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					Neighborhood-Centered
     Approaches

       David L. Carter
   Michigan State University
           Program Sites
 Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas
 Garland’s Apartment Managers’ Group
 Dallas’ SAFE Team
 Beaumont’s Housing Unit
 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section
 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model
       Neighborhood-Centered
       Approaches Foundation
 PREDOMINANT            POLICING PROBLEMS
   Disorder
   Public Nuisance
   Burglary

 CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS
   Represent a large number of calls for service
   Represents a disproportionately large source of…
   + Heightened fear of crime
   + General citizen complaints
   + Lower quality of life
       Neighborhood-Centered
       Approaches Foundation
 INTENTOF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE
  RESPONSES
   Arrest offenders
   Influence citizens to report crimes/problems
   Use citizens as information/intelligence resource
   Motivate citizens as partners to help monitor and
    resolve problems

 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
   Greatest obstacle: Keeping citizens involved
   Key strategy: Blend community partnering with
    tactical policing
      Neighborhood-Centered
      Approaches Foundation
 KEY FACTORS
   Communications between neighborhood residents
    and police must increase
   Communications between residents must increase
   Residents must have a sense of ownership for the
    entire neighborhood, not just their property
   Problems must be addressed on a neighborhood
   basis, not on artificial boundaries
   Police must recognize that problems which may
   seem minor are serious to residents
Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas
 SITE                    ORGANIZATION
 DESCRIPTION              OF TURN
  28,000 Documented      AROUND TEXAS
   Resident Population     A community-based
  14 Square Miles          organization
  45 Sworn Officers       Supported by the police
  12 Non-sworn             department
                           Police provide security
                            and general assistance
Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas
 PURPOSE
  To provide “a targeted confrontation, mobilization and
  education process” led by citizens in conjunction with
  and support from the police department intended to
  intimidate drug dealers and drug buyers to stop displace
  drug transactions.
Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas
 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
   Police department identifies drug targets
   Citizens go through a training program
   Police provide transportation and security to
     marchers
   Marchers stand in front of target’s house and chant
     with intent to intimidate
   Marchers sometimes paint “crack house” with arrow
     on street
   Citizen involvement and weekly marches are
     necessary
Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   A commitment by police administration to the
    program, including a willingness to participate,
    devote resources, take risks, and permit
    flexibility for officers to participate.
   Officers must be present at all marches for
    safety, security, and support.
   Officers working with Turn Around Texas must
    have flexibility.
Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas
 PROGRAM EFFECTS
   Virtual elimination of open air drug markets
    after about one year.
   A large number of drug dealers have been
    displaced outside of Corsicana’s city limits.
   Some reduction in violent crime.
   Very positive support for the police from the
    community (including political support.)
   The police department has received increased
    information about drug distribution from
    neighborhood sources who were previously
    reluctant to talk with the police.
           Garland’s Apartment
            Managers Group
   SITE DESCRIPTION          ORGANIZATION
     200,000 Resident          The AMG is the
       Population                responsibility of the
     57 Square Miles            day shift Patrol
     287 Sworn Officers         Lieutenant
     119 Non-sworn
      Garland’s Apartment
       Managers Group
 PURPOSE
  The Apartment Managers Group (AMG) was
  formed in 1992 to serve as a problem
  identification, communications, and resource tool
  to reduce crime problems in apartment complexes.
         Garland’s Apartment
          Managers Group
 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
   All managers of apartment complexes are welcome
     to join
   Monthly meetings are held at the police department
    + Give AMG members crime analysis data
    + Discuss crime issues, problems and trends
    + Guest speaker at each meeting
   Monthly newsletter for AMG published by the
    police department
   Police department has a dedicated telephone “hot
    line” with voice mail for AMG members
      Garland’s Apartment
       Managers Group
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Having meetings on a regular basis, regardless
    of the number of people who attend.
   Providing information which is of practical
    use to the managers at the meeting, even if it
    falls outside of the law enforcement purview,
    per se.
   Holding monthly AMG meetings at the police
    department; provides reinforcement that the
    police are concerned and involved in problems
    faced by the apartment managers.
       Garland’s Apartment
        Managers Group
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Regular contact with the police has increased
    the quality of the relationship with apartment
    managers--particularly evident through NPOs
   Having constant and open avenues of
    communications between the AMG members
    and the police department
   Providing information on crime and calls for
    service to apartment managers.
   Help the apartment managers to see the need
    to communicate with and cooperate with the
    police.
       Garland’s Apartment
        Managers Group
 PROGRAM EFFECTS
   Crime reduction has been recorded in...
     + Auto burglary
     + Residential burglary
     + Drug trafficking in apartment complexes
   Most recently, auto theft has increased and a
    strategy is being developed to address this problem
   While not specifically directed toward quality of
    life issues, they have nonetheless improved.
   Some reduction in calls for service, most likely as a
    result of eviction or displacement of problem
    residents.
              Dallas’ SAFE Team
       (Support, Abatement, Forfeiture, Enforcement)
   SITE DESCRIPTION            ORGANIZATION
     1,100,000                   SAFE Team is in the
      Documented                   Investigations Bureau,
      Resident Population          Special Operations
     462 Square Miles             Division
     2,886 Sworn Officers        Commanded by a
     700 Non-sworn                Lieutenant who reports
                                   to an Assistant Chief
                                  19 sworn officers
                                  7 civilians (includes
                                   attorneys and code
                                   enforcement)
        Dallas’ SAFE Team
 PURPOSE
  To reclaim, restore, and revitalize Dallas
  neighborhoods adversely affected by crime
  through the use of criminal abatement statutes,
  code enforcement, and civil and criminal
  processes.
             Dallas’ SAFE Team
 PROGRAM           DESCRIPTION
  Criminal nuisance cases are identified through...
   + Complaints
   + Referrals
   + Reviews of special use and zoning permit requests
  Case is assigned to an investigator to determine if there
   is a statutory basis for a criminal nuisance complaint...
    + Drug trafficking and consumption of drugs
    + Prostitution (manifesting, promotion and compelling)
    + Illegal gambling (promotion and communicating)
    + Criminal gang activity (combination and/or street gang)
    + Random gunfire
    + Commercial obscenity (manufacture, distribution, exhibition)
    + Commercial dancing (sexually explicit)
    + Bull fighting
            Dallas’ SAFE Team
 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
   If the complaint meets requirements, owner meets at the
    SAFE Team’s officer hearing room for a formal
    notification (videotaped)
   Owner can sign an accord to make reparations or
    changes
    + If so, the property is monitored by the SAFE Team
   If owners don’t comply, SAFE Team will take next
    appropriate steps
    + Give extension
    + File criminal charges
    + Seek property forfeiture
          Dallas’ SAFE Team
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Explicit policy-related guidelines must be
    developed to meet abatement standards of both
    criminal and civil law.
   Some level of autonomy is needed for the SAFE
    Team because of the legal and operational
    characteristics of abatement.
   Selective enforcement of nuisance and related
    code enforcement violations is neither
    operationally nor politically viable—a “zero
    tolerance” policy is strongly recommended.
          Dallas’ SAFE Team
 CRITICAL       FACTORS
  Because the processes deals with seizure and
  control of property and the SAFE Team has a
  degree of autonomy, a series of checks and
  balances is needed to ensure accountability and
  control.
  While it may not be feasible for every agency, the
   Dallas SAFE Team has found that an invaluable tool
   is having in-house attorneys whose responsibilities
   are exclusively dedicated to the SAFE Team.
  SAFE Team administrators must be contemporary
   managers with a team orientation.
         Dallas’ SAFE Team
 PROGRAM EFFECTS
   Crime has gone down
   Quality of life has increased
   The Team’s activities, which physically
    change problem environments, coupled
    with the large number of cases the Team has
    handled in a comparatively short amount of
    time equates to a substantial impact on
    crime and disorder.
       Beaumont’s Housing Unit
 SITE DESCRIPTION  ORGANIZATION
   120,000 Documented   Supervised by a
    Resident Population   Lieutenant and Sergeant
   75 Square Miles      Unit is in Patrol
   265 Sworn Officers    Division
   85 Non-sworn         Eight officers assigned
                          permanently to seven
                          housing complexes
                         Officers may “flex”
                          their hours
     Beaumont’s Housing Unit
 PURPOSE
  In 1994 the presence of gangs and growing violent
  crime in Beaumont’s Public Housing complexes
  was a signal that some police initiative was needed
  to deal with the problem. With aid from a Federal
  grant, eight police officers were assigned to the
  newly created Public Housing Unit. The unit’s goal
  was defined as “improving the quality of life for the
  residents through proactive law enforcement, public
  awareness and education.”
        Beaumont’s Housing Unit

 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
   Officers permanently assigned to housing units
   Responsible for responding to calls and problem
    solving
   Officers investigate the crimes in the units rather
    than have them assigned to Detectives
   Essentially, the housing officer also becomes the
   coordinator for all police services in the complex
         Beaumont’s Housing Unit
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   The public housing complexes were fully assessed
    to determine the crime and disorder problems.
    Assessments included…
    + Reported crime rates and types
    + Analysis of calls received at each complex
    + An examination of the physical environment of
      the housing complex and contiguous areas
   Goals were clearly established: Reduce violent crime,
    reduce calls for service, increase citizen-police
    communication to aid in control of crime and
    disorder, develop the best possible living atmosphere
    for residents
       Beaumont’s Housing Unit
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Commitment by police management to the unit
   Officers were given:
    + Empowerment to take actions and make
      decisions
    + Flexibility in hours and approaches
   Permanent assignments to a housing complex
   A youth-oriented approach
   Dedicated officers are critical to success--personnel
    must be self-starters who work well with minimal
    supervision, who are creative, people-oriented, and
    willing to take the extra effort in their work
       Beaumont’s Housing Unit
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Regular communications and cooperation between:
    + Housing Unit officers and both patrol officers and
      detectives.
    + Officers assigned at each of the housing complexes.
    + Officer and apartment managers
    + Officers and other city departments
   Officers must be both tough on crime and providing
    assistance on quality of life issues
   Important tools for the housing officers also include:
   + Criminal trespass warnings and enforcement
   + Curfew enforcement (day and night)
        Beaumont’s Housing Unit
 PROGRAM EFFECTS
   In the 6 months prior to the Housing Unit, there
    were 1,550 offense calls in the seven apartment
    complexes ranging from homicide to disorderly
    conduct
   After the first six months of the Unit’s operation,
    crime calls dropped by 13%
   Enforcement of trespass laws has been critical
   Awareness calls have increased--defined to include
    a wide range of things including suspect sightings,
    information on crime, nuisance calls, gambling,
    prowlers, and calls for general assistance
   Quality of life has increased for residents
       Waco’s Neighborhood
         Services Section
   SITE DESCRIPTION            ORGANIZATION
     104,000 Documented          The Neighborhood
       Resident Population         Services Section is in
     93 Square Miles              the Patrol Division
     221 Sworn Officers          Section includes...
     72 Non-sworn                 + Bicycle officers
                                   + Housing officers
                                   + Neighborhood
                                     Service Officers
                                   + Investigators
                                   + Community Oriented
                                     Policing Officer
    Waco’s Neighborhood
      Services Section
 PURPOSE
 To use an integrated approach of
 Investigators, Neighborhood Oriented
 Police officers, bicycle officers, Citizens on
 Patrol, and Neighborhood Associations to
 address crimes and quality of life problems
 within defined Waco communities.
        Waco’s Neighborhood
          Services Section
 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
   Officers work cooperatively in a team approach both
  only responding to complaints and proactively
      identifying problems
   Officers are assigned to 24 different neighborhoods
   Investigators assigned to districts overlapping
     neighborhoods
   Partnerships are emphasized--police personnel
     interact with...
     + Neighborhood Associations
     + Citizens on Patrol
         Waco’s Neighborhood
           Services Section
 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
   Crime control efforts in the neighborhoods rely
    on…
    + Offender targeting
    + Identification of crime hot spots
    + Crime prediction model
   Concept is largely one of “holistic policing” in the
    neighborhoods
     Waco’s Neighborhood
       Services Section
 CRITICAL       FACTORS
  Commitment by the administration to experiment
   with an alternate organizational structure.
  Along with commitment, must be flexibility to
   permit non-traditional approaches to deployment
   and service delivery.
  A team management approach appears to be most
   effective. This includes…
   + A flat organizational structure
   + Team (rather than individual) goals
   + Sufficient autonomy to make resource
     deployment decisions
      Waco’s Neighborhood
        Services Section
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Crime and quality of life problems tend to be
    characterized by neighborhoods, thus
    geographic
   Use both proactive and reactive policing.
   Targeting and analysis of offenders, crimes
    and community problems.
   Developing trust and communications is
    essential.
   There will be internal resistance to this change.
    + Supervisors and managers are more
      difficult to change than patrol officers.
      Waco’s Neighborhood
        Services Section
 PROGRAM EFFECTS
   Crime has had an overall drop of 54% in one
    year.
   Arrests have increased dramatically; mostly
    adult offenders--these are the product of…
    + Greater offender targeting
    + Neighborhood team assignment of
      investigators
    + More information provided by the community
   There are visible signs of a notably increased
    quality of life in the neighborhoods.
      Waco’s Neighborhood
        Services Section
 PROGRAM EFFECTS
   The number of criminal nuisance abatement
    cases brought to trial by the police department
    have increased significantly.
   Officers working in the neighborhood Services
    Section have had a significant increase in job
    satisfaction. This increase is attributed to…
    + Officers are seeing positive results of their work
    + Officers are receiving positive feedback from
       the community; a feeling of appreciation
    + Working in productive teams provides a more
       desirable working environment.
      Arlington’s Geographic
          Policing Model
   SITE DESCRIPTION            ORGANIZATION
     291,600 Documented          City has 3 patrol sectors
       Resident Population         in transition to being
     123 Square Miles             geographically-based
     478 Sworn Officers          Rank of Captain
     148 Non-sworn                eliminated
                                  Lieutenant’s have a 24
                                   hour responsibility for a
                                   geographic area
                                  Sergeants coordinate
                                   responses in patrol beats
                                   (about 10,000 residents)
    Arlington’s Geographic
        Policing Model
 PURPOSE
  Relying on geographic distribution of personnel;
  team management; empowerment of line,
  supervisory, and management personnel; and
  generalization of some detective assignments, the
  APD is implementing a deployment system
  intended to be more responsive to neighborhood
  problems.
   Arlington’s Geographic
       Policing Model
 PROGRAM          DESCRIPTION
  The department was ready to take “the next step” in
   community policing--but unsure what that was
  After research and discussion, three elements emerged
   as part of the new program
   + Organize the department on a geographic basis
   + Re-think the police services and citizen needs were
      fulfilled
   + Change the management structure to facilitate these
  Lieutenants, not a shift commander, but have a 24-
   hour responsibility for a defined geographic area
  They are responsible for monitoring crime/police
   response issues; coordinating all police activities
         Arlington’s Geographic
             Policing Model
 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
   Sergeants became team leaders, responsible for
     coordinating a comprehensive police response in
     the area
   Work 10 hour shifts, overlapping to enhance
     communications and provide time for coordinating
   Sergeants are coaches and team leaders, making
     their roles more strategic and proactive
   Detectives also work on a geographic basis
   Performance evaluation system revised
   Essentially a mini-police department for the beats
      Arlington’s Geographic
          Policing Model
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Administrators must make a commitment to
    the program in both words and actions.
   Because of the comparatively “radical” nature
    of this program, changes must be made slowly
     in order for personnel to accept them.
   Change must be made as painless as possible.
   Patrol officers must be given narrow objectives
    to accomplish at first in order for them to see
    some “wins” and adjust to the new system.
       Arlington’s Geographic
           Policing Model
 CRITICAL FACTORS
   Officers must be empowered to make decisions
    about handling calls, prioritizing problems, and
    developing innovations.
   Personnel at all levels of the organization must
    be involved in the change process.
   Any changes must be contemporary and useful;
    not cosmetic.
   The focus must not be solely on crime but also
    on fear of crime and disorder.
   Administrators, managers, and supervisors
    must listen to criticisms and make adjustments.
    Arlington’s Geographic
        Policing Model
 PROGRAM EFFECTS
   Crime has reduced in all categories.
   Citizens’ quality of life has increased.
   The ability to manage critical calls for service
    has increased
   Job satisfaction among personnel has
    increased.
   Internal communications has increased.
   Communications between the police and the
    public has increased.
   It appears that the geographic-based model has
    been more cost-effective.
           Neighborhood-Centered
           Programs Implications
   Police departments must look to their communities to determine
    needs--for example...
     Call and crime analysis
     Community surveys
     Input from officers
   The department must be willing to take some risks--“color
    outside the lines”
   Examine alternate management, deployment, and leadership
    methods
   Determine what changes police personnel will accept
   Determine what changes the community will accept
   New programming can be effectively implemented
Neighborhood-Centered
     Approaches

   DISCUSSION

      David L. Carter
  Michigan State University

				
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