Docstoc

Development_in_a_time_of_climate_change

Document Sample
Development_in_a_time_of_climate_change Powered By Docstoc
					       Development in a time of
           climate change:

         Putting women at the
           heart of solutions


Kate Raworth, Oxfam Great Britain
Charles King, Liberia Finance and Trust Corporation
Anyaa Vohiri, Fauna and Flora International
Heather Grady, Realising Rights
1. Why is gender relevant to climate change?

2. How will climate change affect
   rural West Africa?

3. Development in a time of climate change:

    - Stopping deforestation
    - Getting clean energy to communities
    - Adapting agriculture to climate impact
What does this family need to get out of poverty?
What does this family need to get out of poverty?

                      Physical



     Social                           Financial




              Human              Natural
Women and men have:

- different roles in the household
- different resources to deliver them with.

          P                            P
                      resources
        roles                         roles
S                      F     S                    F




    H             N               H           N
Men provide food and cash from
farming by:

    - Growing cash crops to sell

    - Growing food to eat or sell

i
And they provide cash through:

    - Small-scale manufacturing

    - Trading goods

    - Selling labour

i
Rural women produce much of the family’s food




                          • on marginal lands
                          • without irrigation
                          • using saved seeds
                          • with no formal training
                          • without access to credit
They provide the household water
And the household fuel supply
They cook, clean and care for the sick
while caring for children at the same time.
while caring for children at the same time…




…all for no payment.
Women and men have:

- different roles in the household
- different resources to deliver them with.

          P                            P
                      resources
        roles                         roles
S                      F     S                    F




    H             N               H           N
Men’s physical resources:

                            Bodily strength
                            Inherit crop land
                            House
                            Livestock,
                            Stored food
                            Machinery
                            Transport
Women’s physical resources:
                      Few belongings, but:

                      Bodily strength
                      Children
                      Common, marginal land
                      Stored food
                      Some tools?
                      Forced to sell sex?
  Men’s human resources:




More likely to be educated and to
benefit from agricultural training services
 Women’s human resources:


                                  Less likely to be educated




Far less likely to get training
for agriculture or other
livelihood opportunities
Men’s financial resources:
 Women’s financial resources:
Minimal savings

Micro-credit
Schemes

Limited access to
selling in markets
Men’s natural resources:




                           better land

                           more likely to have
                           irrigation and tools
                           to cope with
                           climate uncertainty
Women’s natural resources:




               Poor quality land. Few tools.
               Rain-fed agriculture
               Wild crops for extra food & medicine
               Wells and rivers for water
               Bush and forest for fuel
Men’s social resources:
                   Networks:
                   Voice in village committees
                   More access to official power

                   Norms:
                   Mobility, independence
                   Authority,may use violence
                   Controls divorce decisions.
 Women’s social resources:




Networks: women’s groups, cooperatives




                     Norms:
                     Less mobility and independence
                     Household roles are assumed to be hers
Women and men have:

- different roles in the household
- different resources to deliver them with.

          P                            P
                      resources
        roles                         roles
S                      F     S                    F




    H             N               H           N
    One household?
           P                           P
                      resources

          roles                       roles
S                     F      S                    F




     H            N               H           N
Women invest more in their children

Income in women’s hands goes
further towards children’s nutrition,
education, health and well-being.


      In sub-Saharan Africa, if women had equal access to land,
       seed and fertilizer, then agricultural productivity would rise
       by up to 20%.

      An educated woman is 50% more likely to have her children
       immunised.

      In Africa, children whose mothers got at least 5 years of
       education are 40% more likely to live beyond the age of five.
Over to you…



   Is this story true for rural women and
    men in Liberia?



   Which differences between women and
    men are the greatest challenge?
What role does climate change
have in Africa?




Average temperature
of Earth’s surface, 0C
Who has produced CO2 emissions to date?
But who is already bearing the worst impacts?
                                     Number of people affected by climate-related disasters in sub-Saharan Africa, 1960
                                                                          to date
                            140

                                                      Droughts
                            120
                                                      Floods
                            100
Total affected (millions)




                             80


                             60


                             40


                             20


                              0
                                        1960-69                 1970-79                1980-89        1990-99   2000-06


                            Source: "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database
                            www.em-dat.net - Université Catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium"
  “…climate change will negatively impact on the full
range of human and economic development in Africa:
    reducing people’s ability to feed themselves;
             threatening people’s health;
        reducing livelihood opportunities and
            economic growth prospects”



            Dr. Anthony Nyong,
            Coordinating Lead Author, Africa Chapter,
            IPCC 4th Assessment Working Group Two
Expected climate change in
West Africa

Uncertainty in models and data but…

   Temperatures: rising

   Sea level: rising

   More or less rain?

   Less predictability of rainfall
Expected climate impacts in West Africa

Agriculture: much shorter growing season in some
areas, with serious impacts on food security
Livestock: animals likely to suffer from heat stress,
drought and spreading disease
Water resources: likely increase in water stress
Coastal settlements: low-lying lands will be inundated,
threatening coastal cities across the region
Health: increased diarrhoea and malnutrition, likely
impacts of malaria, dengue, cholera
Social change: risk of land conflicts, mass migration,
more frequent humanitarian crises
African agriculture coming under stress



                                   UNDP 2006
Expected climate impacts for
rural communities in Liberia:


• How will women’s and men’s
roles be affected?


• How will women’s and men’s
resources be affected?


• What social and economic
pressures could there be?
Development in a time of climate change:
3 challenges for gender equality

1.   How can we stop deforestation – and
     ensure that women benefit?

2.   How can we get clean energy to rural
     communities – and ensure that women
     benefit?

3.   How can we adapt agriculture to cope
     with climate impacts – and ensure that
     women benefit?
  1. Stopping deforestation

                       •How can we stop deforestation
                       in Africa?

                       •Will women benefit or lose out?




Logging in Congo DRC
  2. Getting clean energy to communities




                     Solar panels for electricity


 Wind power, Kenya


How can clean energy most
benefit rural women?
                                   Wind power, Kenya
                                    Constructing biogas plant, Rwanda
 3. Adapting agriculture to climate impacts




                             Extending irrigation
Conservation tillage

How can communities adapt
to climate change?

What role must women play?
                             Drought-tolerant crops