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Infancy Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction

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Infancy Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction Powered By Docstoc
					Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




               Chapter 7
                Infancy:
   Social and Emotional Development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

          Infancy: Social and Emotional Development:
                       Truth or Fiction?
      Infants who are securely attached to their mothers do not like to
       stray from them.




      You can estimate how strongly infants are attached to their
       fathers if you know how many diapers per week the father
       changes.
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

          Infancy: Social and Emotional Development:
                       Truth or Fiction?
   Child abusers have frequently been the victims of child abuse
    themselves.




   Autistic children may respond to people as if they were pieces of
    furniture.
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

          Infancy: Social and Emotional Development:
                       Truth or Fiction?
      Children placed in day care are more aggressive than children
       who are cared for in the home.




      Fear of strangers is abnormal among infants.
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

          Infancy: Social and Emotional Development:
                       Truth or Fiction?
   All children are “born” with the same temperament. Treatment by
    caregivers determines whether they are difficult or easy-going.




   Girls prefer dolls and toy animals, and boys prefer trucks and
    sports equipment only after they have become aware of the
    gender roles assigned to them by society.
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




                            Attachment

                        Bonds That Endure
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                    What is Meant by Attachment?


  • Enduring emotional tie between one animal/person and another
    specific individual
  • Separation anxiety
       – Experienced by infant when contact can not be maintained with
         caregiver
  • Attachment is assessed by Strange Situation
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                        Patterns of Attachment?


  • Secure attachment
       – Mildly protest mother’s departure, seek interaction upon her return
         and are easily comforted by her
  • Avoidant attachment
       – Least distressed by mothers’ departure, ignore mother upon her
         return
  • Ambivalent/resistant attachment
       – Show severe distress when mother leaves and ambivalence upon
         her return, clinging and pushing away their mother
  • Disorganized/disoriented attachment
       – Dazed, confused or disoriented
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




               Developing in a World
                   of Diversity
                  Cross-Cultural Patterns of
                        Attachment
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

              Is it Better for an Infant to be Securely
                     Attached to it’s Caregiver?
  • Securely attached infants and toddlers
       – Happier, more sociable, more cooperative
       – Use mother as secure base for exploration
       – Have longer attention spans, are less impulsive and better problem
         solvers
       – At 5 and 6, are better liked, more competent, less aggressive and
         have fewer behavioral problems
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

      What are the Roles of the Parents in the Formation
                  of Bonds of Attachment?
  • High-quality care contributes to security
  • Siblings develop similar attachment relationships with their
    mother
  • Infant’s temperament and caregivers’ behavior both contribute to
    attachment
  • What determines an infants’ attachment to their father?
       – Quality of the time the father spends with the baby
       – Amount of affectionate interaction between father and infant
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                        Stability of Attachment?


  • When caregiving remains constant – attachment persists
  • When caregiving changes – attachment can change
  • Early attachment patterns tend to endure even into adulthood
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                               Chapter 7

  What did Ainsworth Learn about Stages of Attachment?


  • Three phases of attachment
       – Initial-preattachment phase
           • Birth to 3 months; indiscriminate affection
       – Attachment-in-the-making phase
           • 3 to 6 months; preference for familiar figures
       – Clear-cut-attachment phase
           • Begins at 6 months; intensified dependence on primary caregiver
  • Most children form more than one attachment
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




    Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in
  their Explanation of the Development of Attachment?
  • Cognitive View of Attachment
       – Infant must develop object permanence prior to forming attachment
  • Behavioral View of Attachment
       – Infants become conditioned to caregivers
  • Psychoanalytic Views of Attachment
       – Caregiver becomes a love object
  • Harlows’ View of Attachment
       – Content comfort is key to attachment
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture in
  their Explanation of the Development of Attachment?
  • Ethological View of Attachment
       – Attachment is an inborn fixed action pattern (FAP) which occurs
         during a critical period in response to releasing stimulus.
           • In humans, baby’s smile in response to human voice or face
               – 2-3-month emergence of social smile
           • In non-humans, FAP occurs during critical period: imprinting
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




                        A Closer Look

                 Hormones and Attachment:
                  Of Mice and Men – and
                    Women and Infants
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




             When Attachment Fails
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

What are the Findings of the Harlows’ Studies on the Effects
           of Social Deprivation with Monkeys?
  • Monkeys reared in isolation
       – Later avoided contact with other monkeys
       – Did not attempt to fend off attacks by other monkeys
       – Females who later bore children ignored or abused them
  • Attempts to overcome effects of deprivation
       – Deprived monkeys are placed with younger monkeys
       – Eventually expand contacts with other monkeys
       – Children socially withdrawn and placed with younger playmates
         make gains in social and emotional development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

          What do we Know about the Effects of Social
                   Deprivation on Humans?
  • Institutionalized children with little social stimulation encounter
    developmental problems
       – May become withdrawn and depressed
  • Infants may require sensory stimulation and social interference
    more than a specific relationship with a primary caregiver
  • Infants have much capacity to recover from deprivation
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                                 Chapter 7




    Figure 7.7 The Development of Adopted Children Separated from Temporary Foster
    Parents
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

      What is the Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect?


  • Nearly 3 million American children are neglected or abused each
    year
       – 1 in 6 experiences serious injury
       – More than 150,000 are sexually abused
  • Researchers believe 50- 60% of abuse and neglect go
    unreported
  • Abused children show high incidence of personal, social
    problems, and psychological disorders
       – Less securely attached to parents
       – Less intimate with peers
       – More aggressive, angry and noncompliant with other children
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




                        A Closer Look

              How Child Abuse May Set the
            Stage for Psychological Disorders
                       in Adulthood
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                         Causes of Child Abuse


  •   Situational stress
  •   History of child abuse
  •   Lack of coping and problem solving skills
  •   Deficiency in child-rearing skills
  •   Substance abuse
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

             Why Does Child Abuse Run in Families?


  • Parents are role models, even abusive ones
  • Exposure to violence may lead to violence as a norm
  • Rationalization of hurting children
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                       Dealing with Child Abuse


  • Reporting child abuse
       – Many states require suspicions to be reported
  • Preventing child abuse
       – Strengthening parenting skills
       – Home visits to high risk groups
       – Providing information, ie. child abuse hotline
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




                        A Closer Look

          What to Do if You Think a Child Has
           Been the Victim of Sexual Abuse
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




        Autism Spectrum Disorders
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

              What are Autism Spectrum Disorders?


  • Characterized by impairment in communication skills, social
    interactions, and repetitive stereotyped behavior
       – Becomes evident by age 3
  • Forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)
       – Asperger’s disorder – social deficits and stereotyped behavior
       – Rett’s disorder – physical, behavioral, motor and cognitive
         abnormalities, begins a few months after normal development
       – Childhood disintegrative disorder – loss of previously acquired
         skills, begins 2 years after normal development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                             What is Autism?


  • Children with autism do not show interest in social interaction,
    may avoid eye contact and have weak or absent attachment
  • Features of autism
       –   aloneness
       –   communication problems
       –   intolerance of change
       –   stereotypical behaviors
       –   mutism
       –   echolalia
       –   self-mutilation
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                             What is Autism?
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

     What are the Origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder?


  • Biological factors
       – Evidenced by genetic studies
       – Focus on neurological involvement
           • Abnormal brain wave patterns or seizures
           • Structural differences in brains
           • Fewer receptors for neurotransmitters
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

             What Can be Done to Help Children with
                  Autism Spectrum Disorders?
  • Behavior modification
  • Drug therapies are under study
       – Use of SSRIs and major tranquilizers
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




                              Day Care
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

  Does Day Care Affect Children’s Bonds of Attachment?
    Does it Affect Social and Cognitive Development?
  • No highly likelihood of insecure attachment for infants in day care
  • Social development of children in day care
       – More independent, self confident, outgoing, affectionate and more
         cooperative
  • Cognitive development of children in quality day care
       – Outperform children who remain at home
  • Children in day care show more aggression
       – Aggression may indicate independence
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




                        A Closer Look

                 Finding Day Care You
           (and Your Children) Can Live With
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




             Emotional Development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                           What are Emotions?


  • A state of feeling that has physiological, situational, and cognitive
    components
       – Physiological – body reaction
       – Situational – environmental presence
       – Cognitive – ideas and thoughts
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                      How do Emotions Develop?


  • Bridges’ and Stroufe’s Theory of Emotion
       – Born with one emotion – diffused excitement
       – Other emotions differentiate over time
       – Cognitive development is necessary for differentiation of emotions
  • Izard’s Theory of Emotion
       – Born with several emotional states
       – Appearance of those emotions is linked to cognitive development
         and social experiences
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                                     Chapter 7




    Figure 7.8 Illustrations from Izard’s Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement
    Scoring System
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                      Is Fear of Strangers Normal?


  • Fear of strangers – stranger anxiety is normal
       – Appears at about 6 to 9 months
  • Development of stranger anxiety
       –   4 – 5 months – smile more at mother than strangers
       –   Older infants – show distress
       –   Fear peaks at 9 to 12 months and decline in 2nd year, or
       –   Second peak at 18 to 24 months and decline in 3rd year
  • Show less distress when mothers are present
  • Closer to stranger, more distressed
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

            When Does Social Referencing Develop?


  • Social referencing – seeking another’s perception of a situation
    to help form our own view
  • Development of social referencing
       – Appears as early as 6 months
       – Use caregiver’s facial expression and tone of voice
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                   What is Emotional Regulation?


  • Refers to ways young children control their own emotions
  • Caregivers help infants learn to regulate emotions
       – Interplay between caregiver and infant
       – Secure mothers = children more able to positively regulate emotions
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7




           Personality Development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                         What is Self-Concept?


  • The sense of self
       – Emerges gradually during infancy
  • Development of self-concept
       – Mirror technique – 18 months - infants demonstrate self concept
       – 30 months – can point to their own picture
  • Presence of self-awareness allows
       – Sharing and cooperation
       – “Self-conscious” emotions
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

              Psychoanalytic Views of Self-Concept


  • Separation-individuation
       – Necessary for self-concept (5 months through 3 years)
       – Erikson – task is to develop autonomy
       – Freud - task is to develop independence and control but focuses on
         child’s bodily functions
  • Demonstration of autonomy and independence
       – Noncompliance with parental requests
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

        What is Meant by the Temperament of a Child?


  • Characteristic way of relating and adapting to the world; present
    very early in life
       – Basic core of personality
       – Has a genetic component
  • Research establishes characteristics of temperament
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                                Chapter 7

 What Types of Temperament do we Find among Children?


  • Thomas and Chess (1989) three types of temperament
       – Easy (40% of sample)
           • regular schedule, adapts easily, generally cheerful
       – Difficult (10% of sample)
           • irregular schedule, slow at accept and adapt to change, responds
             negatively
       – Slow to warm up (15% of sample)
           • somewhat irregular schedule, respond negatively to new experiences,
             but adapt slowly after repeated exposure
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                              Goodness of Fit


  • Good fit
       – Parents modify expectations, attitudes and behaviors to assist child
         In developing a more positive temperament
  • Poor fit
       – Discrepancy between child’s behavior style and parent’s
         expectations
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

   How do Girls and Boys Differ in their Social, Emotional
                  and Other Behaviors?
  • Infant behaviors
       – Girls sit, crawl and walk earlier than boys
       – By 12 to 18 months – difference in toy preference
           • girls prefer dolls, doll furniture, dishes and toy animals
           • boys prefer transportation toys, tools, and sports equipment
  • Adult behaviors
       – Adults respond differently to boys and girls
  • Parent behaviors
       – More rough and tumble play with sons
       – Talk to and smile at daughters more
       – Favorable reactions when child plays with “appropriate” gender toys
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                  Lessons in Observation: Gender


  • Are sex differences present at birth or learned?
    Support your answer with research.
    What evidence can you find in the video to support the
    idea that sex differences are present at birth or
    learned.

  • How do the adults in the video describe their children
    in terms of gender?
    How do parental expectations contribute to children’s
    ideas of gender-appropriate roles and activities?
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                  Lessons in Observation: Gender
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                            Chapter 7

                  Lessons in Observation: Gender


  • In what ways does the physical environment reinforce gender
    role stereotypes and gender-typed behavior?
    Give examples from the video.

  • At what age do children begin to engage in gender-specific play.
    Describe the play interactions illustrated on the video. Are the
    children engaged in gender specific play activities?
    Do they learn to choose these play activities, or are they
    biologically based? Why?

				
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