Document Sample
          (CHAPTER 21)

Middle class reformers try to bring
           about change
     (late l800’s- about l915)

Note: Starred items (*) should be put on your
       “Progressives” summary page.
 The Second Industrial Revolution had brought problems to America.
There were questionable business practices, corruption in government
      and social problems such as poverty and discrimination.

Q. Horace Taylor created this cartoon called, “the Trust Giant‟s Point of View” in l900
  Who is the man? What problems is Taylor trying to expose in this cartoon?
The Progressives were reformers who wanted to fix the
 problems that they saw. Here are some of their goals:

1. To end laissez-faire. They wanted government to get involved in
   regulating big businesses …especially monopolies and trusts.
2. To reform how government works so that there is less
   patronage (favoritism) and corruption.
3. To expose problems such as poverty, bad business
   practices, child labor and discrimination, so changes
   would be made.
4. To give regular people a bigger voice in government.
   (To extend democracy)

 Goal 1- Regulating Big Business
The Interstate Commerce Act *
  was passed by Congress in l887. It
  set up the Interstate Commerce
   Commission (I.C.C.) to regulate
   businesses that operated across
   state lines.

The big concern at the time was
   railroads who were forming
   monopolies, using pools and
   giving rebates.

Q. Identify some types of businesses that
   operate across state lines today.

The Sherman Antitrust Act would finally be used to break up big
trusts and monopolies that had been hurting consumers by
lessoning competition and raising prices.
Polititians would broke up trusts /monopolies became known as
“trustbusters”. President Theodore Roosevelt is an example.
          Goal 2: Reforming Government

During the “Gilded Age” of the late
   l800‟s, there were concerns that
  government was not working well
   for regular Americans.

•   Americans worried that wealthy
    business leaders were controlling         
    the government, leaving regular
    Americans with no real voice.       The Civil Service Commission was
                                        set up in l883. It required workers to
•   A second worry was over political   take a test if they want to become a
    corruption. Bribery, voter fraud
    and the spoils system * in which    government worker. Some examples
    government officials gave jobs to   are mail carriers, firefighters and
    their friends, angered reformers.   police officers today.
                                        Q. Which of the concerns (see left) did this address?
                                        Q. Do you think these workers were more qualified
                                                    than the friends of elected officials?
     Muckrakers * began to expose these
       problems to the American public
• Muckrakers were
  journalists, authors and
  photographers who tried
  to draw attention to the
  problems they saw.

• Try to match the photos with
  the correct name:

  1. Jacob Riis- Author/ photographer
  2. Ida Tarbell- Journalist
  3. Thomas Nast- Cartoonist
  4. Upton Sinclair- Author
         Cartoonist Thomas Nast *
In the late l860‟s New York City taxpayers
 were being cheated out of millions of
 dollars by a Democratic party leader
 named William (Boss) Tweed. Tweed
 headed a political machine known as
 “Tammany Hall”.

The most well known example of Tweed‟s
corruption was the county courthouse.
The courthouse was supposed to cost
$250,000 but ended up costing more than
$13 million dollars!
                                             Thomas Nast began to draw cartoons
                                             about Tweed for Harper’s Weekly, a
To find out why it cost so much, read your
                                             magazine. One of his cartoons is shown
    handout, “Boss Tweed and His Ring”
                                             on the left, above. (Tweed is on the right)
                                             Q. How do you think Tweed reacted to this?

Q. Which figure is Boss Tweed?
Q. The caption that appeared under the cartoon read,
    “Who stole the people‟s money?” DO TELL „T WAS HIM (Interpret)
             Journalist Ida Tarbell *
Ida Tarbell spent five years researching
her expose of Rockefeller‟s Standard Oil
Company. She was one of the first
investigative journalists in the U.S.
combing through thousands of deeds,
court files, and other documents to build
her case.

Her research exposed how Rockefeller
was creating a monopoly by using unfair
business practices which forced
competitors out of business. After her
articles appeared in McClure‟s magazine
the U.S. government and the U.S.
Supreme Court passed anti-trust
legislation that broke up trusts and
monopolies like Rockefellers.
     Author Upton Sinclair *


Q. Can you guess the topic of his book?
              (I will read you a passage from “The Jungle”)

President Roosevelt was one of the
people who read Sinclair‟s book. He
 was disgusted by what he read and
he persuaded Congress to pass two
 new laws to protect consumers. We
still have these laws today.
                                                          The Meat Inspection
                                                          Act requires that
The legislation was…                                      meat be examined to
                                                          be sure it is safe to
                                                          eat. An inspector puts
THE MEAT INSPECTION ACT *                                 a stamp on it.

THE PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT*                               Labeling of food and
                                                          drugs was started by
                                                          the Pure Food and
                                                          Drug Act in l906.
(Both passed in l906)                                     False claims were
                                                          prohibited as well.
                                                          (Ex: Cure-all pills)
 Author/photographer/ journalist                               Jacob Riis*
Jacob Riis came to the United States
From Denmark. When he got a job
 as a police reporter for the New York
Tribune he became to see the problems
faced by the poor living in urban
 tenements, where disease, overcrowding
and rundown apartments were common.

“How the Other Half Lives” , his 1890 book
about how tenements and disease were
connected, drew the attention of then
police commissioner Theodore Roosevelt,
 who helped bring about reforms in
housing design (ex: more windows),
sanitation, and safety.

Q. Describe the photo shown here.

  How does it make you feel?

  Do you think that is how Riis wanted is viewers to
    respond? Why? Why not?


                                                       “Children Sleeping in Mulberry Street” l890

“Home of an Italian Ragpicker” Jacob Riis 1890
“Baxter Street Court, NY” Jacob Riis l888
      Progressive reforms put more
      power into the hands of voters.
BEFORE                         REFORM NAME        AFTER
Party leaders pick                                Voters in each party help
candidates to run for                 Primary     to select their party’s
office, including the                             candidate for president.

Only members of state                             Voters in some states can
legislature can introduce                         initiate (start or introduce)
bills                                Initiative   bills before a legislature.

Only legislators get to                           Voters get to vote yes or
decide if a bill will become                         no on legislation to
a law.                            Referendum      determine if bill becomes
                                                            a law.

An elected official can                           A special election can be
only be removed from                              called where voters can
office by court order or              Recall      decide to remove an
impeachment.                                      elected official.
          Progressive Amendments Are Added to the Constitution *

16th: _Federal Income Tax   1913     l7th: Direct election of Senators 1913

  18th: Prohibition Amendment 1919      19th: Women‟s Suffrage 1920

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