Tourism Channel Islands

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					Islands and Tourism

           MAF 471
Class Outline
   Importance of tourism
   Fascination with islands
   Cold-water island tourism
   Tourism challenges
   Islands’ dependence on tourism
   Tourism theories: resort cycle; perceptions
   Tourism Impacts
Importance of tourism
   Single largest industry on Earth
   Largest migration of people in history
    taking place every year
   “Clean” Industry
   Transfers of capital from rich to poor
   For islands: frequently the dominant
    economic sector
Fascination with Islands

   Many islands exert an attraction for
   visitors of a scale beyond their
   economic and geographical

                            (Baum, 1997)
Fascination with Islands
   Being physically separate, different from nearby mainland
    (e.g Bahamas from FL, Nantucket from MA)
   Separation creates or preserves distinctiveness
   Human desire for the different when on vacation (climate,
    physical environment, culture)
   Sense of adventure: crossing the water, the “getting
   Different pace of island life (“island time”)
   Image of tranquility and return to bygone eras (Prince
    Edward I., Isle of Man, UK)
   Limited geographical environment more visitor friendly
    Channel Islands, CA
   Many services benefit: aircraft and
    boat charters, boat rentals, boating
    instruction, diving charters, diving
    instruction and chartered fishing
   San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara,
    Ventura counties
   US$2-6 mi. in gross annual income
    of local businesses earned from
    the use of the sanctuary
Dominican Republic
   30% of the Gross National Product
   Major source of jobs
   Brings foreign currency
   Public infrastructure
   Expansion of local industries
   Valorization of culture and nature
   Exchanges and learning with visitors
   Reorientation of rural migration
Cold-water island
   Stereotype of island tourism:
    sunny, palm-fringed tropical
    beaches, but:
   Vacation patterns changing:
    alternative tourism
   Decline of fisheries: view
    tourism as a worthy economic
   Tourism businesses tend to be
    more locally-owned
   Examples: Iceland,
    Newfoundland, Prince Edward I.
Tourism challenges
   Tourists are not taxpayers or voters
   Magnitude: huge stress on certain destinations
   Culture and expectations: may be very different
   Dependence on other sectors
   Industry fragmentation/ dispersed control
   Fragility / uncertainty : very sensitive to changes
   Tourism stress: often fragile environments
   Seasonality: low season may provide no profits
   Planning: rapid development pressure by multinationals
   Infrastructure demands
   Foreign ownership/ management/ employment
                    (Manning, 1998; McElroy and Albuquerque, 1998)
    Island Dependence on Tourism
   Main economic sector of some islands (Bermuda,
    Guam ~50% of GDP)
   Changing circumstances in world travel hit harder
   Heavy reliance on imports
   Leakage of foreign exchange earned
   Seasonality affects quality and sustainability of
   Greater impact on island community (ratio of
    tourists v. locals is more skewed)
   Profound social, cultural, and environmental
    impacts, especially on youths
     Tourism Theory:
     Evolution of destinations
1.    Exploration, small numbers, adventurous tourists
2.    Involvement, more visitors, with locals providing for them
3.    Development, rapid growth in visitors, accommodation,
      heavy penetration of industry by outsiders
4.    Consolidation, growth rate in arrivals declines, but absolute
      numbers continue increasing; the number of total visitors
      often exceeds resident population
5.    Stagnation, capacity levels reached, there’s surplus rooms,
      heavy reliance on conventions and other forms of organized
      mass tourism, and
6.    Decline, destination becomes a “slum”, “ghetto”; visitors
      decrease rapidly, many facilities converted to non-tourist
                                 (AKA “Resort Cycle”; Butler, 1980)
Evolution of Tourism Destinations
                 Sustainable tourism??



                                             (Butler, 1980)
    Local Attitudes / Perceptions
1.   Euphoria
2.   Apathy
3.   Annoyance
4.   Antagonism

•    BUT it can vary by social status,
     education, age, occupation, etc.
                      (Doxey 1979; Husbands, 1989)
San Juan Islands, Washington
   Many summer visitors,
    also more second
    homes (vacation &
   Congestion, increased
    living costs,
    development and taxes
   Losing their friendly,
    rural community
   Residents opposed to
    growth and tourism
Tourism Impacts

   Environmental

   Social,

   Economic
Tourism Impacts

  Tourism is very good at
   fouling its own nest

                      (Lea, 1999)
Molokini Crater, Hawaii
   Rare shells no longer
    decorate the reef face
   Damaged coral is common
   Manta rays no longer
    frequent the crater
   There is a sun-tan lotion
    “bathtub ring” on the inside
    crater wall
   Molokini has been
    desecrated “loving it to
Outer Banks, NC
   Great increase in visitors to Cape
    Hatteras National seashore
   Dunes, wildlife forests
   Adjacent communities completely
    dependent on groundwater
   Some wells had to be capped due to
    septic pollution
   Using surface water that’s essential
    for wetlands
   Dune mining for construction
   Woods are impacted by shearing
    wind and salt
US Virgin Islands National Park
   30,000 anchors dropped in
    the park each year
   Mini-cruiser (200’ long)
    left reef scar of 5,300m2
   Anchor dragging
   Sweep of the chain most
   Prop wash and plume of
Coral reefs environmental

   Narrow tolerance range for salinity and
   Toxic substances effects enhanced by
    high water temperatures
   Algal coral competition makes them
    more susceptible to pollutants

                        Pastorok and Bilyard, 1985
Wastewater impact on reefs
   Little in well-flushed, open coastal areas
   Otherwise, seepage of sewage from a
    single public restroom can degenerate an
    entire coral community (e.g. Hawaii)
   Also: runoff from urban areas and
    unsealed roads, deforested uplands
How wastewater affects corals
   Suspended solids cause decreased growth by
    blocking sunlight and interfering with
   Nutrients: Coral reefs are oasis in the desert
   Nutrient input causes eutrophication
   Promote excessive growth of phytoplankton and
   Even small amounts of nutrients will cause
    significant changes
Tourism Impacts

 Tourism in Boracay (Philippines)

                        Smith (1988)
“The islanders subsisted on farming and fishing until
  Boracay was „discovered‟ by international tourists
  in the 1980s. The result was an intense pressure
  on the island‟s infrastructures, and the need for
  electricity, a central water supply and a system of
  sewage disposal soon became apparent. With
  the invasion of „drifter‟ tourists, middle-class and
  family-oriented tourists declined in number, but
  the amount of garbage and other forms of
  pollution increased(…) ,and land values increased
  astronomically (…) Furthermore, drunkenness,
  narcotics and prostitution were imported into the
  island by the tourists, who also proceeded to
  deplete coral resources already damaged by the
  islanders fishing practices.
Yet the people of Boracay, like all rural Filipinos,
would enjoy having the infrastructure that is
needed to support tourism, because it would make
their lives easier, pleasanter and safer. And they
certainly want the income generated by tourism in
the form of cash with which to buy goods and
services including better education for their
children. They appreciate the employment that is
enabling their young people to stay on the island,
or to return home to Boracay from the squalor of
big cities, and be with their families. In the eyes of
most villagers, tourism has been very positive, and
the sins of the drifter tourists can be temporarily
overlooked in the face of their largesse.”
Next week
   NO CLASSES: Monday classes meet

Following week:
 Sustainable tourism
 Invited Speaker: “Cruising in the Antarctic”