CONGRESSIONAL RECORDSENATE December

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					      26274                                                 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                      December 5, 2000
      ROTH deserves that and much more.                            more than sixty years. After ten hours               ing to the December 1996 Driver Fa-
      Senator ROTH has been a friend, part-                        driving, a driver may not drive for                  tigue and Alertness Study commis-
      ner and confidant to me over the years.                      eight hours. A driver may not drive                  sioned by the Federal Highway Admin-
        Delawareans also will miss the pleas-                      more than seventy hours in eight days.               istration, the two most important fac-
      ant, extremely competent and caring                          Supposedly the non-driving time is in-               tors in driver fatigue are time of day
      service of Senator ROTH’s staff. From                        tended to provide opportunity for sleep              and the amount and quality of sleep re-
      veterans to members of the business                          and other necessary activities. How-                 ceived.
      community—from seniors to school                             ever, long-haul drivers may end a ten-                 At the Stanford Sleep Center, drivers
      students—from the fire service to the                        hour driving period at a time of day                 from two trucking companies were
      armed forces—from the City of Wil-                           when their physiological alerting sys-               screened, treated for sleep disorders
      mington to the beach communities—                            tem, or body clock, will not permit                  and trained in how to recognize sleep
      Senator ROTH and his staff were highly                       sleep. At the end of the non-driving pe-             debt and fatigue and what to do about
      regarded for their friendly, responsive                      riod they may be tired but may legally               it. On October 18, 2000, Dr. Dement an-
      and highly-professional constituent                          drive. In many instances, they must                  nounced the results of that feasibility
      services.                                                    drive fatigued in order to make timely               study involving nine drivers from Dart
        And I know that beyond all his legis-                      delivery. There is consensus in the sci-             Transit, of Eagan, Minnesota, and Star
      lative accomplishments, Senator ROTH                         entific community that any system of                 Transport, of Morton, Illinois. The
      is most proud of his wife of 35 years—                       prescriptive hours of service regulation             drivers spent two separate sessions of
      The Honorable Jane Richards Roth—                            will result in drivers occasionally                  three days each at the sleep research
      his son Bud who is an attorney in Dela-                      being prohibited from driving when                   facility at Stanford. Dr. Dement’s find-
      ware—his daughter, Katy who is a phy-                        they are alert and compelled to drive                ings are that effective training will
      sician—and his two grandsons, Bobby                          when they are tired.                                 cause behavior change and fatigue
      and Charlie.                                                   It has come to my attention that a                 avoidance.
        This body is losing more than a pow-                       logical and creative alternative is at                 The next step is to develop a pilot
      erful Committee chairman, who used                           hand. One that offers the promise of                 program, which the Federal Motor Car-
      that power wisely, judicially and com-                       not only improved highway truck safe-                rier Safety Administration, FMCSA,
      passionately. The United States Senate                       ty, but improvement in the life-styles               will be asked to undertake. FMCSA
      is losing a genuine gentleman. He has                        of the participants—the truck drivers—               possesses the authority to conduct
      served the citizens of Delaware with                         and in the efficiencies of the companies             such a pilot program. It will be con-
      honor and integrity for nearly 34 years.                     who employ them. The alternative is in               ducted under strictly controlled ex-
      Our State, our country and the United                        managing fatigue.                                    emptions to hours of service regula-
      States Senate are so much better for                           The problem of operator inattention                tions.
      his service.                                                 related to sleep deprivation has been                  I am told that Clyde Hart, Acting Ad-
        The British statesman and philoso-                         the subject of medical, scientific and               ministrator of FMCSA, believes the
      pher, Edmund Burke, said in a speech                         regulatory inquiry for many years. It                idea has merit and is willing to enter-
      at Bristol:                                                  is the consensus of the medical and sci-             tain a pilot program proposal. The pro-
        The worthy gentleman who has been                          entific communities that the time has                gram will be undertaken by the Safety
      snatched from us at the moment of the elec-                  come to apply the knowledge gained by
      tion, and in the middle of the contest, whilst
                                                                                                                        Research Center, Bethesda, Maryland,
      his desires were as warm and his hopes as
                                                                   applying it in real operational condi-               and the Stanford Sleep Research Cen-
      eager as ours, has feelingly told us what                    tions.                                               ter. It will begin with approximately 40
      shadows we are, and what shadows we pur-                       That possibility is upon us. Thanks                drivers each from Dart and Star.
      sue.                                                         in part to the efforts of one of my con-             Screened, treated and trained, they
        Senator ROTH’s shadow will stay with                       stituents, Mr. Donald G. Oren, Presi-                would be exempted from the hours of
      this body for years to come as we pur-                       dent of Dart Transit Company of                      service regulations (but not total hours
      sue the principles he stood for.                             Eagan, Minnesota, a feasibility test                 that can be driven) to provide max-
                         f
                                                                   has been successfully concluded. This                imum flexibility to the trained drivers
                                                                   is an exciting development.                          in managing their time. These drivers
      FATIGUE MANAGEMENT IS KEY TO                                   Recently, the Safety Research Cen-                 would be compared to a control group
        IMPROVED        HIGHWAY       TRUCK                        ter, Bethesda, Maryland, under the di-               operating under current hours of serv-
        SAFETY                                                     rection    of   its    President,    Tony            ice regulations. Assuming that the op-
        Mr. GRAMS. Mr. President, highway                          McMahon, together with Stanford Uni-                 erations generate positive data, the
      safety, especially concerning long-haul                      versity’s Sleep Disorders Clinic and Re-             program would be expanded to other
      trucks tends to be a contentious issue.                      search Center undertook a scientific                 companies. Progress would be evalu-
      It is generally understood that the                          experiment. William C. Dement, M.D.,                 ated on an ongoing basis and at the end
      long-haul truck driver faces a tedious                       Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry and Be-               of the three-year program it should be
      and fatiguing task. Anyone trying to                         havioral Sciences at the Stanford Uni-               apparent that fatigue management
      get to Florida from Minnesota in one                         versity School of Medicine, and the di-              should be a regulatory alternative to
      day knows that. Government regula-                           rector of the Stanford Sleep Disorders               current hours of service regulation.
      tions on commercial truck drivers set                        Clinic and Research Center, a long-                    This is a most welcome and exciting
      parameters on hours of operation in                          time student of and author on sleep                  development. To bear out this conclu-
      the hope necessary rest can be                               disorders, developed a two-phase ap-                 sion, I ask unanimous consent that two
      achieved, thus preventing tired drivers                      proach to developing a solution to driv-             items be included in the RECORD: Dr.
      from undertaking their critical duty.                        er fatigue. The first is to test and treat           Dement’s remarks to the media and a
      How can a government mandate for                             individuals for sleep disorders and the              recent article from Traffic World.
      rest produce results?                                        second is to teach them how to manage                  There being no objection the mate-
        Anyone in the business knows that                          fatigue.                                             rial was ordered to be printed in the
      the Administration’s proposed regula-                          Doctors and scientists researching                 RECORD.
      tions governing truck drivers have                           sleep have found that drowsiness re-                 REMARKS BY WILLIAM C. DEMENT, M.D.,
      gone from bad to worse. We recently                          sults from sleep debt, which is cumu-                 PH.D., DIRECTOR OF THE STANFORD UNIVER-
      passed legislation delaying the imple-                       lative. There are only two ways to                    SITY SLEEP DISORDERS & RESEARCH CENTER
      mentation of a new proposed regula-                          build up a sleep debt: inadequate                    JOIN THE SAFE TEAM: THE POINT OF THE LANCE
      tion. However, there is a solution. But                      amounts of sleep and excessively fre-                     FOR A SAFER AND MORE ALERT AMERICA
      first, some background.                                      quent interruption of sleep as occurs in               At a press conference on Capitol Hill in
        Prescriptive Hours of Service regula-                      the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome                 January 1993, I had the privilege of reporting
      tions, HOS, have been unchanged for                          and the restless legs syndrome. Accord-              the results of the two-year study of Sleep in


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      December 5, 2000                                      CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                                       26275
      America by the National Commission on                        sleep and excessively frequent interruption          cause spouses experienced great relief. Fi-
      Sleep Disorders Research. The Commission                     of sleep as occurs in the obstructive sleep          nally, I believe that our initial group of driv-
      had determined that there were two gigantic                  apnea syndrome and the restless legs syn-            ers is now completely safe, feel much better,
      problems in our society, pervasive and severe                drome.                                               and have substantially improved cardio-
      sleep deprivation in every component of soci-                   Sleep scientists have known these facts for       vascular health. They are the vanguard of a
      ety, and a pandemic of undiagnosed and un-                   more than two decades and have tried and             new breed of long haul trucker, and on their
      treated or misdiagnosed and mistreated                       tried to bring them effectively to the atten-        own initiative, they have named themselves
      sleep disorders. The Commission also empha-                  tion of key communities. One would think             ‘‘The SAFE TEAM’’ which stands for Sleep
      sized vigorously that the root cause of these                that learning these things would be a core           and Fatigue Experienced Truckers Edu-
      problems was a total lack of effective public                part of many professional training programs,         cating America’s Motorcarriers. I also be-
      and professional awareness about sleep. In-                  and if nowhere else, certainly in the trans-         lieve that long-haul truckers will be the van-
      deed, one of the most urgent recommenda-                     portation industry. Airline personnel need to        guard of educating our entire society.
      tions of the Commission to the U.S. Congress                 know the principles of fatigue management,             We are ready and eager to go forward with
      was to launch an effective and broad based                   railroad personnel, maritime personnel, and          a formal pilot project and will seek approval
      national awareness campaign. Sadly, this did                 the vast community of automobile drivers,            of the Office of Federal Motor Carrier Safety
      not happen for several reasons including the                 but we have learned in our feasibility trial         Administration. We will put in place tech-
      budget deficit.                                              and I am now convinced, that the highest             nology to monitor SAFE TEAM drivers and
        During the period of the Commission study                  priority for intensive professional training         to insure that waiver of hours of service and
      and in many of the years since, I have                       regarding fatigue management should be               the essential flexibility is not abused. I see
      learned that attempting to alleviate the so-                 long haul truck drivers. Of course, all drivers      no likelihood of the latter because of the
      cietal problems relating to sleep has a spe-                 must have the ability to maintain attentive          commitment of these drivers to safety, but
      cial difficulty. The absence of prior exposure               alertness while driving. However, the highest        political issues make it necessary.
      to sleep education allows inappropriate skep-                educational priority should be bestowed                The intense interaction of the Stanford
      ticism about the facts of sleep, retention of                upon the community of long haul truck driv-          group which includes SleepQuest and the
      erroneous mythologies about sleep, and ex-                   ers who sit astride 40 tons of highly evolved        School of Sleep Medicine as partners in the
      treme difficulty in mobilizing an adequately                 and intricate machinery. In other modes of           Stanford University Center of Excellence,
      large community of advocates.                                transportation, attentiveness every second is        the Safety Research Institute, and above all,
        In the aftermath of the failure to launch                  not required.                                        the pioneering group of drivers revealed and
      an effective National Awareness Campaign,                       Thus, we propose a special program that           clarified what will surely become the theme
      we have persisted in attempting to develop                   involves (a) training to behavioral change           of the pilot project and beyond. Fatigue
      an alternative strategy. The main thrust has                 and commitment and (b) screening for sleep           management education is the missing piece
      been to identify a much smaller community,                   disorders and ease of access for definitive di-      in the training of professional drivers. This
      which, if adequately educated and trained,                   agnosis and effective treatment. Long haul           is why the sleep training was embraced by
      might be a catalyst for a larger societal                    drivers who are successful in completing this        the drivers and their companies and why we
      change. Efforts have been made by me and                     program will be transformed by sleep debt            can predict that it will eventually be enthu-
      others to educate primary care physicians,                   reduction and improved personal health, and          siastically embraced throughout the entire
      high school students, airline personnel, rail-               they will become disciples seeking to recruit        long haul trucking industry.
      road personnel, and a variety of other spe-                  their fellow truckers.
      cific groups such as Olympic athletes, shift                    Today, instead of what we are proposing,                [From Traffic World, Oct. 30, 2000]
      workers, and so on. None of the efforts to                   we have prescriptive hours of service which                  ENLIGHTENED SELF-INTEREST
      date have been adequately successful, par-                   guarantee that there will be times when a                       (By Frank N. Wilmer)
      ticularly as a catalyst.                                     driver must stop driving although he or she          PILOT PROGRAM WOULD TEACH FATIGUE MAN-
        All of this is by way of introducing what I                is fully alert. This may not be dangerous,             AGEMENT, PERMIT DRIVERS TO SET THEIR
      will report in today’s conference. I believe                 but it is certainly frustrating. Unfortu-              OWN WORK-REST CYCLES
      we have the absolutely best group from                       nately, the Hours of Service regulations also          When the shipment absolutely positively
      every point of view. This is not entirely new                guarantee that there will be times when dan-         has to be there on time, perhaps the truck
      because this group has been the focus of                     gerously fatigued truck drivers can keep             driver should take a nap. That’s the opinion
      much attention in recent years, a fair                       driving, sometimes for many hours. A typ-            of Stanford University sleep scientist Wil-
      amount of it entirely unwonted. The group                    ical scenario is that a driver must stop at a        liam Dement and safety consultant and
      in question is long haul truck drivers. We are               time when clock dependent alerting will not          former Federal Highway Administration
      here to announce the success of a feasibility                allow sleep. At the end of this period with          chief counsel Anthony McMahon. They say
      trial and the intention to submit a fatigue                  very little rest, the driver is very tired but       drivers properly trained in fatigue manage-
      management pilot program to the adminis-                     can now go for another 10 hours. If he chose         ment are more productive, more alert and
      trator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety                   instead to sleep, the rest period would be ex-       safer. They also make more informed deci-
      Administration. In summarizing the con-                      tended to 16 hours and his productivity              sions on when to drive and when to rest than
      tinuing lack of effective education and                      would be greatly reduced.                            bureaucrats who prescribe a one-size-fits-all
      awareness in America about sleep in 1993, I                     Personally, I have wanted to carry out this       model.
      said that 100 or so sleep disorders centers are              type of intensive training with targeted per-          Dement and McMahon intend to ask the
      islands of awareness in a vast sea of igno-                  sonnel for more than 10 years. In 1990 and 91,       Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administra-
      rance; too small in number and too dispersed                 we completed a study of 200 drivers and              tion to authorize a three-year pilot program
      to constitute a catalytic educational force.                 found that 75% of them had obstructive sleep         under which prescriptive hours-of-service
      That situation is only slightly changed                      apnea and that in interviews of more than            regulations would be scrapped temporarily in
      today. There are more islands, but the vast                  600, 82% said the signal to stop driving was         favor of enlightened self-interest by up to 80
      sea of ignorance remains.                                    ‘‘falling asleep.’’ Now, two visionary compa-        drivers who successfully complete Dement’s
        As exemplified on the October 16, 2000,                    nies, Dart and Star, have stepped forward            fatigue-management course. Where federal
      cover of US News and World Report in an ar-                  and have supported such a program with               regulations now mandate a relatively in-
      ticle titled, ‘‘Sleepless in America,’’ our na-              their own resources. We have completed a             flexible driving schedule, the Dement-
      tion is carrying the largest sleep debt in his-              feasibility study with nine drivers and in my        McMahon proposal would permit drivers to
      tory. Nearly every citizen has a bigger or                   more than 30 years as an educator, this was          determine, within limits, when they are
      smaller sleep debt. The question is why don’t                one of the best teaching experiences we have         alert and able to drive safely.
      they know it. The reasons are as follows.                    ever had. Initially, I was uncertain that we           The drivers’ dispatchers as well as mem-
        Most people don’t know their personal                      could accomplish the desired result in this          bers of the drivers’ families also would re-
      sleep requirement.                                           community. I insisted on an adequate oppor-          ceive fatigue management training and drive
        Most people know nothing about sleep                       tunity, which consisted of an initial three          time behind the wheel would be monitored
      debt.                                                        full days of education and training together         electronically. McMahon said the pilot pro-
        Most people don’t understand the function                  with sleep disorders screening, diagnosis, and       gram, whose details would be fleshed out in
      of their circadian system (biological clock).                most importantly, treatment. Then three              collaboration with the FMCSA, likely would
        Most people don’t know the significance of                 full days of additional education, review, and       limit drivers to the same maximum 70 hours
      being tired all the time.                                    evaluation one month later. In brief, at the         of driving time within eight consecutive
        Most people know nothing about sleep dis-                  second session we learned that the prior             days as now exist. But drivers would have
      orders.                                                      training and screening had been successful           greater flexibility to devise how they accu-
        An extremely important principle is that                   beyond our wildest dreams. The fatigue of            mulate those 70 hours of driving time.
      there are two ways and only two ways to                      this group was greatly reduced; the success            The proposed pilot program would involve
      build up a sleep debt; inadequate amounts of                 of CPAP treatment had a double impact be-            Dart Transit of Eagan, Minn., which utilizes


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      26276                                                 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—SENATE                                                    December 5, 2000
      owner-operators, and Star Transport of                       TN; Ramiro Peredez, 34, Atlanta, GA;                   I would just like to add one clarifica-
      Moton, Ill., which employs its own drivers.                  Lionel Robinson, 23, Baltimore, MD;                  tion. When the Department of Trans-
      Dart CEO Glenn Werry and Star CEO Donald                     Patrick Michael Smith, 21, Wash-                     portation promulgates the regulations
      Oren have pledged to pay the costs of the
                                                                   ington, DC; Levanna Spearman, 23,                    required by this act, it is required
      pilot program, said McMahon.
        ‘‘The experience at Stanford proves to me                  Baltimore, MD; Alan Villarreal, 23,                  under the Small Business Regulatory
      we can create a cadre of drivers who under-                  Houston, TX; Unidentified Male, New-                 Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA)
      stand how sleep really works and will use                    ark, NJ; and Unidentified Male, New-                 to determine whether the regulations
      new knowledge to drive more safely, reduce                   ark, NJ.                                             will have ‘‘a significant economic im-
      the dangers to themselves and others and                       Five of the people I mentioned were                pact on a substantial number of small
      improve their quality of life on and off the                 the victims of what has been described               entities.’’ If the regulations rise to
      road,’’ said Dement, a medical doctor who                    as one of the worst mass killings in                 that level, the Department is required
      also holds a Ph.D. in neurophysiology.                       Baltimore history. Mary McNeil Mat-                  to conduct an initial regulatory flexi-
        The Dement-McMahon proposal is the first                   thews; her mother, Mary Helen Collien;
      entrepreneurial approach to what has be-                                                                          bility analysis and a final regulatory
      come a furious battle between the FMCSA
                                                                   her daughter, Makisha Jenkins; and                   flexibility analysis as described in
      and the trucking industry on how to revise                   two family friends, Trennell Alston and              SBREFA so that the impacts on small
      arguably outdated safety regulations that                    Lavanna Spearman; were killed one                    businesses can be identified and better
      prescribe the maximum number of hours                        year ago today by four men who burst                 understood. None of the requirements
      commercial drivers may be behind the wheel.                  into Mary McNeil Matthews’ home and                  under SBREFA are intended to, or
        An April FMCSA reform proposal would                       shot all five women.                                 have been shown to, interfere in any
      limit daily driving time to 12 hours, mandate                  We cannot sit back and allow such
      10 continuous hours of daily rest, prescribe
                                                                                                                        way with an agency’s regulatory objec-
                                                                   senseless gun violence to continue. The              tives. In this case they would not im-
      up to four workday breaks totaling two                       deaths of these people are a reminder
      hours and prohibit drivers from being behind                                                                      pede, in any way, the Department of
                                                                   to all of us that we need to enact sen-              Transportation’s ability to provide the
      the wheel for up to 56 consecutive hours each
      seven-day period even if it stranded them at                 sible gun legislation now.                           maximum safety improvement on the
      truck stops.                                                                 f                                    highways as mandated under the
        The American Trucking Associations,                         ENSURING TRAFFIC SAFETY—H.R.                        TREAD Act.
      which estimates the FMCSA’s proposed                                                                                This is the current law and is con-
      hours-of-service revision could increase uni-
                                                                                      5164
                                                                                                                        sistent with the provision in the
      versities cloning the training program, said                   Mr. MCCAIN. Mr. President, in the
                                                                                                                        TREAD Act which prohibits the De-
      Dement.                                                      weeks since Congress passed H.R. 5164,
        Dart’s Oren, who already sent some drivers                                                                      partment of Transportation from
                                                                   the Transportation Recall Enhance-
      through Dement’s fatigue management                                                                               issuing unnecessarily burdensome reg-
                                                                   ment, Accountability, and Documenta-
      course, said they previously ‘‘didn’t worry’’                tion Act, and it was signed into law by              ulations. I just want to make it clear
      about how they spent their time before get-
                                                                   the President, questions have been                   that we will be watching closely to
      ting behind the wheel, but now ensure they                                                                        make sure that the Department of
      do not have alertness-depriving ‘‘sleep debt’’               raised by some of my colleagues about
                                                                   the impact of the bill on small busi-                Transportation adheres to the man-
      before driving. ‘‘It has become a way of life                                                                     dates of SBREFA.
      for them.’’ said Oren.                                       ness. I want to make clear my inten-
        FMCSA Acting Deputy Administrator                          tions toward small manufacturers in                               f
      Clyde Hart and ATA President Walter                          passing this legislation.                                 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY’S
      McCormick each told Traffic World they                         Obviously, the bill is not intended to                       OFFICE OF SCIENCE
      hadn’t seen the proposal and thus could not                  result in burdensome and ineffective
      comment.                                                                                                            Mr. BINGAMAN. Mr. President, I rise
                                                                   regulations on small businesses or any
                      f                                                                                                 today to address the importance of the
                                                                   size business for that matter. I would
                                                                                                                        Department of Energy’s Office of
           VICTIMS OF GUN VIOLENCE                                 expect the Department of Transpor-
                                                                   tation in establishing the regulations               Science, the nation’s leading source for
        Mr. DURBIN. Mr. President, it has                          under the bill to go through the normal              fundamental research in the physical
      been more than a year since the Col-                         analysis required under existing law to              sciences for the areas of physics, chem-
      umbine tragedy, but still this Repub-                        ensure that regulations are not overly               istry, and materials science, and a sig-
      lican Congress refuses to act on sen-                        burdensome but are effective in ad-                  nificant contributor to the biological
      sible gun legislation.                                       vancing the cause of safety.                         sciences. Besides funding the indi-
        Since Columbine, thousands of Amer-                          Let me be clear, however, the pri-                 vidual researcher, the Office of Science
      icans have been killed by gunfire. Until                     mary purpose of this bill and the De-                leads our nation in providing special-
      we act, Democrats in the Senate will                         partment of Transportation is to en-                 ized large user R&D facilities. A partial
      read the names of some of those who                          sure the safety of the traveling public.             list of such facilities would include the
      have lost their lives to gun violence in                     No priority can or should be higher as               Stanford Linear Accelerator, the Cen-
      the past year, and we will continue to                       the agency crafts these new regula-                  ter for the Microanalysis of Materials
      do so every day that the Senate is in                        tions. I hope this responds to any con-              at the University of Illinois, The Los
      session.                                                     cerns my colleagues may have about                   Alamos Neutron Science Center, the
        In the name of those who died, we                          the provisions of the bill.                          High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak
      will continue this fight. Following are                        Mr. BOND. I thank the Senator and                  Ridge, the high energy accelerators at
      the names of some of the people who                          agree without reservation that the pur-              the Fermilab and the National Syn-
      were killed by gunfire one year ago                          pose of this legislation is to increase              chrotron     Light     Source    at   the
      today, December 5, 1999:                                     safety on the highways. No one in the                Brookhaven       National    Laboratory.
        Trennell Alston, 26, Baltimore, MD;                        small business community supports al-                These user facilities are national treas-
      Georges Ronnell Barnes, 29, Baltimore,                       lowing defective auto parts or auto-                 ures. One cannot over emphasize their
      MD; Mary Collien, 51, Baltimore, MD;                         mobiles to be allowed on the road.                   importance. They are used by not only
      Gilbert Gallegos, 76, Salt Lake City,                        After all, small businesses, their em-               university researchers from all 50
      UT; Donta Henson, 18, Chicago, IL; Na-                       ployees, and their owners are some of                states but by industry in both the bio-
      than Hornes, 36, Oakland, CA; Makisha                        the drivers of the vehicles that would               logical and physical sciences. In 1999,
      Jenkins, 18, Baltimore, MD; Chris-                           be identified under this law, and they               there were 5500 users on just the large
      topher Jones, 17, Washington, DC; Greg                       are the other drivers on the road with               light sources alone to investigate new
      Karavites,    38,   Denver,   CO;   Jill                     these vehicles. They care as much as                 structures of matter in both the bio-
      Lundstrom, 25, Miami-Dade County,                            anyone else about highway safety.                    logical and physical sciences. In the
      FL; Johnny Manning, 29, Minneapolis,                         Without question, the safety of our                  last four years, the number of biologi-
      MN; Mary Matthews, 39, Baltimore,                            roadways is one of our highest prior-                cal researchers using these facilities
      MD; Bertess Montgomery, 87, Memphis,                         ities.                                               has risen by a factor of four and now


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