Storm Water/ Surface water Monitoring By Vinnie Bryant Johnston, Inc. EPA Clean Water Act • 1972 NPDES was enacted as part of CWA – Created to eliminate pollutant discharges by 1985 – Main causes of pollutant discharges were thought to be coming from Point Sources (industrial pipe discharges and municipal WWTP) • 1987 NPDES program was expanded to include Non-Point Sources. – Created a new set of challenges to those that had to monitor and sample Stormwater/ TMDL / Surface water Impact from Agricultural, Industrial and Municipal run off • Many more non-point source monitoring applications taking place today • Stormwater monitoring – Industrial Run-off – Municipal Run-off – Construction Site Run-off • TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Loads) – Mandated by EPA – States required to evaluate water quality in major streams and rivers • Watershed assessments – Agricultural run-off – Surface water monitoring What is different about non-point monitoring than point source? • More than just sampling is required – Sampler – Flow monitoring – Rain Fall Monitoring – Multi-parameter monitoring • pH • Turbidity • DO • Conductivity and others Samplers • New design that allows for two part program requirements • Added inputs to allow for rain gauge and multi- parameter sonde to be connected • New software to incorporate multiple triggers and expanded memory to record the data. Sampler Challenges • Remote sites – Security – Many times open to public access – Off the beaten path hard to get to • Power Issues – Must power more than the sampler – Long term waiting for storm event Enclosures and security Must Measure Rain fall • Rain Gauge can be connected to sampler or be a stand alone logging device. • Install rain gauge so it is secure and not covered by trees Site selection • Must be flexible – Dry ground today – Underwater the next • Usually poor access or in areas that are not easy to get to. Power • Large power demands – Usually no AC available at site – Sampler and other equipment in stand by until event happens • Large deep cycle battery • Solar panel to charge battery Measuring Flow • Tough applications – Low or no flow during dry periods – Lack of primary devices can cause added problems TMDL and Agricultural Studies • Sampler suction line placement • Water Quality equipment connected to Sampler • Multiple samples and multiple bottles required New Portable Refrigerated samplers with advanced controller Location of equipment • Limited to 26 ft of vertical lift – Can’t hang sampler from bridges under normal applications • Limited to 100 ft of horizontal pull Intake for sampler Flow/ Stage applications Triggers and event notification • Optional Cell Phone allows – Monitoring of the system status – Data Retrieval – Programming Corrections or updates – Dial-out notification when a sample event is occurring, or when the equipment requires service. • Sampler commands allow to activate program on rain amount over time and/or change in stage/rate of flow or other alarms. Data Analysis • Flow Link Software collects data from sampler memory. – Includes data from multi-parameter sonde, rain gauge and flow meter. – Imports data from other sources – Exports data collected from sampler to csv format. – Easy to use tool for creating graphs and tables right in Flow Link I n f lo w & I n f iltr a tio n S tu d y D r y v s W e t W e a th e r D r y W e a th e r F l o w ( 2 4 4 1 0 0 1 0 .1 g a l ) W e t W e a th e r F l o w ( 3 2 6 5 5 4 6 5 .2 g a l ) In fl o w & In fi l ta ti o n ( 8 2 4 5 4 5 5 .1 g a l ) R a i n fa l l ( 1 .6 8 i n ) 7000 6000 5000 m 4000 p g 3000 2000 1000 0 0 .1 0 0 .0 5 i n 0 .0 0 2 M on 3 T ue 4 W ed 5 T hu 6 F ri 7 S at 8 S un A ug 99 8 /1 /1 9 9 9 1 2 :0 0 :0 0 A M - 8 /8 /1 9 9 9 1 2 :0 0 :0 0 A M Coastal Studies Institute Scope • Provide flow, turbidity, temp, and sampling capability at 9 storm water ocean outfalls along The Outer Banks. • Provide level at 19 storm water vaults draining to the 9 outfalls. • This will provide data to CSI that will allow them to predict contaminant plumes along the beach before they occur. Questions?