                                                                                                                           Maximum efficient distribution of
                       flow system energy benefits,                                            Delivery of only what the space of occupant needs (LT)                      HVAC (don’t use ducts if you don’t
                       trade-offs, and optimal control                                                                                                                     need them) (L)
                       strategies

                                                                    Controls to meet indoor air needs –      Intelligent controls connected/communicating with             Work with manufacturing
                                                                    no excess vented air beyond              buildings & spaces so unit delivers only what                 community as in trade
                                                                    occupant needs (LT)                      spaces need (MT)                                              associations and interest groups

                          Variable refrigerant flow
                          systems and controls
Technology
                          Need to downscale what’s                                                                    Variable refrigerant flow
                          available on big chiller for                                                                systems and controls for
                          smaller units and integrate                                                                 mini-split AC and heat pump
                          with maintenance systems                                                                    applications

                                                                                                                       Variable speed everything with                 Fast, accurate controls        Self optimizing
                                                                                                                       low cost, high reliability                     for enthalpy and air flow      controls


                    More information about energy use; improve
                    controls @ BPA, EPRI, SCE, et al.
                                                              90                                                    Better mini-split controls with
                                                                                                                    variable refrigerant flow (VRF)
    R&D
                                                                                                                    applications                   100
  Program                                                                                                                                Field test variable speed heat
                                                                                                                                         pumps @ EPRI , Daiken

                                                                                                                                                                         Water-based VRF systems to
                                                                                                                                                                         incorporate geothermal with VRF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                80

                  Performance Gap                         Current Technology                                       Technology Gap (R&D need)                                        Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                                             #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                        Current R&D (R&D underway)                                R&D Gap (No known R&D)




                                                                                                  [BACK TO TOP]                                    NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 77
R&D Project Summaries
   Better mini-split controls with flow (VRF) applications: VRF and other control optimization can make mini-splits even better alternatives to conventional
    central AC.

   More information about energy use; improve controls: Develop reliable engineering and technical information on how to optimize VRF energy savings while
    assuring comfort and reliability. BPA, EPRI, Southern California Edison, and others met in February 2011 to develop a short-term (2 – 3 year) roadmap for
    variable capacity heat pumps. This roadmap will be integrated into the Northwest Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap as early as the end of March 2011.
    Other projects being carried out by BPA and EPRI are conducting VRF assessments and demos and analyzing the market position of VRF systems in the U.S.
    NOTE: Prior to the March 2011 draft of the roadmap, this R&D box was identified as a gap and was scored accordingly.

   Water-based VRF systems to incorporate geothermal with VRF: So much attention has been given to air-source heat pumps recently that the VRF "multi-
    split" and "mini-split" systems are nearly as efficient as ground-source and water-source heat pumps. Could we combine the technologies, using what we have
    learned in VRF technology to further increase the efficiency of water-source heat pumps?

   Field test variable speed heat pumps @ EPRI, Daikin: One of the most promising heating and air conditioning technologies is variable refrigerant flow, or
    "multi-split" systems. However, good field testing is needed to verify that it can perform in the field as promised in theory.



* NOTE: BPA convened experts in Portland, Oregon, in February 2011 to develop a Variable Capacity Heat Pump Roadmap. As of March 1, 2011, this roadmap
is still under construction. Once completed (perhaps as early as the end of March 2011) it will replace the existing VRF roadmap above.




78 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                   Northwest Energy Efficiency
Product/Service Area :                                HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                   Technology Roadmap

                                                                            HVAC Motors and Drives


Product/Service          Cost and size limitations
 Performance             for currently available
                         ECMs
    GAP
                                                                 Cost-effective technology, case studies,
                                                                 education, application standards




Product/Service
 Performance                                                   Variable speed control on ALL systems, fans,
                                                               compressors, pumps, e(ST)
   GOAL




                         Variable speed control on
                         ALL systems, fans,
                         compressors, pumps,
                         e(ST)
Technology


                                                               Variable speed everything with low cost, high
                         Variable speed everything             reliability
                         with low cost, high
                         reliability




                      Make electronically
                      commutated motors bigger
                      and compatible with belt-                  Drop-in electronically commutated motors
    R&D               driven loads                               for residential, need furnaces, case
  Program                                            73          studies, savings, etc.
                                                                                                        74




                  Performance Gap                         Current Technology                                   Technology Gap (R&D need)        Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                            #
                                                                                                               R&D Gap (No known R&D)           (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                        Current R&D (R&D underway)
                                                                                       [BACK TO TOP]                     NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 79
R&D Project Summaries
   Drop-in electronically commutated motors (ECM) for residential applications: Use of ECMs for small motors could decrease energy use and increase ease
    of speed control significantly. A line of ECMs that would drop in easily for retrofit would make implementation easier and more widespread.

   Make electronically commutated motors bigger and compatible with belt-driven loads: ECMs have been very effective for saving energy and simplifying
    speed control for small motors. Having them available in larger sizes could simplify many retrofits, increase efficiency, and simplify design of variable speed
    systems.




80 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                          Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                                 HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                                        Technology Roadmap

                                                                  Modeling, Lab and Field Testing (1 of 2)

                                                                                                          Don’t currently optimize use of ambient or indoor conditions, e.g., economizer,
                                      Predictable, enforceable
Product/Service                                                                                           indoor ventilation controls, heat recovery
                                      RTU efficiency standards
 Performance                          to enable maximum
                                                                                                          Not tied to building         Current high-energy use for distribution of heat and
                                      savings from this
                                                                                                          needs/loads                  cooling beyond actual vent need
    GAP                               pervasive technology




                     Work with manufacturing              Packaged equipment (up to 20 tons
Product/Service      community as in trade                capacity) for 100% of new
                     associations and interest groups     construction, to capture all lost
 Performance                                                                                                                          Delivery of only what the space          Quantify and deliver
                                                          opportunities in the new and               Controls to meet indoor          of occupant needs (LT)                   predictable energy
                                                          replacement market (LT)
   GOAL              Economizer controls & systems                                                   air needs – no excess
                                                                                                                                                                               savings from HVAC
                     (seals, actuators, dampers) that                                                vented air beyond                Maximum efficient distribution of
                                                          Functional performance test                                                                                          distribution zone control
                     are reliable & effective (ST)                                                   occupant needs (LT)              HVAC (don’t use ducts if you
                                                          definition for factory testing (ST)                                                                                  systems
                                                                                                                                      don’t need them) (L)




Technology
                                 RTU performance test protocols
                                                                                                                                                                                 HVAC distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                 system zoning
                                                                                                                                                                                 controls
                                                                                                                Building simulation
                                                                                                                software




                                                                                                                                            Need more accurate
                                                                                                                                            modeling to compare
                                                                                                                                            systems more easily
                                                                                                                                              New gap not scored
                              Develop load based lab testing for RTUs                                                                                                          Field M&V test for zoning
    R&D                       @ ASHRAE 1608-RTAR                                                                                                                               savings
  Program                                                                                                                                                                         New gap not scored
                                                                                                Do field tests to compare building models to actual
                                                                                                energy use to provide feedback in order to help
                                                                                                develop more accurate building simulations
                                                                                                                                 New gap not scored



                  Performance Gap                       Current Technology                                    Technology Gap (R&D need)                                 Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                               #        (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                      Current R&D (R&D underway)                            R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                                           [BACK TO TOP]                          NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 81
R&D Project Summaries
   Need more accurate modeling to more easily compare systems: Building modeling for design has been a great boon to designing energy-efficient
    buildings, but there's much room for improvement. We should make it much easier to try out alternative scenarios without having to do detailed re-designing
    of the building model.

   Do field tests to compare building models to actual energy use; provide feedback in order to help develop more accurate building simulations: Do field
    tests to compare building model to actual energy use when built. Provide feedback to building modeling developers to help them develop more accurate
    building simulations.

   Field M&V test for zoning savings: Do some field tests to gather data for optimizing design choices for zoning with different heating and cooling systems.

   Develop load-based lab testing for RTUs (ASHRAE 1608-RTAR): ASHRAE is currently working on updating the testing standard for roof-top units; ASHRAE
    1608-RTAR. Once that is completed, implement the standard in the Northwest.




82 ■ MARCH 2011
                                                                                                                                                                     Northwest Energy Efficiency
 Product/Service Area :                             HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING                                                                       Technology Roadmap

                                                                Modeling, Lab and Field Testing (2 of 2)

                      Don’t currently optimize use of ambient or indoor conditions, e.g.,
                      economizer, indoor ventilation controls, heat recovery
Product/Service                                                                                           Trade-offs among various approaches to drilling
 Performance                                                                                              for ground-source heat pump heat exchanger
                      Current high-energy use for distribution of          Not tied to building           placement are not well understood
    GAP               heat and cooling beyond actual vent need             needs/loads

                                                                                                                                                                    Non-vapor compression cooling
                                                                                                                                                                    (S.S. or Evaporative) (LT)


                                                                                                                                                                        Retrofitable radiant heating ,
Product/Service                   Delivery of only what the space of occupant                                                                                           cooling in residential,
                                                                                                                  Reduce costs and increase cost
 Performance                      needs (LT)                                                                      predictability for ground-source                      commercial, industrial
                                                                                                                  heat pump installations
    GOAL                                                                                                                                                                    Retrofit variable air flow
                                  Maximum efficient distribution of HVAC (don’t
                                  use ducts if you don’t need them) (L)                                                                                                     system wireless,

                                                                                                                                                                      Desiccant cooling (if shown to
                                                                                                                                                                      be more viable than in the past)
                                                                                                                                                                      – not applicable in this climate,
                                                                                                                                                                      small market niche

                                                                                                                                                                                Heat recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                ventilation as primary
                                                                                                                                                                                house heat
Technology                                  Improved building energy
                                            simulation software with
                                            parametric analysis                                                                                                        Hybrid vapor compression /
                                            capabilities to better model                                                                                               evap. cooling systems and
                                                                                                                   Geoexchange with HRV (may
                                            variations in real-world                                                                                                   sub-systems
                                                                                                                   be abandoned)
                                            operating conditions
                                                                                                                                                                Wireless controls that meet or exceed
                                                                                                                                                                all standards for wired controls – move
                                                                                                                                                                to market case study

                                                                                                                                                                                Equipment rack with
                                                                                                                                                                                water cooled – high
                                                                                                                                                                                (delta)T low flow

                                                                                                                                                                                    Indirect EVAP with
                                       More variability, determined                               Geothermal bore testing for different boring technology
    R&D                                                                                                                                                                             thermal mass/night
                                       automatically in simulation for more                       performance, integrating into the building structure                              flush
  Program                              realistic systems modeling
                                                                                                                                            New gap not scored
                                                       New gap not scored                                                                                                           HPWH, heat
                                                                                                                                                                                    recovery for whole
                                                                                                                                                                                    house heating




                  Performance Gap                     Current Technology                                      Technology Gap (R&D need)                          Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                            #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                    Current R&D (R&D underway)                              R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                       NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 83
R&D Project Summaries
   Geothermal bore testing for different boring technology performance, integrating into the building structure: It would be worthwhile to have some good
    data on what kind of drilling is generally most cost-effective under certain conditions for geothermal heating and cooling systems. Test the different methods
    against each other for cost-effectiveness. If not already available, develop a best practices guide for what conditions favor which drilling techniques.

   More variability, determined automatically in simulation for more realistic systems modeling: Building modeling for design has been a great boon to
    designing energy-efficient buildings, but there is much room for improvement. We need to develop the capability to program in more variability for specific
    building conditions. Ideally, the program could anticipate some of the specific features. We should also make it much easier to try out alternative scenarios
    and perhaps to have modules that would automatically suggest options to optimize the design.




84 ■ MARCH 2011
[BACK TO TOP]   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 85
Sensors, Meters, and Energy Management System Roadmaps




86 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :                  SENSORS, METERS, ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS                                                                                           Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                              Technology Roadmap

                             Device-                                                             Roadmap
                       Smart Device-Level Controls Responsive to User and Environment Technology Roadmap

                                                                                                                                                                                Cost to add-on sensors is high
                      Standardization of protocols                      Need low-cost control                                         Consumer-oriented                         (e.g., install an occupancy
                                                                        capabilities                                                  solutions which combine                   sensor for a light fixture)
Product/Service
                                                                                                                                      multiple needs, energy
 Performance                                                                                                                          savings and security,
                      “Dumb” devices are not much fun                   Many stand-alone devices run uncontrolled
                                                                        with no occupant present. Also deliver too                    convenience, and other
    GAP                                                                 much heating, lighting, e                                     consumer uses
                      Sufficient intelligence somewhere in the                                                                                                             Central EMS control is
                      system to manage conflicting inputs               “Automatic”, how does the occupant control his/her            Occupant desire for                  expensive and often not
                                                                        environment                                                   individual/personal control          responsive to users


Product/Service
 Performance
                                                         Modular generic control/sensor packages are                   Extension of smart controls to lighting and                 Occupancy sensor controls
                     Standards for electronic
   GOAL              devices (ST)                        available at low cost (10% of device cost or less) (LT)       HVAC (MT)                                                   available in common
                                                                                                                                                                                   devices (ST)
                                                                                                                       Standard practice for all electrical devices that
                     User input is standard, cheap, and ubiquitous (e.g.,       Stand alone sensors must               directly serve people includes smart control              Modular generic control
                     by cell phone, standard IR controller, voice               connect to whole system to             logic and sensors to modulate energy use to               sensor package responding
                     command, or similar) (LT)                                  enable optimum energy use              optimally correspond to user needs (LT)                   to occupancy temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                 light level, air quality, and
                                                                                                                                                                                 user input (LT)



                      Standardized wireless                                                  Cheap, standardized, user-aware,              Occupancy sensor integrated into        Sensors that integrate with
Technology            communication systems,
                                                       Status reporting feedback so
                                                                                             modular control sensor packages               lighting fixtures (stairwells,          other control systems
                                                       we know operation result
                      “Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Home                                                   responding to occupancy                       parking garages, outdoor parking        (lighting, HVAC)
                      plug, Z-wave                                                           temperature light level, air quality,         lots, private offices)
                                                                                             and user input                                                                        Eliminate sensors where
                                                                                                                                           Technology improvements to              data can be acquired
                                                       Testing and certification of                                                        better modulate, control speed          externally , enthalpy
                                                                                             Open license sensor technologies              etc., need more use specific
                                                       equipment to conform to
                                                       interoperability “EPRI level”                                                       devices




                                                 To what degree are these simply
                                                 autonomous agents?

    R&D
  Program          Scan existing technology from cell phones for
                   transformation to new uses with standardized
                   wireless communication systems                  78        NETC is doing some work on power line carrier to distribute
                                                                             low transmission voltages. Could this be used for
                                                                             commercial building voltages?




                  Performance Gap                      Current Technology                                          Technology Gap (R&D need)                               Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                                    #      (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                     Current R&D (R&D underway)                                  R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                                          [BACK TO TOP]                              NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 87
R&D Project Summaries
   Scan existing technology from cell phones for transformation to new uses with standardized wireless communication systems: Cell phones are now
    ubiquitous and versatile. Being able to send alarms to cell phones or even being able to change control settings via cell phone would add to the convenience
    of control systems and operators may pay more attention to them without being distracted from other tasks. Scan for current technology before developing
    new systems. For example, the GM Volt has an iPhone app that allows users to monitor charging status and can be notified when charging ends (either on-
    schedule or prematurely). This system seems like it could easily lend itself to vehicle controllability via GM’s On Star system.

   Northwest Energy Technology Collaborative (NETC) is doing some work on power line carrier to distribute controls signals over low transmission voltage
    lines. Could this be used for commercial building voltages?: The attraction of power line carrier signals for controls is compelling. Power lines are available
    virtually wherever control is needed. This eliminates the need for installing an additional set of wires or more expensive wireless equipment. If barriers to
    implementing this in commercial applications could be removed, it could simplify and reduce the cost of installation of controls, especially for retrofit. Is NETC
    studying this?




88 ■ MARCH 2011
 Product/Service Area :              SENSORS, METERS, ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS                                                        Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                       Technology Roadmap

                                          Easy / Simple User Interface Controls Technology Roadmap


                     Does not consider                Make user experience as important to EMS                          Based on manufacturer design
Product/Service
 Performance         demographic operability          manufacturers as it is to Intuit and Sony

    GAP



                      Survey consumer needs (ST)             Controls need to connect to large number of                            Create standards (LT)
Product/Service                                              devices/features to allow users to address
 Performance                                                 amenity control needs (LT)
                      Control management system
                                                                                                                Need standardization of communication/control
   GOAL               should be implemented where
                                                                                                                protocols to allow for variety of interface devices
                      appropriate, reflect user/occupant     Support           Interfaces need to allow for
                                                                                                                and approaches (phones, RFID cards, PCs,
                      known preferences (LT)                 demonstration     different levels of
                                                                                                                integrated amenity control devices, etc.) (LT)
                                                             projects (MT)     sophistication of users (LT)



                                                                                                              Industry-wide user experience test standards and
                                                                                                              minimum performance requirements

Technology                   User-friendly energy                                                                                          Energy hub
                             management systems

                                                                Energy information                                  Sensors that optimize lighting, power
                                                                display systems                                     density based on color temperature


                    Study/determine what energy management
                    devices people actually use.               89


    R&D
  Program                            Research on energy savings impacts for energy information display – underway
                                     – contact Alan Meier @ LBNL and BECC conference organizers to get researcher
                                     contact info




                  Performance Gap              Current Technology                        Technology Gap (R&D need)                  Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                               #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal             Current R&D (R&D underway)                R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                       [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 89
R&D Project Summaries
   Study/determine what energy management devices people actually use: Make electronically commutated motors bigger and compatible with belt-driven
    loads

   Research on energy savings impacts for energy information display underway; contact The Brattle Group to get researcher contact info: There's a lot of
    talk about in-home energy displays, but not much information on how effective they are with saving energy. What is the persistence of the savings? Check
    with researchers A. Faruqui and/or S. Sergici (at The Brattle Group) for more info.




90 ■ MARCH 2011
Product/Service Area :               SENSORS, METERS, ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS                                                           Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                          Technology Roadmap

                                       Consumer Energy Management Services Technology Roadmap

                    Homeowners do not have expertise to         Very small marginal savings available (RESIDENTIAL)                   Lack of energy management
Product/Service     manage energy (RESIDENTIAL)                                                                                       expertise (COMMERCIAL)
 Performance
                                                                Homeowners need to control energy costs and be able to
    GAP              Rates are changing and hard to             respond to higher rates and changing rate standards                   Single sites have small
                     understand (RESIDENTIAL)                   (RESIDENTIAL)                                                         marginal savings
                                                                                                                                      (COMMERCIAL)


Product/Service
 Performance
                                          Bundle energy management services for cost effectiveness (ST-MT)
   GOAL



                                         Cheap, standardized, user-aware, modular             Internet companies providing energy      Energy management
                                         control sensor packages responding to                management software (Google              services companies
                                         occupancy temperature light level, air quality,      power meter, Microsoft Hohm, cable       (Elations, Sensus MI,
                    Interval data        and user input                                       labs)                                    Verisae)
                    analysis tools
Technology          (Northwrite)         Utility company providing 3rd party energy management                  Web based home, small commercial energy
                                         software (residential and small business – ACLARA, APOGEE)             management systems and services

                                         IP affordable             Whole house energy                New utility billing systems to incorporate demand-side
                                         thermostats               use monitoring                    customer information into customer account




                                                                                           Best Buy has Minnesota-based prototype testing and development ,
                                                                                           includes strategy for extension from current offering to EV wiring, home
    R&D                                                                                    EMS, energy audits and services, smart phone applications, etc.
  Program

                                                      Federal Stimulus funded demonstration projects
                                                      involving home energy management @ [?]



                  Performance Gap              Current Technology                            Technology Gap (R&D need)                 Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                  #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal             Current R&D (R&D underway)                    R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                          [BACK TO TOP]                    NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 91
R&D Project Summaries
   Federal stimulus-funded demonstration projects involving home energy management: One of the foci of the federal stimulus package was to foster energy
    efficiency by promoting and/or funding good home energy management. Action: Check to see what is underway for potential collaboration and check to see
    if more funding is available.

   Best Buy has Minnesota-based prototype testing and development, includes strategy for extension from current offering to electric vehicle wiring,
    home EMS, energy audits and services, smart phone applications, etc.: Having good tools and education available through easily-accessible sources such
    as local stores could be a big boon to the under-served residential energy management market.




92 ■ MARCH 2011
Product/Service Area :               SENSORS, METERS, ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS                                                          Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                         Technology Roadmap

                                      Low-
                                      Low-Cost Savings Verification Techniques Technology Roadmap

                     Need to be able to attribute energy          No tools for savings                      Devices for measuring widget performance are
Product/Service      performance improvements and affects         verification (M&V)                        currently relatively expensive add-ons that are
 Performance                                                                                                expensive to retrieve information from
                      Transform raw data into     Feedback loops for energy related
    GAP
                     actionable insights          system design and operation decisions




Product/Service
 Performance                 Low-cost savings verification
                             techniques (LT)
   GOAL



                                                                                         Savings verification monitoring, data collection and transmittal devices
                              Software tools to implement                                on a chip that costs pennies and can be incorporated into any product
                              International Performance
                              Measurement and Verification
                              Protocols
Technology
                                                                                         Air advice had portable system to verify EMS sensors




                    CEC PIER M&V project for universal software
    R&D             (= Universal Translator project?)
  Program




                  Performance Gap               Current Technology                         Technology Gap (R&D need)                 Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                #    (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal              Current R&D (R&D underway)                 R&D Gap (No known R&D)
                                                                          [BACK TO TOP]                 NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 93
R&D Project Summaries
   CEC PIER M&V project for universal software (= Universal Translator project?): Universal software protocol for M&V would simplify implementation and
    reduce costs for savings verification procedures.




94 ■ MARCH 2011
Product/Service Area :                    SENSORS, METERS, ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS                                                                                        Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                            Technology Roadmap

                               Real-                                                               Roadmap
                               Real-time Smart Electric Power Measurement of Facilities Technology Roadmap
                                                                                                                                                                     Transform raw data into actionable
                                                                      Gather data/intelligence about building use operations, schedules, demands                     insights, consumer knowledge
Product/Service
 Performance                Retrofit is        Devices lack             Results can be                                                                              Better designed distribution
                                                                                                  No standard            GP14. Existing                             panels
                            expensive          intelligence             complicated               technology             analysis tools
    GAP
                                                                                                                                                                    Consumer are not motivated
                          Many existing analysis tools require specialized expert                 How to layout sensors and distribution circuits to align
                          operators                                                               with EMS – algorithm layer and physical layout
                                                                                                                                                                    Standard benchmarking and
                          People/utilities/energy managers don’t know what to do with             Standard protocols and systems to aggregate low level             comparisons to inform
                          data – need better data                                                 data into high level actionable knowledge                         decisions
Product/Service
 Performance

   GOAL
                                                          Cost-effective, accurate load
                     Harvest the full savings             metering to drive instantaneous
                     theoretically available with air-    and long-term energy savings
                     side HVAC economizers                opportunities
                                                                                                 All utility customers have networked                  Numerous appliances and devices have
                                                                                                 smart meter in 8 years (ST-MT)                        embedded and networked power meters (MT)

                                                                                                 All electric end-uses over 1 kW have embedded and           Legislate                 Create standards
                                                                                                 networked power metering in 15 years (LT)                   compliance (LT)           (MT)

Technology
                     Low-cost, reliable enthalpy
                     sensor for economizers


                                                                Data collection, analysis, and customer feedback systems to
                                                                                                                                          Interval data analysis tools (Northwrite)
                                                                optimize whole-system energy performance




                                                              Review Existing Research
                                                              (DOE, Smart grid R&D                 Develop metrics for interval data. Related to
                                                              workshop)                            significant drivers such as time of day, weather,
    R&D                                                                                            etc., high/low ratios @ (Where?)

  Program            Low cost, reliable enthalpy
                     sensor @ NBI

                                                                                                                                             Standards research @ NIST (Priority action group working
                                                                                                                                             on standards)




                  Performance Gap                        Current Technology                                   Technology Gap (R&D need)                                 Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                                                #       (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal                       Current R&D (R&D underway)                           R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                                            [BACK TO TOP]                        NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 95
R&D Project Summaries
   Review Existing (DOE, Smart grid R&D workshop): Some smart electric power measurement of facilities is already available. Before putting too many
    resources into research, it would be worthwhile to do a thorough assessment of tools and systems that are already available.

   Standards research @ NIST (Priority action group working on standards): Developing standards for measuring facility energy use would help simplify and
    standardize energy measurement. Work with NIST to help develop useful standards.

   Develop metrics for interval data. Related to significant drivers such as time of day, weather, etc., high/low ratios: The first step to analyzing energy use
    is good data. Developing standardized metrics will help make the information more accessible, and make it easier for more people to be able to analyze the
    data.

   Low cost, reliable enthalpy sensor @ NBI: A low-cost, reliable enthalpy sensor would help gather much needed information for energy analysis. NBI is in the
    process of developing or testing one.




96 ■ MARCH 2011
Product/Service Area :               SENSORS, METERS, ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS                                                               Northwest Energy Efficiency
                                                                                                                                              Technology Roadmap

                            Enterprise Energy and Maintenance Management Systems Technology Roadmap


Product/Service                    Site: common protocols for          Enterprise,
                                                                                                                  Integrating energy management into consumer
 Performance                       RTU sponsors                        communicating data
                                                                                                                  services
    GAP
                                   Processing, synthesizing and storing data




Product/Service
 Performance             Integrating energy management into       Standards: IP-V6, Internet                 Bill to provide list that Wal-
   GOAL                  consumer services                        Engineering Task Force ( ST, MT)           Mart uses (ST)




                         Enterprise energy management software (many           Information technology adapted for energy management
Technology               providers, easily 30+ companies)                      players: Cisco, Google, IBM, Microsoft




                                   Development of algorithms/intelligence interface of sensor
                                   information with central system @ Cisco, others
    R&D
  Program
                                                                                                Development of protocols for security @ ASHRAE
                                                                                                (?)




                  Performance Gap              Current Technology                        Technology Gap (R&D need)                     Priority Score of R&D Gap
                                                                                                                                 #     (Max=100)
                  Performance Goal             Current R&D (R&D underway)                R&D Gap (No known R&D)

                                                                         [BACK TO TOP]                    NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 97
R&D Project Summaries
   Development of algorithms/intelligence interface of sensor information with central system @ Cisco, others: In developing and promulgating enterprise
    energy management systems, it is very desirable to standardize protocols for multiple reasons, including ways to communicate with a central system. Many
    programs and enterprises are working on that (Cisco, Google, IBM, Microsoft, and others).

   Development of protocols for security @ ASHRAE: In developing and promulgating enterprise energy management systems, it is very desirable to
    standardize protocols for multiple reasons, including ways to communicate with a central system and for security. Many programs and enterprises are
    working on that, including Cisco, Google, IBM, Microsoft, and others.




98 ■ MARCH 2011
Abbreviations 
AC       Alternating Current 
AC       Air Conditioning 
BECC     Behavior, Energy and Climate Change 
CCT      Correlated Color Temperature (in K) 
CFL      Compact Fluorescent Light 
CLTC     California Lighting Technology Center 
CRI      Color Rendering Index 
DC       Direct Current 
DHW      Domestic Hot Water 
ECM      Electronically Commutated Motor 
EMS      Energy Management System 
ETO      Energy Trust of Oregon 
EV       Electric Vehicle 
FCL      Fault Current Limiter 
GHG      Greenhouse Gas 
HPWH     Heat Pump Water Heater 
HRV      Heat Recovery Ventilator 
IES      Illuminating Engineering Society 
IP       Internet Protocol 
IPMVP    International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol 
IR       Infrared 
LED      Light Emitting Diode 
lm       lumen 
M&V      Monitoring and Verification 
MTBF     Mean Time Between Failures 
NBI      New Buildings Institute 
NC       New Construction  
NETC     National Energy Trade Commission 


                                                    [BACK TO TOP]           NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 99
NIST               National Institute of Science and Technology  
PC                 Personal Computer 
PCM                Phase Change Material 
QC                 Quality Control 
RFID               Radio‐Frequency Identification 
RTU                Roof Top Unit 
SHGC               Solar Heat Gain Coefficient 
SSL                Solid State Lighting 
UBC                University of British Columbia 
UPS                Uninterruptible Power Supply 
VRF                Variable Refrigerant Flow 
WCEC               Western Cooling Efficiency Center 
ZNE                Zero Net Energy 




100 ■ MARCH 2011
Back Cover CD: May 2010 Roadmap + Appendices




                        [BACK TO TOP]   NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP ■ 101

				
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