The United States as a World Power Vocabulary 14.Platt Amendment 15.Protectorate 1. Alfred T Mahan 16.Nationalism 2. Sanford B Dole 17.Open Door Notes 3. Jose Marti 18.Boxer Rebellion 4. George Dewey 19.“Great White Fleet” 5. Emilio Aguinaldo 20.Roosevelt Corollary to the 6. John Hay Monroe Doctrine 7. Queen Liliukalani 21.Dollar Diplomacy 8. Pancho Villa 22.Sphere of Influence 9. Imperialism 23.Seward’s Folly 10.Yellow Journalism 24.“Splendid Little War” 11.De Lome Letter 25.Rough Riders 12.USS Maine 26.San Juan Hill 13.Teller Amendment 27.Panama Canal 28.Annexation of Hawaii Starter 10/15 Test Corrections 15 minutes today • Review Goal 7 Test • Review Homework questions • New Homework questions • Begin Goal 6 • Journalism Activity • Read pages 454-466 1. What policy does the US abandon in the late 1800s? P454 2. In what ways did imperialistic countries utilize weaker territories p454-55 3. Describe how imperialism impacted militaries. P455 4. Compare and contrast how the themes of Social Darwinism and Manifest Destiny are prevalent in the West following the Civil War, the Northeast during the height of industrialization and urbanization and in world affairs during imperialism. P 456 5. What was the “safety valve’ how did it evolve and what role did it serve? 456 6. Who was William Seward? How did his contemporaries and historians view his actions? 456-57 7. What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine and how does it become a factor during Cleveland’s administration? 457 8. What events led to the United States acquisition of Hawaii? 457-459 9. What interests did America have in Cuba and what threatened these interests? 460-61 10. In what way did Yellow Press influence the events in Cuba? 461 11. How do de Lome and the USS Maine fit into Yellow Press? 461-62 12. What events pushed the United States into war? 13. Describe the events that took place in the Philippines. 463 14. How did Theodore Roosevelt come to fame during the Spanish American War? 464 15. How did the Spanish American War impact America and the other nations involved? 465-66 Due tomorrow! 1. How did America view Asia and the Philippines? 467 2. Describe the evolution of Aguinaldo’s relationship with the United States. 467 3. What were the effects of the war in the Philippines? 468 4. What role did Taft play in the Philippines? 468-9 5. What is the significance of the Spheres of Influence and how did it threaten the United States? 469 6. What role did John Hay play in Asia? 469 7. Describe the events that led to the Boxer Rebellion and its significance. 470 8. What was an act of good will by the United States? And how was it meant to benefit them? 470 9. What was Japan’s response to imperialism? 470 10.Why was Roosevelt awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? 471 11.Describe the causes and effects of the Gentlemen’s Agreement. 471 12.How does the Great White Fleet demonstrate America’s role during the imperialistic era? 471 • 6.01 Examine the factors that led to the United States taking an increasingly active role in world affairs Starter: Wednesday, October 25 Copy this chart and complete. Use pages 549-550 for help! Factor Meaning Example (Explain in own words) 1. Desire for military strength 2. Thirst for new markets 3. Belief in cultural superiority Starter: Tuesday, October 31 Now & Then: Puerto Rico (page 559) 1. What are the privileges & rights of members of an American commonwealth? 2. Why do some Puerto Ricans oppose Puerto Rico becoming a state? 3. Do you think if Puerto Rico became a state, Puerto Ricans should have to speak English and give up their Latino heritage? Starter: Wednesday, November 1 1. What was the de Lome letter? (553-554) 2. The U.S. maintained a large & well equipped navy during the Spanish –American War. Describe its army? (556) 3. Read Pres. McKinley’s statement regarding why the U.S. should annex the Philippines on page 556 (“Debate over the Treaty)? What was the fallacy in his statement? 4. What did Booker T. Washington think about imperialism? (557) Starter: Thursday, November 2 Read “Geography Spotlight: The Panama Canal: Funnel for Trade” on pages 572-573. Answer the questions below: 1. How many miles were saved by a ship sailing from New York to San Francisco after the Panama Canal was built? 2. What is an isthmus, according to the reading? 3. How did the Panama Canal enhance world trade and America’s role in it? Answers on the next slide, after the class is done! 1. How many miles were save by a ship sailing from New York to San Francisco after the Panama Canal was built? before 13,000 miles after 5,200 miles miles saved 7,800 miles 2. What is an isthmus, according to the reading? a narrow strip of land (connected North & South America) 3. How did the Panama Canal enhance world trade and America’s role in it? Answers vary; America was able to trade more efficently increasing its power as an economic world leader; Global products were sold more easily and America was able to participate in this exchange of international goods The Scramble for Africa 1885-1900 History of the 20 th Century: 1900-1909 1. What was the “burning issue” of the early 1900s? 2. What happened to President McKinley at the world fair? 3. Why did the bosses want Roosevelt to be Vice President? 4. What was Roosevelt’s “big stick”? 5. Describe the west in 1900. 6. Why was the Sears & Roebuck catalog so important? 7. Name four ways people entertained themselves during the early 1900s. 8. Where did the teddy bear get its name? 9. How did Thomas Edison revolutionize the way Americans were entertained? 10. Why was the Panama Canal significant? 11. Explain what life was like for children in the early 20th century? Read Chapter 18, Sect. 2-4 and answer the questions (write the questions) 1. Why was the opinion of Cuban independence divided? 2. What happened to the USS Maine? What was reported in the news? 3. Briefly describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898. 4. Why was the U.S. interested in events in Puerto Rico? 5. What sparked the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 and how was it crushed? 6. What three key beliefs about America’s industrial capitalist economy were reflected in the Open Door Policy? 7. What conflict triggered the war between Japan & Russia? 8. Why is the construction of the Panama Canal considered one of the world’s greatest engineering feats? 9. Explain the key difference between Woodrow Wilson’s moral diplomacy and Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick” diplomacy? Starter 10/16 • Read the handout and answer the following • What events led to the US entering the Philippines? • What were the reactions of the people to our presence? • When was the war officially over? • When did the US withdraw troops? Due Friday 10/16 • What challenges resulted due to the Spanish American War? 4733 • Describe the relationship America shares with both Puerto Rico and Cuba. Include significant legislation. 472-473 • How did Roosevelt approach imperialism? 473 • What benefits and challenges resulted from the construction of the Panama Canal. 474-475 • How did Roosevelt implement the Monroe Doctrine and what was the response? 475-77 • How did Taft’s administration differ from Roosevelt’s? 477 • What was America’s foreign policy under Wilson? 477 • Describe the events of the Mexican Revolution 748-79 • What events led to US troops being deployed to Mexico, what were the consequences and who were the key players? 479 • 6.02 Identify the areas of United States military, economic, and political involvement and influence. • 6.03 Describe how the policies and actions of the United States government impacted the affairs of other countries. America Expands Internationally • Imperialism became a trend in the late 1900s • Imperialism was the policy in which stronger nations extended their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories • Americans believed it was the “White Man’s Burden” to extend civilization to the world • Americans drew from Social Darwinism with the belief that Anglo-Saxons were the superior race • These philosophies were used to justify imperialism Global Competition • The American imperialism was fueled by three factors: – 1. desire for military strength – 2. thirst for new markets – 3. belief in cultural superiority • U.S. Navy Admiral Alfred Mahan urged the government to build up the navy Alaska • Alaska was acquired from Russia in 1867 for $7.2 million • The purchase was made by Secretary of State William Seward, who saw the rich natural resources of the region • Many criticized Seward, calling the purchase “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox” Hawaii • Americans had owned sugar plantations in Hawaii since the 1850s and had made great profits • They pressured the monarchy of Hawaii to allow the U.S. to build a naval base (Pearl Harbor) there. • Eventually, wealthy business owners overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and Hawaii was a territory of the US in 1898 (it became the 50th state in 1959) Queen Liliuokalani Cuban Independence • Americans had long been interested in Cuba, and once offered to buy it from Spain • In the late 1800s, Cuba was still under Spanish rule but many Cubans desired independence • When Cubans rebelled against Spain in 1895 and Spanish troops were sent in to restore order • Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to squash the rebellion • Cubans were put in concentration camps & brutalized. and American journalists exposed the horrible conditions Spanish General Valeriano Weyler American Journalist Become Involved • American journalists exposed the horrible conditions in Cuba • The journalists often exaggerated and told untrue stories • They were branded “yellow journalists” and wanted to ignite the emotions of the U.S. people against Spain Yellow Journalists William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer USS Maine A U. S. battleship, USS Maine, was sent to the Havana harbor to protect American property & bring home American citizens USS Maine Exploded! • On February 15, 1898 the USS Maine exploded, killing 260 men • Although it was (discovered later) an internal explosion, the yellow journalists said the Spanish had blown up the battleship • Americans became enraged and Congress declared war on Spain in April of 1898 Remember the Maine! Journalism Activity • Part I – Search through copies of the newspaper and find examples of Yellow Journalism today – Cut it out! • Part II – Find a topic of Interest to you in your textbook – Create a headline and brief article about the topic – Use the facts but attempt to persuade your audience to feel a certain way about the topic The Spanish-American War • Rather than heading to Cuba, the American naval fleet headed to Spanish colony of the Philippines • Within two hours, Commodore George Dewey & his men had destroyed every Spanish ship • The Philippines supported American because they too, wanted independence from Spain • For the next two months, Filipino forces fought with the Americans and the Spanish troops surrendered in August of 1898 Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipino rebel leader Commodore George Dewey War in the Caribbean • During the summer of 1898, fighting took place in Cuba • The most famous battle took place on Kettle Hill & San Juan Hill by the Rough Riders, a volunteer regiment led by Theodore Roosevelt Rough Riders The War Ends • After 15 weeks of fighting, the U.S. & Spain signed an armistice (cease fire) in August of 1898. • The Secretary of War, John Hay, called it “a splendid little war” • In December, the U.S. & Spain signed the Treaty of Paris of 1898 • Cuba was freed, Guam & Puerto Rico were given to America & the Philippines were sold to the U.S. for $20 million Rule in Puerto Rico • There was a debate regarding whether Puerto Rico should be independent or annexed to the U.S. as a state • In 1900, the Foraker Act gave the U.S. the power to appoint a governor & members of their upper house (Puerto Ricans could elect members of their lower house) • In 1917, Puerto Ricans became U.S. citizens • Today, Puerto Rico is considered a commonwealth Rule in Cuba • Attached to the Treaty of Paris was the Teller Amendment, which gave Cuba independence, but installed the U.S. military government there for 3 years (to protect American businesses & restore stability) • In 1900, the Platt Amendment was added, which limited the Cuban government, gave the U.S. two naval bases in Cuba, and allowed for U.S. intervention whenever necessary. The Panama Canal • Roosevelt envisioned a canal across the isthmus of Panama to allow U.S. ships to move more quickly between the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans • The Columbian government, which controlled the territory, refused to sell the land for the project • The Panamanian (with U.S. support) people revolted against the Columbians in 1903, and gained their independence. The Panama Canal • The Panamanians leased the land needed for the canal • Construction took place from 1905-1914 – Major malaria outbreaks – Moved 175 million yards of earth Influence in the Western Hemisphere • The Roosevelt Corollary (the U.S. would use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America) led to increased U.S. involvement Latin America. • This also became known as Roosevelt’s “Big Stick diplomacy” (from the West African proverb, “Speak softly & carry a big stick; you will go far”) • It meant that the U.S. did not intend to be a threatening presence, but it would not hesitate to forcefully protect its own interests China & the U.S. • The U.S. wanted to make sure that China remained open to trade • The Open Door Policy was established to keep China open for trade & commerce. • Some Chinese nationalists, the Boxers, rebelled against this American influence… this was called the Boxer Rebellion • An international force was sent to stop this rebellion TEST REVIEW • Factors that fueled imperialism; define imperialism • Causes & effects & goals of the Spanish American War (yellow journalism, USS Maine, Desire for Cuban independence, Treaty of Paris terms & amendments) • Roosevelt’s diplomacy (Roosevelt Corollary & “Big Stick” diplomacy) • Importance of Panama Canal • San Juan Hill & Rough Riders; Battles of the Spanish American War • Purpose of the Open Door Policy & effects (Boxer Rebellion) • People: Alfred Mahan, Hearst & Pulitzer, Roosevelt, Wilson, George Dewey Chapter 18 Classwork/ Homework Questions 1. Why was the opinion of Cuban independence divided? U.S. businessmen sided with Spain because they wanted to protect their investments The American people sympathized with the Cuban demand for independence 2. What happened to the USS Maine? What was reported in the news? • It exploded • It was reported that the Spanish had blown the ship up! 3. Briefly describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898. • Cuba became independent • Spain gave up Puerto Rico & Guam to the U.S. • US paid $20 million for the Philippines 4. Why was the U.S. interested in events in Puerto Rico? Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. as a way to assert its presence in the Caribbean and as a base for protecting a possible canal through the Isthmus of Panama 5. What sparked the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 and how was it crushed? • The Boxers stages a revolt to expel foreigners from China • In August 1900, troops from Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the U.S. marched on the Chinese capital to end the Boxer Rebellion 6. What three key beliefs about America’s industrial capitalist economy were reflected in the Open Door Policy? 1. U.S. economy depended on exports to ensure growth 2. U.S. had the right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open 3. Closing an area to American products threatened U.S. survival 7. What conflict triggered the war between Japan & Russia? A dispute over control of Korea 8. Why is the construction of the Panama Canal considered one of the world’s greatest engineering feats? To construct the canal, workers fought diseases (yellow fever & malaria). Had to remove soft volcanic soil that was hard to remove 9. Explain the key difference between Woodrow Wilson’s moral diplomacy and Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick” diplomacy? • Roosevelt’s “big stick” diplomacy demanded that European nations stay out of the affairs in Latin American nations • Wilson’s “missionary diplomacy” demanded that countries in Latin America establish democracies History of the 20 th Century: 1910-1919 1. In 1914, what happened to Austria-Hungary’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his wife while visiting Serbia? 2. Name 2 allies of Austria-Hungary. 3. Name 1 ally of France. 4. What was Woodrow Wilson’s position about the U.S. entering the Great War in Europe (WWI) at the beginning of the war? 5. What happened to the cruise liner The Lusitania? 6. Who won the Presidential election of 1916? 7. What was WWI like for American troops? 8. What sport was America’s past time during the decade? 9. Describe Woodrow Wilson. 10. Who was John Pershing? 11. Who was Charlie Chaplin? 12. Why was The Birth of a Nation such a hit? Why was it controversial? 13. What were some of the new technologies used in WWI? 14. What was the name of Wilson’s peace plan after WWI? 15. What type of epidemic spread around the world in 1919?