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    /xg'kb{5 .                                             -%_ ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtf / pQ/bfloTjM ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtfsf]
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    nf]stGq, Gofo, ;dfgtf, dfgjLotf, zflGt / cGt/f{li6«o                                                          '
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                         SAMHITA- A Quarterly Publication of Press Council Nepal Jan-Mar 2008



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                                     ;dfrf/sf] ‰ofnaf6 6]lnlehg x]bf{                                                  %
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                                        kqsf/ / cfrf/;+lxtf                                                            !&
   cfrf/;+lxtfM             !(          PstkmL{ ax;sf] vt/f                                                            @#
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   cEof; <                              ;ª\qmd0fsfn / ;~rf/If]q                                                        @&
                                        ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] kqsfl/tf                                                   #)
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                                        eflifs ;'wf/sf lglDt dfu{bz{s                                                  $&
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df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                 1
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                            vf“rf] k"lt{ ug]{ k|of;
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v'nf 5nkmn, ljZn]if0f / 6Lsfl6Kk0fL ug{] ;f‰ff d~r jf dfWodsf]        xhf/f}+ kqklqsf / ;of}+ k|;f/0f dfWodsf] /huhL :yflkt eO;Sbf
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abln“bf] :j¿k, o;sf] ult / k|jl[ Q, o;df b]lvPsf sdhf]/ Pj+ ;an                                                          ]
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k|ljlwsf] tLa| lj:tf/af6 kqsfl/tfsf] :j¿k, z}nL, d"No–dfGotf Pj+                     ]
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;fpgdf k'gu{7g ePsf] sfplG;nsf] k|f/lDes a}7sn] tTsfnnfO{             dfq geO{ lrGtfs} ljifo xf] eGg] lgisif{df xfdL k'u]sf 5f}+ .
q}dfl;s ¿kdf To:tf] k|sfzg cf/De ug{] cf}krfl/s lg0f{o u¥of] .                                         “
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sfplG;nsf x/]s sfo{ kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ;]/f]km]/f]d} s]lGb|t x'g]                                                                '
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dfGotfsf cfwf/df k|sfzgsf] gfd klg ‘;+lxtf’ /fVg] lgwf] ul/of] .      ;Gt'lnt / ;To–tYolgi7 kqsfl/tfsf] ;kgf cw'/f] g} /lx/xG5 .
;+lxtfsf] klxnf] c+s rf“8} k|sflzt ug{] nIo /fvL ;Dkfbg 6f]nL         xfdL sxf“ ldl8ofsf pkef]Qmf cyf{t\ klqsfsf kf7s, /]l8of]sf >f]tf
lqmofzLn klg eof] t/ ljleGg sf/0fn] k|yd c+ssf] ofqf cln nfd}         / 6]lnlehgsf bz{sn] cfkm"nfO{ dsf{ k/]sf] jf lrQ ga'em]sf]
eof] . k|yd c+ssf] nf]sfk{0f kZrft\ casf] ofqf ;'rf? x'g] s'/fdf          ]
                                                                      k|;÷kqsf/sf Jojxf/sf af/]df s;/L / sxf“ cfjfh p7fpg] eGg]
xfdL ljZj:t 5f}+ .                                                    k|Zg klg cfkm}+df sd hl6n 5}g . ‘;DkfbsnfO{ lr7L’ :tDedfkm{t
         ‘ldl8of OlyS; Og PlzofÆ k':tssf ;Dkfbs j]s6 P]/n]
                                                        + ]           cvaf/sf kf7snfO{ cfkm\gf] ljrf/ k|jfx ug{ lbg] k|rng 5fkf
kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf -ldl8of OlyS;_ sf af/]df ‘zxLb x'g] cf“6 jf         kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; hlQs} k'/fgf] xf] . klqsfsf kf7s / ;DkfbsaLr
PSnf] pNn' ;fljt x'g] hf]lvd jxg ug{ ;Sg] axfb'/n] dfq snd            bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb :yflkt ug{ tyf ;DkfbsLo q'l6–sdhf]/L ;Rofpg of]
rnfpg ;S5’ eGg] p4/0faf6 cfkm\gf] n]v z'? u/]sf 5g\ . ‘;+lxtf’        :tDesf] cxd\ e"ldsf x'g ;S5 . t/ ;a} ;Dkfbsx¿n] o;nfO{
sf] Ps jif{eGbf nfdf] cys\ ofqfdf xfdL klg nueu To:t} cg'ej           plQs} dxTj lbg] ub{}gg\ . g]kfnsf] tTsfnLg ;Gbe{df x]bf{ s]xL
ug{ k'Uof}+ . k|]; / kqsfl/tfsf ;an Pj+ sdhf]/ kIfdf ;Lwf snd         cvaf/sf ;Dkfbsn] ‘lr7L’ :tDenfO{ q'l6–sdhf]/L ;'wfg{] dfWodsf
rnfpg] hf“u/, /x/ / cf“6 yf]/}df dfq} e]l6of] . ;dfhsf c¿             cltl/Qm ;dfhdf p7]sf rlr{t d'2fsf af/]df clgolGqt 5nkmn
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lgeL{s l6Kk0fL ug{] l6Kk0fLsf/x¿ klg kqsf/sf af/]df rrf{ of           cvaf/df cl3Nnf] c+sdf k|sflzt ;fdu|L tyf ;f]xL cvaf/n]
l6Kk0fL ug{ eg] xlRsbf /x]5g\ . Joy{df ‘cnf]slk|o x'g]’ hf]lvd                                           +
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                            ‘zxLb x'g] cf“6 jf PSnf] pNn' ;flat x'g] hf]lvd jxg ug{ ;Sg]
                                axfb'/n] dfq kqsf/sf af/]df snd rnfpg ;S5 .’

2                                                                                                                           df3–r}t @)^$
dfq :yfg lbg] u/]sf] klg kfOG5 . cfkm"n] jf cfkm\gf ;xsdL{n]         x'nfs 7]ufgf ;d]t lbg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . t/ s'g} sfo{qmdsf af/]df
                                     {
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tyf cfkm\gf kf7s÷>f]tf÷bz{sx¿;“u Ifdfofrgf;lxt uNtL                  dfq} u/] ls ;'emfj klg lbP eGg] s'/f bz{s÷>f]tf;Dd k'¥ofpg] :ki6
gbf]xf]¥ofpg] k|0f ug{] pbf/lrQsf                                                                    / kf/bzL{ pkfo k|;f/0f dfWodx¿n]
;Dkfbsx¿ km]nf kfg{ ;dsfnLg                                                                          klxNofpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . vf; d'2f
g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfdf ;lhnf] 5}g .                                                                     / lglZrt vfsf -km/Dof6_ df ;Lldt
kf7sn] k7fPsf] ‘v08g’ eg]kl5                                                                         sltko sfo{qmdx¿df y'k}| bz{s /
x]b{} gx]/L /2Lsf] 6f]s/Ldf kmfNg                                                                    >f] t fx¿sf] ;xeflutf b] l vPs}
nufpg] u/]sf] Joxf]/f ;xif{ ;'gfpg]                                                                  cfwf/df s'g} k|;f/0f dfWod / p;sf
;Dkfbsx¿ e]6\g d'lZsn kb{}g .                                                                        pkef]QmfaLr bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb eO/x]sf]
s'g} klg ;dfrf/ jf n]vsf] ‘v08g’                                                                                       “}
                                                                                                     dfGg klg ;ls+bg, lsgeg] To:tf
g5fKg] cfkm\gf] ‘;DkfbsLo gLlt’ /x]sf]                                                               sfo{qmddf ljifoj:t' / ;DefJo
s'/f sfplG;nnfO{ cf}krfl/s ¿kd}                                                                      ;xefuLsf] 5gf}6b]lv k|Zgsf] lgdf{0f,
hfgsf/L u/fpg cK7\of/f] gdfGg]                                                                       k|:t'lt / lgisif{df ;d]t ;Da4 ldl8of
k|sfzgx¿ klg xfdLaLr hLjGt                                                                           jf kqsf/sf] Psnf}6L jr{:j /x]sf]
5g\ .                                                                                                x' G 5 .
         o;/L clwsf+z ;Dkfbs,                                                                                            ]
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kqsf/ / k|sfzgx¿ g} bf]xf]/f]                                                                        / cg'ej ;“ufn]sf sltko klZrdL
;+jfbsf lglDt tof/ gePsf] l:yltdf                                                                    d'n'sdf k|];df cfPsf tYoxLg,
cvaf/sf kf7s, dsf{ kg{] kIf cyjf                                                                     c;fGble{s / ;g;gLk"0f{ ;dfrf/af6
                   ]                                 +
cfddflg;nfO{ k|;–kqsf/sf sdL–sdhf]/Laf/] cf}nf p7fpg cjZo                                                                  ]
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;lhnf] 5}g . cem lemldSs cfP/ ldlnSs lanfpg] /]l8of] tyf             lqmofzLn kfOG5g\ . a]nfotsf] ldl8of jfOh 6«i6 -Pd 8An' 6L_ n]
6]lnlehgaf6 k|;fl/t ;fdu|LnfO{ lnP/ k|Zg p7fpg t k|df0fsf]             ]
                                                                     k|;sf] hfg–cghfg HofbtLaf6 kLl8t kIfx¿nfO{ lgMz'Ns ;Nnfx
cefjdf emg} sl7g x'G5 . kqklqsfsf] clen]v ;fj{hlgs                   / sfg"gL pkrf/df dfq} ;3fO/x]sf] 5}g, cgfxsdf lrof]rrf{ u/L
                                                         ]
k':tsfnox¿sf cltl/Qm ljleGg sfof{no, ;+ul7t ;+:yf, k|; sfplG;n                                                    ]
                                                                     JolQmsf] lghL hLjgdf vnn k}bf ug{] k|; / kqsf/dfly c+sz             '
g]kfn / sltko JolQmsf] lghL ;+sngaf6 ;d]t k|fKt ug{ ;Dej 5,          nufpg] s8f sfg"gsf] kIfdf ;+;bdf ‘nljª’ ;d]t ug{] u/]sf] 5 .
t/ k|;f/0f dfWodaf6 k|;fl/t ;fdu|Lsf] ;fj{hlgs clen]v                Toxf“sf kqsf/x¿sf] ;o jif{ k'/fgf] 5ftf ;+u7g g];gn o"lgog ckm
-/]s8{_ /fVg] sfo{sf] yfngL g} x'g;s]sf] 5}g .                       hgf{lni6;\ -Pg o" h]_ n] kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3g ug{] ;b:onfO{
         cfkm\gf >f]tf jf bz{s;“u bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb :yflkt ug{ k|foM   ;+u7gaf6} lgisf;g ug{] u5{ . t/, g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{ lgs} leGg 5 .
/]l8of] / 6]lnlehgn] kmf]g jf k|ToIf cGtjf{tf{sf] dfWodaf6 pgLx¿sf   cfwf/e"t k|hftGqs} lglDt cfwf ztfAbL;Dd ;+3if{ ug'{ k/]sf sf/0f
ljrf/nfO{ a9LeGbf a9L :yfg lbg] u/]sf 5g\ . ;dfrf/d"ns /                                 ]
                                                                     g]kfnsf] :jtGq k|;sf] Oltxf;, cEof; / cg'ej ;fk]IftM Psbd}
tfTsflns ljifo -s/]G6 ckm]o;{_ ;“u ;DalGwt x/]s h;f] sfo{qmdsf]      5f]6f] 5 . oxf“ ljleGg ‘Aofg/’ d'lg kqsf/x¿ ;+ul7t t ePsf 5g\
cGTodf >f]tf / bz{ssf] k|ltlqmof ck]Iff u/L kmf]g gDa/, O{dn / ]                                                             \
                                                                     t/ pgLx¿ cfkm\gf] k]zfut xs–clwsf/sf] n8fO“ 6'ªUofP/ gful/s

               Pp6f k|sfzgn] t s'g} klg ;dfrf/ jf n]vsf] ‘v08g’ g5fKg] cfkm\gf] ‘;DkfbsLo gLlt’
                 /x]sf] s'/f sfplG;nnfO{ cf}krfl/s ¿kd} hfgsf/L u/fpg klg cK7\of/f] dfg]g .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                            3
                         ]
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txdf k'Ug af“sL g} b]lvG5 .                                          gfl3;s]sf] eP klg o;nfO{ ;f“rf] cy{df /fHosf] rf}yf] c+usf] ¿kdf
          g]kfnL kqsf/x¿;“u cfkm\gf k]zfut cg'ej / kqsfl/tfaf/]                                               {
                                                                     ljsf; ug{ cem} nfdf] ofqf to ug'kg{] oyfy{ ;a}sf ;fd' 68\sf/}
                                ]
nfu]sf s'/fx¿ ;f6f;f6 ug{] k|; Sna h:tf cgf}krfl/s d~rx¿             5 . o; ;Gbe{df g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfsf sdL–sdhf]/L / lj;+ultx¿
klg 5}gg\ . To:tf] :yfgsf] rrf{ rNbf b'O{–c9fO{ bzs cl3b]lv of]      36fp“b} o;nfO{ c¿ a9L :t/Lo, lhDd]jf/, ;fy{s / ;dfhf]kof]uL
                           +            +
k]zfdf /x]sf sf7df8f}sf kqsf/x¿ a}unf]/ skmL xfp; ;lDemg             t'Nofpg' h¿/L 5 eGg] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . t/ ‘s;/L’ eGg] k|Zgsf]
k'U5g\, hxf“ pgLx¿ Ps sk lrof / s]xL ksf}8fsf] e/df                  olsg hjfkm sfplG;n PSn}n] lbg ;Dej 5}g . To;} eP/ k|foM
ljZjljBfnosf k|fWofks / cjsfzk|fKt s"6gLlt1x¿, ;/sf/sf               k|sfzgsf] klxnf] c+snfO{ eljiosf] lglDt dfu{bz{s atfOg] k|rng
;lrj / dxfk|aGwsx¿ tyf y'k}| ;|i6f / ;r]t gful/sx¿;“u                ljk/Lt xfdL ‘;+lxtf’ sf] k|yd c+snfO{ dfu{bz{s 7flg/x]sf 5}gf}+ .
ljleGg ljifodf s'/f u/]/ 306f}+ latfpg] uy{] . To; qmddf Pp6f        g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf; / k|ult;“u} hgdfg;df o;k|ltsf] cf:yf
      {
l/kf]6/n] cl3Nnf] lbgsf] ;dfrf/df ePsf ;an / sdhf]/ kIf              / ljZjf; clej[l4df 6]jf k'¥ofpg sfplG;nsf] k|sfzg s:tf] x'gk5{    '
                             }
tyf q'l6 dfq} yfxf kfp“bgYof], csf{] lbgsf lglDt ;dfrf/sf]                              {            ]
                                                                     eGg] s'/fsf] lgSof]n ;d:t k|;hut / To;sf pkef]Qmf cyf{t\ kf7s,
ljifoj:t' / b[li6sf]0f klg ToxL+ km]nf kfg{ ;SYof] . o; lsl;dsf]     >f]tf / bz{sx¿sf] rfxgf / ;'emfjsf cfwf/df qmdzM lg:s“b}
;femf ynf]df ljgf cf}krfl/stf k|fKt x'g] ;'emfj / k|ltlqmof Pp6f     hfg]5 . of] k|yd cyjf k|f¿k c+s sfplG;n / o;sf] ;Dkfbg
;Rrf kqsf/sf] lglDt ljZjljBfnosf] lzIffeGbf sd pkof]uL               6f]nLs} ck]Iff / ;kgf cg'¿k klg ;fsf/ x'g;s]sf] 5}g, h;sf
x“bg . tyflk kqsfl/tfsf] cGtj{:t' Pj+ k|jl[ Q, kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf,
  '}                                                                 k5fl8 ljleGg sf/0f 5g\ .
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;dfh–k|; ;DaGwsf ljljw cfofd tyf kqsf/sf lqmofsnfkaf/]                                                 ]
                                                                             k|f/lDes cjwf/0ff ‘k|;–hg{n’ sf] eP klg em08} Ps jif{sf]
;Lw} 6Lsf–l6Kk0fL, ljZn]if0f / 5nkmn ug{] ;fj{hlgs d~r jf            k6\of/nfUbf] k|oTg / cg'ej kl5, ‘;+lxtf’ nfO{ ljz'4 ‘hg{n’ cyf{t\
dfWodsf] vf“rf] eg] cfkm\gf] :yfgdf /xL g} /x]sf] 5 . ‘;+lxtf’ sf]   uxg, cg';Gwfgd"ns / k|fl1s k|sfzgsf ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg
k|sfzgn] dfq Tof] vf“rf] jf l/Qmtf k"/f x'g;Sb}g eGg] oyfy{kl| t                                         ]
                                                                     g;lsg] / To;f] ug{ g]kfnsf] k|;, kqsf/ hut\, af}l4s ju{ / cfd
sfplG;n ;r]t 5 . tyflk, g]kfnL ldl8of÷k|];sf af/]df ul/g'kg{]        kl/j]z kl/kSj x'g af“sL g} /x]sf] xfdLnfO{ nfu]sf] 5 . tTsfnsf
cWoog–lrGtg–5nkmn / ax;sf] lglDt of] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ yfngL            lglDt ‘hg{n’, ‘Dofuflhg’ / ‘a'nl] 6g’ sf] ;lDdl>t :j¿k g} Jofjxfl/s
x'g;S5 eGg] ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5 . sfplG;nn] kqsfl/tfnfO{                x'g;Sg] 7flgPsf] 5 . o;} eP/ o; c+ssf] nflu z'?df ck]Iff ul/P
                                                        ]{
d"ntM :jtGqtf / kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 x]g÷ljZn]if0f     em}+ d"n ljifodf ;Lw} k|jz u/]sf n]v /rgfsf] kIfdf w]/} hf]8
                                                                                                   ]
ug{] x'bf ‘;+lxtf’ sf ljifoj:t'x¿ klg d"ntM To;s} ;]/f]km]/f]df
        “                                                            lbOPsf] 5}g . t/, o;sf] cfzo, ‘;+lxtf’ sf cfufdL c+s o:t}
/xg]5g\ .                                                                ]         '
                                                                     x'g5g\ jf x'gk5{ eGg] klg xf]Og . ljz]iftM kqsf/ tyf kqsfl/tfnfO{
          /fHosf tLg d'Vo c· sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsf /                ;fdflhs sf]0faf6 ;dLIffTds ¿kdf lgofNg] ;r]t kf7sx¿sf]
Joj:yflksfnfO{ ;Gt'lnt / hgtfk|lt hjfkmb]xL agfp“b} ;an              ;'emfj–k|ltlqmofn] g} ‘;+lxtf’ sf] efjL :j¿k / o;n] ;d]6g] ljifoj:t'sf]
                                                                                                                             \
/fi6«sf] lgdf{0f ug{ rf}yf] c· cyf{t\ kqsfl/tfsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{                           ]
                                                                     5gf}6nfO{ lgb{l] zt ug{5 . t;y{, ;a}af6 ;a}vfn] ;'emfj–k|ltlqmofx¿
cjZo x'G5 t/ To;sf nflu of] ‘c·’ :jo+df ;zQm / ;an x'g'              k|fy{gLo 5g\ .



                                                                  ]
            g]kfnL kqsf/x¿;“u cfkm\gf k]zfut cg'ej ;f6f;f6 ug{] k|; Sna h:tf cgf}krfl/s
           d~rx¿ klg 5}gg\ . o; lsl;dsf] ;femf ynf]df ljgf cf}krfl/stf k|fKt x'g] ;'emfj /
                                                                                      '}
           k|ltlqmof Pp6f ;Rrf kqsf/sf] lglDt ljZjljBfnosf] lzIffeGbf sd pkof]uL x“bg .

4                                                                                                                            df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                 ljZn]if0f


;dfrf/sf] ‰ofnaf6
6]lnlehg x]bf{
 /fds[i0f /]UdL              )                                      ]
                                  dfgj ;dfhsf nflu 6]lnlehg x]// /dfpg] ;fwg xf], ;lhnf] dgf]/~hgsf] dfWod xf] / o;nfO{ To;}
                                  ¿kdf ljsl;t ub{} nfg'k5{ .
                             )                                                                        "
                                  xf]Og, of] ;"rgfsf] k|efjzfnL cfwf/ xf], ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;xh ¿kdf ;';lrt ug{] cfd;~rf/dfWod xf],
                                  o;nfO{ ToxL p2]Zo k|flKtsf lgldQ k|of]u ub{} hfg'k5{ .

k/:k/lj/f]wL h:tf b]lvg] dflysf cjwf/0ffn]
6] l nlehg ;+ r f/leq y/Ly/Lsf j} r fl/s
ljBfno g} vf]lnlbPsf 5g\ . s;} s;}n] o;nfO{
6]lnlehgleqsf] åGå eg]/ JofVof u/]sf] b]lvG5
t s;}s;}n] OGkmf]6]gd]06sf] klx/gdf b'j}nfO{
cs{} ljwfsf] ¿kdf k]z ug{] k|of; u/]sf]
kfOG5 .
           dWodfu{df a;]/ ;Gt'lnt 9·n] o;nfO{
b'j}–dgf]/~hg / ;"rgf–sf nflu k|of]u ug{]
k|j[lQ klg gePsf] xf]Og . pBf]u, Jofkf/,
lj1fkgsf] kmf“6df 6]lnlehgnfO{ u|fxs5]p k'Ug]
bl/nf] ;"q 7flgPsf] 5 . zlQmsf, ljz]if u/L
/fHozlQm jf /fhgLltsf v]nf8Lsf lgldQ of]
/0fgLlts cf}hf/ eg]/ lrlgG5 . ;fdflhs
¿kfGt/0fsf cu'jfx¿n] o;df kl/jt{g /
                       ]
ultzLntfsf] hfb" e]6sf 5g\ . 6]lnlehgleqsf
cg]s ;+efjgf / cj;/n] o;nfO{ Ps ;fwg–
cgluGtL pkof]usf] l:yltdf :yflkt u/]sf]
xf], Ps dfg]df ;~rf/–sfdw]g' 7flgPsf] xf] .
           :of6] n fO6 k| l jlwn] 1 6] l nlehgsf]
zlQmnfO{ HofldtLo lx;fan] a9fPsf] 5 . k|f/
Dedf vf; :yfg / kl/j] z df ;Lldt
6]lnlehgsf] kx'“r o;sf sf/0f ljZjJofkL
         ]
aGg k'usf] 5 . Ps cy{df clxn]sf] a]nf ;Dk"0f{
k[YjL 6]lnlehgsf] c“ufnf]df ;d]l6Psf] 5 .
306f 306fsf] ;dfrf/ -/f]lnª Go"h_ z[ªvnfn]     \
                                 '
o;nfO{ ljZj–dfgj;“u cb\et lsl;dn] uf“;sf]          ]
5 . cf]nlDks jf km"6ansf] ljZjsk ePsf]
a]nf jf vf; /f]u ljZje/ km}lnPsf] ;dodf
t[0fd"n txdf of] s'/fsf] cg'ej ul/G5 . df};d
                                              + +
;dfrf/ lbg]n] l;8\gL, 6f]lsof], a]Olhª cf}Nofp“b}
lbNnL, sf7df8f},+ s/f“rL, /f]d, aln{g, d:sf],
n08g b] v fp“ b } Go" o f] s { , Soflnkmf] l g{ o fsf]
xfjfkfgLsf] l:ylt atfp“bf klg w]/nfO{ o:t}}
nfUg] /x]5 . sltn] eGg] u/]sf 5g\ oxL

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        5
‘¿kjflxgL’ n] ubf{ ;+;f/sf] s'g} klg zx/         sxf“ 5 < 6]lnlehgdf s]sf] cWoog ug{] <               ;g\ !(^), ;]K6]Da/df ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf]
klt{/sf] 6f]n;/x ePsf] 5 . e"d08nLs/0fsf]        b[Zosf], efiffsf], af]nLsf], efjel·dfsf],            /fi6«ktLo r'gfjsf] l;nl;nfdf s]g]8L /
ljifonfO{ cy{ljb\ jf /fhgLlt1n] hlt Rofk]        ljifoj:t'sf], k|:tf]tfsf], oGqsf], kbf{sf],                                           ]
                                                                                                      lgS;gaLrsf] dxfjfbljjfb -u|6 l8a]6;_ nfO{    \
klg To;nfO{ oyfy{df knkn ;a}nfO{ cg'ej           36gfljz]ifsf], :jLrsf], tf/sf], :6];gsf],            Toxf“sf ;ft s/f]8 6]lnlehg bz{sn] x]bf{ o;
ug{ ;+ej t'Nofpg] ;fwg 6]lnlehg g} xf] .         Sofd]/fsf] jf Tof] rnfpg]sf] < cWoog s;/L            dfWoddflysf] kf/Dkl/s dfgl;stfdf tflTjs
o;n] ljZj cf“ugsf] kl/sNkgfnfO{ Jojxf/df         ug{] < s] ljlw ckgfpg] <                             cbnabn cfPsf] xf] . t/ klg nfdf] ;do;Dd
                                        '
cg'jfb ul/lbPsf] 5 . lqm; Kof6;{g n]Vg'xG5—                6] l nlehgsf] ;' ? cftdf o;k| l t          o;nfO{ pkGof;, lkmNd tyf gf6ssf] sfNklgs
Television could not exist in its                /flvPsf] b[ l i6sf] 0 fn] klg o;;DaGwL               ljifoj:t'sf] w/ftndf /fVg'kg{] / af}l4shutn]
contemporary form without Satellites.            cWoognfO{ k| e fljt t' N ofPsf] b] l vG5 .           o;sf] cWoog ug{' gkg{], zf]w ug{' gkg{], /
cyf{t\ :of6]nfO6ljgf 6]lnlehgsf] jt{dfg          k|f/Dedf ;+o'Qm clw/fHo / o'/f]ksf s]xL              o;df u+eL/tf;fy ;+nUg x'g' klg gkg{] k'/fgf]
cl:tTj ;+ej 5}g .                                d'n'sdf o;nfO{ hg;]jf -klAns ;le{;_ sf]              zf:qLo ljrf/ sfod g} /lx/x\of] . ;dfhsf
         g] k fnL 6] l nlehgnfO{ :of6] n fO6                                          '
                                                 b[li6sf]0fn] ckgfOPsf] lyof] eg] ;+oQm /fHo          nflu of] xflgsf/s ePsf] wf/0ff klg cfpg],
Rofgnsf] k|;f/0fsf] kl/j]zdf x]g{] xf] eg]       cd]l/sflt/ ahf/df cfwfl/t j:t'sf] ¿kdf               lanfpg] u/]sf] xf] . clxn] klg sltn] 6]lnlehg
cfd;+rf/sf If]qdf cg]s /dfOnf nx/x¿ km]nf        ljsl;t ul/Psf] lyof] . dfS;{jfbL, k|hftGqjfbL                                    ]
                                                                                                      ;dfrf/n] bf]xf]¥ofO{ t]x¥ofO{ lrq b]vfO{–b]vfO{
k5{g\ . ljz]if u/L oxf“sf ;dfrf/df ltgsf]                             ]
                                                 / cGo sltkon] k|;sf] ;j{dfGo l;4fGts}                ck/fwL / cft+sjfbLnfO{ k|l;4 u/fp“5 -
k|efjnfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] kqsf/sf nflu                                                                           Unf]l/kmfO{_ eGg] cf/f]k nflu/x]5 .
pkof]uL ;+s]tx¿ b]lvG5g\ . tL                                                                                    pHofnf] b] v fpg] 6] l nlehg w] / }
aLrsf] ax'cfofdLo ;DaGwnfO{                                                                                      jif{;Dd cWoogsf] b[li6n] Ps k|sf/n]
cg';Gwfgsf] k|m]ddf /fv]/ cWoog                                                                                  cGwsf/df /lx/x\of] .
ug{] cg]s ljifo x'g;S5g\, zf]w               klqsf eP k9]/, /]l8of] eP ;'g/ cWoog
                                                                               ]                                           6]lnlehgsf] k|efj ;dfhdf
pkfo / z}nL klg cgluGtL 5g\ .                                                                                     a9\b} hf“bf ;g\ !(&) df h]D;
k|:t't cfn]vn] ljb]zL :of6nfO6               ug{] j:t' kfpg ;lsGYof] t/ 6]lnlehgdf                                x\ofnf]/fgn] cfd;+rf/n] hgtfnfO{
Rofgnsf] af9L / g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf              s]sf] cWoog ug{] < b[Zosf], efiffsf],                              s] u5{ eg]/ g;f]wf}+, a? hgtfn]
;dfrf/df To;n] kf/]sf] c;/ df                  af]nLsf], efjel·dfsf], ljifoj:t'sf],                               o;nfO{ s] u5{g\ egL k|Zg u/f}3       +
s]lGb|t eP/ ljifoj:t'nfO{ lgofNg]                k|:tf]tfsf], oGqsf], kbf{sf], 36gf–                              egL k|:tfj /fv]kl5 af}l4s SnanfO{
hdsf{ ] u/] s f] 5 . o;df                                                                                          ;f]Rg afWo kf/]sf] a'lemG5 . ;g\
;fª\ l VosLo cfwf/df xf] O g                   ljz]ifsf], :jLrsf], tf/sf], :6];gsf],                               !(&$ df /] d f] 0 8 ljlnodn]
Sjfln6]l6e d]yf]8f]nf]hLn] lgb{l] zt          Sofd]/fsf] jf Tof] rnfpg]sf] < cWoog                                 6]lnlehg k|;f/0f cWoogdf clt
ug{] ;fdfGo cWoogsf cfwf/df                       s;/L ug{] < s] ljlw ckgfpg] <                                    dxŒjk"0f{ cfofd of]hgfa4 k|jfx
cjnf]sg ug{] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 .                                                                                     xf] egL cfkm\gf] k':tsdf4 jsfnt
                                                                                                                   ubf{ w] / } n fO{ nfUof] – 6] l nlehg
6]lnlehgnfO{ k9\g] kf] s;/L <                                                                                      cWoog ug{'kg{] uxg ljifo /x]5,
cfd;~rf/df 6]lnlehgnfO{ lng] ls glng],                                                                k9\g'kg{] zf:q /x]5 . hf]g Pln;n] cfkm\gf]
k|];cGtu{t o;nfO{ kfg{] ls gkfg{], o;sf] a]Un}                                                        lstfj lelhan lkmS;gdf l;g] d f /
cl:tTjnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{] ls gug{] eGg] ljifodf                                                          6]lnlehgnfO{ cnu cnu ljwf eg]/ 5'6\ofO{
klZrdL ljåfg\x¿aLr k|f/Dedf tLa| ljjfb                                                                ;fgf–;fgf ;]ud]06df 6]lnlehgnfO{ ;xh
ePsf] xf] . 6]lnlehgnfO{ s;/L k9\g], s'g                                                              ¿kdf cWoog ug{ ;lsg] cjwf/0ff k|:t't
ljwfcGtu{t cWoog ug{], s:tf] ljlwn] k9\g],                                                            u/]/ o;;DaGwL cWoogsf] dxQfnfO{ :yflkt
s] s'/fnfO{ lnP/ cWoog ug{] tyf o;sf]                                            {
                                                 cfwf/df o;nfO{ cWoog ug'kg{] s'/fdf hf]8             ug'{eof] .5
cWoogsf] cf}lrTo s] eGg]df pgLx¿df :ki6tf        lbOcfPsf] b]lvG5 . 6]lnlehgleqsf] dgf]/hg    +                ;f+:s[lts cWoogqmddf 6]lnlehgnfO{
lyPg . cg] s kl08tx¿ ;f] R g] ub{ y ] ,          ;+;f/sf lrGtsx¿ eg] km/s ljrf/ /fVb}                 c“ufNg] ;Gb]z :6'cf6{ xnn] !(&$ df cfkm\gf]
ljZjljBfno kl/;/ / cGo af}l4s k|lti7fglt/        eG5g\— o;nfO{ k|bz{g Joj;fo (Show Biz)               lgaGw Ogsf]l8ª P08 l8sf]l8ª Og 6]lnlehg
o;nfO{ ;dfhzf:q, /fhgLltzf:q, ;+rf/zf:q,         sf l;4fGtaf6 x]l/g'k5{ .2                            l8:sf] ; { d f lbg' e Psf] 5 . jld{ ª \ 3 d
gf6s, lkmNd, dfWod, efiff cWoog cflbdf                   ;g\ !(%@ df ;/ Oofg Hofsf]an]                ljZjljBfnon] ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf u/]sf]
;fgf] kl/R5]b lbP k'U5, Tof]eGbf a9L Wofg                           ]                 [
                                                 aLaL;Lsf] dxflgb{zssf] ¿kdf g]tTj ;DxfNbf            ;f+:s[lts cWoogdf 6]lnlehg / dgf]/~hg
lbg' plrt x'“b}g lsgeg] 6]lnlehg 6«fG;ld6/       log} s'/fn] pxf“nfO{ lk/f]n]sf] lyof] . /]l8of]sf]   cfofdsf] ljZn]if0f ;dflji6 x'g' / kl5 hf]g
-k|;f/s_ eGbf a9L s]xL xf]Og . 6]lnlehg          babaf ePsf] Tof] a]nf 6]lnlehgnfO{ :yflkt            lkm:ssf] o:t} k| o f; /xg' n ] 6] l nlehg
leqsf] rfl/lqs :jefjn] pgLx¿nfO{ cndndf          ug{ ;lhnf] lyPg . t/ To;} jif{ h'g dlxgfdf           cWoognfO{ cl3 a9fof] . 8]le8 df]nL{n] !(*)
kf/]Yof] . klqsf eP k9]/, /]l8of] eP ;'g]/       dxf/fgL Plnhfa]ysf] /fHofleif]ssf] 6]lnlehg          df bz{s cg';Gwfgdf To:t} k|of; u/]sf]
cWoog ug{ ] j:t' kfpg ;lsGYof] t/                k|;f/0f clt /fd|f] x'g uof] h;sf sf/0f a]nfotL       b]lvG5 . ToxL cjlwdf kqsfl/tf If]qdf
ljZn]if0fsf nflu 6]lnlehgdf s] l6Kg] < ljrf/     hgtfsf] 6]lnlehgk|ltsf] cjwf/0ffd} ;f/k"0f{          6]lnlehgaf/] n]v, l6Kk0fL, ;dLIff cflb
-sG;]K6_ sf nflu af}l4s w/ftn vf]O{ < bz{g       kl/jt{g x'g k'Uof] . cem To;sf] cf7 jif{kl5          k|sflzt x'g,] ;flxTodf / cfnf]rgfdf 6]lnlehg

6                                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
                             klZrddf 6]lnlehg cWoogsf] j}rfl/s ljsf; qmd

  slxn]            “
               sf];u ;Da4 <                       ePsf] s] <                          rf;f] lsg <                            ljz]if
  !(@#     Enflbld/ hf]l/lsg          rNg] lrq k|;f/0f ug{] 6\o"a ag]sf]     lrq k|;f/0fsf] ;Defjgf              6]lnlehgsf] cfljisf/

                                      6]lnlehg o'udf k|j]z u/]sf]                                                of] ;] j f bf] ; | f ] ljZjo' 4
  !(#^     aLaL;L                                                            6]lnlehg ;]jfsf] cEof;
                                                                                                                 -!(#(–!($%_ df /f]lsP/kl5
                                                                                                                 !($^ df k'gM k|f/De ul/of]

  !(#(     Go"of]s{ jN8{ km]o/        6]lnlehg                               k|bz{gsf] dfWodaf6 6]lnlehg          cf/ ;L P eGg] ;+:yfn] k|bz{g
                                                                             k|;f/0fnfO{ xf};nf                   u/]sf]
  !(&)     h]D; x\ofnf]/fg            hgtfn] cfd;+rf/dfWodnfO{ s]            bz{ssf] b[li6af6 6]lnlehgnfO{        bz{sk|wfg b[li6sf]0fsf] ;"qkft
                                      u5{g\ eg]/ ;f]wf}+ eg]sf]              x]g'{kg{] lrGtg k|:t't u/]sf]
  !(&$      :6'cf6{ xn                6]lnlehg k|:t'ltnfO{ cy{ lbg] /         cfd;~rf/sf] k|:t'ltaf6 ;+:s[ltsf] !(*) df 8]le8 df]nL{n] o;sf
                                      c“ufNg]tkm{ hf]8                        cWoog ug{] cfofdsf] k'li6         cfwf/df bz{s zf]w u/]sf

  !(&$      /]df]08 ljlnod            6]lnlehg k|:t'ltnfO{ cWoog ug{] /]l8of] / kqklqsf cWoogeGbf o;} cfwf/nfO{ hf]g Pln;n]
                                      cfwf/ of]hgfa4 k|jfx xf] eGg] ljrf/ km/s u/L 6]lnlehg cWoog ug{] ;]ud]06sf] ¿kdf ljsl;t u/L
                                      k]z ePsf]                           k|of;                        cWoogsf] cfwf/ l;kmfl/; u/]sf]

  !(*!       cfg sfKnfg               6] l nlehg k| : t' l tdf hgtfsf]       k| l tlglwTj gug{ ] cfd;~rf/        k|hftGqdf clt cfjZos ;f]r
                                      k|ltlglwTjsf] ;jfn p7fOPsf]            ;fdu|Lsf] s] cy{ eGg] ;f]rsf]
                                                                             ljsf;
  !(()       cg]s cfd;~rf/sdL{        6]lnlehg cWoog ug{] rf/ cfwf/           –     cy{ nufpg]                   6]lnlehg cWoog ax'cfoflds
   kl5                                                                        –     bz{ssf] b[li6                cfwf/df x'g] k|rng a9]sf]
                                                                              –     pTkfbg kl/j]z
                                                                              –     l6eL Oltxf;



;Gbe{ ;w}+ plq/xg], ;fdflhs zf:qsf] kmf“6df               ;g\ !(() sf] bzsdf / clxn] klg            :jtGqtf ;w}+ g} ljjfbsf] ljifo ePsf] 5 .
6]lnlehgn] ;fdflhs sfo{ ug{] u/]sf] eGg]         6]lnlehg cWoogsf rf/ wf/ b]lvG5g\ .                xfnsf jif{df dfq s]xL b]zdf o;nfO{ ahf/df
                                 ]
efsfdf cWoog eO/xg] s'/f rfnf{6 a|G;8gn]         Pp6fn] 6LeL 6]S:6nfO{ kl/efiff ug{] / cy{          hfg lbOPsf] xf] . sltdf :of6]nfO6 6LeL
                               {
6]lnlehg :6l8hdf pNn]v ug'ePsf] 5 . ToxL         nufpg'kg{] eG5, csf{]n] 6LeL s;n] x]5{ / s'g       k|;f/0fn] /fli6«o ;fj{ef}ldstfdf xdnf eof],
                             ]
qmd bzssf] pQ/f4{lt/ k'u/ k|ltlglwTjsf]          tl/sfn] x]l/G5 eGg]df cWoog x'g'kg{] 7fG5,         lj:tf/jfbsf] uGw cfof] eg]/ ;"rgf lgoGq0fsf
       ]
-/]lk|h06];g_ cfofdaf6 6]lnlehgnfO{ cWoog           |
                                                 t];f] ;fdu|L pTkfbgb]lv kbf{df k|;f/0f;Ddsf]       cg]s pkfo u/]sf] klg kfOG5 .
ug{] ljlwtkm{ pGd'v ePsf] b]lvG5 . cfg           cjlwdf x'g] k]lrnf sfo{sf] ljZn]if0fnfO{ ljz]if
sfKnfgsf] l/ufl8{ª 6]lnlehg k':tsdf ;+slnt       dfG5, / rf}yf]n] 6LeLsf] ult, ljsf;, j[l4 /        kl/j]z g]kfnsf], kbf{ 6]lnlehgsf]
!(*! ;Dd]ngsf] ;fdu|Ln] oxL k'li6 u5{ .          Oltxf;nfO{ dxŒjk"0f{ 7fG5 .                        g]kfn ljb]zL :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf] af9Ldf 5 .
o;} qmddf 6] l nlehgdf hgtfsf] slt                                       '
                                                          ljZjsf cGo d'nsdf 6]lnlehg ;+:s[lt        ltgaf6 jif{g] ;dfrf/sf], ;~rf/ k|j[lQsf]
                                         '
;xeflutf / k|ltlglwTj eGg]af/] cWoog x'gkg{]     klZrdaf6 ;/]sf]n] ToxL+sf] ljrf/ qmd Totflt/       rk]6fdf k/]/ oxf“sf] ;~rf/ ;+/rgf s:tf] x'“b}
s'/fdf hf]8 /x]sf] kfOG5 . ;g\ !(*& df           lj:tf/ ePsf] kfOG5 . Pl;ofnL, clk|msL /            hfg] xf], clxn] eljiojf0fL ug{ ;lsGg . c;/
Go"sDa / lx;{sn] ;f]r]sf] ‘Eo"Oª l:6«k’n]        blIf0f cd]l/sL b]zdf 6]lnlehgnfO{ ;/sf/sf]         cg]s If]qdf b]lvg yfn]sf] w]/} eof] . g]kfnL
6]lnlehgdf bz{snfO{ k|wfg cf;gdf /fv]/           lgoGq0fdf /fv]/ ljsl;t ug{] ljz]if k|jl[ Q         6]lnlehgsf ;dfrf/Lo Jojxf/, ljifoj:t', z}nL
cWoog ug'{kg{] s'/f cf}+NofPsf] xf] .            clxn] klg 5 . Toxf“ 6]lnlehgnfO{ ldNg] k|];        / k|:t'ltdf To;sf] cg'e"lt x'G5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       7
          ;"rgfk|ljlwsf] hfb" ;/xsf] j}1flgs      eP/ /xg'k5{ . gful/ssf] ;"rgfsf] xsnfO{          a]Un} cfofd /]vf+sg ePsf] 5 . b|i6fsf nflu
k|lqmof / pks/0fn] xfjfaf6 ;Gb]z l6Kg ;Sg]        hu]gf{ ug{] cxd\ cfwf/ klg oxL xf] . /fHo /      of] clt g} lk|o ljwf x'g uPsf] 5 . gful/ssf]
/ To;nfO{ k|;f/0f ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf sf/0f          gful/saLrsf] ;+jfbaf6 ;dfrf/ k|efljt             hghLjgdf, /fli6«o sfo{kl/;/df, /fhgLltdf,
g]kfndf ljb]zL :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf] laulauL          eO/x]sf] x'G5, lj1sf] 1fgnfO{, j}1flgssf]        ;d'bfodf, kl/jf/df 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n]
a9]sf] xf] . cfd;~rf/ljb\x¿sf] efiffdf o;nfO{     vf]hnfO{ ;j{;fwf/0fdf lkm+hfpg] / t[0fd"n        68\sf/f] cGt/ NofPsf] 5 . :of6]nfO6n]
;"rgfsf] pRr /fhdfu{ eg]/ ;Daf]wg ul/G5 .         txsf hgtfsf] sf]/f cg'ejnfO{ cGodf k'¥ofpg]      6]lnlehgsf] k|;f/0f IfdtfnfO{ a9fp“bf pld|Psf
of] af6f]n] ;do / :yfgdfly ljho xfl;n             ;fwg oxL xf] . of] ;/sf/L gLlt / of]hgf,         ljb]zL Rofgnsf ;dfrf/n] g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf
u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 k|frLg k"jL{o lrGtgdf            pbL{ / ;"rgfnfO{ b]ze/ km}nfpg] pkfo xf] .       ;dfrf/df cg]s k|efj kf/]sf 5g\ . s]xL
pNn]v ul/P em}+ dGq hKgf;fy -kf;j8{ k|:t't        pbf/ kl/efiffdf :jtGq k|];sf] kof{o:j¿k          ;sf/fTds 5g\, s]xL gsf/fTds 5g\ . s]xLn]
               \                ]
ugf{;fy_, r'6sLsf] e/df -;+st lbgf;fy_ jf         eP/ :yflkt ePsf] 5 ;dfrf/ . o;nfO{ /f]Sbf        ;dfrf/sf] ul/df a9fPsf 5g\ s]xLn] To;nfO{
l:jr bafpgf;fy vf]hsf] ;fdu|L km]nf k5{,
                         ]                        k|hftGq efl;G5, lg/+s'ztf emf+luG5 eGg]          36fPsf 5g\ .
;Da4 ljifo, 36gf, JolQmTj, ;+uLt, v]n jf          /fhgLltzf:qLsf] 7x/ 5 . rf} y f] c·sf]                      6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sf] ljsf;qmdnfO{
;+jfb JolQmsf ;fd' tTsfn cfOk'U5– zAbdf,          5ftfd'lGt/ o'usf] rngcg'¿k snd, 6]k/]s8{/        x]bf{ yfxf x'G5 – o;df vf; gd'gf jf pbfx/0f
lrqdf, cfjfhdf jf cGo s' g } ul0ftLo                                         ]
                                                  / Sofd]/f lnP/ kqsfl/tf ug{n] To;df :jLs[lt      jf vf; 9f“ r f agfP/ o:t} x' g ' k 5{ egL
;+s]tdf . o;s} sf/0f Ps cy{df cfsfzaf6–           hgfPsf 5g\ . ltgsf nflu ;dfrf/ Ps :tDe           ;dfrf/sIfn] k|;f/0f yfn]sf] xf]Og . ub{} hf“bf,
cGtl/Ifaf6 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sf] jiff{ ;+ej          xf] h;sf cfwf/df /fi6« c8]sf] x'G5 .             l;Sb} hf“bf, gLlt–lg0f{ostf{sf cfb]zdf, ;/sf/L
                 '
ePsf] xf] . s]an ;]jf lbg] ;+:yfn]                                                                               lgb{ ] z gdf, ;dfhsf cu' j fsf
o;nfO{ ;+ s ng u/] / g] k fnL                                                                                    k/fdz{df, b|i6fsf] k|ltlqmofsf
sf]7fdf vf; d"Nodf k'¥ofpg]                                                                                      cfwf/df ;dfrf/nfO{ kl/eflift u/L
Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .                                                                                                ;+sng÷k|;f/0f ug{] lylt a;]sf]
          pbfx/0fsf nflu g]kfndf,                                                                                xf] . k| f /lDessfndf 5fkf
                    +
ljz]if u/L sf7df8f}df / To;aflx/                       cem} klg ;dfrf/sf l;nl;nfdf                               dfWodsf] 5fk 6]lnlehg k|;f/0fdf
cg]s 7fp“df k|rlnt s'g} klg                      o;nfO{ 5fkf / /]l8of]sf] 5fof“n] cK7]/f]                        k/]sf] :ki6 b]lvG5, kl5 /]l8of]sf]
s]an ;+hfnsf] ;]jfnfO{ lgofn]df
    '                                            kf/]sf] cg'ej s]xLsf] 5 . k|]; ;Dd]ng                           b[ Z o ;+ : s/0f t xf] lg eGg]
yfxf x'G5– o;af6 Go"gtd klg                                                                                       cjwf/0ffn] 6]lnlehgnfO{ lgs}
                                                   geg]/ ;dfrf/ ;Dd]ng elgof];\ eGg]                              lk/f]n]sf] kfOG5 . rrf{ / k|rf/df
^%–^^ j6f Rofgnsf] ;]jf k|fKt
                                                    o;sf] cfzo ;j{q k"lt{ ePsf] 5}g .                             hgtfaLr l56} lk|o eP klg 5'66}   \
x'G5 . oLdWo] s]xL x'g\– aLaL;L,
                                                  ‘k|; k;{G;’sf] ;§f ‘Go"h k;{G;’ pko'Qm
                                                     ]                                                            cfd;+rf/ dfWodsf] cl:tTjaf]w x'g
;LPgPg, :6f/ Go"h, cfhts,
                                                 x'G5 eGg] o;sf] egfOnfO{ ;w}“ ;'lg“b}g .                         o;nfO{ s]xL ;do nfu]sf] 5, cem}
8L8LGof;gn, hLGo" h , lx:6« L                                                                                     klg ;dfrf/sf l;nl;nfdf o;nfO{
Rofgn, :6f/ d'leh, km];g 6LeL,                                                                                    5fkf / /]l8of]sf] 5fof“n] cK7]/f]
aL$o" Do'lhs, ;f]gL, :6f/ Kn;,                                                                                    kf/]sf] cg'ej s]xLsf] 5 . k|];
6]g :kf]6\{;, hL6LeL, OP;kLPg,                                                                                    ;Dd]ng geg]/ ;dfrf/ ;Dd]ng
:6f/ jN8{, :6f/ jfg, 8L8L :kf]6{\;,                                                                elgof];\ eGg] o;sf] cfzo ;j{q k"lt{ ePsf]
                                      "
l8:se/L, cf:yf, l/ofln6L 6LeL, sf6{g g]6js{,                                                                ]
                                                                                                   5}g . k|; k;{G;sf] ;6\6f Go"h k;{G; pko'Qm
g];gn lhof]u|fkmL, Pd6LeL, jN8{ g]6 cflb .                                                         x'G5 eGg] o;sf] egfOnfO{ ;w}+ ;'lg“b } g .
logdf ;a} ;dfrf/k|wfg 5}gg\, t/ clwsf+z                                                            o;leqsf] Sofd]/f k|ljlw, k|;f/0f ;+oGq, :6'l8of]
Ps g Ps lsl;dn] ;dfrf/;“u cfa4 5g\ .                                                               ;+/rgfsf jf:tljs cfjZostf tyf afWotfn]
ltgn] Psflt/ g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf ;dfrf/–                                                             klg o;sf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ k|efljt t'NofPsf]
b|i6fnfO{ x/ kn vf]l;/x]5g\ / csf{l] t/ ;dfrf/             dfgj ;Eotfsf] ;/;tL{ cWoogn]            5 . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df kyk|bz{s x'g] >]o
                                                  b]vfp“5— ;dfrf/nfO{ k|f/Dedf j}slNks             kfPsf aLaL;L / ;LPgPgsf] ufyf k9\bf /
ljwfdf oxf“ cg] s c;/ 5f] l 8/x] 5 g\ .
                                                  ;~rf/n] / kl5 ;g\ !$$) df u'6]gau{n]             clxn]sf] cEof; x]bf{ cg'ej x'G5– 6]lnlehg
b|i6fx/0fsf] ;d:of, k|lt:k4f{sf] df/ tyf ahf/       ]
                                                  k|; agfPkl5 cfd;~rf/sf] 5fkf dfWodn]             ;dfrf/df k|of]u rfn" 5, l;sfO hf/L 5 .
Pj+ ljQLo ;Lldttfsf dfem tL c;/n] g]kfnL          v]nfp“b} cfPsf] xf] . To;sf] em08} $%% jif{kl5                  |              '
                                                                                                              t];f] ljZjsf d'nsdf ltgsf] cg'ej
6]lnlehgnfO{ c“7\ofO/x]sf] cg'ej x'G5 .                                         ]
                                                  !*(% lt/ u'lUnPNdf] dfsf{gLsf] /]l8of] j]e       st} 6]lnlehg ‘uLtf’ ag]/ k'u]sf] 5 st}
k|efjsf] tLa| ks8 ;dfrf/sf] kmf“6df 5 .           cfljisf/sf sf/0f ;dfrf/nfO{ ckgfP/ /]l8of]n]     6]lnlehg ‘afOan’ ag]/ / st} 6]lnlehg
          ;dfrf/ eg]sf] kqsfl/tfdf o:tf] ljwf     a]Un} xfjfsf] zAb ;+;f/ :yfkgf u/]sf] xf] .      ‘s'/fg’ ag]/ . cg]s 7fp“df aLaL;L / ;LPgPg
xf] h;sf dfWodaf6 cfd;~rf/ ul/G5 . of]            af]nL ;dfrf/ z'? ePsf] sl/a @* jif{df            cgf}krfl/s 6]lnlehg ljZjljBfno aGg k'usf      ]
o:tf] ljlw xf] h;af6 ;j{;fwf/0f ;';l" rt x'g]     !(@# lt/ ;dfrf/sf] hfb"kfzdf 6]lnlehg            5g\ . /fli6«o cfjZostf / afWotfn] To;df
cj:yf k}bf x'G5 . of] o:tf] ljwfg xf] h'g         kg{ cfPsf] xf] . o;df /x]sf] >Job[Zo zlQmsf      yk36 eO/x]sf] 5, gSsn / cg]s vfnsf
lg/Gt/ ;To–tYok"0f{, ;Gt'lnt / ljZj;gLo           sf/0f ;dfrf/sf] cg'xf/, k|efj / ult ;a}df        cg';/0f tLa| ¿kdf rfn" 5g\ . xfnsf jif{df


8                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
:of6]nfO6 Rofgnsf] k|;f/0fn] To;df ljz]if                • ;dfrf/ zx/ / ;'ud If]qsf] dfq             5 . ljz] i fu/L ‘tkfO{ + ’ sf] k| o f] u ubf{ s f]
k| e fj kf/] s f] 5 . tL Rofgndf /x] s f]                      x'G5 eGg]df hf]8                              '
                                                                                                     6fpsf]bvfO / ‘ltdL’ eg]/ a9L cfw'lgs aGg]
6\ofAnf]O8 z}nLn] oxf“ ;g;gLk"0f{ k|;f/0f ug{            • cf} k rfl/s sfo{ q md ;dfrf/ xf] ,        /x/ pNn]vgLo 5 . slt ;Gbe{df bf]wf/
k|l] /t u/]sf] b]lvG5, d"ntM ck/fw, of}g tyf                   cgf}krfl/s sxf“ vf]Hg] eGg] ;f]r      b]lvG5, p:t} l:yltdf s;}nfO{ tkfO{+ / s;}nfO{
dgf]/~hgk|wfg ;dfrf/df of] k|j[lQ kfOG5 .                • ;dfrf/df klg k|f]6f]sn x'G5 eGg]          ltdL eg]sf] k|;·n] ;w}+ laemfp“5 . rf]/, 8fFsf,
cg]s :of6]nfO6 Rofgndf kfOg] ljZn]if0ffTds                     dfGotf                                anfTsf/LnfO{ s;/L tkfO“ eGg] k|Zgdf bd
;dfrf/, vf]hk"0f{ ;dfrf/, /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o           • ljb]zaf6 k|fKt ;a} ;dfrf/ /fd|f] x'G5                    +
                                                                                                     xf]nf, t/ tkfO{df k|ultzLntf n·8fp“5 eGg'
hLjgsf cg] s kIfsf ;dfrf/ / b} l gs                            eGg] wf/0ff                           t s;/L< ;dfrf/sIfdf ;fgf] :6fOna's
hLjgf]kof]uL ;fdu|Lsf ;dfrf/af6 eg] kf7                  • 306f 306fdf ;dfrf/ lbg] df]x              cEof; ubf{ 6'l·g] k|;·df Wofg gk'Ubf
l;Sg] k|j[lQ sd b]lvG5 .                                 • h] klg ;dfrf/ xf] eGg] cjwf/0ff           6]lnlehgn] bz{snfO{ lg/Gt/ luHofO/x]sf]
                                                         • h;n] klg ;dfrf/ pTkfbg ug{ ;S5            l:ylt 5 .
;dfrf/sf] vf; v]df                                             eGg] ljZjf;
g]kfnL 6]lnlehg– ;dfrf/sf] 5ftf 7"nf ljsl;t              • xfdLn] lbPkl5 Tof] ;dfrf/ x'G5 x'G5                           \
                                                                                                     x;\ xf] ls xj;\, 5'6g] a]nfdf ;w}+ ;s;
b]zsf] t'ngfdf Tolt a[xt\ 5}g . t/ of] lg/Gt/                  eGg] cf8Da/             >Job[Zo / cGo k|:t'ltdf 5'6\g] a]nfs]f jfSo,
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                                                                                       jfSof+z jf cleJolQmnfO{ kfl6{ª ;Gb]z eg]/
Rofgn g] k fn, Od] h Rofgn, sflGtk' /                          hLjGttfnfO{ r'gf}tL lbg] afgL
                                                                                       ljz]if dxŒj lbOG5 . ;dfrf/df o;sf] k|of]u
6]lnlehg, g]kfn jfgsf ;dfrf/n], ljz]if u/L               • k|lqmofsf] ;g;gL kf] cfjZos 5 eGg]
                                                                                       x'g' g/fd|f] xf]Og, t/ o; qmddf cg]s k|:tf]tfn]
ltgn] gf} b]lv !^ kN6;Dd k|;f/0f ug{] ;dfrf/                   k|j[lQ                  xj;\ eGg] zAbnfO{ k|of]u u/]sf] kfOg' crDd
sfo{qmdn] o;nfO{ clxn] kl/eflift u/]sf 5g\ .             • c¿sf] gSsn ug{] /x/         5, Tof] slxn] x;\ eOlbG5 t slxn] xf];,\ clg
PleGo'h / ;u/dfyf 6]lnlehg Go"h Rofgnsf                  • 6\ofAnf]O8 z}nLsf] cfsif{0f slxn] xif . ljbf x'gsf nflu ;w}+ o;sf] k|of]u
¿kdf o;df ;lDdlnt eO;s] s f 5g\ .                        • lrqdo k|:t'lt g} 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/
                                                                                       x'g' slt a'l4dQf xf], slt pko'Qm xf] ¤ ljz]if
Go"hnfOg 6LeL, g];gn 6LeL, O06/g];gn                           xf] eGg] c8fg           u/L k"jL{ g]kfndf k|rngdf /x]s]f ‘xj;\’
ckln+s k|f=ln=, af]lwu|fd, P; s] 6LeL nufot                                            ljbfOsf] zAb xf] / <
                                                               o; k|sf/sf cjwf/0ffn] ;dfrf/sIf
w]/}n] k|;f/0fsf] cg'dlt lnPsf] a'lemG5 .        k|efljt ePsfn] g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ xn'sf     6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ :qmf]ndf /ge'Nn
ltgnfO{ cjnf]sg ubf{ 6LeLsf] v]tLk|lt                                                  5 . 6]lnlehg kbf{sf] k'5f/df k|jflxt x'g]
                                                 ePsf 5g\, ;dfrf/ k|:tf]tf ;xL cy{sf cf+s/
nufgLstf{ cfs[i6 ePsf] yfxf x'G5 . em08}                                               Ps nfOgsf] alu/x]sf] h:tf] b]lvg] x/km–:qmf]n–
                                                 geP/ 6]lnk|Dk6/df h] cfp“5 Tof] k9\g] ‘jfrs’
@% s/f]8sf] k"hL xftdf lnP/ gof“ l6eL ;]jf
                “                                            ]                         n] kqsfl/tf, ljz]if u/L ;dfrf/Lo w/ftndf
                                                 x'g k'usf 5g\, 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/–;do hglk|o
k|f/De ug{ vf]Hg' eg]sf] nufgL–;+;f/df rfgr'g]         '                               ljz]if :yfg lnO;s]sf] 5 . of] :yfgnfO{ cGoq
                                                 x'gsf] ;f6f] Rofgn abNg] a]nf ePsf] 5 .
s'/f xf]Og eGg] lj1x¿sf] ljrf/ 5 .                                                     em}+ oxf“ klg lj1fkgsf cltl/Qm ;dfrf/sf
                                                 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ sfo{qmddf Sofd]/f k|wfg
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                                                                                       lgldQ k|of]u ul/G5 . cGo sfo{qmd ;~rf/
k/]sf cg]s :of6]nfO6 Rofgnsf] k|efj xf] .                  "
                                                 cy{k0f{ kfg{sf nflu k"0f{ l/kf]l6{ª, ;xL cf+sl/ª
                                                                                       eO/x]sf] avt dxŒjk"0f{ ;dfrf/ lbg'k/]df
cGoq Toltsf l6eL rn]sf 5g\ eg] oxf“ lsg              '                      ]          {
                                                 x'gk5{, ;dfrf/nfO{ k|f8S;g ug'k5{ . ;dosf]
                                                                                       o;sf] pkof] u x' G 5 . t/ s:tf s:tf
rNb}g, / Tof] 6LeL To;/L rn]sf] 5 eg] of]                                              ;Gb]zd"ns ;fdu|LnfO{ :qmf]n ;dfrf/df /fVg]
                                                 cefjn] xf] ls, ;fwgsf] sdLn] xf] ls, l/kf]6/df{
6LeL klg lgZro g} rNg'k5{ eGg] cfwf/df           ;Lk ;DkGgtf geP/ xf] ls jf ;dfrf/nfO{ eGg] dfkb08 ljsl;t ePsf] b]lvGg, xr'jfsf]
of] k|j[lQ lj:tf/ eO/x]sf] xf] .                         "                             e/df o;sf] cEof; eO/x]sf] 5 . cg]skN6
                                                 ax'dNo pTkfbg agfcf}+ eGg] rfxgf geP/ xf]
          Jofj;flos cg';Gwfg k"/f u/]/ To;n]     g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df o:tf sdL b]vfk|:t'lt :ki6 gx'g], ;dfrf/ rogdf sdhf]/L
cf}+NofPsf ;+s]tnfO{ dgg u/]/ 6LeL k|f/+e                                              /xg] / efiff gldNg] l:ylt cfOk/]sf] s'/f w]/}
                                                 k5{g\ . o;df pko'Qm ;'wf/ x'g g;s] g]kfnL
ePsf] pbfx/0f oxf“ 5}g eGbf x'G5 . Pp6f          6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n] cfkm\gf ;Dk"0f{ bz{sbz{sn] cf}+NofPsf] kfOG5 . ;+lIfKt / ;fgf]
;"of]{bob]lv csf{] ;"of]{bo;Dd jif{}el/ lg/Gt/   O06/g] 6 df k| f Kt cgnfOgsf] k| l t:k4L{
                                                                                       eP/ klg o;sf] k[i7e"lddf /x]sf] cfd;+rf/
d'6'sf] w8\sg;“u k|lt:k4f{ ub{} ;~rflnt                                           ]
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                                                                                       zlQm / dxŒjnfO{ gsfg{ ;lsGg . bz{s jf
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                                                                                       u| f xssf] ;" r gfsf] clwsf/b] l v lnP/
x'G5 hf] :jo+ :of6]nfO6 k|efj xf] . logdf                                            }
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                                                                                       kqsfl/tfsf uDeL/ ;Lk h:tf s'/fsf] rf;f]
lgDg cjwf/0ff;Fu cfj4 k|jl[ Q ljBdfg /x]sf]                                            o;df 5 . o;af6 vf; sfo{qmd x]l//x]sf
                                                 k|;f/s kqsf/n] s'g} cGtjf{tf{df eg] em}+
b]lvG5 eGg] cfd;~rf/ zf]wstf{sf] egfO                                                  b|i6fsf] Wofg e· x'g hfg] s'/fdf xf]lzof/L
                                                 6]lnlehgsf] @$ 306] /f]lnª ;dfrf/df ;+/rgf
5 . zf]wsf] ¿kdf ljZj;gLo tj/n] logsf]           / cfsf/ km]nf kb{g .6   }             ckgfpg'k5{ . ;fy} ;"rgf–pkef]Qmfn] yk
;fª\ l VosLo cWoog ePsf] kfOGg t/                              o;sf] ;fy} c¿ k|;·df klg k|efj
                                                                                       ;Gt' l i6 kfpg] ljifodf klg hfu[ t x' g '
cgf}krfl/s tj/n] cfd;~rf/df ?lr /fVg]n]                                                          ]
                                                 gk/]sf] xf]Og . logsf] ;+lIfKt rrf{ pko'Qm x'g5 .
                                                                                       cfjZos 5 .
u/]sf] cWoogn] oL s'/fnfO{ cf}NofPsf] e]l6G5M
                               +                                                                 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/nfO{ ‘nfOe’ n]
                                                                      +
                                            ‘ltdL’;“u Kof/, ‘tkfO{’nfO{ afO{afO{       lglZrt ¿kdf hLjGt kf/]sf] 5 . o;sf sf/0f
    • /fhgLlt dfq ;dfrf/ xf], g]tfsf] af]nL g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df vf; JolQmnfO{ b|i6fx¿ vf; 36gf, JolQm / k|;·;“u k|ToIf
      dfq ;dfrf/ xf] eGg] e|d               s:tf] cfb/fyL{ zAb k|of]u ug{] eGg]df cndn ¿kdf cfa4 x'g k'u]sf] kfOG5 . t/ s'g

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                        9
s'/fnfO{ s;/L nfOe lbg] eGg] ljifodf :ki6        k|ltzt ljZn]if0fdf zf]wsf] lgod gnufpg]        ;/fxgLo 5, To;df xLgefjgf lng'kg{] l:ylt
   “
gx'bf nfOedf b|i6fx¿ x/fPsf] :ki6 b]lvG5,                   ]
                                                 ePkl5 ;e{af6 s] cy{ nufpg] < sd{sf08Lo         5“ b } 5 } g . t/ c¿ :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf]
cg]skN6 clt g} k6\of/df k/]sf] b]lvG5 .          ¿kdf o;nfO{ rnfO/xg] xf] eg] Ps s'/f xf],      gSsnsf] l;nl;nf a9\b} uPsf] s'/fsf] x]Ssf
ltgsf nflu 6]lnlehgn] cy{k"0f{ ;Gb]z lbg'kg{]    hgdtsf] ;xL lx;fan] ;+sng u/]/ b|i6fnfO{       /fVg' clgjfo{ eO;s]sf] 5 . c¿af6 t l;Sg]
dfGotf cf]em]ndf k/]sf] 5 . nfOe xfdL lbG5f},+   k"0f{ hfgsf/L u/fpg] xf] eg] o;df ;'wf/ x'g'   xf], l;s]sf] s'/fnfO{ cfkm\gf] kl/j]zdf /fv]/
;dfrf/ b|i6fx¿n] agfpg'xf]nf eg]/ 6]lnlehg       cfjZos 5 . pko'Qm Wofg glb+bf unt ;Gb]z        pko'Qm ePdf nfu" ug{], geP 5f]8\g] k|j[lQsf]
;dfrf/ pTkfbsn] eGg t lgZro g} gldNnf ¤          km}ng ;S5 .                                    ljsf; x'gk5{ . aflx/lt/ P]Zjof{ /fo / cleif]s
                                                                                                              '
@)^$ sf] d] lbj;df 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df                      ;dfrf/sf cg] s cjojdf Wofg            aRrgsf] lax]sf] To;/L ;dfrf/ lbOof] eg]/
>lds ljifos ljifoj:t'nfO{ cg]s jQmf              gk'Ubf 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ / b|i6faLrsf]           oxf“ s'g} ljjfxnfO{ ToxL dfqfsf] ;dfrf/Lo
g]tfhLx¿n] lg:t} vfOlbPsf] pbfx/0f 5, To;}       ;DaGwdf lzlyntf cfpg] :ki6 5 .                 dxŒj lbP/ k|rf/–k|;f/ ul/of] eg] s] g} /fd|f]
lbg j;Gtk'/df Ps g]tfhLnfO{ efif0fdf k/]sf]      cfd;+rf/sdL{x¿sf] ljrf/df Kof/f;f];n           xf]nf / ¤ v]nf8L 8]le8 a]sx\ofd / leS6f]l/ofsf]
vf; cK7]/f]nfO{ h:tfsf] t:t} b]vfpg ePsf]        ;DaGwsf sf/0f 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/;“u b|i6fx¿       k|;·nfO{ ljb]zdf To;/L ;dfrf/df 7fp“ lbOG5
cndn cfkm\g} 7fp“df 5 . aif{}e/ jfn'jf6f/sf]     ljz]if ¿kdf ufFl;Psf x'G5g\, of] u“;fO         egL oxf“ s'g} v]nf8L / p;sL cwf{l·gLsf af/]
9f]sfaflx/af6 g]tfhL cfPsf]–uPsf],                                                                              p;}u/L 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ lbOof]
uf8Lleqaf6 dg gnufO{                                                                                            eg] s] cy{ xf]nf / ¤ b]vfj6Lkg /
                   ]
gnufO{ w]/} af]nsf] / vf;df                                                                                     k|bz{gnfO{ ;dfrf/df ljj]sk"0f{
                 ]
s]xL klg gaf]nsf] b[Zo k|;f/0f                                                                                  lg0f{o ljgf cEof; ug'{ vt/gfs
g} nfOe ;dfrf/ xf] eg]/                                                                                         x' g ;S5 . o;n] ljifoj:t' s f]
kl/efiff ug'{ s;/L < /fodfemL                    ;ft bn, ltgsf g]tfhL / pxf“x¿sf]                               ulx/fOdf hfg] qmdnfO{ /f]S5 .
cfof]udf aofg lbg cfpg] /                        j/k/ 3'Dbf3'Db} ;dfrf/n] d"n s'/f]                                      g] k fnL      6] l nlehg
hfg] ;a}h;f]n] Pp6} kl/b[Zodf                       ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg 3f]lift                               ;dfrf/df p2]Zok|ltsf] lhDd]jf/L
                     '
;w}+ !$ dxLg] lg/+sz zf;gdf                                                                                     gePsf] xf]Og . t/ To;nfO{ k|fKt
cfÇgf] uNtL s]xL gePsf], cfkm"                    ;dodf x'g g;Sg] eGg] s'/f a]ndf }                             ug{] dfu{df ;do ;dodf c:j:y
rf]vf] /x]sf] bfaL u/]sf] s'/fnfO{                kQf nufpg ;s]g, hgcfGbf]ngn]                                  xf]8afhL / u}/lhDd]jf/L b]vf k5{ .
nfOe ;dfrf/sf] kof{o 7fGg'                       k}bf u/]sf] kl/jt{gn] ck]Iff /fv]sf]                           o;sf sf/0f ;dfrf/n] ;Dk"0f{
s;/L <                                              gof“ g]kfnsf] vfsf ;dfrf/df                                 g]kfnnfO{ ;d]6\g ;s]sf] 5}g,
                                                                                                                ;Dk"0f{ hfltsf nflu of] ltgsf]
cgdf]n :tDedf a]jf:tf                                        cfpg ;s]g .                                        af] n L aGg ;s] s f] b] l v“ b } g .
6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sIfsf zf]ef                                                                                      6] l nlehg ;dfrf/sf nflu
/ 6] l nlehg kqsfl/tfsf                                                                                         g]kfndf hDdf #% lhNnf 5g\ h:tf]
cgdf]n :tDe;/xsf xfOnfO6\;,                                                                                     b] l vG5 . tLafx] s sf :yfgsf
a|l] sª -tfQftf]_ Go"h, eS; kk, s/]06                                                           ;dfrf/ ;+sng ug'{ gkg{] xf] ls < ;d;fdlos
ckm]o;{ / ljZn]if0fnfO{ g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn]                                                       ljifo p7fpFbf jf O:o"nfO{ ;dfpFbf of] Jofks
;DxfNg g;s]sf] b]lvG5 . ltgsf] pko'Qmtf                                                         / ;dfj]zL x'g;s]sf] 5}g . kmntM @)^# sf]
klxNofO{ kqsfl/tf / Sofd]/f–;Lkn] ltgsf]                                                        kl/jt{gsf cg]s cfofdnfO{ g]kfnL 6]lnlehg
k|of]u ug{] ljj]s ljsl;t eO;s]sf] b]lvGg .                                                      ;dfrf/n] Gofo ug{ ;s]sf] b]lvGg . ;ft
;dfrf/ ;+u;+u} lnOg] cGtjf{tf{n] 6]lnlehg                                                       bn, ltgsf g]tfhL / pxfFx¿sf] j/k/ 3'Dbf3'Db}
;dfrf/sIfnfO{ lrof ukmdf kl/0ft u/]sf]                                                          ;dfrf/n] d"n s'/f] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg
b]lvG5 . ltgsf] jhgnfO{ /fd|/L dx;'; ug{         efjgfTds, ulx/f] / bL3{sfnLg klg ePsf]         3f]lift ;dodf x'g g;Sg] eGg] s'/f j]n}df
g;lsPsf] / To;af6 ;dfrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tf          kfOG5 . slt gful/sn] t 6]lnlehgn] ;dfrf/       kQf nufpg ;s]g, ;+ljwfg;ef s] xf], lgjf{rg
36]sf] :ki6 5 . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df ‘xfd|f’        lbPkl5 Tof] c;To xf] eGg] s'/f dfGg g;Sg]      s;/L x'g] xf], ldl>t lgjf{rgsf] cy{ s] x'G5,
;dfrf/bftf slxn] cfpg] xf] , csf{ ] s f          l:ylt x'G5 . elgG5, 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df          ;+3Lo /fHo eg]sf] s] xf] / Tof] s] s:tf] cfwf/df
                                    “}
;dfrf/bftf slxn] hfg] xf] kQf] x'bg, b]z         cflwsfl/stf, ljZj;gLotf, / k|efjsfl/tf         lgdf{0f x'g ;S5 eGg] ;DaGwdf agfpg ;lsg]
ljb]zsf ;dfrf/df ;dfrf/ ;ldltsf] ;dfrf/          cGo ;~rf/dfWodsf] t'ngfdf a9L g} x'G5 .        cg]s k|;·sf ;dfrf/ ag]gg\ . To;}u/L
s'g xf] kQf nufpg ;+ej 5}g . ;dfrf/sIfsf]        o:tf] uxg s'/fdf g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn] Tolt        hgcfGbf]ngn] k}bf u/]sf] kl/jt{gn] ck]Iff
;fgf] u[xsfo{n] ;'wf/ cfpg] oL s'/fdf nfdf]      ;f/f] Wofg glbP h:tf] 5 .                      /fv]sf] gof“ g]kfnsf] vfsf ;dfrf/df cfpg
;do;Dd Wofg k'u]sf] b]lvGg .                             ;du| d f eGbf g] k fnL 6] l nlehg      ;s]g . g]kfnsf] /fli6«o ljsf;, ;+;fwgsf]
         P;\ P d\ P ;\ s f] dfWodaf6 hgdt        ;dfrf/sf] efiff, z}nL / k|:t'ltdf cfd;~rf/sf   k|of]u, /f]huf/L, k"jf{wf/sf] lj:tf/, pBf]u,
;+sngsf] nx/nfO{ klg :of6nfO6s} k|efj eGg        d"Nocg'¿ksf] ;'wf/ cfjZos 5 . 5l/tf]kgdf       Jofkf/, oftfoft, u|fdL0f ljsf; cflb leq
gldNg] xf]Og . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ ;dodf             ljZj;gLotf / zL3|tfdf ljj]ssf] cEof; ug'{      ;dfrf/sf] kx'“r ePg . j}b]lzs ;DaGw /
o;nfO{ :yflkt ug{] t/ k|Zg, pQ/, ;+Vof,          pko'Qm b]lvG5 . ;dfrf/df lnOPsf] pT;fx         lzIffsf ljifodf klg gof“ g]kfnsf] rfxgf


10                                                                                                                                 df3–r}t @)^$
                            gof“ g]kfnsf] l;h{gfdf g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ sIf ;a}sf]
                         k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu v'nf /fVg'k5{, Toxf“sf ;dfrf/sdL{ ;xL cy{sf] lgikIf
                                  åf/kfn aGg'k5{ . o;f] geP ;dfrf/ ‘;]jf’ aGg ;Snf / Û

d'vl/t ePsf] kfOPg . w]/} b]zdf /fhb"t kb                  rf/ jif{kl5 @)$^ df hgcfGbf]ngsf                   6]lnlehg If]qsf] cu'jfO{ ug{] lhDdf Psflt/
                            }
vfnL ePsf] s'/f bf]xf]¥ofp“bdf / ljZjljBfnodf     sf/0f #) jif{] k~rfotL Joj:yf ktg x'Fbf                     !@ jif{sf] ;z:q åGåsf] ;+rfns tyf cg'ejL
lgo'lQm gePsf] s'/fnfO{ af/Daf/ pNn]v ub{df  }    ax'bnLo ;+;bLo k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] efsf                / csf{ l t/ zflGtk" 0 f{ hgcfGbf] n gsf
;do lat]sf] 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/nfO{ ofb} ePg .        l6Kg] cj;/ o;n] kfPsf] b]lvG5 . To; a]nf                    ;xsdL{nfO{ ldn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L / lghL
ggO:o"nfO{ Wofg lb“bf ;dfrf/df d"n O:o"           o;sf ;dfrf/df ToxL /fu kfOG5 .                              6]lnlehgsf] ;dfrf/ casf lbgdf s;/L cl3
                                   '
x/fPsf cg]s pbfx/0f 5g\, p7\gkg{] cg'kftdf        sfnfGt/df of] ;ª\Vofdf / u'0f:t/df emfl·b}                  a9\g] xf] Tof] x]b{} hfg' 5 . hgcfGbf]ng b'O{sf]
gp7]sf O:o" klg y'k|} 5g\ . ul/aL, e|i6frf/,      uO{ ;/sf/L / lghL wf/df k|jflxt ePsf]                       dd{ljk/Lt Tof] hfg' x'Gg eGg] ;dfrf/ If]qsf]
dfgj laqmL, kof{j/0f x|f;, unt zx/Ls/0f,          5 . jt{dfg g]kfnL 6]lnlehg d"ntM lghL                       dfGotf xf] . o; cy{df g]kfnL 6]lnlehg
;+;fwgsf] b'?kof]u, s'zf;g, c;dfj]zL                                            '
                                                  If]qsf] pT;fxdf !$ dxLg] lg/+sztfsf] ;fdgf                                                 \ '
                                                                                                              ;dfrf/n] ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ ;d]6gkg{,] /fli6«otfsf]
b[li6sf]0f / bnut :jfy{sf cg]s ;d:ofdf                                                     {
                                                  ub{} hgtfsf] kIfdf pleg, hgcfGbf]ng b'OnfO{                 hu]gf{ ug'{kg{], cNkdt, cNk;+Vossf] cfjfh
;dfrf/sIfsf] Wofg gk'u]sf] :ki6 5 .               l/kf]6{ ug{ / pmhf{ lbg lgs} ;kmn ePsf]                     aGg'kg{], dfgjclwsf/, nf]stflGqs cEof;sf]
          kl/jt{ g sf s' / f ug{ , ;/sf/nfO{      b]lvG5 . s'g s'g lghL If]qsf 6]lnlehgn]                     ;Da4{g ug'{kg{], ljlwsf] zf;gdf hf]8 lbg'kg{],
va/bf/L ug{, nf]stGq :yfkgfkl5 klg hf/L                                                 ]
                                                  o; cjlwdf s:tf] s:tf] vf; 5fk 5f]8sf 5g\                    ljjfb / ;d:ofnfO{ se/ ubf{ k"0f{tM lgikIftf
/x]sf lj/f]w sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg /           To;sf] n] v fhf] v f ug{ ] sfd eljiosf                      ckgfpg'kg{], dfgj cle?lr / cfjZostfsf
@)^# j} z fvb] l v @)^$ j} z fv;Dd                zf] w stf{ s f] xf] . o;} ;dodf 6] l nlehg                  ;fdu|L k]z ubf{ lzi6tfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'kg{,]
g] t fhLx¿sf] /fhgLltleqsf] ;xdlt /               ;dfrf/n] g]kfndf ;/sf/L / lghL k|jl[ Qsf]                   of}g, ck/fw ;dfrf/ k|:t'ltdf ;+od lng'kg{]
c;xdltsf] k|lqmof / ljj/0f k]z ug{ eg]            vf; nIf0f b]vfPsf] :ki6 x'G5 . s'g} vf;                     / ;g;gLnfO{ /f]Sg'kg{,] e]befjnfO{ x6fpg'kg{]'
6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n] afhL df/]sf] eGg'k5{ .                      {
                                                  ;dodf b'Oj6f 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ ;'Gbf b'O{                     h:tf a'“bfdf Wofg lbg' h¿/L 5 . ;+If]kdf
To;f] t cGtl/d ;+ljwfg nfu" ePkl5 t/fO{df         k/:k/lj/f]wL wf/sf ;"rgf k|jflxt eO/x]sf]                   eGg] xf] eg] gof“ g]kfnsf] l;h{gfdf g]kfnL
ePsf] lj/]fw / cGosf c;Gtf]ifsf] nx/nfO{          x'GYof]– Pp6f aGbsf] a]nfdf Pp6f 6]lnlehgn]                 6]lnlehgn] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ sIf ;a}sf]
l6Kg klg ;dfrf/ ;kmn ePsf] dfGg'k5{ .             g]kfn v'n]sf] b]vfpg' / csf{]n] ;Dk"0f{ b]z                 k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu v'nf /fVg'k5{, ToxfFsf
t/ /fi6« ljv08glt/ hfg] vt/fdf xf]lzof/           aGb ePsf] b]vfpg' ;fdfGo s'/f lyof] .                       ;dfrf/sdL{ ;xL cy{sf] lgikIf åf/kfn aGg'k5{ .
x'g,] /fli6«o Pstfdf cf“r cfpg] sfo{ gug{                  cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# nfu" ePkl5                     o;f] geP ;dfrf/ ‘;]jf’ aGg ;Snf / ¤
r]tgf hufpg], /fli6«o k|fyldstfsf] lgwf{/0f
     '
x'gkg{] s'/fdf bafa lbg] / ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg
               \
l:yltnfO{ 5f]6ofP/ gof“ g]kfnsf] /f]8Dofkdf
nfUg] ljifodf k|sfz kfg{ ;dfrf/ kl5 k/]sf]
                                           {
:ki6 x'G5 . o; b[li6df ;dfrf/df ;'wf/ ug'kg{]     l6kf]6
s'/f w]/} b]lvG5 .
                                                  1
                                                      ;g\ !(^@ df 6]ln:6f/ :of6]nfO6af6 ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf] gf;f ;+:yfn] lrq k|;f/ u/]kl5 6]lnlehg k|;f/0fdf
la;fpg'cl3                                            :of6]nfO6sf] a[xt\ e"ldsfsf] ;Defjgf b]vf k/]sf] xf] . k|of]u ub}{ hf“bf o;sf] ;xhtf, :ki6tf / km'6lk|06sf] -se/]h
                                                      Pl/of_ Jofkstfsf] klxrfg eof], ;g\ !(*) bzssf] dWolt/ bz{sdf k|ToIf k|;f/0f k'¥ofpg] Ifdtf ljsl;t eof] /
g]kfnL 6]lnlehg k/Dk/fsf] k[i7e"lddf o;sf             !(() sf] bzsdf l8lh6n dfWodaf6 k|;f/0f a9L k|efjsf/L x'g k'Uof] .
                                       '
;dfrf/df b]lvPsf bf]ifaf6 lg/fz x'gkg{] l:ylt     2
                                                      o;sf] ;+s]tsf nflu ;g\ !(*) sf] bzssf] dxŒjk"0f{ lkmNd / l6eL hf]g{n l:qmg cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .
5}g . 6]lnlehg zAb ljZjdf k|yd kN6 k|of]u
ePsf] *^ jif{kl5, ljZjdf 6]lnlehg k|;f/0f         3
                                                      James Halloran observes: "We should ask not what the media does to people, but what
ePsf] cfwf ztfAbLkl5, :of6]nfO6 / 6]lnlehg            people do to media."
k|;f/0f uf“l;Psf] @$ jif{kl5, tTsfnLg /fhfsf]     4
                                                      Raymond William notes in 1974 book Television: Technology and Cultural Form"the
OR5f / k|ToIf lgb{]zgdf g]kfndf 6]lnlehg              defining feature of broadcasting is Planned Flow."
          ]
o'u p3|sf] xf] . æljb]zlt/ hf“bf pRrkb:ynfO{      5
                                                      John Ellis suggests "The key unit of the television text is the segment," which he defines
b]zdf 6]lnlehg 5}g eGg cK7]/f] dx;';                  as "small, sequential, unities of images and sounds whose maximum duration seems to
                                                      be about five minutes."
ePsf]nÆ7 NofOPsf] of] af]Ng] ef“8f] z'?df b]zdf
        ]
lgb{nLo /fhgLltsf] cEof;sf sf/0f v'n]/            6
                                                      Paul Mason ( BBC Correspondent Newsnight ) says " And the most common criticism
hg;]jfdf pqg ;s]g, ;dfrf/ vf; 7fp“ /                  of 24 – hour rolling news is its inability to tell a story coherently."
JolQmsf] lgb{]zgeGbf k/ hfg ;s]g .                7
                                                      of] sygsf] vf; k|df0f km]nf kb}{g, t/ tTsfnLg ;dfrf/sdL{x¿ o; s'/fdf ljZj:t b]lvG5g\ .


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                                        11
          ljZn]if0f
                           ]
   cfGbf]ngkl5sf] g]kfnL k|;

                      {
    cfkm\g} e"ldsf la;]kl5
        d~h'>L yfkf          s'/f o;} jif{sf] z'?lt/sf] xf] . lhtdfg a:g]tsf] lstfa c“Wof/f @%* lbg sf] ljdf]rg sfo{qmddf b08xLgtfsf
                             af/] 5nkmn rNof] . jlsn, dfgjclwsf/sdL{ / dfgjclwsf/sf] pNnª\3gaf6 kLl8tx¿n] el/Psf] To;
                             sfo{qmddf b08xLgtfsf] kIfdf s;}n] af]Ng] ;Defjgf g} lyPg . ljdf]lrt lstfasf] cfzo / sfo{qmdsf] ljifo
                             klg b08xLgtfsf] cGTo x'g'k5{ eGg] g} lyof] . To;}n] Toxf“ b08xLgtfsf] cGTosf] dfu ul/g' gf}nf] s'/f lyPg .
                                                                        '                                   {
                             t/ klg Pskl5 csf{ jQmfn] lgSs} efj's x“b} eGb} uP, ca b08xLgtfsf] cGTo ug}k5{ . s'/f] 7Ls xf] eGb} ;a}n]

                               6fpsf] xNnfp“b} uP . To;kl5 Pshgf jlsnn] d}gf              gls6L ck/fwLx¿sf] af/] s'/f ubf{ xfdL pgLx¿nfO{
                               ;'g'jf/sf] xTofsf] s'/f p7fP . pgn] eg]—To; s];df          ;fdflhs ;'/Iff / b08xLgtf ;d]t k|bfg u5f}{+ .
                               s]s] ePsf] lyof], bf]ifL sf]sf] lyP / Gofo lbnfpg s;–               jfs\:jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ kfP/ dfq k'Ub}g,
                               s;n] s:tf]–s:tf] cj/f]w k'¥ofPsf 5g\, xfdL ;a}nfO{         To;sf] k|of]u ug{ klg hfGg'k5{ eGg] lgisif{df d k'u]+
                               yfxf 5“b}5 . clg ltgn] /fodfemL cfof]usf] k|ltj]bgsf       To; sfo{qmddf . c“Wof/f @%* lbg sf n]vsn] eg]
                               s'/f p7fP . Toxf“ klg pgsf] egfO lyof]—k|ltj]bgdf          cfkm" / c¿x¿dfly ck/fw ug]{x¿sf af/] v'n:t
                               s]s] n]lvPsf] 5, To;n] s;–s;nfO{ bf]ifL 7x¥ofPsf] 5        n]v]sf 5g\ . pgLaf6 xfdLn] o;/L g} s'/fsfgL ug{
                               / To;sf] sfof{Gjogdf cj/f]w k'¥ofpg s;–s;n] s]s:tf         l;s] xfd|f] ;fj{hlgs ax;sf] :t/ cln p7\g] lyof]
                               rnv]n ul///x]sf 5g\, xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5“b5 . To;/L
                                                                             }            eGg] dnfO{ nfUof] . dnfO{ o:t}o:t} ;f]rljrf/ To;eGbf
                               g} g]kfnu~h / uf}/sf] s'/f klg ltgn] p7fP . Toxf“          cl3 kqklqsf k9\bf jf /]l8of] 6]lnlehgcl3 kbf{ klg
                               s]s:tf ck/fw eP, xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5“b5 eGg] ltgsf]
                                                                          }               cfO/xGYof] . 1fg] G b| zfx / ;] g faf6 vf] l ;Psf]
                               egfO lyof] .                                               jfs\:jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ nf]stGq ;“u;“u} kmls{of] .
                                        ltgsf] s'/f ;'g/ dnfO{ s] nfUof] eg] oL ;a
                                                         ]                                ldl8ofdfkm{t v'nf ax; rnfpg] :jtGqtf kmls{of] .
                               36gfsf] jf:tljstf d}n] dfq ghfg]sL /lx5', sfo{qmddf        ax; x'g'kg{] ljifo klg y'k|} lyP . Psflt/ zflGt
tLtf] ;Tosf] l/kf]l6ª ug]{     pkl:yt af“sL ;a}n] cjZo} hfg]sf xf]nfg\ . jQmf cfkm}nfO{
                                                                                   +      k|lqmofsf] sfd s'/f sf7df8f}+df eO/x]sf] lyof] eg]
                               t To;af/] ;fª\uf]kfª\u 1fg x'“b} xf]nf . b'Mv nfUof],      csf{lt/ u|fdL0f If]qsf cfzf cfsf+Iffx¿ ck"/} lyP .
                 {
cfkm\gf] wd{ la;]/ ldl8of
                               lsgeg] pgsf] af]nfOaf6 oL 36gfsf] jf:tljstfaf/]            gof“ g]kfnsf] lgdf{0fqmddf ;of}+ y/Lsf sfd ug{'lyof] .
  zflGtk|lqmofsf] kIfdf        d}n] s]xL yfxf kfpg ;lsg“ . pgn] gfd} ls6]/ ;kf6           ufpFufpFaf6 nv]l6Psf ;/sf/L lgsfox¿nfO{ kmsf{pg'
    slxn]sfxL+ ;"Id /          efiffdf d}gf ;'g'jf/sf] xTof s;n] u¥of], /fodfemL          lyof] . /fi6«ufgb]lv /fHo;+/rgf;Ddsf /fi6«–klxrfgsf
slxn]sfxL+ e2f k|fkf]uG8f
                   ]           cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg sfof{Gjog ug{ s;n] cj/f]w k'¥ofof]],    k|Zgx¿ cg'Ql/t lyP . dfcf]jfbL / ;/sf/af6 uPsf]
                               g]kfnu~h / uf}/df s;n] s;nfO{ s] u¥of] cflb                bzsdf ePsf ck/fwx¿sf dfldnfdf kLl8tnfO{ Gofo
ug]{ sfddf nfUof] . dfgf}+
                               atfOlbPsf] eP dh:tf cgle1x¿n] klg hfGg] df}sf              lbnfpg' lyof] . ;To / d]nldnfksf] sfd afFsL lyof] .
               }
  ldl8of cfkm+n] zflGt         kfpFy] eGg] nfUof] . To;kl5 clncln l/; klg p7\of] .        ;]gf / k|x/Ldf ;'wf/ Nofpg' lyof] . k|ltufdLsf
  ;Demf}tf tof/ u/]sf]         clg nfUof], pgsf] hlQsf] c:ki6 s'/f t d klg ug{            rnv]nlj?4 ;ts{ x'g' lyof] . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj
 lyof], cGtl/d ;+ljwfg         ;Sy]+ . d klg b08xLgtfsf] cGTo x'g'k5{ eGg] efj's          t u/fpg' g} lyof] cflb OToflb . htf x]¥of] pt} gof“
                               dfu Toxf“ /fVg ;Sy]+ . ax;sf] :t/ x]bf{ tL lj1 / d         g]kfn lgdf{0fsf r'gf}tLx¿ v8f lyP .
      ]
 n]vsf] lyof] / pm :jo+
                               cgle1df s'g} cGt/ b]lvGgYof] .                                      ldl8ofn] oL ;a ljifoaf/] ax; grnfPsf] xf]Og
 ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg                  efiffsf] k|of]un] xfd|f] d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 .    t/ ax;sf] :t/ eg] rflxPsf] h:tf] ;kf6 ePg .
     u/fpg nflu/x]sf]          s'g} 36gfaf/] xfdLn] c:ki6 / efjgfTds s'/f dfq             nf]stGq Nofpg ldl8ofsf] cfkm\g} klg 7"nf] b]g ePsf]
          lyof] .              u¥of}“ eg] hfgLghfgL To;sf] oyfy{ n'sfpg ;xof]u            x'gfn] xf] ls, jf ;ft bnk|lt d'Vod'Vo ldl8of3/x¿df
                               k'¥ofO/x]sf x'G5f}+ . ;kf6 efiffsf] k|of]u gubf{ xfdL      /fhgLlts k"jf{u|x eP/ xf], cyjf lbglbg} abln“bf] t/n
                               cfkm\gf] / c¿sf] c1fgtfnfO{ hf]ufpg d2t u5f}{+ . gfd       cj:yfdf kqsfl/tf ug{ ldl8ofsdL{x¿ cgEo:t eP/


   12                                                                                                                             df3–r}t @)^$
xf], z'?z'?df ldl8ofn] ;/sf/ / g]tfx¿sf] sfdu/fOaf/]        cj;/ ;/sf/n] u'dfof] eg] csf{lt/ o;f] ug{'sf
w]/} ;f]wk'5 / s]/sf/ u/]g .                                vt/fx¿sf] 9fs5f]k ldl8ofn] ul/lbof], h;sf] lj:kmf]6
         pbfx/0fsf nflu lnpm“, zflGt ;Demf}tfaf/] rn]sf]    dw]zdf eO{ g} xfNof] .
ldl8of ax; . ;Demf} t fsf] b:tfj] h df cfkm\ g f] /                  t];f| ] pbfx/0f, ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgaf/] rn]sf]
dfcf]jfbLsf] ;xL5fk nufpg ;ft bnsf] ;/sf/nfO{               ldl8of ax;nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . lgjf{rgsf] ldlt h'g
hlt xtf/ ePsf] lyof] ldl8ofnfO{ To;sf] ;dy{g ug{            lbg tf]lsof], To; lbgb]lv ldl8ofnfO{ lgjf{rg u/fOxfNg]
Tolt g} xtf/ ePsf] b]lvGYof] . ;Demf}tfdf 7"nf;fgf          lgSs} cft'/L ePsf] b]lvof] . ;dod} lgjf{rg x'g'k5{,
q'l6x¿ lyP ls < u[xo'4af6 pDs]sf cGo b]zsf                  geP zflGtk|lqmof g} e+u x'G5 eGg] cgluGtL g]tfsf
;Demf}tfx¿sf] bf“hf]df xfd|f] ;Demf}tf ck"0f{ ePsf] lyof]   l/Qf egfOx¿ kqklqsfdf 5flkP, cgluGtL a'l4hLjLsf
                              {
ls < xtf/df sfd u/]/ km';bdf k5'tfpg'sf] ;§f cln            efjgfTds n] v x¿ k| s flzt eP . b' M vsf] s' / f,
                                {
l9n} eP klg kSsf sfd ug'kg]{ lyof] ls < ldl8ofdf            ldl8ofnfO{ hlt ;/sf/nfO{ lgjf{rg u/fpg cft'/L ePsf]
o:tf k|Zg lj/n} p7] . a? ;Demf}tfdf ;xL5fk nfUgf;fy         b]lvPg . ufpFufpFdf g uflj; ejgx¿ kmls{P, g
                        +
P]ltxfl;s sbdsf] k|z;f ug{lt/ k|foM ;Dk"0f{ ldl8of          k|x/Lrf}sLx¿, g t s]Gb|sf g]tfx¿ g} . lhNnf:t/sf
Psf]xf]l/of] .                                              /fhgLlt1 / clwsf/Lx¿;“u s'/f ubf{ tf]lsPsf] ldltleq
         csf{] pbfx/0f, cGtl/d ;+ljwfgaf/] rn]sf]           lgjf{rg x'g ;Sb}g eGg] klxn]b]lv g} kSsf b]lvGYof] .
ldl8of ax; xf] . /fHo;+/rgfdf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] dfu            t/ of] s'/f ldl8ofdf cfp“b} cfPg eg] klg x'G5 . a?
dlxnf, hghflt, blnt / dw]zL ;d'bfoaf6 tLa|;u          “     s]Gb|df ;/sf/ / g]tfx¿n] /r]sf] gf}6+sLd} e'Ng rfx\of]
pl7/x]sf] a]nf ;ft bnsf] ;/sf/n] s;}sf] s'/f g;'gL          ldl8of . sxf“;Dd eg] lgjf{rgsf nflu cfjZos
xtf/xtf/ kf; u¥of] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg . c;Gt'i6                 jftfj/0f tof/ ePsf] 5}g eGg' g} lgjf{rg layf]Ng]
;d'bfox¿n] ldl8ofdfkm{t cfkm\gf s'/f /fVg t kfP t/          k|of; xf] eGg] cj:yf klg l;h{gf eof] . /, cflv/df
pgLx¿sf u'gf;fnfO{ a9L dxŒj lbP zflGtk|lqmof g}                                                         “
                                                            lgjf{rgsf] ldlt ;fl/g] eof] eGg] 3f]if0ff x'bf c¿ sf]xLeGbf
layf]lnG5 eGg] z+sfn] xf] jf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] cEof;           ldl8of g} a9L rlst ePsf] b]lvof] .
:jo+ ldl8ofdf geP/ xf], oL ;d'bfox¿sf] dfunfO{                       oL pbfx/0f x]bf{ nfU5, dfgf}+ ldl8of cfkm+n]    }
ldl8ofn] kof{Kt 5nkmndf Nofpg ?rfPg . Psflt/                zflGt ;Demf}tf tof/ u/]sf] lyof], cGtl/d ;+ljwfg
/fHo;+/rgfdf ¿kfGt/0f Nofpg] Pp6f cGoGt /fd|f]              n]v]sf] lyof] / pm :jo+ ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg u/fpg
                                                            nflu/x]sf] lyof] . o;af6 Pp6f s] s'/f :ki6 x'G5 eg]
                                                            hgcfGbf]ngkl5 klg xfd|f] ldl8of cfGbf]lnt g} /x\of],
                                                            zflGtk|lqmofaf/] l/kf]l6{ª dfq ubf{ p;nfO{ ;Gtf]if ePg,
                                                            To;df k|ToIf xft xfNg vf]Hof] p;n] . zflGtk|lqmof




df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                              13
                              ;kmn xf];\ eGg] :jR5 cfsf+Iffn] g} eP klg tLtf] ;Tosf]          ldl8of efjgfdf w]/} alu/x]sf] 5 . ldl8ofsf] cfhsf]
                                                               {
                              l/kf]l6{ª ug]{ cfkm\gf] wd{ la;]/ ldl8of zflGtk|lqmofsf]        k|yd bfloTj cfkm\g} Joj;foLs/0fsf] ljsf; ug'{ xf] .
                              kIfdf slxn]sfxL“ ;"Id / slxn]sfxL“ e2f ‘k|fkf]uG8f’  ]          nf]stGqsf] /Iff ug]{ rfxgf ldl8ofdf 5 eg] To;sf]
                              ug]{ sfddf nfUof] .                                             ;aeGbf pTs[i6 pkfo oxL g} xf] . cgf}7f] nfU5, u[xo'4
                                        xfdLn] b]zsf] jf:tljstfnfO{ cgfu|xL 9+un]             rs{Fb} uPsf] a]nf s]Gb|sf gfd rn]sf ;Dkfbs /
                              lgofNg'kg]{ j]nf xf] of] . b|'t ultdf ¿kfGtl/t eO/x]sf]         kqsf/x¿n] ufp“ufp“ uP/ Toxf“sf] oyfy{af/] kf7snfO{
                              5 b]z . xfd|f] cfkm\gf] a'emfO klg l56l56f] ablnO/x]sf]         cjut u/fP . t/ nf]stGq cfPkl5 o:tf] hfFu/ yf]/}n]
                              5 . s]xL cl3;Dd dw]zL / t/fO{jf;LaLr s] leGgtf                  dfq b]vfP . y'k|} :yfgLo ;Qfx¿sf] ;Gt'ngdf afFRg'kg]{
                              5, xfdLdWo] clwsf+ z nfO{ yfxf lyPg . sltko                     df]km;nsf kqsf/x¿n] a? tLtf] ;To af]Ng] lxDdt t
                              aGbx¿kl5 dfq r'/]efj/ eg]sf] sxf“ xf] eg]/ w]/}n]               u5{g\ Û pgLx¿nfO{ s]Gb|n] an ylklbg'kg]{ xf], h'g sfd
                              ;f]Wg yfn]sf x'g\ . lnDa" / ls/f“t If]qdf s]s:tf] ax;                            }
                                                                                              w]/} ePsf] b]lvFbg . 36gfqmdx¿sf] l/kf]l6{ª klg kmf6km'6]
                              rln/x]sf] 5, Tof] s'/f aflx/ cfPs} 5}g . yf¿x¿sf] s]            tl/sfn] x'G5, To;df lg/Gt/tf x'Fb}g . k[i7e"ldsf]
                              ljrf/ 5 < clg g]jf, du/, td', s0ff{nLjf;Lx¿sf] <                cefjsf] ;d:of rsf]{ 5 . dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf]
                              cflv/ sf7df8f}+eGbf w]/} ljzfn 5 b]z . ef}uf]lns                    +
                                                                                              k|;u xf];\ of hghflt cfGbf]ngsf], ldl8ofsdL{x¿n]
                              agf]6n] of] v08v08df ljeflht 5 . g otfsf dflg;n]                36gfsf] l/kf]l6{ª t unf{g\, t/ ltgsf] k[i7e"ldaf/]
                              ptfsf dflg; lrG5g\, g ptfsf dflg;n] otfsf g} .                                                }
                                                                                              kf7snfO{ k|foM s]xL atfp“bgg\, h;n] ubf{ kf7sn] tL
                              xfdL ;a}n] Pscsf{nfO{ / cfkm"nfO{ klg lrGg] a]nf xf]            36gfsf] dxŒj a'em\b}gg\ . zfob, ldl8ofsdL{ cfkm}+n]
   efiffsf] k|of]un] xfd|f]   of] . b]zs} ;xL klxrfg 7Dofpg] a]nf xf] of] . cf–               klg sltko 36gfsf] k[i7e"ld a'em]sf gxf]nfg\, lsgeg]
 d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 .        cfkm\gf cfu|x, k"jf{u|xx¿df c8]/ a:g'eGbf xfdLn]                pgLx¿nfO{ lglZrt ‘la6’df sfd u/fpg] cEof; k|foM
   s'g} 36gfaf/] xfdLn]       b]z;“u;“u} cfkm\gf] a'emfOdf ¿kfGt/0f Nofpg'kg]{ a]nf           ldl8of3/df 5}g . kmntM cfkm\gf] ?lrsf] ljifodf
   c:ki6 / efjgfTds           xf] of] .                                                       kqsf/x¿n] ulxl/g] df}sf kfpFb}gg\ .
                                        of] ck"j{ df}sf gu'dfpg] xf] eg] xfdLn] kqsfl/tfsf]            lxhf] 1fg]Gb| zfx / ;]gfnfO{ x/fpg jL/tfsf
s'/f dfq u¥of}+ eg] hfgL      :t/ a9fpg}k5{ . ;+;f/el/s} ldl8ofdf ljifoj:t'sf]                ;fy n8\of] ldl8of . cfh nf]stGqsf zq'x¿ lrGg
   ghfgL To;sf] oyfy{         ulx/fOdf gk'uL ;txdf ax; ug]{ qmd hf/L 5 . xfdLsxf“             lxhf]eGbf w]/} ufx|f] ePsf] 5 . tL zq'x¿ vf]Hg ldl8ofn]
      n'sfpg ;xof]u           of] ;d:of ljz]if rsf]{ 5, h;n] ubf{ cfhsf] jf:tljstf            6f9f6f9f x]l//fVg'k5{ h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g . p;s}
                              s] xf] eg]/ kf7sx¿ 3l/3l/ cGof}ndf kl//xG5g\ .                  Joj;foLs/0fsf] cefjdf nf] s tGqsf zq' x ¿
k'¥ofO/x]sf x'G5f}+ . ;kf6    h:t}, g]kfnuGhdf s] eof], To;sf] /fd|f] l/kf]l6{ª g} gu/L       ;NanfO/x]sf 5g\ .
efiffsf] k|of]u gubf{ xfdL    ldl8ofdf To;nfO{ g]kfnu~h sf08 gfds/0f ul/of] /                          cGttM, km] l / klg, efiffsf] k| o f] u n] xfd| f ]
     cfkm\gf] / c¿sf]         To;sf] 3f]/ eT;{gf ul/of] . dw]zL hgflwsf/ kmf]/d               d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 . o; n]vsf] ;'?cftdf plNnlvt
   c1fgtfnfO{ hf]ufpg                        '
                              PSsf;L p7\gk5fl8sf hfoh sf/0fsf] vf]h gu/L To;dfly              sfo{qmddf ax;sf] h'g :t/ lyof], To;af6 dfly p7\g
                              cfz+sf k|s6 ul/of] . uf}/df ePsf] dfcf]jfbLx¿sf] xTofsf]        cToGt h?/L eO;s]sf] 5 ca . oyfy{sf] vf]hL gug]{,
d2t u5f}{+ . gfd gls6L        l/kf]l6{ªdf dfgjclwsf/jfbL ;d]taf6 q'l6 ePsf] s'/f              efjgfTds s'/f a9L ug]{, ljifodf gulxl/g], :ki6 /
 ck/fwLx¿sf] af/] s'/f        dlxgf lbgkl5 dfq yfxf eof] . o;n] ubf{ dw]zL d"nsf              ;kf6 s'/f gug]{, c:ki6 s'/f u/]/} a9L ;do v]/ kmfNg]
   ubf{ xfdL pgLx¿nfO{        hgtf emg} lrl9P . cfh r'/]efj/ If]qdf s] eO/x]sf] 5             h:tf afgLx¿n] ubf{ xfdL cfkm\gf] / c¿sf] c1fgtfnfO{
                              eGg] s'/f :ki6;“u cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . o; cfGbf]ngsf               hf]ufpg] cj;/ dfq lbO/x]sf 5f}+ . g]kfnL efiffsf] k|of]ud}
    ;fdflhs ;'/Iff /          g]tfx¿ sf] x'g\ / pgLx¿sf dfud'2f s] x'g\ < ;dfg'kflts          klg xfdL ;/nLs/0ftkm{ nfUg'kg{] ePsf] 5 . lSni6,
   b08xLgtf ;d]t k|bfg        / ;+3Lo /fHok|0ffnLsf s'/f Pstfsf lgSs} p7], cfh tL             ;+:s[tlgi7 efiffsf] e'd/Laf6 kf7snfO{ d'lQm lbnfpg] xf]
          u5f}{+ .            sxf“ k'u] < blntsf, dlxnfsf / cfh;Dd p7\g g;s]sf                eg] xfdL h;/L af]N5f}+, To;/L g} n]Vg] k|yf a;fNg'kg]{
                              c¿ ;d' b fosf cfGbf] n g s] ef] l n p7\ n fg\ <                 5 . lnlvt g]kfnLnfO{ ;kf6 / hLjGt agfpg'kg]{5 .
                              ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] dfu ug]{ ;a} hgfn] zflGtk|lqmof layf]Ng}                  b] z ;“ u ;“ u } xfdL cfkm} + klg nf] s tflGqs
                                    ]
                              vf]hsf x'g\ t <                                                 ?kfGt/0fsf qmddf 5f}+ . dnfO{ nfU5, efiffsf] k|of]uaf6}
                                        vf]h kqsfl/tfdf hf]8 lbg'kg]{ a]nfdf xfd|f]           xfdLn] nf]stGqsf] cEof; z'? u/] x'G5 .


    14                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                         b[li6sf]0f


ljZj;gLotf g} ;DklQ
                                      ]
       s'Gb bLlIft nf]stGqdfly em}+ k|; :jtGqtfdflysf] vt/f klg g]kfndf ;w}+ pu| jfd / pu| blIf0fkGyaf6 g} d8fl/g] u/]sf]
                          5 . hxf“;Dd dWodfuL{ /fhgLlts kf6L{x¿sf] s'/f 5, g]kfnL ldl8of Psflt/ logLx¿sf] ;w}+ s8f cfnf]rs
                          /xg] u/]sf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ ;a}eGbf bx|f] ;xof]uL klg . vf;u/L ;j{;QfjfbL zlQmx¿sf lj¿4 of] pgLx¿sf]

;xof]uL /x“b} cfPsf] 5 . sf/0f :ki6 5M
clx+;fTds ;ª\3if{ b'j}sf] lgb{]zs l;4fGt xf] .
          dWodfuL{ /fhgLlts kf6L{ x ¿
k| l t:kwf{ T ds Pj+ zflGtk" 0 f{ /fhgLltsf
dfWodaf6 ;Qfdf k'U5g\, ltgsf] ljZjf;
      ]
a'n6df xf]Og Aofn]6df x'G5 . otf, kqsf/x¿
klg snd t/af/eGbf zlQmzfnL x'G5 eGg]
s'/fdf ljZjf; u5{g\ . of] ljZjf; gx'g] xf]
eg] tL kqsf/ g} x'g ;St}gg\ .
          t/, pu|jfbL ;d"xx¿, ?l9jfbL /
kmfl;:6 hTyfx¿ Hffgfhfg ;z:q ;ª\3if{sf]
af6f] /f]H5g\ / lx+;fnfO{ /fhgLltsf] xltof/sf
¿kdf k|of]u u5{g\ . lx+;fn] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg
ub{}g a¿ To;nfO{ emg\ hl6n t'Nofp“5 eGg]
kf7 ;dsfnLg ljZj Oltxf;n] l;sfPsf] 5 .
t/ To;nfO{ ltgLx¿ k6Ss} jf:tf ub{}gg\ .
          ;dfhdf ljBdfg åGåx¿ ;+jfb Pjd\
;fj{hlgs 5nkmnåf/f ;dfwfg ul/g'k5{ .
o;df ldl8ofsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 .
g]kfndf @)$^ ;fn otfsf b'O6f hg–
cfGbf]ngn] o;sf] k'li6 ul/;s]sf 5g\ .
          g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGqn] ;w}+
Pscsf{sf] :jtGqtfsf] /Iff ub{} cfPsf 5g\ .
  ]
k|; :jtGqtf / nf]stGq j:t'tM Pp6} 9Øfssf
ufO{ / lqz"n h:tf x'g\ . Pp6f geP csf{sf]
cl:tTj /xg ;Sb}g . /fhfsf] tfgfzfxL lj¿4
;ª\3if{/t ldl8ofn] hgcfGbf]ngM @)$^ df
h;/L cfkm\gf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u¥of], @)^# sf]
nf]stflGqs cfGbf]ngnfO{ klg To;}u/L sf“w
yfKof] .
          @)$^ kl5 cfPsf nf] s tflGqs
;/sf/x¿n] ;fd'bflos /]l8of] / lghL If]qsf]
k|;f/0fnfO{ kmlnkmfk x'g] cj;/ l;h{gf u/]sf
lyP . jfo'–t/+udflysf] lgoGq0f ;dfKt ePkl5       g]kfnsf /]l8of] :6]zgx¿ nf]stGqsf] kIfdf       :jtGqtfnfO{ logn] cfkm\gf] k|fljlws u'0f:t/
logn] klg ;"rgfnfO{ ljs]lGb|t ub{} hg–           pleP, h;n] lognfO{ hGd lbPsf] lyof] . To;sf]   / k|:t't ul/g] ljifoj:t'nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ pkof]u
;fwf/0fnfO{ zlQm;DkGg t'NofP/ nf]stGqnfO{        nuQ} lgeL{s ;"rgf k|jfx / ;fj{hlgs ax;sf]      u/] . cfhef]ln g]kfndf pTkfbg x'g] d"nwf/sf
alnof] kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofP . df3 !( kl5,            dfWodaf6 :jtGq /]l8of]x¿n] hgcfGbf]ng—         cvaf/ Pjd\ klqsfx¿sf] 5kfO t cGt/f{li6«o
/]l8of]sf] d'v aGb ug{ vf]Hg] zfxL zf;gsf]       @ sf] ;kmntfsf nflu jftfj/0f tof/ kfg{                   }
                                                                                                :t/sf] 5“b5, ltgsf] hLjGt ljifoj:t' s] s'/fsf]
k|of; lj¿4 v8f eP/ /]l8of]n] cfkm\gf]            klg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n] .                    klg k|df0f xf] eg] g]kfnL kqsf/ kl/kSj
hf]bfxfkg k|dfl0ft u¥of] . PkmPddf ;dfrf/                g]kfnL ldl8ofdf @)$^ otf gf6sLo        Pjd\ Jofj;flos eO;s]sf 5g\ / cfkm\gf]
k|;f/0f dfly nufOPsf] k|ltaGwsf] cj1f u/]/       kl/jt{ g cfO;s] s f] 5 . o;aLr k| f Kt         lhDd]bf/L elnef“tL a'em\b5g\ .
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                             l;4fGtsf] a]jf:tf ug{] ljZjJofkL k|jl[ QnfO{
                                                                                             k|ltlalDat ub{5g\ . ljsf; ;DaGwL g]kfnsf
                                                                                             cfjZostfx¿nfO{ gla;{g] xf] eg] oxfF To:tf]
                                                                                             6] l nlehg Rofgn h¿/L 5 hf] sf] / f
                                                                                             dgf]/~hgeGbf cl3 a9]/ /fHo / p;n]
                                                                                             hgtfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] ;]jf ;'ljwfsf
                                                                                             ljifodf ;fj{hlgs ax; rnfpg] / hgtfnfO{
                                                                                             lzIff lbg] dfWodsf] e"ldsf k"/f ug{ ;Sg]
                                                                                             xf]cf];\ .
                                                                                                       ;/sf/n] rnfPsf ldl8ofsf] ;d:of
                                                                                             eg] a]Un} 5 . @)$^ / @)^# df b'O{ k6s
                                                                                             k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgf eO;Sbf klg / ax'njfb
                                                                                             tyf k|]; :jtGqtfk|lt af/Daf/ k|lta4tf
                                                                                                                        ]
                                                                                             hgfO;Sbf klg ;Qfdf k'usf /fhgLlt1x¿n]
                                                                                             g]kfn 6]lnlehg, /]l8of] g]kfn / uf]/vfkqnfO{
                                                                                             ;/sf/L lgoGq0faf6 d'Qm ug{ rfx]gg\ . ;/sf/
                                                                                             k|]; :jtGqtfsf] vf]qmf] ukm dfq u5{ / nfh}
                                                                                             gdfgL ;/sf/L ldl8ofx¿nfO{ cfkm\gf] kIfsf]
                                                                                             k|rf/sf nflu k|of]u u5{ . o;n] nf]stGqnfO{
                                                                                             sdhf] / agfPsf] 5 . ljB' t Lo ;/sf/L
                                                                                             dfWodx¿ nf]ssNof0fsf d"No–dfGotfåf/f
                                                                                             lgb{]lzt x'g'k5{ / kqklqsf ;+rfng ug{] wGbf
                                                                                             rflx“ ;/sf/n] r6Ss} 5f]l8lbg'k5{ .
                                               cjZo klg, ;d:of gePsf xf]Ogg\ .                         Oltxf;sf] kl5Nnf] r/0fdf g]kfnL
                                       tflnd / cj;/sf] cefjb]lv ;/sf/L x:tIf]k                             ]
                                                                                             ldl8ofn] v]nsf] e"ldsfn] l;sfPsf] kf7 s] xf]
                                       / clt Jofkf/Ls/0f;Dd cg]s vfnsf ;d:of                 eg] k|]; :jtGqtf cfkm\gf] k|Tofe"lt ;“u} lnP/
          ldl8ofdf cfly{s nufgL        5g\ . c¿ t c¿, ;kmntfsf] pbfx/0f dflgg]               cfp“b}g, k|]; :jtGqtfsf] ;'/Iff t o;sf]
                                       g]kfnL PkmPd /]l8of]x¿ klg clxn] ‘bf];f| ] k':tf’sf   clwstd k| o f] u åf/f dfq ug{ ;lsG5 .
          ]
       ug{x¿n] tTsfnsf] kmfObfeGbf     ;d:ofx¿sf] ;fdgf ul//x]sf 5g\ .                       o;dfly tfgfzfxx¿ / ;j{;QfjfbLx¿af6 dfq
               ]
        k/ x]/sf] v08df dfq clg                /]l8of] :6];gx¿ ylk+b} hf“bf sfo{qmd                       } ]
                                                                                             vt/f cfp“bg, k|;nfO{ sf]/f Joj;fo dfq 7fGg]
     ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] kq÷klqsf      lgdf{tf, k|fljlws / ;+jfbbftfx¿sf nflu                o;sf dflnsx¿af6 klg cfp“5 clg To:tf
                                       tflnd cTofjZos x'G5 . cg'dltkq lbg]                   k|sfzsx¿af6 klg cfp“5 hf] kqklqsfnfO{
     jf /]l8of] :6]zgnfO{ /fhgLlts     k|lqmof a9L kf/bzL{ x'g'k5{, To;n] gfkmf              6]Anf]O8sf] af6f]df lx“8fpg rfxG5g\ lsgeg]
     d~r dfGg 5f]8sf] v08df dfq
                      ]                gsdfpg] / Jofkfl/s /]l8of]x¿aLr 5\ofgAofg             To;f] ug'{ ;:tf] dfq xf]Og uDeL/ / lhDd]bf/
         g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGq       ug{ ;Sg' k 5{ / To;sf] ;+ r fng :jtGq                 kqsfl/tf ug'{eGbf ;lhnf] klg x'G5 .
                                       cg'udgsf/L lgsfoaf6 x'g'k5{ . g]kfnsf]                          ldl8ofdf cfly{s nufgL ug{]x¿n]
          xft]dfnf] u/]/ cl3 a9\g      ldl8of :yfgLo hg;d'bfo / ltgsf pk]lIft                                             ]
                                                                                             tTsfnsf] kmfObfeGbf k/ x]/sf] v08df dfq
     ;S5g\ . ljZj;gLotf kqsf/sf]       efiffx¿nfO{ cfjfh lbg ;Sg] eO;s]sf] 5 .               clg ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] kq÷klqsf jf /]l8of]
                                       t/ sd{rf/L÷kqsf/ egf{ ubf{ hftLo Pjd\                 :6]zgnfO{ /fhgLlts d~r dfGg 5f]8]sf]
     ;a}eGbf d"Nojfg\ ;DklQ xf]Ù h'g   n}+lus ljljwtfsf] plrt ;Gt'ng sfod ug{                v08df dfq g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGq
      ldl8of ;a}eGbf kTof/nfUbf] 5     o;n] cem} nfdf] af6f] l5rf]Ng af“sL g} 5 .            xft]dfnf] u/]/ cl3 a9\g ;S5g\ . lat]sf !%
     ToxL ;a}eGbf nf]slk|o x'g ;S5             cfly{ s ¿kdf /] l 8of] :6] ; gx¿              jif{ d f xfdLn] kf7 l;ls;s] s f 5f} + —
                                       cfTdlge{/ x'g h¿/L 5 / ltgnfO{ ldl8of                 ljZj;gLotf kqsf/sf] ;a}eGbf d"Nojfg\
        / To;}sf/0f cfly{s b[li6n]     Joj:yfkgsf] ;Nnfx rflxPsf] 5 . ltgdf                  ;DklQ xf], h'g ldl8of ;a}eGbf kTof/nfUbf]
              cfTdlge{/ klg .          Psflt/ k|;f/0f–;do eg{ ;d"x–ljz]ifn] s]Gb|df          5 ToxL ;a}eGbf nf]slk|o x'g ;S5 / To;}sf/0f
                                       tof/ kf/]sf sfo{qmd ahfpg] rng km}nb} uPsf]“          cfly{s b[li6n] cfTdlge{/ klg .
                                       5 eg] csf{lt/ /fhgLlts bn / Jofj;flos
                                       ‘:jfy{’x¿åf/f /]l8of] :6];g g} ‘sAhf’ ug{] k|jl[ Q    g]kfnL 6fOD; ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs
                                       klg a9\b} uPsf] 5 .                                   bLlIft OG6/ k|]; ;le{; -cfO{kLP;\_ sf] Pl;of–k|zfGt
                                               6]lnlehgsf ;d:of rflx“ a]Un} vfnsf            If]qLo lgb{]zs tyf kfgf]; OlG:6Ro'6 blIf0f Pl;ofsf
                                       5g\ h;n] Jofkf/Ls/0f / ;fj{hlgs k|;f/0fsf             lgb{]zs /lx;Sg'ePsf] 5 .



16                                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                  l6Kk0fL


kqsf/ / cfrf/;+lxtf

  /3'hL kGt            @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng ;kmn eP/ ‘g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&’ hf/L ePkl5 g]kfnL k|;n] aNn     ]
                                      "                                       ]
                       :jtGqtfsf] cg'elt ug{ kfPsf] lyof] . To;kl5 g]kfnL k|;n] :jtGqtfsf] ;fy;fy} cfkm\gf] lhDd]jf/Ltkm{ klg
                                 {
                       uDeL/tfk"js Wofg lbg yfNof], cfkm\gf] bfloTj / dof{bfsf] af/]df klg ;f]Rg yfNof] . ToxL sf/0fn] ubf{ ‘g]kfn
                       clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&’ hf/L ePsf] Ps–b'O{ jif{kl5 g} kqsf/x¿aLr cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ljifo Jofks ¿kdf

p7\ o f] . k| ] ; sfplG;nn] 5' § } kqsf/           sfd lyof] . kqsfl/tfsf] d"No–dof{bf jf             ug]{ k|j[lQdf sdL cfp“b} uPsf] 5 . of] /fd|f]
cfrf/;+lxtf agfP/ hf/L u¥of] eg] g]kfn             g}ltstf;“u ltgnfO{ dtna lyPg .                     pknlAw xf] / v'zLsf] s'/f klg . t/, of]
kqsf/ ;+3 -xfn dxf;+3_ n] cfkm}+n] cfkm\gf]                 k~rfot Joj:yfdf /fhf / b/afl/ofx¿         ljsf; ;“u;“u} 7"nf ;~rf/u[xx¿n] cfkm\gf
nflu cfrf/;+lxtf hf/L u¥of] . tTsfnLg k|];         s'g} klg k|wfgdGqLnfO{ nf]slk|o, alnof] /          cGo Jofkfl/s :jfy{x¿ k"/f ug{s} nflu ;~rf/
sfplG;nn] g]kfn kqsf/ ;+3;“u s'g} 5nkmn                                 }
                                                   ljjfb/lxt x'g lb“bg lyP . Psflt/ :jo+ /fhfsf       dfWodx¿sf] b'¿kof]u ug]{ vt/f;“u klg
gu/L cfrf/;+lxtf hf/L u/]sf]n] To;a]nf s]xL        ;lrjx¿n] cfkm\g} Ozf/fdf ljleGg cvaf/              rgfvf] x'g' h¿/L 5 .
ljjfb klg pTkGg ePsf] lyof] .                      rnfp“y] eg] csf{lt/ k~rfot ;dy{s cvaf/
                                                   b/af/ / k~r g]tfx¿sf ljleGg u'6;“u                 pNnª\3g hf/L 5
Joj:yfnfO{ xf]Og JolQmnfO{ ufnL                    ;DalGwt x'Gy] . Psn] csf]{ u'6sf dflg;sf]          clxn] klg sltko cvaf/x¿ k9\bf kqsf/
k~rfot Joj:yfdf e|i6 / d08n]x¿sf] af]njfnf         dfgdb{g ug{, ltgnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg hyfefjL          cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3g eO/x]sf] kfOG5 .
lyof] eg] kqsfl/tfdf klg d08n]tGq rsf]{            n]Vg] pgLx¿sf] d'Vo sfd x'GYof] . of] k|j[lQ       ahf/df gb]lvg] ‘cb[Zo’ klqsfx¿ dfq} xf]Og
¿kdf b]vf kg]{ uYof]{ . o;n] ubf{ of] If]q g}lts   cToGt emfl·b} uof] / eg]sf] hlt lj1fkg,            kf7sx¿aLr nf] s lk| o /x] s f sltko
¿kn] sdhf]/, cfly{s Pj+ cGo g}lts dfdnfdf          k};f jf vf]h]sf] ;'ljwf gkfp“bf sd{rf/L,           klqsfx¿dfly ;d] t a] n favt JolQmut
ljjfbf:kb / nf]stflGqs dfGotfdfly k|xf/ ug]{       Jofkf/L, /fhgLlts g]tf / cGo ljleGg If]qsf         rl/qxTof u/]sf], afu]l{ gª u/]/ k};f lng] u/]sf],
                     ]
;fwg;d]t aGg k'usf] lyof] . To;a]nf g]kfnL         JolQmx¿sf lj¿4 ;dfrf/sf gfddf dgk/L,               rl/qxTof ug]{ u/]sf] / wDSofpg] u/]sf] h:tf
kqsfl/tf Joj:yf lj/f]wL / Joj:yf ;dy{sx¿           rl/qxTof ug{] p2]Zosf skf]nslNkt s'/fx¿            cf/f]kx¿ nfUg] u/]sf 5g\ .
aLr ljeflht lyof] . k~rfotlj/f]wL ljrf/ /          n]Vg] sfd Jofks x'g yfNof] . k~r dGqLx¿                     s]xL klqsfx¿df 5flkPsf sltko
;dfrf/ lbg] klqsfx¿ t'ngfTds ¿kdf                  cfkm\gf] dGqfnosf lj1fkg / b]lvg] gb]lvg]          ;dfrf/nfO{ /fd|/L k9\g] / ljZn]if0f ug]{ xf]
nf]slk|o, dof{lbt / lhDd]jf/ lyP . o:tf            ;|f]taf6 k};f pknAw u/fP/ cfkm\gf] k|ltåGåL        eg] Pp6f ;r]t kf7sn] ;dfrf/df lglxt
klqsfsf clwsf+ z ;Dkfbs cfly{ s /                  g]tf jf dGqLnfO{ tNnf]:t/df ufnLunf}h              k/:k/lj/f]wL s'/fx¿sf cfwf/df ;dfrf/ em"7f]
g}lts¿kdf :jR5 lyP eg] k]zfsf] d"No–dof{bf         ul/Psf s'/f ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf n]Vg k|fT;flxt ]         /x]sf] :jtM kQf nufpg ;S5 . JolQmsf]
/ lhDd]jf/L /Iffsf nflu lrlGtt / cfkm\g}           uy]{ . k~r kqsf/x¿sf] Pp6f 7"nf] hTyf              rl/qxTof ug]{ k|jl[ Q cem}+ g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf
9+un] lqmofzLn lyP . pgLx¿n] kqsfl/tfnfO{          /fhf / Joj:yfsf] ;dy{g u/]jfkt cfkm"nfO{           68\sf/f] b]lvG5 . ‘kmnfgfn] 6]/]g, To;nfO{
nf]stGq :yfkgfsf] cleofgsf ¿kdf lnPsf              P]g–sfg"geGbf dfly 7fGYof] / unt 9+un]             7f]Sg} k¥of]’ eg]/ ;dfrf/ n]Vg] k|j[lQ ;dfKt
lyP / /fHoaf6 af/Daf/ d'2f / h]n ;hfo              cfly{s pkfh{g uYyf]{ . ltgsf nflu kqsfl/tf                                  ]
                                                                                                      ePsf] 5}g . cfkm"n] n]vsf] ;dfrf/nfO{ cToGt}
ef]Ug'kbf{ klg cfkm\gf] nIok|lt k|lta4 /xGy] .     ANofsd]lnªsf] dfWod / 7luvfg] ef“8f] lyof] .       xn'sf 9+un] lng] / To;k|lt pQ/bfloTjsf]
          k~rfot Joj:yf jf /fhfsf ;dy{s                     of] k|jl[ Qn] cfqmfGt g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf   af]w gug]{ u}/lhDd]jf/ k|j[lQn] ubf{ kqsfl/tf
dflgg] cvaf/x¿ k~rfotsfndf klg nf]slk|o            ax'bnLo Joj:yfsf] k'g:yf{kgfkl5 Jofks ;'wf/        k]zfdf /x]sf /fd|f dflg;x¿n] ;d]t a]nfavt
lyPgg\ . ckjfb:j¿k s]xL jl/i7 ;Dkfbs /             b]vf k/]sf] 5 . 7"nf] nufgLdf b}lgs klqsfx¿        nlHht x'g'kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
kqsf/x¿nfO{ 5f]l8lbg] xf] eg] k~rfot               k|sflzt x'g yfNg', PkmPd /]l8of]x¿ a9\b}                    sltko b}lgs / ;fKtflxs klqsfdf
;dy{s clwsf+z klqsf / ltgsf ;Dkfbsx¿               hfg' / lghL If]qn] klg 6]lnlehgx¿ ;~rfng           sfd ug]{ >dhLjLx¿n] cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds ;d]t
/fhf / Joj:yfsf] ho ufp“b} sdfp wGbfdf             ug{ yfNg'n] kqsfl/tfsf] If]q kof{Kt lj:tf/                                        “}
                                                                                                      lgoldt ¿kdf kfpg ;s]sf x'bgg\ t/ k|sfzs
nfu]sf lyP . ax'bnjfbL kf6L{ / ltgsf               ePsf] 5 . cfkm\gf] k]zf / dof{bfk|lt ;r]t          / dflns–;Dkfbssf] cfly{s x}l;ot a9\b} uPsf]
g]tfx¿nfO{ hyfefjL ufnL ug',{ /fhfsf] Psf]xf]/f]   o'jf kqsf/x¿sf] 7"nf] ;ª\Vof olta]nf g]kfnL        x'G5, 3/sf] tnf ylk+b} u/]sf] x'G5 . klqsfsf]
tfl/km ug'{ / k~rfot Joj:yfsf] lj/f]w              kqsfl/tfdf lg0ff{os ¿kdf b]vf kg{ yfn]sf]                                     “}
                                                                                                      lx;fa–lstfa kf/bzL{ x'bg . klqsfsf] laqmL /
ug]{x¿nfO{ ;Qf];/fk ug'{ g} ltgLx¿sf] d'Vo         5 . o;n] ubf{ kqsfl/tfnfO{ unt 9+un] k|of]u        lj1fkgsf] cfDbfgLsf] cg'dfg ubf{ klqsf 6f6

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       17
klN6;s]h:tf] nfU5 t/ k|sfzs jf dflns                     k~rfotsfndf P]ltxfl;s               ug{ gx'g,] 3[0ff / pQ]hgf km}lng] u/L aLeT;
;Dkfbsx¿ df]6fO/x]s} x'G5g\ .                                                                b[Zo / t:jL/ k|sfzg ug{ gx'g,] 36gf;“u
         k~rfotsfndf dxŒjk"0f{ P]ltxfl;s              e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf klqsfx¿            c;DalGwt JolQmsf] gfd pNn]v ug{ gx'g,]
e"ldsf v]nsf cfkm\gf] ;dosf sltko nf]slk|o
             ]                                        ax'bnsfndf cfly{s ;d:ofsf              tYoxLg ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ug{ gx'g,] lj1fkgnfO{
klqsfx¿ ax'bnsfndf cfly{s ;d:ofsf sf/0f                   sf/0f aGb eP . ltgsf                                                       ]
                                                                                             ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ gx'g] / ;|ft pb\wt       [
g} aGb eP . ltgsf ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf]                                                        gu/L ;dfrf/ pkof]u ug{ gx'g] h:tf ljifodf
klqsfnfO{ cfly{s ;d:of 6fg{sf nflu a]7Ls              ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] klqsfnfO{          ;+lIfKt cjwf/0ff cl3 ;f/]/ ltgnfO{ kqsf/
9+ u n] k| o f] u u/] / pHofnf] Oltxf;nfO{              cfly{s ;d:of 6fg{sf nflu             tyf ;~rf/dfWodx¿n] ug{ gx'g] sfo{sf ¿kdf
wldNofpg'eGbf klqsf aGb ug'{ plrt 7fg] .                                                                        ]
                                                                                             lng'kg]{ ljrf/ k|; sfplG;nn] cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 .
t/ ahf/df gb]lvg] / laqmL cToGt} sd x'g]              a]7Ls 9+un] k|of]u u/]/ pHofnf]                  ug{'kg{] / ug{ gx'g] dfly plNnlvt
k~rfotsfnb]lvs} s]xL klqsfx¿ eg] lg/Gt/                  Oltxf;nfO{ wldNofpg'eGbf            s'/fx¿nfO{ /fd|f];“u sfof{Gjog ug]{ xf] eg]
k|sflzt eO/x]sf 5g\ . o:tf sltko klqsfsf                                                     g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] k|efj, ;f/ / ljZj;gLotf
;Dkfbsx¿ Jofkf/Lx¿sxf“, eG;f/, /fh:j /                 klqsf aGb ug'{ plrt 7fg] .            clxn]sf] eGbf w]/} /fd|f] x'g]5 . o; sfo{df
>d ljefult/ km]/f] dfg{ hfg] u5{g\ . pgLx¿                                                   k|]; sfplG;n g]kfn cfkm}+n] klg w]/} sfd ug{
ljleGg dGqfnosf e|i6 sd{rf/Lx¿;“u ldn]/                                                      af“sL 5 . k|]; sfplG;nnfO{ Pp6f ;lqmo /
ltgsf] :jfy{sf nflu k|fof]lht ;dfrf/;d]t                                                     cfkm\gf] If]qsf] lqmofzLn cflwsfl/s / alnof]
n]Vg] u5{g\ eGg] u'gf;f] kLl8tx¿af6 af/Daf/:jtGqtf c;Lldt 5 . of] :jtGqtfnfO{ ;b'kof]u       ;+ : yfsf ¿kdf :yflkt gu/] ; Dd o;n]
;'Gg] ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf] k|j[lQ sfod /x];Dd ug] { sfd kqsf/x¿n] ug' { k b{ 5 . o;sf]          cfrf/;+lxtf kfngf u/fpg] sfddf pNn]Vo
kqsfl/tf k]zfnfO{ k"0f{¿kn] ;Ddflgt agfpg  b' ¿ kof] u x' g yfNof] eg] :jfefljs¿kdf          e"ldsf v]Ng ;Sb}g . To:t} kqsf/x¿ :jo+
                                           :jtGqtfdfly k| Z g p7fpg] x ¿n] df} s f
cK7\of/f] x'G5 . cfkm\gf] k]zfdf ljBdfg /x]sf                                                cfkm}+ cfkm\gf] cfrf/;+lxtfsf] kfngfdf uDeL/
pR5[ª\vntf / u}/–lhDd]jf/ k|j[lQnfO{ x6fpg kfpF5g\ . To;}n] kqsf/x¿ :jo+ kqsf/               ePgg\ eg] k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnn] rfx]/ dfq}
:jo+ kqsf/x¿ g} cl3 ;g'{ cfjZos 5 .        cfrf/;+lxtfk|lt ;r]t x'g'kb{5 . o; ljifodf        klg cfrf/;+lxtf /fd|f];“u nfu" x'g ;Sb}g .
         k~rfotsfndf d08n] kqsf/x¿         kqsf/x¿aLr /fi6« J ofkL 5nkmn, ax;                                     ]                          }
                                                                                                       g]kfnL k|;n] cfkm\gf] cfTd;dLIff cfkm+n]
‘xfdLx¿nfO{ h] ug]{ / h] n]Vg] klg 5'6 5,  rNg'kb{5, k6sk6s rln/xg'k5{ .                     uDeL/¿kdf ug{ cfjZos 5 . xfdLsxf“ hlt
/fhf / Joj:yf hf]ufpg] xfdL g} xf}+’ eGb}            g] k fn kqsf/ dxf;+ 3 ;d] t sf]         cvaf/ 5flkG5g\ tLdWo] y'k}| ahf/df k'Ub}gg\,
sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ysf{pg] uy]{ . pgLx¿n] eg]                    ]
                                           ;xeflutfdf k|; sfplG;n g]kfnn] kqsf/x¿n]                                  ]
                                                                                             t/ ;"rgf ljefu / k|; sfplG;nsf] clen]vdf
h:tf] ug{ gdfGg] / P]g–lgodcg'¿k rNg vf]Hg]    {
                                           ug'kg{] / ug{ gx'g] d"ne"t s'/fx¿sf] juL{s/0f     lgoldt ¿kdf k|sflzt b]lvG5g\ . o:tf
kqsf/x¿nfO{ ‘Joj:yflj/f]wL n]lvlbg]’ wDsL  u/L ‘kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf, @)^)’ hf/L u/]sf]         lj;+ u ltx¿nfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} ;/sf/n]
                                           5 . t'ngfTds ¿kn] cfrf/;+lxtfk|lt ;hu
lbP/ t;f{pFy] . of] k|jl[ Qn] clxn] klg a]nfavt                                              cvaf/;DaGwL gLltx¿sf] k'gd"{Nof+sg ug'{ /
km/s¿kdf 6fpsf] p7fpg] ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .     x'g] s'/fdf s]xL ;sf/fTds nIf0f b]lvP klg         ;dofg's"n gof“ gLltx¿ lgdf{0f ug'{ cfjZos
                                           o;k|lt g]kfnL kqsfl/tf If]q cem} /fd|/L rgfvf]
o:tf] k|jl[ QnfO{ lj:yflkt ug]{ sfd cem} /fd|/L                                              5 . k~rfotn] /fhf / Joj:yf hf]ufpg cfkm\gf
x'g;s]sf] 5}g . :jo+ /fd|f kqsf/x¿ cfkm\gf]                   ]
                                           x'g;s]sf] 5}g . k|; sfplG;nn] klxn]sf] t'ngfdf    ;dy{s klqsf / kqsf/x¿nfO{ kfNg] u/]sf]
k]zfleqsf ‘g/fd|f’ kqsf/x¿;“u h'‰g tof/    o; ;DaGwdf cfkm\gf] ultljlw a9fP klg Tof]                                            ]
                                                                                             lyof], ltgsf nflu /fHosf] ;|ft / ;fwgsf]
b]lv+b}gg\ . c¿x¿sf ;dfrf/ vf]Hg]x¿,       cem} ckof{Kt 5 .                                  b'¿kof]u ug]{ uYof]{ . t/ cfh cj:yf km]l/Psf]
c¿sf ljs[lt s]nfpg]x¿ cfkm\g} k]zfleqsf              cfrf/;+lxtf cGtu{t k|]; :jtGqtfsf]      5 . /fHon] cgfjZos e]befj ug]{ / ljz]if
v/fa k|j[lQx¿ b]Vof gb]v]em}+ u5{g\ .      ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{g, dfgjclwsf/ / cGt/f{li6«o                               { “' }
                                                                                             ;+/If0f lbg] sfd ug'xbg . ax'bnLo /fhgLlts
         s' g } gful/sdfly em" 7 f] nf~5gf ;DaGwsf] ;Ddfg, ;"rgfsf] xssf] /Iff /             k|0ffnL / v'nf ;dfh cg'¿ksf gLltx¿ cl3
nufpg', s;}sf] JolQmut rl/qdfly cfwf/xLg                                   ]
                                           k|rng, ;TotYo ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|if0f, ;DkfbsLo         ;fg{'k5{ . /fHosf] lgoGq0f sd kfb}{ nfg'kb{5
                                           :jtGqtf, uf]kgLotfsf] xssf] ;Ddfg, pRr
cf/f]k nufpg' / cfkm\gf] :jfy{k"lt{ gul/lbPs}                                                / klqsfx¿sf] nf]slk|otf / :t/cg'¿k
cfwf/df s;}sf] dfgdb{g ug{ vf]Hg' kqsfl/tf Jofj;flos cEof;, lzi6 Jojxf/, uNtL                lj1fkg jf cGo ;| f ] t df kf/bzL{ 9+ u n]
xf]Og, ck/fw xf] . JolQmsf] :jtGqtf /      ;Rofpg] tTk/tf, ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj, cfk;L          pgLx¿sf] kx'Fr k'Ug lbg'kb{5 .
;Ddfgsf] /Iff ug'{ :jo+ kqsfl/tf k]zfsf]   ;DaGwh:tf ljifodf ;+lIfKt cjwf/0ff cl3                      cfly{ s kmfObfsf nflu kqsf/
klg Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ bfloTj xf] . t/ of]     ;f/] / k| ] ; sfplG;nn] tL cjwf/0ffnfO{           cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNn+3g ug]{ k|j[lQ ;dfrf/
                                       }   kqsf/x¿sf st{Josf ¿kdf lgjf{x ug{ hf]8
bfloTjaf]w cem} /fd|/L x'g;s]sf] b]lv+bg . ;';l" rt                                          dfWodsf] nufgL;“u klg hf]l8Psf] x'G5 .
x'g] / hfgsf/L kfpg] hlt clwsf/ 5 Tolt g}  lbPsf] 5 .                                        ltgsf] gLlt / Jojxf/ /fhgLlts bnx¿;“u
JolQmsf] uf]kgLotf / ;Ddfgsf] klg clwsf/ /           To:t}, /fli6«o cv08tfdf k|lts"n k|efj   ltgsf] ;DaGwaf6 klg lgwf{l/t eO/x]sf] x'G5 .
dxŒj x'G5 . gful/ssf] ul/df / ;Ddfgsf]     kfg{ gx'g,] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf k|lts"n c;/          o:tf y'k|} kIf / ljifo 5g\ h;nfO{ 5nkmnsf]
sb/ ug{ ghfGg] kqsf/n] cfkm\gf] ;Ddfg Pj+                                    ]
                                           kfg{ gx'g,] ;dfrf/sf] uf]Ko ;|ft vf]Ng gx'g,]     3]/fleq Nofpg'kb{5 . cfrf/;+lxtf Pp6f
ul/dfsf] klg /Iff / sb/ ug{ ;Sb}g .        lghL :jfy{kl" t{sf nflu ;"rgf k|of]u ug{ gx'g,]   Jofks cjwf/0ff xf], h;n] kqsf/x¿sf ljrf/
                                           e]befj x'g] u/L ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|i] f0f ug{ gx'g,]                                  {
                                                                                             / Jojxf/nfO{ ;d]t lgb]z ub{5 . o;sf] kfngf
:jtGqtfsf] ;b'kof]u cfjZos                 kLl8tnfO{ yk kL8f k'Ug] u/L ;"rgf ;Dk|i] f0f      / 5nkmn 5'§} ljifo xf]Ogg\ a¿ Pscsf{;“u
g] k fndf clxn] s f] ;+ l jwfg / sfg" g n] ug{ gx'g,] kLl8t JolQmsf] gfd, 7]ufgf k|sfzg      cleGg ¿kn] uf“l;Psf 5g\ . To;}n] o;af/]
;~rf/dfWodnfO{ k"0f{ :jtGqtf lbPsf] 5 . ug{ gx'g,] lx+;f, cft+s / ck/fwnfO{ k|fT;fxg]        /fli6«o ax;sf] cfjZostf 5 .

18                                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                          ]
                                                                                                                        k|; / cg'zf;g


cfrf/;+lxtf
s:tf] 5 c¿lt/sf] cEof; <
                                                                 ] \
          k|tLs k|wfg kmf]6f]kqsf/ dfs{ xn]eL cd]l/sfsf] df;fRo';6;af6 lgSng] O{un–l6«Ao'g klqsfsf nflu Ps 6fk'df
                                                                                   |
                              ;fd'lb|s 5fnsf] kmf]6f] lvRg uPsf lyP . ;f] jif{ ;d'bdf ^) jif{sf] cjlws} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] 5fn cfpg]
                              atfOPsf] lyof] . ToxF“ pgn] Pp6L dlxnf b]v] hf] ;d'b|sf] lsgf/f glhs} a;]/ s]xL ub}{ lyOg\ . pgnfO{
                              kmf]6f]df ;d]6bf 5fnsf] cfsf/sf] cfsng ug{ d2t k'Ug] ePsfn] tL dlxnfnfO{ k|mddf /fv]/ dfs{ Ps kl5
                                            \                                                             ]

csf]{ tl:a/ lvRb}lyP . crfgs Pp6f 7"nf]          kfngf ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf klxn] c¿nfO{                af“sL kf7sx¿ ;f/} ?i6 b]lvP . Pshgf kf7sn]
5fn cfof] / tL dlxnfnfO{ ;f] x f] / ] /          arfpg] eGg] xf] . g]kfnsf] clxn]sf] cj:yfdf        t s];Dd eg] eg], ‘s] of] kmf]6f] 5fKg] ;+kfbs
nUof] .dlxnfn] cfkm\gf] k|f0f arfpgsf nflu       eGg] xf] eg] t Jofj;flos wd{sf] kfngf ug]{         clkm;df n'uf nufP/ cfp“5g\ <’ csf{sf] egfO
d2t dfUb} ubf{sf] kmf]6f] dfs{n] lvRg EofP .     sf]lzz ug'{k5{ eGg'knf{ lsgeg] g]kfnL              lyof], ‘pgLx¿n] kfl/jfl/s klqsfdf To:tf] kmf]6f]
kmf]6f] lvRbflvRb} dfs{n] klg d2tsf nflu         kqsfl/tf cem} To:tf] Jofj;flostfdf k'usf]   ]      5fk]/ d]/L gf} jifL{of 5f]/LNffO{ gUg dfG5] s:tf]
nfOkmuf8{x¿nfO{ u'xf/] . dlxnfnfO{ arfpg         5}g hxf“ kqsf/n] dfgjLo wd{nfO{ g} ltnf+hln        x'G5 eg]/ yfxf lbP, ca d Tof] klqsf slxNo}
s]xL JolQm cfP klg, t/ ltgsf] k|of; ;kmn         lbP/, dg{ nfu]sf] dfG5]nfO{ garfO{ cfkm\gf]        lslGbg“ .’ o:tf k|ltlqmof ;'g]kl5 klqsfsf
ePg . dlxnfnfO{ kfgLsf] e]nn] n'sfp“b}           Joj;fo u¿g\ . t/ Jofj;flos k|lt:kwf{ lgs}                      {
                                                                                                    k|aGw lgb]zs /g l:k/n] km]l/ To:t} vfnsf]
nUof] . tLg 3G6fkl5 csf]{ 7"nf] 5fnn] ltgsf]     rsf{] /x]sf] klZrdsf kqsf/nfO{ eg] dfgjLo          kmf]6f] cfof] eg] g5fKg] lg0f{o u/] .
lghL{j z/L/ lsgf/f nufOlbof] .                   x'g l;sfpg'kg]{ cj:yf 5 .
          Tof] kmf]6f] klqsfdf 5fKg 7Ls ls                 hxf“;Dd k]zfut dof{bf / ;+jbgzLntfsf]
                                                                                       ]            klZrddf cfrf/;+lxtf
a]7Ls eg]/ Go'h?ddf 7"n} ljjfb eof] .            k|Zg 5, kmf]6f]sf] k|of]udf xfd|f] kqsfl/tfn]      xfdL cem} cfrf/;+lxtfsf k|f/lDes s'/fx¿
hgtfn] ef] l n s] eG5g\ < lsg Tof]               cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNn+3g u/]sf 36gfx¿sf] nfd}         nfu" ug{d} clNem/x]sf 5f}+ . s'g} klg ;dfrf/
kmf]6f]kqsf/n] dlxnfnfO{ arfpg 5f8]/ clGtd       km]xl/:t tof/ x'G5 . hLp l5of–l5of ePsf            ;se/ ;|f]t pNn]v gu/L g5fKg", Pp6f ;|f]tn]
;do;Dd kmf]6f] lvlr/x\of] < s] xf] kqsf/sf]      nfzsf tl:a/, c·e· ePsf b[Zox¿ / kf7ssf]                        “}
                                                                                                    eg]/ dfq x'bg sDtLdf b'O{ jf ;f] eGbf a9L
wd{ < s]] dfgjLo wd{ Jofj;flos wd{eGbf           dg g} ljrlnt x'g] vfnsf lrqx¿ klg xfdL                ]     '
                                                                                                    ;|ft x'gkb{5, cflwsfl/tfsf] nflu sd;]sd
                                '       “}
7"nf] xf]Og < of] kmf]6f] 5fKg'xG5 ls x'bg <     ;lhn} 5flk/x]sf 5f}+ . gUgtf slt;Dd lbg] eGg]      Pp6f sfuhL k|df0f klg x'g'kb{5, Pp6f
          cGTodf ;Dkfbsx¿n] kmf]6f] 5fKg]        s'/fdf klg xfd|f ;Dkfbsx¿n] vf;} 5\ofgAofg         JolQmsf] ljifodf n]Vbf To;sf glhssf
lg0f{ o u/] lsgeg] pQm ;dodf Toxf“               u/]sf] b]lv“bg .
                                                               }                                    JolQmx¿sf] ab\gfd ug'{ x'Gg eGg] h:tf
kmf]6f]kqsf/ dfq lyPg . tL dlxnfnfO{ arfpg                 gUgtfsf] ;Gbe{df cd]l/sfsf] Pp6f csf]{   cfrf/;+lxtfsf clt ;fwf/0f s'/fx¿ klg
;Ifd cGo JolQmx¿ / nfOkmuf8{ ;d]t                /dfOnf] pbfx/0f 5 . b elh{lgof–kfOn6 tyf           xfdLn] nfu" ug{ ;s]sf 5}gf}+ . To;}n] hlxn]
kmf]6f]kqsf/eGbf pgsf] glhs} lyP . pQm           b n]h/–:6f/n] leqL k[i7df 7"n} cfsf/df o:tf]       klg gof“ ;/sf/ cfpg] lalQs} xfd|f ;fwf/0f
kmf]6f] w]/} glhsaf6 lvr]sf] h:tf] b]lvGYof] .   kmf]6f] 5fKof] h;df Pp6f gf+uf] dfG5] cfk\mgf]     uNtLx¿ cf} + N ofP/ ;/sf/sf tkm{ a f6
To;}n] ;Dkfbsx¿n] ;f] kmf]6f] 6]lnn]G; nufP/     cf“ugsf] 3f“; sfl6/x]sf] lyof] . Tof] kmf]6f]df    cfrf/;+lxtf nufpg] s'/f p7\g yfN5 .
sl/a %) lkm6 6f9faf6 lvlrPsf] xf] eg]/                                               ]
                                                 gUgtf :ki6 b]lvGYof] oBlk ;+jbgzLn c+u                      Jofj;flos kqsfl/tfsf] @)) jif{
;d]t :ki6 kf/] . t/ tL kmf]6f]kqsf/nfO{ eg]      b]lvPsf] lyPg . kmf]6f]n] cToGt} gsf/fTds          eGbf a9L cg'ej xfl;n ul/;s]sf klZrdf
;w}“ Pp6f s'/fn] lrdf]l6/x\of], lsg pgn] tL      k|ltlqmof lgDTofof] . ^) hgfeGbf a9L kf7sn]             '
                                                                                                    d'nsdf o:tf ljifox¿df ljjfb lgs} sd x'g
dlxnfnfO{ klxNo} Toxf“af6 x6\g eg]gg\ jf         Tof] kmf]6f]n] ;fdflhs dof{bf s'Nr]sf] atfp“b}     yfn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] pgLx¿nfO{ cfrf/;+lxtf
8'Ag nfUbf arfpg uPgg\ .                         ;Dkfbsk|lt /f]if k|s6 u/] . of] k|ltlqmof slt      nufpg] s'/f klg ub}{g / To:tf] ;f]Rg] w[i6tf
          of] 36gfsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] g}lts k|Zg   ;f“rf] xf] eGg] kQf nufpg ;f] klqsfn] $#^!         klg ub}{g . s'g} klg gfd rn]sf] ;+:yfn] hlxn]
eg]sf] ;dfrf/ ;+sng ug]{ qmddf kqsf/n]                                 {                 {
                                                 hgf kf7sx¿df ;j]If0f u¥of] . ;j]If0fdf ^%          klg k|]; sfplG;n, kqsf/ ;+3, ;Dkfbs ;+3
sf]/f Jofj;flos dfq x'g] ls dfgjLo wd{sf]        k|ltzt kf7sn] ;f] kmf]6f]nfO{ 7Ls} xf] eg] klg     jf To:t} cGo ;+:yfn] agfPsf] cfrf/;+lxtfeGbf

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                     19
   o'/f]ksf] clt ;d[4 b]z 8]gdfs{ klg s]xL cl3;Dd cfrf/;+lxtfdf xfn xfdLn] ef]lu/x]sf] kl/l:yltd}} ?dlNnO/x]sf]
    lyof] . t/ Toxf“sf] Ps b}lgsn] ;g\ !(*( df cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/]/ cfkm\gf kqsf/sf] e|d0fsf] vr{
     ;+:yfn] g} Aoxf]g]{ lgod agfof] . e|d0fdf n}hfg] ;+:yf;“u vr{sf] ljj/0f dfu u/]/ ;+:yfn] ;f] /sd ltl/lbg] /
                                                         +
                     ;+:yfn] ljj/0f gk7fP klqsf cfkm}n] vr{ cfsng u/]/ k7fOlbg] Joj:yf u¥of] .

Ps sbd cufl8 a9] / cfkm\ g f] ;+ : yfsf]
cfrf/;+lxtf :jod\ lgdf{0f ub{5 .
         pbfx/0fsf nflu, b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf]
cfrf/;+lxtfnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . ;+o'Qm /fHo
cd]l/sfdf k|];sf] cfrf/;+lxtfdf sfd ug]{
bh{gf}+ ;+:yfx¿ 5g\ . ;fy} cfO{ Pkm h], ;L
kL h] cflb cGt/f{li6«o kqsf/ ;+u7gx¿n]
klg cf–cfk\mg} lsl;dsf cfrf/;+lxtfx¿ nfu"
u/]sf 5g\ . t/ b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;n] s;}sf]
cfrf/;+lxtf dfGb}g . p;n] dfGg'kg]{ h?/t
klg 5}g lsgeg] p;sf] cfk\mg} ;+:yfsf]
cfrf/;+lxtf ;a}eGbf s8f 5 . @@ k]h nfdf]
pQm cfrf/;+ l xtfdf p;n] cfk\ m gf
sd{rf/Lx¿n] x/]s ljifodf s] s:tf] Jojxf/
ug'{k5{ eg]/ :ki6 n]v]sf] 5 . sl/a To:t}
cj:yf 5 la|6]gsf] k|Voft aLaL;L /]l8of] /
6LeLsf] . p;sf] cfrf/;+lxtf sl/a @))
k[i7sf] 5 h;nfO{ k|To]s sd{rf/Ln] Wofgk"j{s
k9]/ To;sf] kfngf ug'{kb{5 . kqsfl/tfdf
cGt/f{ l i6« o Voflt sdfPsf k| h ftflGqs
d'n'sx¿df ;a}lt/ o:t} cj:yf 5 .
         cfrf/;+lxtf / kqsfl/tfsf] s'/f ubf{
8]gdfs{sf] kqsfl/tfnfO{ klg Pp6f /fd|f]
pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . o'/f]ksf] of]
clt ;d[ 4 b] z Ps bzs cl3;Dd
cfrf/;+lxtfdf xfn xfdLn] ef]lu/x]sf] kl/l:ylt
/ 5nkmn ul//x]sf ljifod} ?dlNnO/x]sf]
lyof] . Toxf“ klg s'g} sDkgLn] k|mfG;df zfvf
vf]Nof] eg] To;sf] /fd|f] ;dfrf/ cfcf];\ eg]/
kqsf/nfO{ Kn]gdf /fv]/ n}hfg], s'g} 6«fen
Ph]G;Ln] gof“ ko{6sLo If]qsf] k|rf/k|;f/
ug'{k¥of] eg] kqsf/nfO{ l;Q}“df 3'dfpg], s'g}
df]6/ sDkgLn] cfk\mgf] df]6/sf] k|rf/ ug'{k¥of]
                      “
eg] kqsf/nfO{ l;Q}df 6]i6 8«fOedf n}hfg]
h:tf k|rng ;fdfGo lyP . t/ anL{·:s]
      ]
6fO{8G8] eGg] b}lgsn] ;g\ !(*( df cfk\mgf]
cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/]/ cfkm\gf kqsf/sf]
e|d0fsf] vr{ ;+:yfn] g} Aoxf]g{] lgod agfof] .
e|d0fdf n}hfg] ;+:yf;“u vr{sf] ljj/0f dfu
u/]/ ;+:yfn] ;f] /sd ltl/lbg] / ;+:yfn] ljj/0f


20                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
    kqsf/ / e|i6frf/
lkmlnlkG; ;]G6/ km/ OGe]l:6u]l6e hgf{lnHd
-kL;LcfOh]_ n] ‘ldl8of / e|i6frf/’
                                   {
ljifodf ;g\ !((* df u/]sf] Pp6f ;j]If0fn]
o:tf] kl/0ffd b]vfPsf] lyof] —
      {
   ;j]If0fdf ;d]l6Psf !)) hgf kqsf/dWo]
   &! hgfn] ;dfrf/ vf]Hg] qmddf ;dfrf/
                  ]                          ]
   jf ;"rgfsf] ;|ftn] cfkm"nfO{ k};f lbg vf]hsf]
   atfP . tLdWo] PsltxfO{n] k};f lnPsf]
   s'/f xfsfxfsL :jLsf/ u/] . To;/L k};f
   lng]dWo]sf !! hgfn] rflx“ Tof] k};f
   ;DkfbsnfO{ ;'lDkPsf] atfP eg] af“sLn]
   cfkm\g} vNtLdf /fv]sf] .
   æTo;/L k};f lng'x'G5 t <Æ k};f lng]x¿
                             {
   dWo]sf ax';ª\Vos l/kf]6/sf] hjfkm lyof]—
   æs'g} zt{ g/fvL / gdflusg lbPsf]
   x'gfn] lng cfklQ ePg .Æ yf]/}n] ælbPsf]
   k};f gln“bf ;|f]t l/;fpnf eg]/ lnPsf]Æ
   hjfkm lbP . ædnfO{ k};f rflxPsf] lyof]Æ,
   cyjf æc¿ ;a}n] lnG5g\, d lsg glng]
   eGg] nfu]/ lnPsf]Æ hjfkm lbg]x¿df cfkm"n]
   uNtL u/]sf] cfef; kfO“b}gYof] .                 vfPsf] sf/0f ;dfrf/sf] k|:t'ltdf s'g}     ‘Oge]nf]Kd]G6n’ -vfdaGbL_ kqsfl/tf /
   kTofpg cK7\of/f] nfu] klg ;|f]t;“u k};f         c;/ kg]{ gu/]sf]’ atfP .                  ‘c6\ofs–sn]S6–l8km]G8–sn]S6 -P;L8L;L_
   vfg] x/]s !) dWo] * hgf kqsf/n] ‘k};f           of] l/kf]6{ ;fj{hlgs ePsf] nuQ} ;Qf;Lg    cyf{t\ ‘uf]b–k};f n]pm, arfpm–k};f n]pm’
                                                   bnsf] tkm{af6 Ps l;g]6/n] kqsf/nfO{       kqsfl/tfsf] Jofkstf 5 .
                                                   s7f]/ cfrf/;+lxtfdf af“Wg' h?/L ePsf]     ;g\ !((* sf] /fi6«klt–r'gfjdf s]xL /]l8of]
                                                         “
                                                   ts{;u} lkmlnlkG;sf] ;+;bdf ljw]os btf{    :6]zgn] ‘;sf/fTds dfq} ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f
                                                   u/fP . To; ljw]ossf] Pp6f jfSo lyof]      ug{’ pDd]bjf/x¿;fd' @ s/f]8 k]zf]
                                                   –æ-kqsf/x¿_ ;~rf/dfWodsf] lgi7f           -sl/a ?=% s/f]8_ sf] Kofs]h k|:tfj cl3
                                                   cyjf ;/sf/L sfo{ – k| l qmofnfO{ e| i 6   ;f/]sf lyP .
                                                   t'Nofpg] vfnsf s'g} klg lqmofsnfkdf       s]xL nf]slk|o ‘6]ANjfO8’ sf ;Dkfbsx¿n]
                                                   ;+nUg x'g] 5}gg\ . Æ                                             ]
                                                                                             rflx“ pDd]bjf/sf] k|; jQmJo jf ;sf/fTds
                                                                                             ;dfrf/ 5fKg k|lt ;dfrf/sf] lx;fan]
                                                   kL;LcfO{h]s} Pp6f k|sfzg ‘Go"h km/ ;]n’   b/–/]6 g} tf]lslbPsf lyP .
                                                   df ldl8ofn] ug]{ y/Ly/Lsf e|i6frf/sf]     w] / } h ;f] ‘6] A NjfO8’ n] rflx“ ;Da4
                                                   pbfx/0f k]z ul/Psf] 5 . h:tf] M           pDd]b\jf/n] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ jf jQmJo
                                                                                             5flkPsf] c+s #),))) b]lv %),))) k|lt
                                                   lkmlnlkG;sf l/kf]6{/÷kqsf/nfO{ lbOg]      lsGg'kg]{ lgod a;fPsf lyP .
                                                   /sd -3";_ ;Lw} ltgsf] P6LPddf hDdf                         — ‘ldl8of OlyS; Pg Pl;of’
                                                   ul/lbOG5 .                                                             gfds k':tsaf6

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                       21
k|;+ujz

     !) jif{ a]nfotsf] k|wfgdGqL eP/ /flhgfdf lbPsf 6f]gL An]o/n] a]nfotsf klqsfx¿nfO{ ;Lwf ;dfrf/ l/kf]l6{ª
          gug]{ / Psbd gf6sLo 9·df ;dfrf/ kl:sg] dfWod eg]/ 7"nf] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ . ;dfrf/kqx¿
                      ;dfrf/k|wfg geP/ ljrf/k|wfg cyf{t\ ljrf/kq ePsf] klg pgsf] cf/f]k 5 .


gk7fP klqsf cfkm}+n] vr{ cfsng u/]/              /fhb"tsL >LdtL Eofn]? O{lnh Knfd] ;LcfO{PsL        Tof] Joª\UonfO{ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNnª\3gsf]
k7fOlbg] Joj:yf u¥of] .                          uf]Ko Ph]G6 ePsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ pgsf >Ldfg\n]       ¿kdf JofVof u/]sf 5g\ .
        of] ;+:yfn] lnPsf] lg0f{on] Toxf“sf]     O/fsn] /f;folgs xltof/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 ls                      ;g\ @))& sf] h'nfO{ dlxgfdf, !) jif{
kqsfl/tfdf 7"n} kl/jt{g NofOlbof] . ;a}n]        5}g eGg] ljifosf] Ps ld;gdf hfg kfPsf]             a]nfotsf] k|wfgdGqL eP/ /flhgfdf lbPsf 6f]gL
qmdzM cf–cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf agfP / pQm         pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm ld;gsf] l/kf]6{df        An]o/n] a]nfotsf klqsfx¿nfO{ ;Lwf ;dfrf/
b}lgss} af6f]df nfu]/ kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;df        O/fs;“u /f;folgs xltof/ 5}g eGg] pNn]v             l/kf]l6{ª gug]{ / Psbd gf6sLo 9·df ;dfrf/
Pp6f gof“ cWofo yk] .                            ePsf] s'/f klg /f]a6{ gf]efsn] Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf]   kl:sg] dfWod eg]/ 7"nf] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ .
                                                 cfkm\gf] :tDedf n]v]sf lyP . o; ljifonfO{          ;dfrf/kqx¿ ;dfrf/k|wfg geP/ ljrf/k|wfg
/fli6«o ;'/Iff / cfrf/;+lxtf                     ;/sf/n] /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] d'2f agfP/ 6fOd /        cyf{t\ ljrf/kq ePsf] klg pgsf] cf/f]k 5 .
;dfhsf] kl/jt{gsf qmddf gof“ gof“ ljifo jf       Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf kqsf/x¿nfO{ cbfnt k'¥ofof]        clxn] a]nfotsf] kqsfl/tfdf of] cf/f]kn] 7"nf]
k|jl[ Q b]vf kb{} hfG5g\ / ltgnfO{ kqsfl/tfn]          ]
                                                 / ;|ftsf] gfd geg]sf] cf/f]kdf h]n ;hfo            xnrn dRrfPsf] 5 . cfhsf] ljZjdf hxf“
s;/L x]g]{ / ;dfhnfO{ s] lbzf lbg] eGg]          ;d] t u¥of] . kl5 ;| f ] t x¿ cfkm} + n ] tL       On]S6«fl] gs dfWodx¿n] t'?Gt} ;dfrf/ ;Dk|i] f0f
ljifodf gof“ gof“ ljjfb cfp“b} hfG5g\ . h:tf]    kqsf/x¿nfO{ cfk\mgf] gfd eGg :jLs[lt lbPkl5        u5{g\ Toxf“ kqsfl/tfn] ljrf/df hfg x'g] ls
;g\ @))! ;]K6]Da/ !! sf lbg cd]l/sfdf            pgLx¿ h]nd'Qm ePsf lyP .                           gx'g] eGg] ljifodf ax; rNg yfn]sf] 5 .
lag nfb]gsf] cn–sfobf ;d"xn] u/]sf] cfqmd0f
kl5 kqsf/ / ;/sf/sf] ;DaGwsf ljifodf             ;dfh / cfrf/;+lxtf                                 ;a}n] ;w+} Wofg lbg] ljifo
7"nf] ljjfb pAHof] . /IffdGqL sf]G8flnhf         ;fdflhs cfrf/;+ l xtf / kqsf/sf]                   t/ s]xL To:tf ljifox¿ klg 5g\ h;df ;+;f/sf
/fO;n] kqsf/x¿nfO{ /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] k|Zg        cfrf/;+lxtfsf] w]/} glhssf] ;DaGw x'G5 .           ;a} kqsf/x¿n] ;w}+ ;hutf ckgfpg'kb{5 .
p7fp“b} lag nfb]gn] af]nsf s'/fx¿ ;Dk"0f{
                             ]                   h'g s'/fdf ;dfhdf rsf]{ ax; rn]sf] x'G5                             ]                     ]
                                                                                                    h:tf] unt ;|ft;“u aRg', cfk\mgf] ;|ftsf] unt
¿kdf 5fKg / k|;f/0f ug{ /f]s nufOg\ .            ;f] s'/fsf] kIf jf ljkIfdf snd rnfpg               dfu;“ u ;Demf} t f gug' { , ;lhn} pknAw
pgsf] egfO æcft°sf/Lx¿n] cfkm\ g f]              klZrdf kqsfl/tfdf klg lgs} cK7]/f] g} x'G5 .                                      ]
                                                                                                    ;dfrf/sf] nflu uf]Ko ;|ftsf] pkof]u gug',{
jQmJoleq}af6 cfk\mgf sfo{stf{nfO{ ;Gb]z lbg      h:tf] ue{ktg, hgfj/sf] clwsf/, d[To'b08sf]                       ]
                                                                                                    cfk\mgf] ;|ftnfO{ grflxFbf] tl/sfn] garfpg' cflb .
;S5g\Æ eGg] lyof] .                              ;hfo, kl/jf/ lgof]hgsf s[lqd ;fwgsf] k|of]u,       To:t}, s'g} k'ln;n] vf]lh/x]sf] ck/fwLsf] cGtjf{tf{
          kqsf/n] slt ;/sf/sf] s'/f ;'Gg] /      o'yfgl;of cyf{t\ bofk"0f{ xTof, dlxnfsf] of]lg     k'ln;nfO{ yfxf glbO{ 5fKg] jf g5fKg] < ;Dk"0f{
slt cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf dfGg] eGg] ljifosf]     5]bg, k'?ifsf] ln· 5]bg, ;fdflhs k|lti7f                       ]
                                                                                                    ¿kdf ;|ft gv'nfOPsf] ;dfrf/ af}l4s ;DklQsf]
ljjfb pQm 36gfkl5 z'? ePsf] eg] kSs}             hf]ufpg ul/g] xTof, ;dln·L ;DaGw / ljjfx,          rf]/L xf] ls xf]Og < hgtfn] >4f ug]{ JolQm -
xf]Og . zLto'4tfsf b jflz·6g kf]i6 klqsfn]       3/]n' gf]s/ / bf; k|yf, cfk\mgf] b]z n8fO“df       wfld{s g]tf, u'? cflb_ sf] JolQmut ljifodf
                  |
cd]l/sfn] ;d'bdf b"/;+rf/sf nflu la5\ofOg]       ePsf] a]nfsf] cj:yf cflbaf/] ;+;f/el/sf            slt ;dfrf/ 5fKg] < cfkm"n] s'g} ljifodf ljrf/
tf/df ¿;L kg8'AaLsf] cfjfh ;'Gg ;lsg] uf]Ko      kqsf/x¿ v'n]/ snd rnfpg ws dfGb5g\ .               n]lv;s]sf] 5 eg] ;f]xL ljifodf ;dfrf/ n]Vg]
oGq h8fg u/]sf] s'/f kQf nufPsf] lyof] .                 klZrdf ;dfhdf oL / o:tf                    ls gn]Vg] < s'g} ck/fwLsf gft]bf/x¿sf] gfd
p;n] ;f] ;dfrf/ /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] sf/0fn]        ljifox¿af/] ;w}+ ljjfb rNb} cfO/x]sf] 5 t/         ;fj{hlgs ug{] ls gug{] < ;dfrf/sf] uf]Ko ;|ft   ]
5fk]g . t/ kl5 ?;n] ;f] s'/f kQf] kfof] /        wfld{s Pjd\ ;fdflhs dfGotf / /Lltl/jfhnfO{                            '             ]
                                                                                                    kqsf/n] vf]Ng'xGg, t/ ;f] ;|ftn] lbPsf] ;dfrf/
cd]l/sfsf] Ps k|sf/n] a]OHhtL eof] . kf]i6n]     r6Ss} la;]{/ hfg ;Sg] cj:yf pgLx¿sf] klg                                                    ]
                                                                                                    Psbd} em"7f] k|dfl0ft eof] eg] pQm ;|ftsf] gfd
kl5Nnf] ;dfrf/ 5fKg vf]Hbf klg /Iff dGqfnon]     5}g . ;g\ @))% ;]K6]Da/df 8]gdfs{sf] Pp6f          vf]Ng] ls gvf]Ng] <
/fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] sf/0f b]vfP/ /f]Sg vf]Hof] .   klqsfn] Ps d'l:nd Odfdsf] ku/LnfO{ adsf]                     o:tf w] / } ljifox¿ 5g\ h;af/]
æxfdLn] ;f] ;dfrf/ 5fKof+} / ef]lnkN6 s'g}       ¿kdf lrlqt ubf{ ;+;f/el/sf d'l:nd ;d'bfon]         uDeL/tf ;fy 5nkmn tyf dgg ug{ / To;sf]
k|no ePg, ;"o{ ;bfem}+ k"jaf6 pbfof],Æ kf]i6sf
                           {                     cg]s 7fpFdf lx+;|s k|bz{g u/] h;df bh{gf}+sf]      lgisif{ cfkm\gf dfWoddf sfof{Gjog ug{ xfd|f
tTsfnLg sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs a]g a|f8nLn] eg] .       Hofg uof] . of] 36gfn] kqsfl/tfsf] :jtGqtfdf       kqklqsf, kqsf/ / ;Dk"0f{ ;+rf/dfWodx¿
          /fi6«klt a'zsf] O/fs gLltsf] lj/f]w
                     '                           7"nf] k|ZglrGx nufOlbPsf] 5 . 8]gdfs{              ;w}+ tof/ /xg' kb{5 . cGoyf kqsf/ / km6fxf
ub} cd]l/sL klqsfx¿n] Ps ;g;gL vf]h              ;/sf/ / klqsfn] ;f] Joª\Uolrqsf nflu               s'/f km}nfP/ cfkm\gf] :jfy{ l;4 ug]{ ufpF3/sf]
;dfrf/ 5fk] . To;df Pshgf e"tk"j{ cd]l/sL        Ifdfofrgf gu/] klg w]/} kqsf/x¿n] :jo+             rDa' JolQmsf] aLrdf s]xL km/s /xg] 5}g .

22                                                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                       ]
                                                                                                                             cd]l/sL k|;



PstkmL{ ax;sf]
vt/f
          SnFs{ xF]P6 b Go'of]s{ 6fOD; sf] ;DkfbsLo k[i7 O/fs o'4b]lv ue{ktg / ljZj tfkqmddf eO/x]sf] j[l4;Ddsf jt{dfg
                               ;dosf hNbfaNbf ljifodfly ax; x'g] b]zsf] ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ d~r xf] eg] x'G5 . ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/

                            ]
k[i7sf ;Dkfbs PG8«o' /f];Gyn eG5g\, æxfdL
;w}F To:tf ljrf/sf] vf]hLdf x'G5f}+ h;n]
dflg;nfO{ /GyGofOlbpmg\ . To:tf ljrf/, h;n]
      +             ]
tkfO{n] klxn] ;f]rsf s'/f Tolt /f]rs xf]Ogg\
eGg] :ki6 kf¿g\ .Æ
      t/, sltko ljrf/ a9L g} pQ]hs x'G5g\ .
ut ;ftf / uPsf] dlxgfsf b'O{ cltly n]vssf
ljrf/n] ;f] r ] e Gbf a9L kf7ssf] lj/f] w
lgDTofpg'sf ;fy} dxŒjk"0f{ k|Zg ;d]t p7fPsf
5g\ . s] s'g} ;d"x jf ljifo Tolt 3[0ff:kb
5g\ h;nfO{ ljrf/ k[i7df :yfg g} lbOg'xbg <“' }
olb 6fOD; n] s'g} ljifodf ljjfbf:kb ljrf/
k|sflzt u5{ eg] To;;DaGwL csf]{ kf6f]sf]
b[li6sf]0f;“u kf7snfO{ t'?Gt} cjut u/fpg'
o;sf] bfloTj xf] ls xf]Og < clg, ljrf/
k[ i 7sf n] v sx¿n] tYox¿;“ u v] n af8
ul//x] s f 5} g g\ eGg] ;' l glZrt ug{
;Dkfbsx¿sf] bfloTj s] xf] <
      ut ;ftf -!# h"g @))&_ 5flkPsf] n]v
                        [
Kofn]l:6gL ;/sf/sf] g]tTj ug{ lgjf{lrt ePsf]
/ Oh/fonsf] cl:tTj d]6fpg] p2]Zo af]s]sf]
xdf; kf6L{sf k|jQmf cxdb o';]kmsf] lyof] .
pgn] ‘xdf; s] rfxG5 <’ eGg] af/]df n]vsf       ]
lyP .
      To;k|lt y'k|} kf7sn] s8f /f]if JoQm u/] .                                      '
                                                         ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf k|dv OGrfh{            jftfj/0f agfpg] / cfk;L dte]bsf] cGTo
pgLx¿n] 6fOD; dfly cft+sjfbLnfO{ d~r                                    ]
                                                   8]le8 lzKn], hf] /f];Gynsf ;xfos klg x'g,\         ug]{’ pgn] atfPsf lyP . o';]kmn] pNn]v
k| b fg u/] s f] cf/f] k ;d] t nufP .              eG5g\, æxdf;n] ufhfdfly sAhf u/]sf] 36gf           gu/]sf] s'/f rflx“ s] dfq lyof] eg] ‘Kofn]l:6gsf]
Dof:ofRo';]6\;sf kf7s hf]g k]g;fssf] egfO          ;ftfsf k|dv ;dfrf/dWo] Ps lyof]=== / xdf;
                                                               '                                      k|To]s OGr hldgdf cNnfxsf] /fHo :yfkgf
lyof], 6fOD; n] o';]kmnfO{ :yfg lbg' eg]sf]        s] eG5 eGg] s'/f ;'Gg] of] -o';]kmsf] n]v_         ug]’{ p2]Zok|lt xdf; cf}krfl/s Pj+ 3f]lift
;Gt'lnt kqsfl/tf xf]Og a? k}/jL–kqsfl/tfsf]        /fd|f] cj;/ lyof] .Æ                               ¿kd} ;dlk{t 5, h;sf] cy{ x'G5 Oh/fonsf]
efjgfcg'¿k k|f]kf]uG8fnfO{ a9fjf lbg' xf] .              d}n] ;dfrf/af6 xdf;af/] h] a'em] sf] lyP“,   ;dflKt .
      æ7Ls xf], ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf] sfd         o';]kmn] k|:t't u/]sf] jf:tljstf To;eGbf                 ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7 vf;u/L ljjfbf:kb
g} ljleGg ljrf/nfO{ a9fjf lbg' xf],Æ /f];Gyn]      lgtfGt km/s eP klg, pgsf] ljrf/ cfpg'              ljrf/sf nflu ;w}“ v'nf x'g'kb{5 . o;f] ePdf
eG5g\, æxfdL ;dfrf/df h:tf] ;Gt'ng o;df            cfjZos lyof] eGg] s'/fdf d ;xdt 5' .               dfq v'nf ;dfhn] cfkm\gf nflu s] ;xL xf] /
lbg] g}lts afWotf dx;"; ub}{gf}+ lsgeg] of]        s'/f rsf{ eP klg pgsf] n]vfO g/d lyof] .           s] unt xf] eg]/ 5'6ofpg ;S5 . :j:y ax;sf]
                                                                                                                           \
ljrf/ k[i7 xf] .Æ                                  pbfx/0fsf nflu, xdf;n] Oh/fon;“u ‘zflGtsf]         kfl/nf] 3fddf ;xL ljrf/x¿ ljsl;t x'G5g\

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       23
eg] unt ljrf/x¿ cf]OnfP/ em5{g\ . n'sfpg],                                                            eg] To;};DaGwL csf]{ kIfsf] ljrf/ klg ToxL
                                                            ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7                       k[i7df 5fKg'k5{M emf/f 6fg]{ lx;fan] rf/–kf“r
l5kfpg] xf] / v'nf r'gf}tL glbg] xf] eg] v/fa
ljrf/x¿ ljiffn' Rofp;/x a9\g] u5{g\ .                    vf;u/L ljjfbf:kb ljrf/sf                     j6f xNsfkm'Nsf ‘;DkfbsnfO{ lr7L’ 5fk]/ p;sf]
      /f];Gyn / lzKn] b'j} eG5g\, æxfdL ;do–
          ]                                             nflu ;w}“ v'nf x'g'kb{5 . o;f]                bfloTj k"/f x'“b}g .
;dodf cTolws dxŒjk"0f{ ljifox¿dfly ljljw                                                                     d KnfGsn] lbPsf] pbfx/0fsf af/]df klg
                             \
k|sf/sf b[li6sf]0fnfO{ ;d]6g] sf]lzz ub{5f}+ .             ePdf dfq v'nf ;dfhn]                       k|Zg p7fpg rfxG5' . pgn] s'kf]if0fu|:t lzz'
x'g klg, ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf lgoldt                    cfkm\gf nflu s] ;xL xf] / s]                 qmfpg zfs'/sf] d[To'sf] k|;+u cl3 ;f/]sL
kf7sx¿n] Oh/fon–Kofn]:6fOg åGåaf/] ljleGg               unt xf] eg]/ 5'6\ofpg ;S5 .                   l5g\ . 8]9 dlxgfsf qmfpg slt sdhf]/ lyP
vfnsf ljrf/ k9\g] / kof{Kt hfgsf/L xfl;n                                                              eg] pgsf] hLpsf ;f/f x8\8L / s/ª 5n{ªu      \
ug]{ df}sf kfPsf 5g\ . o;af6 o';]kmsf] ljrf/             :j:y ax;sf] kfl/nf] 3fddf                                                  ]
                                                                                                      b]Vg ;lsGYof] . KnfGsn] n]vsL 5g\, ‘qmfpgsf]
slt ;xL xf] eg]/ lg0f{o ug{ pgLx¿nfO{ ;xof]u             ;xL ljrf/x¿ ljsl;t x'G5g\                    d[To' c1fgsf sf/0f ePsf] x'g ;S5 t/ o;
k'u]sf] 5 .                                                                                           36gfkl5 kf]if0fsf] ;DaGwdf v'nf ax; z'?
      t/, @! d] @))& df k|sflzt vfB tyf
                                                         eg] unt ljrf/x¿ cf]OnfP/                     x'g'kb{5 .’ kf]if0f eGgfn] aRrfnfO{ s] vfg
kf]if0f;DaGwL n]lvsf lggf KnfGssf] n]vsf]                em5{g\ . n'sfpg], l5kfpg] xf]                lbg] / s] glbg] eGg] dfq KnfGssf] cfzo xf]
s'/f eg] cln leGg} lyof] . ‘zfsfxf/af6 d[To'’             / v'nf r'gf}tL glbg] xf] eg]                eg], pgsf] s'/f 7Ls} xf]nf .
-8]y afO{ e]uflghd_ h:tf] ;g;gLk"0f{ zLif{s                                                                  o; d'2fdf ;/sf/L jlsnn] qmfpgsf
/flvPsf] pgsf] n]vn] dflg;sf] ;f]rfOdf                      v/fa ljrf/x¿ ljiffn'                      dftflktfn] cfkm\gf] aRrfnfO{ hfgfhfg ef]s}
o';]kmsf] n]vn] eGbf a9L wSsf lbPsf] lyof] .               Rofp;/x a9\g] ub{5g\ .                     /fv]/ df/]sf] blnn k]z u/]sf lyP h;nfO{
cfkm\gf] n]vdf pgn] ;kf6 zAbdf c08f /                                                                 GofofwLzx¿n] klg kTofP . o; ;DaGwdf
b'Uw pTkfbg ;d]t g?rfpg] ljz'4 zfsfxf/L                                                               ;Dk|]if0f ePsf ;dfrf/n] klg ;DalGwt
JolQmn] cfkm\gf] dfq geO{ cfkm\gf afnaRrfsf]                                                          lrlsT;s, vfB ljz]if1 tyf cGo lj1sf]
:jf:YonfO{ ;d]t vt/fdf kfl//x]sf] 3f]if0ff g}                                                         xjfnf lb“b} qmfpgnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] -
ul/g\ . klxn] cfkm}“ zfsfxf/L /lx;s]sL                                                                zfsfxf/L xf];\ jf df+;fxf/L_ kof{Kt ef]hg
KnfGsn] elgg\, æue{jtL cj:yfdf df5f–df;'            jif{df ;DkfbsLo k[i7df Pp6f klg n]v jf            glbOPsf] g} lgSof]{n lgsfn]sf lyP .
gvfg' t emg} u}/lhDd]jf/ x'g' xf] .Æ pgsf]          ljrf/ k|sflzt u/]sf] 5}g . kf“r jif{otf                  ;f] d'2fdf ax; ug]{ km'N6g sfpG6Lsf
egfO lyof], s]an ;fu;AhL / af]6–la?jfaf6            o;af/] l56k'6 ;dfrf/ eg] 5flkPsf 5g\ .            ;/sf/L jlsn rfN;{ af]l/·n] To; d'2fsf]
pTkfbg x'g] vfgfn] x§fs§f z/L/ lgdf{0f ug{                                                            ;DaGw ‘st}af6 klg’ zfsfxf/;“u g/x]sf]
;Sb} g .                                            csf]{ kIf                                         dnfO{ :ki6 kf/]sf 5g\ . KnfGs / lzKn]
      KnfGsn] c6nfG6fsf] Pp6f o:tf] zfsfxf/L        lkmnf8] l Nkmofsf] Pp6f afn c:ktfnsL                   }
                                                                                                      b'jhgf cfkm"x¿ rfN;{sf] o; egfO;Fu cjut
bDktLsf] pbfx/0f lbPsL lyOg\, h;dfly cfkm\g}        kf]if0flj1 /]rn ln;]gsf cg';f/ KnfGssf] n]v       /x]sf] atfpF5g\ . ‘xfdLnfO{ of] klg yfxf lyof]
8]9 dlxgfsf] 5f]/fsf] xTofsf] cf/f]k nfu]sf]        ‘cToGt} e8sfp tyf unt tYon] el/k"0f{’             ls bf]ifL bDktLn] af/Daf/ cfkm"x¿n] aRrfnfO{
lyof] . pgLx¿n] cfkm\gf] 5f]/fnfO{ e6df;sf]         lyof] . pgL / pgsf ;xsdL{ a|]G8f jfa]/n]          zfsfxf/L agfpg] p2]Zon] To;f] u/]sf] atfPsf
b"w / :ofpsf] h'; dfq Vjfpg] u/]sf lyP              dnfO{ vfB tyf kf] i f0flj1x¿sf] b] z sf]          lyP’, lzKn] eG5g\ .
h;sf sf/0f 8]9 dlxgfsf] eO;Sbf klg                  ;a} e Gbf 7" n f] ;+ : yf cd] l /sg 8fol6s               t/, GofofwLzx¿n] qmfpgsf cfdfafa'sf]
afnssf] jhg s]jn #=% kfp08 -8]9 lsnf]sf]            P;f]l;P;g -P=8L=P=_ sf] ;g\ @))# sf]              egfOdfly ljZjf; u/]sf lyPgg\ . of] kf6f]
xf/fxf/L_ lyof] . ;f] n]vn] tTsfn y'k}| k|ltlqmof   k|ltj]bg b]vfP . uxg j}1flgs ljZn]if0fkl5         pNn]v gul/Psfn] KnfGssf] k"/} n]vsf] w/ftn
lgDTofPsf] lyof], h'g xfn;Dd klg hf/L 5 .           Sofgf8fsf vfBljb\x¿;“u} P=8L=P=n] To;df           sdhf]/ x'gk'u]sf] 5 .
k|ltlqmof k7fpg]df k|foM zfsfxf/L lyP               s] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 eg], æof]hgfa4 Pj+ ;Gt'lnt          ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7 ax;sf nflu
h;dWo] cg]sf}n] t KnfGssf] egfOsf] k|ltjfb
                +                                   ¿kdf lnOg] zfsfxf/L ef] h g ue{ j tL,             x'G5g\, t/ ltgdf PstkmL{ n]v dfq 5fKg] xf]
ub}{ cfkm\gf] zfsfxf/L :j:y aRrfsf] kmf]6f]         afnaflnsf, lszf]/, o'jfnufot hLjgsf ;a}           eg] Tof] ax; x'“b}g, g t To;f] ug'{ ;xL g}
;d]t k7fPsf lyP . s]xLn] eg] cfk"mnfO{              cj:yfsf nflu pko'Qm /x]sf] 5 .Æ                   x' G 5 .
;fyLefO tyf gft]bf/x¿n] KnfGssf] n]v b]vfO{–              KnfGsn] cfkm" P=8L=P= sf] o; 3f]if0ff;“u
b]vfO{ ‘ltdLx¿sf] vfgf vt/gfs 5’ eg]/               cjut /x]sf] t/ To;nfO{ cfkm"n] ‘/fhgLlts                Snfs{ xf]P6 ‘b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;’ df klAns Pl86/
lv;L u/]sf] ;d]t atfPsf lyP .                       ¿kdf ;lqmo zfsfxf/L ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u             sf] ¿kdf sfo{/t 5g\ . klAns Pl86/sf] sfd eg]sf]
      KnfGsn] zfsfxf/L aGg' xflgsf/s x'“b}g         k'¥ofpg]’ jStJosf ¿kdf lnPsf] atfOg\ .            klqsfdf kqsfl/tfsf] d"NodfGotf / g}ltstf nfu" ePsf]
eGg] ts{nfO{ cfkm\gf] n]vdf s'g} :yfg g}                  Pstk{m KnfGssf] cfkm\gf] ts{ 5 eg]          5 5}g, ;+j]bgzLn q'l6 b]vf k/]sf 5g\ jf cfjZos
lbOgg\ . /f];]Gyn / lzKn]sf] ljrf/df, o;f]          P=8L=P=n] @%) j6feGbf a9L cg';GwfgnfO{            tYo 5'6k'6 ePsf 5g\ ls eg]/ x]g'{ / o; ;DaGwdf
ug'{ pgsf] n]vsLo clwsf/leqs} s'/f xf] .            pb\w[t ub}{ pQm k|ltj]bg tof/ kf/]sf] 5 . d       cfd kf7s;“u ‘;Dks{’ :yfkgf ug'{ xf] . of] sfd pgLx¿n]
            {
t/, dWok"jsf] dfldnfdf ;a} vfnsf ljrf/nfO{          o;;DaGwL ljjfbdf k|j]z ug{ rfxGg“ . d]/f]                                                     ]
                                                                                                      k|foM klqsfsf] lgoldt :tDedfk{mt -n]v n]v/_ ub{5g\ .
:yfg lbPh:tf] zfsfxf/sf] ljifodf eg] ul/Psf]        egfO slt dfq xf] eg], 6fOD; n] s'g} ljifodf       cd]l/sfdf k|foM ;a} k|d'v klqsfdf klAns Pl86/ x'g]
5}g . zfsfxf/sf] kIfdf 6fOD; n] ljut !^             Pp6f kIfsf] ljrf/ ;DkfbsLo k[i7df 5fK5            ub{5g\ .


24                                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
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   ;f]dgfy r6hL{                                    {                                                    ]|
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                            kIfdf lyof], v'Nnf geP klg leqL ¿kdf p;sf] b'gf] ;f]em\ofOlbg] sfd uYof]{ . csf]{ ;d"xsf kqklqsf
                                                              {
                            hgtfsf OR5f / cfsfª\Iffsf s'/f uy], cGofo / bdgsf] lj/f]w uy]{ . o:tf klqsfnfO{ bdg ug{ s8f sfg"gL

Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . o:tf klqsf z'? ug]{, rnfpg],        k'Uof] . ef/t :jtGq x'g'eGbf cl3 o;sf] sNkgf klg
k|sflzt ug]{ / ;Dkfbg ug]{ JolQmx¿ :jfwLgtfsf]             ug{ ;lsGg lyof] .
cfGbf]ng;Fu s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf ;DalGwt lyP . To;a]nf               kqsfl/tfsf s]xL If]qdf clxn] cfP/ ;DkfbsLo eGbf
kqklqsfsf] ;ª\Vof ;Lldt lyof]Ù k|zf;lgs s8fO t             Jofkf/ zfvfnfO{ a9L dxŒj lbg yflnPsf] 5 . slt
5“b}lyof], k|ljlw klg ljsl;t eO;s]sf] lyPg . t/ klg        klqsfdf t ahf/df s] rN5 / klqsfdfkm{t Tof] sfd
5flkPsf] cIf/sf] ;fx|} 7"nf] k|efj lyof] / o;n] hgdfg;df   s;/L ug]{ eg]/ dfs{]l6ª zfvfn] lg0f{o lng yfn]sf] 5 .
pT;fx eg]{ sfd ub{Yof] .                                   To;}n] cfhef]ln gfd rn]sf sltko klqsfsf] klxnf]
        ef/tsf] :jtGqtf;“u,} s]xL jif{leq} ;+ljwfg cfof]                                                            '
                                                           k[i7df dgf]/~hg If]qdf gfd rn]sf] s'g} JolQmsf] vfg]s/fsf]
h;n] jfs\:jtGqtf / k|]; :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"lt u¥of] .       ?lrsf ljifodf jf s'g} dgf]/~hgfTds k|ltof]lutf s;n]
To;kl5 k|;df nfUb} cfPsf] aGwg klg 6'6of], ;+ljwfgsf]
             ]                               \             lhTof] eGg] ljifodf ;dfrf/ k9\g'k5{ . b]zsf] dxŒjk"0f{
wf/f !( -@_ df plNnlvt s]xL ‘ts{;ut k|ltaGwx¿’
                                           +               ljifosf] ;dfrf/ rflx“ leqLk[i7sf] s'gfdf km\of“lsPsf]
afx]s .                                                    x' G 5 .
        :jtGq ePsf] s]xL jif{;Dd ef/tLo k|];n] ;To /             t/ klqsfdf h] eO/x]sf] 5 To;nfO{ 6]lnlehgn]
kf/blz{tfdf cfkm\gf] k|lta4tf b]vfof] . To;}tfs Pp6f       5fof“df kfl/lbPsf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] 5q5fof“df rn]sf] >Jo–
gofF k|jl[ Q b]vf k¥of]M s]xL kqklqsfsf] :jfldTj k|sfzs    b[Zosf] Pp6f dfWodaf6 lghL If]qsf] ;+nUgtfdf ;~rflnt
/ ;Dkfbsaf6 Jofkfl/s ;+:yfx¿df ;¥of] . s]xL jif{;Dd,       zlQmzfnL ;~rf/dfWod;Ddsf] cj:yf;Dd cfOk'Ubf
klqsfsf dflnsx¿ cfkm\gf] Wofg klqsfaf6 x'g]                6]lnlehgsf] 7"nf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . If]qLo efiffx¿df
cfDbfgLdf s]lGb|t ul//x]sf lyP eg] klqsfsf ;Dkfbsx¿        ePsf] o;sf] ljsf; klg pNn]vgLo 5 . t/, o;sf
k"0f{ ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtf pkef]u ul//x]sf lyP . Tof]          ;fy;fy}, 6]lnlehgsf sfo{qmd / o;sf] ;dfrf/ h;/L
o:tf] ;do lyof] h'ga]nf klqsfx¿df ;zQm / dxfg\             cl3 al9/x]sf] 5 Tof] 7Ls lbzfdf uO/x]sf] 5 ls 5}g
;Dkfbsx¿ lyP, h;n] :jtGqtf / lgikIftfnfO{                  eGg] ljifodf ;a}n] ;f]Rg'kg]{ a]nf cfPsf] 5 .
kqsfl/tfsf] cleGg c+usf] ¿kdf ljsf; u/] .                        lghL Rofgnx¿ s]jn ;dfrf/d'vL dfq 5}gg\ .
        lj:tf/} cGo sf/sx¿ ;an aGb} cfP . tLdWo]           pgLx¿n] cfkm" lj1fkgdf cfwfl/t 5f}+ eGg] s'/fnfO{ uf]Ko
;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ sf/s eg]sf] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; lyof] .      /fv]sf klg 5}gg\ . ptf, lj1fkgbftfx¿n] s'g sfo{qmd
gofF k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] nfvf}+ k|lt klqsf Ps} k6s           slt bz{sx¿n] x]g{ ?rfp“5g\ eGg] cfwf/df lj1fkg
5fKg ;lsg] eof], sDKo'6/df k]h agfpg ;lsg] eof] .          k|jflxt ul//fv]sf 5g\ . o;sf b'O6f v/fa c;/ b]vf
o;n] klqsfsf] 5kfOnfO{ b'tt/ ult dfq lbPg vr{
                                |                          k/]sf 5g\ . klxnf], lj1fkg kfpg] cToGt s8f k|lt:kwf{n]
klg sd nfUg] eof] . To;kl5 :of6nfO6sf] ljsf;n]             ubf{ sltko Rofgnx¿n] ;TotYodf ;d]t ;Demf}tf ug{
klqsfsf kfgfx¿ Ps7fp“df tof/ u/]/ csf]{ 7fpFaf6            yfn]sf 5g\ . bf];|f], y'k|}n] ‘;]G;];gflnHd’sf] af6f] /f]h]sf
5fKg ;lsg] eof], h;n] ubf{ /fli6«o ;+:s/0fsf ;fy}          5g\ / To;sf nflu pko'Qm x'g;Sg] s'g} klg syfnfO{
:yfgLo ;+:s/0fx¿ klg Ps} k6s 5fKg yflnof] . lj1fkg         ;dfrf/sf] ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ .
ahf/sf] csNkgLo j[l4 csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ sf/ssf] ¿kdf                        {
                                                                 o;df b'Odt 5}g ls xfd|f sltko 6LeL Rofgnx¿n]
b]vf k¥of] . lj1fkg pBf]un] 7"n} /sd kqklqsfdf             ;dfrf/sf] dxŒj / o;sf] ;Totf;“u s'g} ;Demf}tf u/]sf
vGofof] . o;af6 sltko klqsfx¿ t u|fxsnfO{ l;Q}df      “    5}gg\, h;n] ubf{ pgLx¿sf] ljZj;gLotf / bz{s ;ª\Vofdf
af“8g ;Sg] cj:yfdf k'u] lsgeg] ltgsf] d'Vo cfDbfgL],
      \                                                    klg a9f]Q/L ePsf] 5 . t/, of] ;ª\Vof Hofb} Go"g 5 .
b}lgs s/f]8f}+ ?k}of“, lj1fkgaf6} x'g yfNof] . klqsfsf]          :jtGqtfk|flKtkZrft ef/tLo ldl8ofsf] ;a}eGbf
laqmLaf6 x'g] cfDbfgL rflx“ gu0o jf cg'Nn]vgLo aGg         pNn]vgLo s'/f eg]sf] o;sf] :jfldTjsf] k|sl[ tdf cfPsf]

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                            25
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             k|; :jtGqtf eg]sf] lhDd]jf/L /lxt x“bg . klqsfsf ;DkfbsLo gLltx¿ ldl8of ;d|f6 -d'un_ jf
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              ldl8of zlQmx¿ -Aof/f]g_ af6 slxNo} lgb]lzt x'gxbg . d'gfkmfd'vL x'g' cfkm}df unt xf]Og t/
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             d'gfkmf Pp6} dfq p2]Zo rflx“ x'gxbg . clxn] h'g k|sf/sf / h'g dfqfdf ;dfrf/x¿ On]S6«flgs]
                              / 5fkf dfWoddf cfO/x]sf 5g\ To;n] lrGtf hGdfPsf] 5 .
kl/jt{g xf] . s'g} klg klqsf jf RofgnnfO{                                                     ' “' }
                                                  xf]Og t/ d'gfkmf Pp6} dfq p2]Zo rflx“ x'gxbg,        x'G5 clg ;+;b / ;f+;b eGg' g} gsf/fTds /
clxn] ;a}eGbf Jofkfl/s ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf x]l/G5,      ljz]iftM b]zsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ 36gf jf                cem ckdfgsf] ljifo h:tf] x'g yfN5 .
h'g k|yf lj1fkgdf cfl>t cGo b]zx¿sf               ;dfrf/x¿sf ljifodf . clxn] h'g k|sf/sf                        ;~rf/dfWodn] cfkm" n fO{ hgtfsf]
klqsf / Rofgnx¿df klg 5 . t/ lj1fkgdf             / h'g dfqfdf ;dfrf/x¿ On]S6«fl] gs / 5fkf            cfjfhsf] ?kdf pEofpg ;Sg' Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{
cfl>t x'g' / klqsf jf Rofgnsf] ;fv sfod           dfWodx¿df cfO/x]sf 5g\ To;n] lrGtf                   ofqf lyof] . ef/t :jtGq x'g'eGbf klxn]
ug'{ oL b'O{ s'/f Pscsf{sf] ljk/Lt x'g'k5{        hGdfPsf] 5 .                                         ;~rf/dfWod hgtfsf k|ltlglw lyP / clxn]
eGg] s]xL 5}g . sltko klqsfsf dflnsx¿                     cfkm"n] u/]sf] sfo{n] b"/ufdL ¿kdf           klg s]xL ;~rf/dfWodn] cfkm\gf] dof{bf sfod
cfkm\ g f] klqsfn] kqsfl/tfsf] d" N o /           ;dfhnfO{ s;/L k|efljt kfb{5 eGg] s'/fsf]             /fv]sf 5g\ . t/ ;dfhsf ljleGg If]qn] s]
dfGotfnfO{ sfod /fvf];\ eGg] ljifodf ;w}“         ljifodf ldl8of cfkm}“ rgfvf] x'g'kb{5 . /fli6«o      eGg yfn]sf 5g\ eg] ldl8ofsf] Jofkf/Ls/0fn]
;r]t x'G5g\ . t/ o:tf dflnsx¿sf] ;ª\Vof                          [
                                                  cv08tf ;'b9 kfg',{ ax'njfb / wd{lg/k]IftfnfO{        ubf{ ;~rf/dfWodsf] ljZj;gLotf / dof{bfdf
;fx|} yf]/} 5 / ;dfrf/nfO{ /fd|f] Kofs]lh+u       a9fjf lbg', cfh o;cl3eGbf emg\ a9L                   clxn] 7"nf] wSsf nfu]sf] 5, h;sf] c;/
u/]/ a]Rg'k5{ / w]/} k};f sdfpg'k5{ eGg]sf]       cfjZos / dxŒjk"0f{ ePsf] 5 . xfd|f] b'ef{Uo          kqsfl/tfk|lt ;dlk{t / cfkm\gf] OdfGbf/Ldf
;ª\Vof a9\bf] 5 .                                 xf], cfhef]ln s]xL ldl8ofx¿ ;dfrf/ ;Dk|if0f     ]    s'g} ;Demf}tf gug]{ klqsf / Rofgnx¿df klg
       Pp6f ljifo oxfF pNn]v ug{ ;fGble{s         ug]{ gfddf tYo / j:t'lgi7tfnfO{ kG5fP/ Ps            k/]sf] 5 .
x'G5 . Tof] s] eg], ahf/sf] rfxgf s] xf] eGg]     kIfsf] ;dfrf/ lbO/x]sf 5g\ . ldl8ofsf] OHht                   d"ntM xfdL ;~rf/dfWodsf] :jtGqtfsf]
;f]raf6 a9L u|:t ePsf sf/0f b]z rnfpg]            eg]sf] ltgn] slt tYok"0f{ / j:t'k/s ;dfrf/           k"0f{ ;dy{g ub{5f}+ . t/, o;sf ;fy;fy} ca
d'Vo tLg c+ux¿ sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsf /           lbG5g\ eGg] s'/fdf cfwfl/t x'G5 . t/                 klqsf, 6]lnlehg, OG6/g]6 ;dfrf/ cflbdf
Joj:yflksfnfO{ hlt dxŒj lbg'kg]{ xf] jf klxn]               {
                                                  b'Mvk"js eGg'k5{, sltko ldl8ofx¿ cfkm\gf]            ;+nUg ;a}n] oL dfWodx¿nfO{ kf/blz{tf /
hlt lbOGYof] cfhef]ln Tolt lbOPsf] 5}g .          d" n st{ J oaf6 ljd' v ePsf 5g\ . s] x L             ;To ;dfrf/sf] ;+jfxssf] ¿kdf ;an agfpg
vfnL oL c+ux¿df s'g} ‘;]G;];gn’ s'/f eof]         OHhtbf/ ckjfb afx]s cfhef]ln klqsf /                 lg/Gt/ cfTdlg/LIf0f ug]{ kl/kf6L a;fpg]
eg] dfq To;nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] rng rn]sf]         ;dfrf/ Rofgnx¿sf] /fhgLlts cfu|x /                   s'/fdf Wofg lbg' clt h?/L ePsf] 5 . xfdL
5 .                                                       |                                 |
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       of] rng hlt b'ef{Uok"0f{ 5 Tolts} unt      ;dfrf/ / ljrf/ k|;f/0f, k|sfzgdf k|lts'n             / rfxG5f}+ ls ljutdf h:t} cfkm\gf ;~rf/–
klg . of] eg]sf] ;~rf/dfWodsf] zlQmsf] unt        c;/ kfb{5 .                                          dfWoddfly ;w}“ uf}/j ug{ ;sf}+ .
k|of]u xf], Tof] klg ljz]iftM 6]lnlehgsf], h;n]           :jtGq k|];ljgf nf]stGqsf] sNkgf klg                   of] r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{nfO{ ;kmn agfpg ef/tLo
hgtfdf 7"nf] k|efj kf5{ . o;n] hgtfdf b]z         ug{ ;lsGg eg] o;sf] ;kmntf klg k|];n]                  ]
                                                                                                       k|; sfplG;nsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . of]
rnfpg] c+ux¿sf af/]df gsf/fTds k|efj              ;+;b / hgtfsf aLrdf s:tf] k|sf/sf] s8Lsf]            ;+:yf;“u qm"/tfk"0f{ clwsf/ geP tfklg, h'g
dfq kl//x]sf] 5}g unt ;Gb]z klg lbO/x]sf]         sfd u5{ eGg] s'/fdf lglxt x'G5 . k|hftGqsf]          jf:tjdf x'g' klg x'Gg, o;n] ;a} ;~rf/–
5 .                                               d'6' eg]sf] ;+;b xf] . To;}n] o;k|lt ;a} rgfvf]      dfWodaf6 OHht / k|lti7f cfh{g ug'kb{5 /       {
       cfhef]ln kqklqsf tyf lghL Rofgnx¿n]        x' g ' k 5{ , rfx] hgtf x' g \ , sfo{ k flnsf,              “
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z]o/ ahf/sf] ljifodf cTolws cf;lQm b]vfp“b}       Gofokflnsf, gful/s ;dfh jf ldl8of . ;+;b                                                     {
                                                                                                       eGg] ljifodf ljrf/–ljdz{ ug'kb{5 . xfdLn]
;fgf]eGbf ;fgf] ;dfrf/ lbO/x]sf 5g\ . t/          g} To:tf] 7fp“ xf] hxf“ hgtf;“u ;DalGwt              ;w}F b]vs} 5f}+, h'g p2]Zo sfg"gn] k"/f ug{
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ltg} ;~rf/dfWod ;+;bdf dxŒjk"0f{ ljifodf          dxŒjk" 0 f{ lg0f{ o x¿ lnOG5 / ;/sf/sf]              ;Sb}g Tof] ;a}sf] ;xdltn] ug{ ;Sb5 . cfkm"nfO{
ePsf jfbljjfb / ;Daf]wgx¿nfO{ eg] jf:t}           hjfkmb]xL vf]lhG5 . ;+;bdf 5nkmn eO/x]sf             ;+;f/sf cGo ;a}yf]s eGbf ;TotYodf ;dlk{t
ub} { g g\ . o:tf s' / fx¿sf] ;dfrf/ aGg}         jf ;+;bsf] cwLgdf /x]sf dxŒjk"0f{ ljifox¿af/]            ]{
                                                                                                       ug]x¿ ;a}n] of] ljifodf uDeL/ Wofg lbg'kg]]{
5fl8;s]sf] 5 .                                    hgtfnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg] lhDd]jf/ lgsfo eg]sf           ;do cfPsf] 5 .
         ]                                 “}
       k|; :jtGqtf eg]sf] lhDd]jf/L /lxt x'bg .   ;~rf/dfWod g} x'g\ . ;/sf/ / g]tfsf e|i6
ldl8ofn] ;w}“ aª\UofOPsf / agfOPsf s'g}           lqmofsnfkx¿ hgtf;fd' pbf·f] kfg]{ k|];n]                  ef/tLo k|]; sfplG;nåf/f /fli6«o k|]; lbj;sf]
vf; ljifonfO{ dfq h?/t eGbf a];L dxŒj             pgLx¿n] u/]sf /fd|f sfdsf] ;/fxgf klg                cj;/df !^ gf] e ] D a/ @))& df cfof] l ht
lbg] ;dfrf/ k|sfzg, k|;f/0f ug{ cfkm}nfO{   +     ug'{kb{5 . vfln ;+;bsf] ult/f]w, u8a8 /              æ;~rf/dfWodsf] e" l dsf tyf hgtfsf cfjfh–
b'?T;fxg ug'{kb{5 . klqsfsf ;DkfbsLo              ;+;b cj?4 ePsf ;dfrf/ dfq k|sfzg,                    :jtGqtf klxn] / kl5Æ gfds ;+jfb sfo{qmddf ef/tLo
gLltx¿ ldl8of ;d|f6 -d'un_ jf ldl8of              k|;f/0f ugf{n] xfd|f lgjf{lrt ;f+;bx¿sf]             nf]s;efsf ;efd'v r6hL{åf/f ul/Psf] ;Daf]wg .
zlQmx¿ -Jof/f] g _ af6 slxNo} lgb] { l zt         rl/qsf] unt lrq0f dfq x'g] geO{ nf]stGq              ef/tLo cª\u|]hL b}lgs b lxGb" sf] @@ gf]e]Da/, @))&
x'g'x'“b}g . d'gfkmfd'vL x'g' cfkm}“df unt sfo{   Pj+ ;+;bk|lt g} unt efjgf km}nfpg] sfd               df 5flkPsf] n]vsf] cg'jfb .

26                                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                     ljZn]if0f


;ª\qmd0fsfn /
;~rf/ If]q
  k|f= s[i0f vgfn           s'g} klg 7"nf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5 gof“ Joj:yfsf] ljlwjt :yfkgf gx'Gh]nsf] cjlwnfO{ xfdL ;ª\qmd0fsfn
                                                                                     '                       }
                            eGb5f}+ . cfGbf]ngsf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{' / To;nfO{ d'nssf] /fhgLlts Pj+ ;+jwflgs Joj:yfdf ¿kfGt/0f
                                                                                                     [
                            ug'{ of] cjlwsf] ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ sfd xf] . cfGbf]ngsf] tfstdf o;sf] g]tTj ug]{ zlQmx¿n] g} ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]

Joj:yfkg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L kfPsf x'G5g\ . o;sf ljlw /                      }                   '
                                                          @)$& sf] ;+jwflgs Joj:yfsf k|dv cfwf/ / d"Nox¿
Joj:yfx¿ c:yfoL cyf{t\ cGtl/d x'G5g\ . gofF ;+ljwfg       — ;+j}wflgs /fhtGq, ax'bnLo nf]stGq / ;+;bLo
agfP/ ljlwjt\ lgjf{lrt k|ltlglwx¿sf] xftdf ;'Dkg'                                                             {
                                                          zf;gk|0ffnLnfO{ k"0f{ ¿kdf ;dfKt u/]sf] lyof] . csf]tkm{
;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] k|d'v nIo xf] .                            g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] @)%@ ;fnb]lv ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf]
       @)^@÷)^# df ;DkGg ePsf] a[ x b\                               ]
                                                          ;z:q ljb|fxnfO{ /fhgLlts lgsf; lbg] eg]/ dfcf]jfbL
hgcfGbf]ngkl5 g]kfn uDeL/ /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfndf          / zfxL ;/sf/aLr ePsf] jftf{sf] gf6s klg ;dfKt
k|j]z u/]sf] 5 . o;n] /fhfsf] k|ToIf zf;gnfO{ dfq         ePsf] lyof] . o; k[i7e"lddf zfxL lg/ª\s'ztfsf] lj?4
km\of“s]sf] xf]Og, g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$&          cfGbf]ng/t ;ftbn ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf nflu /
cg';f/sf] /fHoJoj:yfnfO{ klg cGTo u/]sf] 5 . t/           dfcf]jfbL ax'bnLo nf]stGqsf nflu ;xdt ePkl5
csf]{ Joj:yfsf] :yfkgf eO;s]sf] 5}g . clxn] /fHo          ;+o'Qm cfGbf]ngsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ePsf] lyof] . afx|a'“b]
;~rfng;DaGwL ;a} Joj:yf / sfd sf/afxLx¿                   ;dembf/Ldf ;ft bnn] eg]sf] k|ltlglw;efsf] af6f]af6
cGtl/d cyf{t\ csf]{ Joj:yf geP;Ddsf nflu c:yfoL           jf dfcf]jfbLn] eg]sf] uf]nd]r ;Dd]ngaf6 zflGtjftf{,
k|s[ltsf x'g\ . To;}n] clxn]sf] ;+ljwfgnfO{ cGtl/d        dfcf]jfbL;d]tsf] ;xeflutfdf cGtl/d ;/sf/sf] u7g
;+ljwfg elgPsf] xf] . o;cGtu{t ag]sf] Joj:yflksf–         / ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg u/L d'n'sdf ;z:q
;+;b, ;/sf/ nufot w]/} s'/fx¿ cGtl/d 5g\ .                åGåsf] cGTo Pj+ k"0f{ nf]stGqsf] :yfkgf ug{sf nflu
;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] Joj:yfkg kl/jt{gsf jfxs cfGbf]nsf/L        ;ft bn / dfcf]jfbLn] cf–cfk\mgf] 7fp“af6 cfGbf]ng
zlQmx¿n] ub{5g\ . tyflk kl/jt{gnfO{ Pp6f jf s]xL          ug]{ s'/fdf ;xdlt ePsf] lyof] . afxa'“b] ;dembf/L /
bnljz] i fsf] cu| ; /tfdf ;Lldt ul/g' x ' G g .           cfGbf]ngsf qmddf Jofks ¿kn] cleJoQm hgefjgf
;ª\qmd0fsfnnfO{ ck]lIft nIodf k'¥ofpg /fhgLlts            ;d]tnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf nIox¿
bnx¿ nufot cfGbf]ngdf of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] ;dfhsf             lgDgfg';f/ lyP eGg ;lsG5M—
;a} kIfx¿sf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . To;dfly
;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsf cem dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . o; ;DaGwdf           /fh;+:yfsf] pGd"ng / nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf]
                                {
;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsfsf] rrf{ ug'eGbf klxn] g]kfnsf]            :yfkgf,
jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsf] uGtJo, k|s[lt /                                       ]
                                                              dfcf]jfbL ;z:q ljb|fx cyf{t\ hgo'4sf] cGTo Pj+
r'gf}tLx¿sf af/]df k|:6 x'g' h?/L 5 .                         lbuf] zflGt axfn, /
                                                              ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj tyf g]kfnL hgtfsf] ljljwtf
jt{dfg ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] uGtJo                                   ;d]l6g] u/L /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf .
/fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsf] uGtAo cfGbf]ngsf] nIo /
p2]Zo;“u hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . o; ;DaGwdf ;j{k|yd                     o; cy{df jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]
hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf nIo / p2]Zox¿ s] lyP eg]/              d' V o /fhgLlts uGtJo eg] s f] oyf;So l56f]
a'e\mg' h?/L 5 . g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf] bz jif{ nfdf]         ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg u/L pko'{Qm /fhgLlts
;z:q ljb| f ] x / zfxL lg/ª\ s ' z tfsf] k[ i 7e" l ddf   Pj+ ;+j}wflgs nIo xfl;n ug'{ xf] . ;+ljwfg;efsf]
hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf] lgdf{0f ePsf] xf] . Psflt/ b/af/      r'gfjkl5 of] ;ª\qmd0f cfGbf]ngsf] hgfb]zaf6 nf]slk|o
xTofsf08kl5 tLa| ultdf k|ltlglw;efsf] lj36g, !*           r'gfjL hgfb]zdf k|j]z ug]{5 . o;n] cfGbf]ngaf6
                  “               '
c;f]h / !( df3 x'b} zfxL lg/ª\sztfsf] k'g?Tyfgn]          :yflkt ;QfnfO{ hgcg'df]lbt j}wflgs ;Qfdf ¿kfGtl/t

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                       27
                       ug]{5 . To;kl5 xfdL gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] r/0fdf         ;do;Ldfsf] pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] . t/ h]7 d;fGtleq
                       k|j]z ug]{5f}+ .                                           ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj x'g ;s]g . To;kl5 dª\l;/sf]
                                                                                  ldlt tf]lsO{ cGtl/d ;+ljwfg tbg'?k ;+zf]wg ul/of] .
                                             [
                       jt{dfg ;ª\qmd0fsf] k|slt                                   t/ r'gfjsf] d'vdf g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] @@ ;"qLo dfu
                       s'g} klg cfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfkl5 ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]              /fvL dª\l;/ ^ ut] s'g} xfntdf r'gfj x'g g;Sg] eGb}
                       Joj:yfkg ;f“lRrs} r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfd xf] . To;dfly klg       ;/sf/af6 ;d]t alxu{dg u/]kl5 ;f] ldltdf klg
                       cfGbf]ngsf/L bnx¿sf] ljljw j}rfl/s k[i7e"ld /              r' g fj ePg . To;kl5 k' g M @)^$ ;fnleq
                       /fhgLlts k|fyldstf, !) jif{ nfdf] ;z:q åGå, hgtfn]         ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ul/;Sg] ;xdlt sfod u/L
                       /fhfnfO{ k6Ss} grfx]sf] t/ pm gx6]sf] cj:yf, nfdf]         tbg'?k cGtl/d ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L,
                       ;dob] l v sfod /x] s f] s] G b| L s[ t Pj+ PsfTds          Pskl5 csf]{ axfgfdf r'gfj ;fb}{ hfg] xf] eg] @))&
                       /fHo;+/rgfsf] ;+3Los/0f cflb s'/fx¿sf ;Gbe{df              ;fnkl5sf] /fhgLltsf] k'g/fj[lQ gxf]nf eGg ;lsGg .
                       ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] Joj:yfkg a9L hl6n x'g' / ;do nfUg'          t/ dfcf]jfbLsf] pk]Iff u/]/ r'gfj ug{ vf]Hg' plrt
                       s'g} c:jfefljs xf]Og . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg           gx'g] dfq xf]Og k|To'Tkfbs klg x'g ;S5 . cfGbf]ngkl5
                       ePkl5 clxn]sf] ;ª\qmd0fsfn Pp6f gofF r/0fdf k|jz       ]   oxfF;Ddsf] /fhgLlts ljsf;df dfcf]jfbLsf] klg plQs}
                       ug]{5 . tyflk ;ª\qmd0fsfn ;ls“+b}g . ;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0f    dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg 5 . t;y{ p;sf hfoh egfO /
                       / To;cg';f/ :yflkt /fHo;+/rgfn] ljlwjt\ sfd ug{            u'gf;f]x¿sf] ljj]sk"0f{ ;'g'jfO{ x'g' cfjZos 5 .
                       yfn]kl5 dfq of]] ;ª\qmd0f k"/f ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 .          r'gfjsf] ltlyeGbf klg ef]ln aGg] ;+ljwfgsf] l;4fGt,
      ;+j]bgzLn        To;sf/0f clxn]sf ;ft /fhgLlts bnx¿sf] ;xdlt /              cfwf/e" t /fHo ;+ / rgf / hgtfsf df} l ns
                       ;dembf/L gofF ;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0f / To;cg';f/               xs÷dfgjclwsf/ Pj+ ;fdflhs Gofosf ljifox¿df
  ljifox¿df s]jn       Joj:yflksf / sfo{kflnsf nufot /fHo;+rfngsf                 ;ft bnsf aLr ;xdlt / Pstf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f xf] .
  zLif{ssf lx;fan]     lgsfox¿ u7g geP;Dd sfod /fVg' cfjZos 5 .                                                            “'
                                                                                           @)^@ dª\l;/df ePsf] afx|ab] ;dembf/Lb]lv
 xf]Og, ;"rgfd"ns             g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf of] klxnf] ;ª\qmd0fsfn xf]Og .   @)^# ;fn sflQs @@ ;Dddf ;ftbn / g]skf
hfgsf/L / ljifout      o;eGbf cufl8 klg cfGbf]ngx¿ ePsf lyP . @))&                dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf /fhgLlts ;xdlt, ;dembf/L /
                       / @)$^ ;fnsf] cfGbf]ngkl5 g]kfnn] /fhgLlts                 lg0f{ox¿ tyf % dª\l;/df g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf
     Pj+ lj1tfdf       ;ª\qmd0fsfn Joxf]/]sf] lyof] . @))& ;fndf g]kfnL           dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf plNnlvt
cfwfl/t ljZn]if0fsf]   sfª\u|];n] d'lQm ;]gf u7g u/]/ ;z:q cfGbf]ng u/]sf]        s'/fx¿ tyf cGtl/d ;+l+ jwfgn] u/]sf s]xL Joj:yfx¿n]
 a9L vf“rf] kb{5 .     eP klg To;n] dfcf]jfbLsf] h:tf] ;+u7g, ;+/rgf /            efjL ;+ljwfg / /fHoJoj:yfsf sltko l;4fGt / ;+/rgf,
  o; cy{df g]kfnL      Jofkstf kfPsf] lyPg . t;y{ d'lQm ;]gf / p;sf] xltof/       /fhgLlts k|0ffnL, dfgj tyf /fhgLlts clwsf/nfO{
                       Joj:yfkg vf;} ;d:ofsf] ljifo lyPg . /fhf;“u k|ToIf         :yflkt / lglb{i6 u/]sf] 5 . sflQs @@ df ;ft bn /
  ldl8of sG6]G6df      åGå gePsf sf/0fn] To;a]nf u0ftGqsf] ;jfn p7]s}             dfcf]jfbLsf zLif{ g]tfx¿sf] a}7sn] u/]sf] lg0f{onfO{
    sdhf]/ ePsf]       lyPg . @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng lgb{nLotfsf] gfddf           x] b f{ pgLx¿ ;xdlt ePsf s' / fx¿sf] ljk/Lt
kfOG5 . s]xL :tDe      /fhfsf] /fhgLltdf ;lqmo ;+nUgtfnfO{ ;dfKt ug]{ /           ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjdf k|:t't x'g :jtGq 5}gg\ . pQm
   /fv]/ jf a9fP/      ax'bnLo nf]stGqnfO{ ;+ljwfgtM ;+:yfut ug]{ s'/fdf          lg0f{osf] kf“rf}“ efusf] t];f] a'bfdf elgPsf] 5, æclxn]
                                                                                                              | “
                       d'Vo ¿kn] s]lGb|t lyof] . cfGbf]ngsf qmddf s]xL            ;femf ;xdlt sfod x'g g;s]sf ljifox¿df /fhgLlts
dfq k'Ub}g . sltko
                       gf/fx¿ /fhfsf] lj/f]wdf nfu]sf eP tfklg To;a]nf            kf6L{x¿ ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] qmddf cf–cfk\mgf
 :tDex¿df dgf]ut       u0ftGqsf] d' 2 f ;LdfGtdf g} lyof] . To;a] n fsf]          gLlt / dt cg';f/ k|:t't x'g :jtGq x'g]5g\ .Æ o;n]
     dfGotf a9L,       ;ª\qmd0fsf] d'Vo bfloTj / nIo eg]sf] /fhf, sfª\u; / ]|     :ki6 ub{5 ls ef]ln aGg] ;+ljwfgdf xfn;Dd ;xdlt
  ljifout 1fg sd          '                                             }
                       ;+oQm jfddf]rf{sf] ;xdltdf ax'bnLo nf]stGq, ;+jwflgs       ePsf s'/fx¿sf] ;Ddfg / k|Tofe"lt ug{ ;ft bn /
 ePsf w]/} b[i6fGt     /fhtGq / ;+;bLo zf;g k|0ffnL ;lxtsf] ;+ljwfg agfpg'        /fHo afWo 5g\ . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj;Dd k'Ubf /fHo,
                       lyof] . t/ o;k6ssf] ;ª\qmd0f klxn]sf] eGbf Jofks           /fhgLlts bn / ;/f]sf/jfnf ;d"xx¿sf aLr c¿
      kfOG5g\ .        / hl6n k|s[ltsf] 5 . ;]gf / xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg,            klg ;Demf}tf / ;xdlt x'g ;S5g\ . o;aLr /fHon]
                       u0ftGq, /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf h:tf ljifox¿ @))& /             cflbjf;L÷hghflt / dw];L ;d'bfo;Fu 5'§f5'§} ;Demf}tf
                       @)$^ ;fndf lyPgg\ . nf]stGq g} klg olt Jofks /             u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 efjL ;+ljwfg ljd'v x'g ldNb}g .
                       ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf] ljifo ag]sf] lyPg .                              ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj lgs6 cfO;Sbf klg
                                                                                       '
                                                                                  d'nsdf r'gfjsf] /fhgLlts dfxf}n ag]sf] 5}g eGg]
                       ;+ljwfg;ef r'gfj / gof“ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf r'gf}tL          l6Kk0fL ;a}lt/af6 cfO/fv]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf o;sf]
                       @@ sflQs @)^# df ;ft bn / g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf                                                            '
                                                                                  d'Vo sf/0f efjL ;+ljwfgn] lg¿k0f ug{kg]{ ljifox¿df
                       aLr ;DkGg ;dembf/L cg';f/ @)^$ ;fnsf] h]7                  cem} klg k|To]s bnsf] cf–cfk\mgf txdf / cGt/bnLo
                       d;fGtleq ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ug]{ ;xdlt ePsf]              ;xdlt gaGg' klg xf] . g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] klg ;ftbn
                       lyof] . ;f]xL adf]lhd cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf klg of]             / /fHo;Fu u/]sf] k|lta4tf / ;Demf}tf cg'?k cfk\mgf]


28                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
b[li6sf]0f Pj+ Jojxf/df tfnd]n ldnfpg ;ls/fv]sf]          agfp“b}df ;+ej x'Gg . cfk\mgf] k]zf Pj+ hgtfk|ltsf]
5}g . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf nflu ck]lIft /fhgLlts         pQ/bfloTjaf]w / tbg's"n cfr/0f tyf Jojxf/af6 g}
dfxf}n agfpg bnx¿sf aLr efjL ;+ljwfgsf] l;4fGt,           o;nfO{ :yflkt ug]{ xf] .
d"No / ;+/rgfsf af/]df Go"gtd ;xdlt lgdf{0f, tbg'¿k               ;ª\qmd0fsf] cj:yfdf dfq xf]Og, cl3kl5 klg
cfr/0f / Jojxf/ x'g' h¿/L 5 . ;fy} r'gfjsf]               ;~rf/ If]q 36gfd'vL 5 . of] :jfefljs xf] . 36gfsf]
;j{:jLsfo{tf :yflkt ug{ ;ft bn afx]ssf cGo bnn]           l/kf]l6{ªdf dfq ;Lldt x'g' ;~rf/ If]qsf] sfd xf]Og .
cf–cfk\mgf] dt / b[li6sf]0f;lxt :jtGq ¿kn] r'gfjdf        ;/sf/ / dfcf]jfbLaLr zflGt ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 .
hfg ;Sg] l:ylt agfpg klg ;ft bn / ;/sf/                   ;]gf / xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg eO/x]sf] 5 . o;sf]
OdfGbf/Lsf ;fy nfUg' h¿/L 5 .                             ;kmntfdf g} ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] uGtJo lge{/ ub{5 .
                                                          o;}u/L ;+3Lo nufot g]kfnL /fHosf] ;du| ;+/rgfsf]
;~rf/ If]qsf] e"ldsf                                      af/]df 7"nf] ax; rn]sf] 5 . efjL ;+ljwfgn] o;sf]
d}n] dfly klg pNn]v ul/;s]sf] 5' ls g]kfnsf] of]          Joj:yf ug'{kg]{5 . oL sltko ljifox¿ dgf]efjgfut
P]ltxfl;s /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfnnfO{ nlIft uGtJodf          / ;+j]bgzLn klg 5g\ . ;~rf/dfWodaf6 ;+k|]lift x'g]
k'¥ofpg ;~rf/nufot gful/s ;dfhsf ;a} If]qsf]              ;"rgf / hfgsf/Ln] o;sf kIfdf ;sf/fTds /
e"ldsf cToGt dxTjk"0f{ 5 . tyflk oxfF ;~rf/If]qnfO{       gsf/fTds b'j} k|efj kfb{5 . t;y{ o:tf ljifox¿df
s]lGb|t u/]/ s]xL rrf{ ug{ rfxG5' .                       s]jn zLif{ssf lx;fan] xf]Og, ;"rgfd"ns hfgsf/L /
        g]kfnL ;~rf/hutsf] ;+/rgfnfO{ x]bf{ Pkm=Pd=       ljifout Pj+ lj1tfdf cfwfl/t ljZn]if0fsf] a9L vf“rf]
/]l8of] / 5fkf dfWodsf] kx'“r clt Jofks kfOG5 .           kb{5 . o; cy{df g]kfnL ldl8of sG6]G6df sdhf]/             nf]stflGqs /fHon]
clxn] Pkm=Pd= /]l8of]sf] se/]h b]zel/ k'Ug nfu]sf]        ePsf] kfOG5 . s]xL :tDe /fv]/ jf a9fP/ dfq k'Ub}g .       ;~rf/sf] lgoGq0f
5 . t/ s]xL j}rfl/s cledt / ljZn]if0fafx]s                sltko :tDex¿df dgf]ut dfGotf a9L, ljifout
/fhgLlts ;" r gf / hfgsf/L ;Dk| ] i f0fsf nflu            1fg sd ePsf w]/} b[i6fGtx¿ kfOG5g\ .
                                                                                                                     ub}{g . To;dfly
5fkfdfWodsf va/nfO{ g} k|fyldstf lbO“b} cfPsf]                    cGTodf, g]kfndf ;~rf/dfWodsf] kx'“r /              ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg
5 . o;sf cltl/Qm clxn] OG6/g]6 cgnfOg, ;L=8L=,            k|r/tfsf] dfqf a9\bf] 5 . t/ o;sf] ;sf/fTds of]ubfg,
                                                              '                                                          /fhgLltdf
JolQmut Anusf] k|of]u ;d]t w]/} a9]sf] 5 . ;a}df          vf; u/]/ d'ns / d'2fsf] ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Pj+ t/n
                                                                         '                                             ;~rf/If]qsf]
Go"h a|]s ug]{ xf]8 klg a9]sf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf        cj:yfdf, ;' l glZrt ug' { r' g f} t Lk" 0 f{ sfd xf] .       e"ldsf oxL g}
a]nf ;L=8L= sf] k|of]un] ;fDk|bflos pQ]hgf a9fPsf]        nf]stflGqs /fHon] ;~rf/sf] lgoGq0f ub}{g . lgodg               '
                                                                                                                      x'gk5{ eGg] s'g}
s'/f clxn] ;a}n] :jLsf/ ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . t;y{             klg xflb{s dflgb}g / ;Dej klg 5}g . To;dfly               dfkb08 klg 5}g .
;~rf/sf cgf}krfl/s dfWodx¿ klg clxn]sf] ;Gbe{df           ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg /fhgLltdf ;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsf oxL            ;~rf/ pBdL÷
;+j]bgzLn Pj+ dxTjk"0f{ 5g\ .                             g} x'g'k5{ eGg] s'g} dfkb08 klg 5}g . ;~rf/
        /fhgLltdf clwsf+z s'/fx¿ k|rf/afhLnfO{ nIo        pBdL÷Joj;foL / ;~rf/sdL{x¿sf] :jlgodg /
                                                                                                                         Joj;foL /
u/]/ k|:t't ul/Psf x'G5g\ . ;f/ ljifoj:t'x¿ sd}           pQ/bfloTjaf]w o;sf] Pp6f dfkb08 xf] . ;r]t                 ;~rf/sdL{x¿sf]
x'G5g\ . t/ ltg} ljifon] d'n'ssf] /fhgLltnfO{ xf“s]sf     >f]tf÷kf7s / ltgn] lgwf{/0f ug]{ ;+k/LIf0f csf]{ dfkb08       :jlgodg /
x'G5g\ . of] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L /fVg] / ljZn]if0f ug]x¿sf]
                                                  {       xf] . o;sf nflu lgb] { z gd' v L xf] O g, cWoog÷            pQ/bfloTjaf]w
;ª\Vof s'g} klg ;dfhdf yf]/} g} x'G5 . cGt/;+jfb,         cg';Gwfgd"ns cg'udgsf] cfjZostf k5{ .                         o;sf] Pp6f
ljrf/–:tDe, ;DkfbsLo, ;dfrf/ ljZn]if0f cflbn]                     g]kfndf ldl8of sG6]G6 cg';Gwfgsf] kl/kf6L         dfkb08 xf] . ;r]t
;"rgfnfO{ k|rf/afhLaf6 cnUofP/ /fhgLltsf] ;f/             ljsf; ePsf] kfOGg . s]xL ldl8of xfp;n] cfGtl/s               >f]tf÷kf7s /
Pj+ r'/f]df k'¥ofpg d2t u5{ . xfdLsxfF kf7s jf            k|of]hgsf nflu To:tf Psfw cg';Gwfg u/]sf xf]nfg\ .        ltgn] lgwf{/0f ug]{
>f]tfx¿df ;fdfGotM ;dfrf/sf] ;Totfdf k|Zg p7fpg]          t/ Tof] kof{Kt 5}g . t/fO{sf 36gfx¿nfO{ x]bf{ cfpg]
k|rng 5}g . cem} klg /]l8of]df h] elgof] / 5fkfdf         lbgx¿df g]kfndf b+ufd'vL / lx+;fTds /fhgLlt a9\g]
                                                                                                                      ;+k/LIf0f csf]{
h] n]lvof] ToxL ;To xf] eGg] dfgl;stf Hofbf 5 .           ;+efjgfnfO{ kG5fpg ;lsGg . o; cj:yfdf sG6]G6                 dfkb08 xf] .
g]kfndf dfq xf]Og ;+;f/sf k|foM ;a} 7fp“df cfd            l/;r{n] efjL gLlt / /0fgLltnfO{ dfu{bz{g ug{ ;S5 .
hgtfsf nflu klxnf] / clGtd hfgsf/L jf ;"rgfsf]            pbfx/0fsf nflu x[lts /f]zg sf08 jf O/fsdf g]kfnLsf]
   ]
;|ft eg]sf] /]l8of], 6]lnlehg, kqklqsf h:tf cfd           xTofn] l;h{gf u/]sf] 36gfdf g]kfnL ;~rf/If]qsf] s]
;~rf/sf dfWod g} x'g\ . k|rf/jfhL cyf{t\ k|fkf]u08fsf]
                                              ]           s:tf] e"ldsf / k|efj /x\of], s'g} cg';Gwfg x'g;s]sf]
;:tf] ahf/af6 Jofj;flos ;~rf/ hut\ s;/L d'Qm              5}g . t/fO{df ePsf] lx+;f / cfGbf]ngx¿sf ;Gbe{df
x'g] eGg] u+eL/ ;jfn ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg t/n /fhgLltsf          ;~rf/sf] kx'“r / k|:t'ltn] s] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 To;sf]
;Gbe{df g]kfnL ;~rf/ If]qn] v]Ng] e"ldsfsf] Pp6f          klg cWoog eO/fv]sf] 5}g . o:tf] cWoog / cg';Gwfg
dxTjk"0f{ kIf x'g ;S5 . of] s'/f s'g} lgod sfg"g          ldl8of dlg6l/ª ug]{ lgsfox¿sf] klg bfloTj xf] .




df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        29
cWoog
                                                                                         ef]6flx6Lsf] d'vdf ;f“´kv y/Ly/Lsf
                                                                               dfG5]sf] cf]xf]/bf]xf]/ 7]nd7]n g} lyof] . xs/sf]
                                                                               xftsf] cvaf/sf] rfª eg] cfwf 306f
     ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf]                                                       s/fO;Sbf klg 36]sf] b]lvPg . o:t}df xs/sf]
                                                                               glhs} Pshgf dlxnf b]lvOg\ . lkmSsf /ftf]
                                                                               ;f/L / Anfph nufPsL sl;nf] hLp8fnsL
                                                                               ux'“uf]/L tL dlxnfn] cvaf/ lslgg\ . /fd|/L



          kqsfl/tf
                                                                               k6\ofOg\ . xft] Aofusf] r]g vf]lng\ . Aofudf
                                                                               cvaf/ /fVg'cl3 bfof“afof“ x]l/g\ . ckl/lrt
                                                                               eP klg o; k+lQmsf/l;t d':sfp“b} elgg\–
                                                                               ‘ca=== nfO{ klg ;dfKt kfg'{k5{ .’ ulx/f]
                                                                               ljZjf; lnP/ pgL af6f] nflug\ . nfUYof]–
                                                                               cvaf/df ;a}eGbf klxn] pgn] ToxL zLif{s
                                                                               vf]Hg]l5g\, h'g xfjfdf nuftf/ pl8/x]sf]
                            xl/snf clwsf/L                                     lyof] . t/ ‘ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt’ eGg]
                                                                               cfjfhsf] k|ltlglw cIf/ Tof] cvaf/df 5flkPs}
                                                                               lyPg .
                                                                                         lj=;+= @)^# r}tsf] t];|f] ;ftfsf]
 ‘ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt=== ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt’ ef]6flx6L–/Tgkfs{ cfsf;]       clGtd lbgsf] ;f] 36gfn] g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLg
 k'nlg/sf] df]6/;fOsn la;f}gLdf Pp6f xs/ Ps rfª cvaf/ lnP/ nuftf/              cvaf/sf] ;a}eGbf sdhf]/ kf6f] p3fl/lbPsf]
                                                                               5 . Tof] xf]– ljZj;gLotfsf] cefj .
 lrRofO/x]sf] lyof] . k|wfgdGqL lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;f]xL lbg gof“lbNnLaf6
               + ''
 sf7df8f}+ kms{b} x'gxGYof] . pxf“n] cl3Nnf] lbg gof“lbNnLdf g} ‘cab]lv /fhf   g]kfndf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/
 geGg"’ eGb} u/]sf] b[Zo 6]lnlehgåf/f ;fj{hlgs ePsf] lyof] .                   ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] Oltxf; a]nfotdf !@!
                                                                               jif{ nfdf] eP klg g]kfndf $% jif{eGbf k'/fgf]
                                                                               5}g . lj=;+= @)!( sflQs @ ut]b]lv @)@@
                                                                               ;fn c;f]h @@ ut];Dd ‘uf]/vfkq’ ;f“´df
                                                                               klg k|sflzt ePsf] b]lvG5 . csf]{ hfgsf/L
                                                                               k|fKt gx'“bf;Dd ‘uf]/vfkq’ b}lgssf] oxL
                                                                               ;fo+ s fnLg ;+ : s/0fnfO{ ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/sf] k|f/DelaGb' dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 .
                                                                                         lj=;+ = @)$% d+ l ;/ @( ut]
                                                                               /fhwfgLdf g] k fn efiffdf ‘ljZje" l d’
                                                                               ;fo+sfnLg b}lgssf] k|sfzg k|f/De ePsf]
                                                                               lyof] . g]kfnL efiffsf lghL If]qsf ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/n] eg] k|hftGqsf] k'gj{xfnLkZrft\
                                                                               g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& nfu" ePkl5
                                                                               dfq} sf7df8f}+sf ahf/df k|j]z u/] . o;/L
                                                                               k|j]z ug]{x¿dWo] ;a}eGbf cufl8 ‘dxfgu/’
                                                                               b]vf kb{5 .
                                                                                         clxn] /fhwfgLaf6 dfq !^ j6f
                                                                               ;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/ lgl:s/x]sf]
                                                                               hfgsf/L b}lgs klqsf /fli6«o ;~hfnn] lbPsf]
                                                                               5 . k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg
                                                                               @)^# df Ps bh{ g hlt ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/x¿ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 k|sflzt
                                                                               b]lvG5g\ . sf7df8f}+ aflx/sf b'O{j6fdWo]
                                                                               ‘kf]v/f’ ;GWofsfnLg xfn aGb 5 eg]
                                                                               ‘;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cfsf+Iff’ wg'iffaf6
                                                                               k|sflzt b]lvG5 . sfplG;nsf] k|ltj]bg
                                                                               cg';f/ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 k|sflzt
                                                                               eO/x]sf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df pkTosf
                                                                               ;GWofsfnLg, qmfOd l/kf]6{/ ;GWofsfnLg,

30                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
vf]htnf;, dxfgu/, ;GWofsfnLg, ;GWof tflnsf !
6fOD;, ;f“´sf] >Lsdf08/, ;f“´sf] l;6L
6fOD;, l;6L kf] i 6 cflb kb{ 5 g\ . k| ] ; cWoog ul/Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/, ltgsf] pd]/ / ;d]l6Psf c°x¿
sfplG;nsf] k|ltj]bgdf b}lgs cvaf/sf] cvaf/                                     pd]/                            cWoog ul/Psf c°x¿
;"rLdf pNn]v geP klg ;GWofsfnLg eg]/
                                               dxfgu/                            !% jif{                        !)$ b]lv !)(
5flkPsf cvaf/x¿ ;d]t sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf
ahf/df e]l6G5g\ .                              vf]htnf;                          !) jif{                        !&) b]lv !&^
                                               >Lsdf08/                          ( jif{                         !#@ b]lv !#&
cWoog ljlw / ;Ldf                              l;6L 6fOD;                        # jif{                         @$( b]lv @%$
sf7df8f}+sf ahf/df pknAw ;GWofsfnLg            l;6L kf]i6                        # jif{                         !^% b]lv !&!
b}lgsx¿sf] ;;{tL{ cjnf]sg;lxt ltgsf] ;/n
/ ;xh k|flKtnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ o; cWoogsf       l6Kk0fLM l;6L 6fOD;sf] c° @%# / l;6L kf]i6sf] c° !&) k|sflzt gePsf]
nflu kf“rj6fnfO{ 5flgPsf] lyof] . ;fy}, cNk–
;dofjlwsf] cWoog ePsf sf/0f jif{sf] klxnf]
;ft lbg ‘@)^$ j}zfv ! b]lv & ut];Dd’ tflnsf @
k|sflzt ltgsf c+snfO{ o;df ;d]l6Psf] cWoogdf ;d]l6Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ / ltgdf k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;ª\Vof
            {'
lyof] . -x]gxf];\ tflnsf !÷@_ ltgdf k|sflzt
;fdu|Lsf] cWoog Pjd\ ljZn]if0fsf cltl/Qm
;DalGwt ;Dkfbs, k|sfzs / ;/f]sf/jfnf–         cvaf/          j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv                           j}zfv hDdf
l;tsf] s'/fsfgLaf6 yk hfgsf/L k|fKt ul/Psf]      ut]            !        @         #           $          %        ^         &
lyof] .                                      dxfgu/            s         @)        @)          @)         @#       @)        @)   !@#
         cvaf/sf ;fdu| L x¿sf] ljZn] i f0f
kqsfl/tfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGt / k|of]hgk/s vf]htnf;               %v        (         !@          !$         !!       *         !)   ^(
eflifs sf]0faf6 ul/Psf] 5 eg] ;dfrf/, >Lsdf08/                 s         *         (           !)         !$       !!        !$   ^^
ljrf/, lj1fkg, 5kfO, ahf/ cflbnfO{ klg l;6L 6fOD; s                      (         !#          !!         !#       u         !&   ^#
Vofn ul/Psf] 5 .                             l;6L kf]i6        *v        *         &           !)         !#       u         !)   %^
         ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] s'n ;+VofdWo] hDdf                !#        %$        ^!          ^%         &$       #(        &!   #&&
Psrf}yfO{ hlt dfq ;d]l6g' / b'O{ xKtfdf ;ft
                                             s= zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] .
lbgleq k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;fdu|Lsf] ;°ngb]lv
                                             v= zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg j}zfv ! ut] gof“ jiff{/De zlgaf/ k/]sf]n] k|sflzt .
cWoog ljZn]if0f ul/;Sg' o;sf] ;Ldf xf] .
                                               u= lah'nL gcfPsf] sf/0f k|sflzt gePsf] .
;fdu|L ljZn]if0f                              lnPsf] b]lvG5 . To;kl5sf] :yfg ck/fw÷xTof,    sltko ;dfrf/nfO{ ljifosf
ljifout ljljwtf / ;ª\VofTds ljt/0f                                                cfwf/df ;n{Ss 5'6\ofpg ;ls“b}g . g]tfsf]
                                              lx+;f / cfqmd0f÷lj/f]w k|bz{g h:tf ljifon]
ljifosf cfwf/df ;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/df      lnPsf] kfOG5 . lzIff÷:jf:Yo÷ lj1fg /gfd hf]l8Psf u}//fhgLlts 36gf, cfqmd0fsf]
k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;fdu|LnfO{ s]nfp“bf ;a}eGbf                                        k|of]hg gePsf] a]jfl/;] adaf6 b'3{6gf klg
                                              ;~rf/÷;"rgf k|ljlw ;DaGwL ;dfrf/ ;a}eGbf
a9L :yfg /fhgLlts / s"6gLlts ;dfrf/n]         sd kfOPsf] 5 . -x]g'{xf];\ tflnsf #_x'g gkfPsf] l:ylt cflbdf ag]sf ;dfrf/sf]
                                                                                  peod' v L k| s [ l tnfO{ ljrf/ u/] / To:tf
tflnsf #       cvaf/df ;d]l6Psf d'Vo         ljifo jf If]q / ;dfrf/ ;fdu|L ;ª\Vof ;dfrf/nfO{ ljljw cGtu{t /flvPsf] 5 . o:t},
   d'Vo ljifo jf If]q             dxfgu/        vf]htnf; >Lsdf08/    l;6L 6fOD; l;6L kf]i6      hDdf            k|ltzt
    /fhgLlt÷s"6gLlt                @$            @)         !^            @#      !#            (^              @%=$^
    ck/fw÷xTof–lx+;f               !#            !%         $             *       !^            %^              !$=*%
    cfqmd0f÷lj/f]w k|bz{g          !!            !!         !#            *       &             %)              !#=@^
    v]ns'b÷dgf]/~hg                @(            –          *             %       !             $#              !!=$!
       {
    b'36gf÷k|fs[lts k|sf]k         (             &          !             !)      !)            #&              (=*!
    ;flxTo÷;+uLt÷snf÷;+:s[lt       !!            @          !             #       –             !&              $=%!
    cy{÷>d÷ko{6g                   @             –          !@            –       –             !$              #=&!
    lzIff÷:jf:Yo÷lj1fg             ^             –          %             !       –             !@              #=!*
    ;~rf/÷;"rgfk|ljlw              #             %          !             !       @             !@              #=!*
    ljljw                          !%            (          %             $       &             $)              !)=^!
    hDdf                          !@#           ^(          ^^            ^#      %^            #&&             !))
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                      31
v] n s' b df ljjfb gxf] n f t/ dgf] / ~hg                 ‘laxfg p7\of] . 6]lnkmf]g                             sf7df8f}+ . cf7 bnn] c;f/ ^ ut]
ljjfb/lxt 5}g . Pp6fn] dgf]/~hg u/]sf]                                                                ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg ug{sf nflu ldlt
ljifo csf] { n fO{ lrQ b' V g] vfnsf] klg                  u¥of] . cl3Nnf] lbgsf]                     l;kmfl/; u/]klg lgjf{rg cfof]un] c;f/
x'g;S5 . oxfF eg] dgf]/~hg :tDe cGtu{t                   36gfsf] hfgsf/L lnof] .                      dlxgfdf ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj x'g g;Sg] /
/flvPsf ;fdu|LnfO{ ‘dgf]/~hg’ gfdd} u0fgf                                                             r'gfjsf] nflu !!) lbg ;do rflxg] kq
ul/Psf] 5 . h] x f] ; \ , peod' v L k| s [ l tsf             xr'jfsf e/df va/                         ;/sf/nfO{ lbPkl5 ;/sf/ / cf7 bnaLr
;dfrf/;lxt k|d, ;Ddfg, ljlgdf{0f, n}l·stf
                ]                                        agfof] . cG6;G6 zLif{s                       7"nf] e'O“rfnf] uPsf] lyof] .
h:tf ljljw ljifon] ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df                      /fVof] / xtf/–xtf/df                                -l;6L 6fOD; ;GWofsfnLg, j}zfv %_
!)=^! k|ltzt :yfg kfPsf] b]lvG5 .
          ljifout ljljwtf b] l vP klg                      5kfP/ laxfg} cvaf/                                 k[i7e"ldaf6 z'? u/]/ cfVofg z}nLdf
;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df /fhgLlt, ck/fw,                                                                        \
                                                                                                      6'ªUofOPsf] o:tf] ‘ln8’nfO{ ;dfrf/ n]vgsf]
                                                           ahf/df k'¥ofof] . o:tf]                    k|rlnt l;4fGtn] :jLsf/ ub}{g . ;dfrf/sf]
cfqmd0f, lj/f]w k|bz{g h:tf ;d;fdlos /
36gfk|wfg ljifon] a9L 7fpF lnPsf 5g\ .                   eO/fÚ5 . clwsf+zn] oxL                       :j?k / z}nLsf] cfwf/e"t dfGotf g} k"/f gu/L
k|ltztsf lx;fan] v]ns'b÷dgf]/~hg rf}yf]                          ul//fÚ5g\ .’                         tof/ ul/Psf] of] ;fdu|LnfO{ o;sf] k|sfzg
:yfgdf b]lvP klg v]ns'b;DaGwL ;dfrf/sf]                                                                                   ]
                                                                                                      :yfg / zLif{s x]// dfq} ;dfrf/ elgPsf]
ljt/0f ;a} cvaf/df ;dfg'kflts e]l6Fb}g .                                                              xf] . o:tf] k|j[lQ ;GWofsfnLgx¿df a9L g}
v]ns'b / dgf]/~hg;DaGwL s'n $# j6f                                                                    b]lvPsf] 5 .
;dfrf/ ;fdu| L dWo] ‘dxfgu/’ b} l gsdf                               -l;6L kf]i6, @)^$ j}zfv @_               36gfk|wfg ;dfrf/af6 k|lqmofk|wfg
dfq @( j6f 5g\ eg] vf]htnf; b}lgsdf                                                                   ;dfrf/lt/ df]l8g] qmddf /fhgLlt dfq xf]Og
z"Go 5 .                                                      of] ‘Aofg/ x]8nfOg’ sf] d'lg bfof“kl§   cGo ljifosf] ;dfrf/df klg peos/0f ePsf]
          ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ;ª\Vofsf] lx;fan]          aS;df ‘;z:q k|x/Lsf] u0f Wj:t’ zLif{ssf]           5 . ‘afa'åf/f 5f]/L ue{jtL’ zLif{s ;dfrf/sf]
‘dxfgu/’ ;a}eGbf cufl8 b]lvPsf] 5 .                ;dfrf/ ;d]t /flvPsf] 5 .                           klxnf] jfSo o:tf] 5–
‘dxfgu/’n] cf};t b}lgs @)=% j6f ;dfrf/                        plNnlvt zLif{sx¿n] lbg] ;Gb]z xf]–              of}gn] dflg;nfO{ o:tf] cGwf] agfp“5,
5fk]sf] b]lvG5 eg] ‘l;6L kf]i6’ n] cf};t b}lgs     dfcf]jfbLx¿ Joj:yflksf ;+;b / ;/sf/df              h;;“ u ;DalGwt ck/fwx¿ sNkg} ug{
(=## j6f .                                         cfO;s]kl5 klg s]xL jif{ klxn] jftf{ 5f8]/          g;lsg] x'g] u/]sf] xfdL kfp“5f}+ .
                                                   h·n k;]h:t} km]l/ h·n} k;]5g\ . ;z:q k|x/L                                -l;6L kf]i6, j}zfv $_
d'Vo ;dfrf/ zLif{s M cfwfeGbf a9L Aofg/            u0fnfO{ klg pgLx¿n] cfqmd0f u/]/ Wj:t
                                                   kf/]5g\ . t/, oyfy{df g k|r08n] To:tf] 3f]if0ff             of] ;fdu|Ldf ‘xfdL kfp“5f}’+ jfSof+z
l;4fGttM s'g} dxTjk"0f{ 36gf x'Fbf cvaf/df                                                            cg'ko'Qm 5 . ‘xfdL’ zAb ;DkfbsLodf dfq}
‘Aofg/ x] 8 nfOg’ lbOG5 . t/ g] k fnL              u/]sf lyP, g dfcf]jfbL h+un k;]sf lyP g t
                                                   k|x/L u0fdf pgLx¿n] cfqmd0f g} u/]sf lyP .         k|of]u ug{ kfpF5 kqsf/n] . ;dfrf/sf 7fpFdf
;GWofsfnLg b}lgsx¿n] o:tf] k|of]unfO{                                                                 kqsf/n] ljrf/ lbg yfNof] eg] cvaf/ s]sf
;fdfGo¿kdf lnPsf] b] l vG5 . cWoog                 ;dfrf/sf] k]6af]nLdf To:tf] s'g} s'/f lyPg .
                                                              zLif{snfO{ ;DkfbsLos/0f u/]sf] klg      nflu / s;sf nflu eGg] k|Zg p7\5 .
cjlwdf k|sflzt cvaf/dWo] %) k|ltzteGbf                                                                         ;dfrf/df ljrf/ / ljrf/df ;dfrf/
a9Ldf Aofg/ k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 .                     kfOG5 . j}zfv ^ ut] >Lsdf08/df 5flkPsf]
                                                   Pp6f ;dfrf/sf] zLif{s 5– ‘Pdfn]sf] k|wfgdGqL       x'G5, gx'g] xf]Og . n]vg jf k|:t'ltsf] z}nLn]
         ax';ª\Vosn] ;dfrf/sf] ulx/fO /                                                               oL b'O{ ljwfnfO{ cnu agfp+5g\ . l/kf]6{/ jf
dxŒjnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ eGbf klg cfd                 df]x’ o;/L ;dfrf/sf] zLif{sdf ;DkfbsLos/0f
                                                   x'g'x'“b}g eG5 kqsfl/tfsf] l;4fGtn] .              kqsf/n] s;}nfO{ p4/0fdf gNofOsg, 36gfsf]
kf7snfO{ tTsfnsf nflu cfslif{t ug]{ b[li6n]                                                           alnof] cfwf/ g;dfOsg, cfwf/e"t k|Zgsf]
dfq zLif{ssf] k|sf/sf] rog / 8]ssf] k|of]u                                                            ;dfwfg ug]{ hfgsf/LnfO{ l;nl;nfa4 u/]/
ug]{ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . o; qmddf sltko                peok|sl[ tsf ;dfrf/
                                                                                                      ;xL 7fpF glbOsg cfkm}F h] dg nfUof] ToxL
cvaf/n] ;dfrf/nfO{ lgs} a9fOr9fO{ u/]sf]           ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df 5flkg] clwsf+z                s' / f hf] 8 ] / ‘;dfrf/’ agfpg kfpFb} g .
b]lvG5 . cvaf/df ;dfrf/sf] d"No / dfqf             ;dfrf/ peo k|sl[ tsf x'G5g\ . ltgdf ljrf/n]        cWoogdf ;d]l6Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf
                  ]
cg'¿k dxTj a'´/ cIf/ ugL–ugL, zAb lagL–            ;dfrf/nfO{ cltqmd0f u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;a}eGbf         ;dfrf/ ;fdu|LdWo] cfwfeGbf a9Lsf] :j¿k
lagL / 7fpF 5fgL–5fgL zLif{s nufP/ ;dfrf/          klxn] ;dfrf/ lbg;Sg] / 36gfk|wfg ;dfrf/            eg] o:t} 5 . sltko ‘;dfrf/’ sf] t ;'?cft
5fKg'kg{] xf] t/ Totflt/ Wofg lbPsf] b]lv+b}g .    lbP k'Ug] cj:yfdf ;'? ul/Psf ;GWofsfnLgx¿          g} pvfgaf6 ul/Psf] kfOG5 . h:tf]–
         ;GWofsfnLgdWo] sltkosf] zLif{s            clxn] sl7g ;+qmd0fdf 5g\ . nf]stflGqs                          æsf7df8f}+ . ‘h'g hf]uL cfP klg
pQ]hgf km}nfpg] dfq p2]Zon] /flvPsf] /             cfGbf]ngsf] ljho / lg/+s'z /fhtGqsf]               sfg} lr/]sf’ pvfg rl/tfy{ ePkl5 dfcf]jfbL
unt ;Gb]z ;Dk|]if0f ug]{ vfnsf] kfOG5 .            cf}krfl/s lgliqmotf kZrft\ PkmPdx¿n]               cWoIf k|r08n] cfÇg}f dGqLx¿nfO{ c6]/ ug]{
sltko l:yltdf Aofg/ zLif{sd'lg aS;df               tTsfn} ;dfrf/ æa| ] s Æ ug{ yfn] k l5              / c;xof]u ug]{nfO{ x:tIf]k ub}{ dGqfnosf
lbOPsf c;DalGwt ;dfrf/n] kf7snfO{ ;xL              ;GWofsfnLgx¿ cfkm\gf] kl/rosf] vf]hLdf             sfd tdfd ug{ lgb]{zg lbPsf 5g\ .Æ
              ]     {
;"rgf ;Dk|if0f ug'sf] ;§f e|ddf kfg]{ sfd          b]lvG5g\ .                                                  -vf]htnf;, j}zfv %_
u/]sf] b]lvG5 . Pp6f cvaf/sf] ‘Aofg/                        o;}qmddf w}/}h;f] ;GWofsfnLgx¿n]
x]8nfOg’ o:tf] 5M                                  ;dfrf/nfO{ n]v / ;dfrf/sf] lvr8Lsf ¿kdf      ;dfrf/df ljrf/ ld;fP/ u/] s f]
   k|r08åf/f ;D´f}tf e+u ePsf] 3f]if0ff            k:sg yfn]sf 5g\ . Pp6f k|d'v ;dfrf/sf] ;dfrf/ ;Dk|if0fsf] csf]{ gd'gf o;k|sf/ 5M
                                                                                                     ]
dfcf]jfbL ;]gf lzlj/ aflx/, /Qmkftsf] ;+st   ]     klxnf] jfSo o:tf] 5M                           æsf7df8f}+ . g]kfnL ;dfhdf ;fnL

32                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
/ e]gf;DaGwL b'O{ pvfg k|rlnt 5g\, Ps :tDex¿n] of] cj:yf :ki6 kf5{g\ .                           tflnsf $
u'Gb|'s ksfpg'kb}{g, ;fnL kmsfpg'kb}{g / csf]{             of}glzIff cGtu{t aRrf hGdfpg]                cvaf/, :tDe / k[i7
;fnL s;sf] e]gfsf] . === === ===Æ                tl/sf, Ct'rqm h:tf ljifosf] cfwf/e"t

                                                                                                        dxfgu/
                         -l;6L kf]i6, j}zfv &_ j}1flgs hfgsf/L cfjZos 5 . :tg 7"nf]
                                                 kfg]{ pkfo, of]lgkfg, d'vd}y'g h:tf s'/fn]
         Ps t of] Pp6} cg'R5]b !@@ zAbsf] eg] /fd| f ] ;Gb] z lbF b } g g\ . ;' k fRo klg
                                                                                                               ,
5 . To;dfly cfTdxTof;“u ;DalGwt o; 7xl/Fb}gg\ . t/ ;GwofsfnLgx¿df o;sf] s'g}                           kLknaf]6
;dfrf/sf] k|f/Dedf l5r/f] pvfgsf] hyfefjL 5\ofgAofg ePsf] kfOFb}g . Psflt/ o:tf] l:ylt                 r'6\lsn f
                                                                                                                          ';\
k|of]un] ljifoj:t'k|ltsf] c;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ 5 eg] csf]l{ t/ Pp6f cvaf/sf leqL k[i7x¿                              v'6\ofpg
                                                                                                        u|x–bzf
68\sf/f] kf/]sf] 5 . o;n] l/kf]6{/÷kqsf/sf] ef]lnkN6 h:tfsf] t:t} 5flkPsf] ;d]t kfOPsf]                  ;Dkfbs
                                                                                                                 Lo
;Lk / ;d´ b' a } kIfdf ckl/kSjtf / 5 . ;f]xL cvaf/df Pp6f wf/fjflxsnfO{
                                                                                                         ljrf/
u}/lhDd]jf/L k|bz{g u/]sf] 5 .                   ;fdfGo km]/abn dfq} u/]/ t];|f] lbg km]l/
                                                 5flkPsf] klg e]l6Psf] 5 .
8]6nfOg / ;dfrf/sf] cGt/;DaGw                              o;af6 clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLgx¿n]
8]6nfOg / ;dfrf/aLr cGt;{DaGw /x]sf]
x'G5 . 8]6nfOg /fVg] s'/fdf >Lsdf08/afx]s
                                                 cvaf/sf] ;DkfbsLo / n]v/rgf k[i7tkm{ rf;f]
                                                 glbg] u/]sf] k'li6 x'G5 . o:tf] l:yltdf tL                 vfhtnf;
                                                                                                              ]
                                                 cvaf/df 5flkPsf j}rfl/s ;fdu|Lx¿ slQsf]                        Lo
rf/}j6f cvaf/sf] z}nL Pp6} 5– 7fpF dfq                                                                  ;Dkfbs
                                                 lhDd]jf/, ljZn]if0fd"ns / tfls{s xf]nfg\–;xh}                    f
n]Vg] . /, ToxL n]Vbf klg ;GWofsfnLgx¿                                                                  n]v/rg
                                                 cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 .                                               gLlt
uDeL/ g/x]sf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . cWoog                                                                 rf0fSo
                                                                                                                    g
ul/Psf clwsf+z cvaf/sf ;dfrf/df 36gf                                                                     dgf]/~h            f] efUo
                                                 cfTdfnf]rgf                                                     f] tkfO{+s
                           +
hxfFsf] eP klg sf7df8f}sf] 8]6nfOgdf lbg]                                                                 c fhs
u/]sf] kfOG5 . s]xLn] t ljb]zL Ph]G;Lx¿af6 ;GWofsfnLgsf ;d:of÷r' g f} t Lx¿k| l t                                      pkGof;
                                                                                                           wf/fjflxs
cg" l bt ;dfrf/nfO{ ;d] t sf7df8f} + s } ;Dkfbs÷k| s fzsx¿ cgle1 b] l v“ b } g g\ .
8]6nfOgdf ;|f]t ;d]t gv'nfO{ lbPsf] b]lvG5 . ;f“´sf] >Lsdf08/sf k|wfg ;Dkfbs o'ugfy
                                                            ]
                                                 zdf{ kf}8n eG5g\—æc¿ b}lgs cvaf/x¿                                 8/
;dfrf/ n]vs÷k|ifssf] cg'kl:ylt
                   ]                             h:t} ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ klg lhDd]jf/ x'gk5{ '                 >L sdf0
                                                 eGg] nfUof xf] t/ eO/x]sf 5}gg\ .Æ l;6L                            Lo
clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLgdf ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf 6fOD;sf k|wfg ;Dkfbs ;'hLj ah|frfo{sf]                                   ;Dkfbs /rgf_
k|:t't ul/Psf ;fdu|Lx¿df ;dfrf/ n]vs b[ l i6df ;GWofsfnLgx¿df ‘cZnLntf /                                    ljrf/ -n]v
                                                                                                                     -sljtf_
jf k|ifsaf/] s]xL pNn]v u/]sf] kfOFb}g . ^) 5f8fkg’ b]lvG5 eg] l;6L kf]i6sf ;Dkfbs
       ]                                                                                                     ;flxTo            g
                                                                                                                       dgf]/~h
k|ltzt cvaf/sf] ‘;dfrf/ ;fdu|L’ sf] l:ylt g]qk|;fb Gof}kfg] !^ dWo] tLgj6f ;GWofsfnLg                        hgdt–
                                                                                                                        tlqmof
o:t} 5 . o;nfO{ ;GWofsfnLgsf ax';ª\Vos cvaf/n] ;a} ;GWofsfnLgnfO{ ‘uGxfpg]’ /                                 kf7s k|l {÷jfl0fHo
                                                                                                                         y
;Dkfbsx¿n] ;fdfGo s'/fsf ¿kdf lng] u/]sf ‘kf7sn] y'Ss eGg]’ ;Ddsf] cj:yfdf k'¥ofPsf]                          lj1fg– c
5g\ . o:tf] k|of]un] cvaf/sf] ljZj;gLotf s'/f n'sfpg rfx“b}gg\ .                                               v]ns   'b
36fpF5 / ;DkfbsnfO{ cg'Q/bfoL b]vfpF5 .                    cr]n gofF ;dfrf/ yfxf kfpg cvaf/
n]v/rgf / :tDex¿
                                                 s'g'{kb{}g, PkmPdn] g} EofOlbG5g\ . tfhf
                                                 ;dfrf/ lbg gkfPkl5 ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                                                                L6 ;
                                                                                                             l;6sLo fOD
;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/dWo] w]/}n] leqL cvaf/x¿n] cfk"mnfO{ s;/L k|:t't ub}{5g\ t                            ;Dkfb
                                                                                                                       f
k[i7x¿df ljleGgvfnsf :tDe /fv]/ kf7snfO{ < ‘vf]htnf;’ sf sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs ofbj                               n]v/rg
cfslif{ t ug{ vf] h ] s f] b] l vG5 . ltgdf yklnof eG5g\—ælaxfg p7\of] . 6]lnkmf]g                           bz{g
                                                                                                                         1fg
;DkfbsLob]lv bz{g, lj1fg, r'6\lsnf, Jo+Uo, u¥of] . cl3Nnf] lbgsf] 36gfsf] hfgsf/L lnof] .                    ljrf/ lj 1fg
/flzkmn, ;fdfGo 1fg, sljtf, wf/fjflxs xr'jfsf e/df va/ agfof] . cG6;G6 zLif{s                                 :jf:Yo lj fjflxs
                                                                                                              xf“;f}+– wf/
;fdu|L, of}glzIff, dxTjk"0f{ 6]lnkmf]g, 6]lnlehg /fVof] / xtf/ xtf/df 5kfP/ laxfg} cvaf/                       of}glzIff fh
                 '
/ /]l8of]sf] a]nsLsf] sfo{qmd / ;'grfFbLsf] ahf/df k'¥ofof] . o:tf] eO/f’5 . clwsf+zn]                         tkfO{+sf]
                                                                                                                           c
efp;Dd lbg] u/] s f] kfOG5 . cWoogdf oxL ul//f’5g\ .Æ
;d]l6Psf cvaf/x¿df k|sflzt x'g] u/]sf                      ahf/sf] c:j:y k|lt:kwf{sf sf/0f
:tDex¿sf] ;"rL tflnsf $ df lbOPsf] 5 . ;GWofsfnLgx¿ ;f“ e mdf lg:sg' s f] ;§f
         o;/L, ljljwtfsf gfddf cvaf/sf] dWofGxdf ;l/;s]sf] atfpFb} kf}8]n eG5g\—                                 l;6L kfi6
                                                                                                                        ]
k[i7 / cfsf/eGbf a9L ;fdu|L ;d]6g vf]h] æo;sf] df]8fln6L abNg'k¥of] eGg] cg'ej
                                           \                                                                  ;Dkfbs
                                                                                                                      Lo          f_
klg w]/}n] cfÇgf] nlIft ju{ ;d]t 7Dofpg ul/Psf] 5 .Æ ah| f rfo{ s f] egfO 5—                                                -nv/rg
                                                                                                                              ]
                                                                                                              ;d –;fdlos
                                ]
;s]sf] kfOFb}g . l;sf?n] n]vsf] lr7\7L ‘dgsf æ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/n] klxn] h:tf] 36gfk|wfg                                   fg
s'/f’ b]lv of}g / of]lgkfg dfq xf]Og gLlt, dfq xf]Og ljrf/k|wfg÷ ljZn]if0fk|wfg ;dfrf/                         ;fdfGo1
                                                                                                                         efUo
bz{g, lj1fg;Ddsf ;fdu|L c6fOPsf cwsNrf lbg'k5{ .Æ                                                              tkfO{+sf]
                                                                                                                         s
                                                                                                                wf/fjflx
                                                                                                                ljljw
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                           33
          æ;GWofsfnLgx¿nfO{ ;+:yfut¿kdf,      ‘;~hfn’ u7g u/]/ bafj l;h{gf u/L 3 ju{df        tLg ?k}ofF 5 t/ xs/÷laqm]tfn] b'O{ ?k}ofF
;+oldt, ;Gt'lnt, Jojl:yt eP/ rnfpg            /flvPsf ;GWofsfnLgx¿nfO{ u ju{df ;fg]{ -        &) k};f;Dd lng] / ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzsn] #)
        {
;Sg'kg]Æ ljrf/ b}lgs klqsf /fli6«o ;~hfnsf    h;af6 ;/sf/n] lbg] ;'ljwf s]xL a9L kfpg         k};f dfq kfpg] oyfy{ klg 5 . lj1fkgsf] b/
cWoIf s]zj b]jsf]6fsf] 5 . ;fy}, ;/sf/n]      ;lsof];\_ k|of; klg rln/x]sf] kfOG5 .           /]6 klg lglZrt 5}g .Æ
klg ;a} ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/nfO{ Pp6} ju{df       o;af6 ;GWofsfnLgx¿n] cfkm\gf] ;xL af6f] /                              ]
                                                                                                       æcvaf/ a]r/ cfPsf] k};fn] sfuh
/fv] / Jojxf/ ug{ gx' g ] wf/0ff /fV5g\ ,     :jLsfo{ 9f“rf klxNofpg c´}+ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\      lsGg / 5kfO vr{ dfq} k'U5 . af“sL vr{
;~hfnsf pkfWoIf tyf ahf/ cg' u dg             eGg] klg k'li6 x'G5 .                           lj1fkgaf6 h'6fpg'k5{Æ ;'hLj ah|frfo{sf]
;ldltsf ;+of]hs g]qk|;fb Gof}kfg] . ‘l;6L                                                     egfO{ 5 . pgL cvaf/sf] laqmLaf6 tLg efusf]
kf]i6’ ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzs ;d]t /x]sf Gof}kfg]sf]   lj1fkgsf] e/                                                               \
                                                                                              Ps efu /sd cfk"mn] g5f]8g] -laqm]tf÷xs/nfO{
egfOdf æsltko ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿ t            ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df s' n k| s fzg              d"Nosf] b'O–ltxfO{ dfq sldzg lbg]_ atfp“5g\ .
                                                                                                         {
3/ n}hfg} g;lsg] vfnsf klg 5g\ .Æ o:tf]       :yfgsf] @^=# k|ltztb]lv $)=* k|ltzt;Dd                   ;fdfGotM ;dfrf/÷ljrf/sf nflu ^)
x'g glbg ;~hfnn] cfrf/;+l+ xtf agfpg] tof/L   lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] kfOG5 eg] ;dfrf/ /           / lj1fkgsf nflu $) k|ltzt :yfg lbg'
ul//x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .                        ljrf/n] %(=@ b]lv &#=& k|ltzt;Dd :yfg           cvaf/sf] :jf:Yosf nflu ;Gt'lnt dflgG5 .
          ;+If]kdf eGbf, ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/                         {'
                                              kfPsf] b]lvG5 . -x]gxf];\ tflnsf %_             t/ ;GWofsfnLgx¿n] Tolt ‘w]/}’ lj1fkg
rnfpg]x¿n] cl:tTjsf] ;+s6 cg'ej ub}{                  lj1fkgaf6 k| f Kt x' g ] /sd g}         kfpFb}gg\ . cWoogsf] ;do gofF jiff{/Dedf
hLjg/Iffsf] pkfo vf]Hg yfn]sf] b]lvG5 . o;    ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] d'Vo cfDbfgL xf] .          k/]sfn] dfq oL cvaf/df olt;Dd lj1fkg
qmddf Psflt/ k|sfzg ;do cufl8 ;f/]/           c:j:y k|lt:kwf{n] laqmL / lj1fkgsf] cfo         b]lvPsf] xf] . ;fy}, lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfgsf]
dWofGxd} NofOPsf] kfOG5 eg] csf{ l t/         v:sfPsf] 5 . ;~hfnsf cWoIf b]jsf]6f             u0fgf ubf{ ;DalGwt k|sfzgsf] lj1fkgnfO{
ljrf/k|wfg agfpg] gfddf ;dfrf/nfO{ g}         eG5g\— æclwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf]             klg ;d]l6Psf] 5 . o:tf lj1fkgaf6 k|sfzg
peos/0f u/]sf] klg k|z:t e]l6G5 . To:t},      cfly{s l:ylt gfh's 5 . d"No k|lt klqsf          ;+:yfnfO{ cfo cfh{g gx'g] :jtMl;4 5 . o:t},

     tflnsf %                           ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df ;dfrf/÷ljrf/ / lj1fkgsf] :yfg

           dxfgu/                                      vf]htnf;                                         >L sdf08/
     6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $              6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $                 6\ofAnf]O8                   k[i7 $

     ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                    ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg
      !@%!(=*      ju{ ;]=ld                       !#&&&=)      ju{ ;]=ld                           !#*@!=@      ju{ ;]=ld
      &)=* %                                       ^)=& %                                           ^!=* %

        lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                      lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                          lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg
      %!%#=@ ju{     ;]=ld                         *()#=)       ju{ ;]=ld                            *%@*=* ju{ ;]=ld
      @(=@ %                                       #(=# %                                            #*=@ %

                                                                                           l6Kk0fLM
                                                                                           != dxfgu/sf] 5 lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
            l;6L 6fOD;                                   l;6L kf]i6                            k|sflzt gx'g] .
      6\ofAnf]O8               k[i7 $              6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $        @= vf] h tnf;sf] ;ft lbgsf] c° ;d] l 6Psf] ,
                                                                                               zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg ! ut] -
     ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                zlgaf/_ gof“ jif{ ePsf]n] k|sflzt .
                                                                                           #= >Lsdf08/sf] ^ lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
      !!$&*=)      ju{ ;]=ld                       !)&^#=*       ju{ ;]=ld                     k|sflzt gx'g] .
      &#=& %                                       %(=@ %                                  $= l;6L 6fOD; kf“r lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
                                                                                               glg:sg] / j}zfv ^ ut] laxLaf/ lah'nL
                                                                                               gcfPsf]n] k|sfzg gePsf] .
        lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                      lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg               %= l;6L kf]i6 5 lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
      $)()=* ju{ ;]=ld                              &$@*=@ ju{ ;]=ld                           k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg ! ut] -zlgaf/_ gofF
      @^=# %                                        $)=* %                                     jif{ ePsfn] k|sflzt ePsf], j}zfv ^ ut]
                                                                                               laxLaf/ lah'nL gcfPsfn] k|sflzt gePsf] .

34                                                                                                                            df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                         dLg ah|frfo{
logsf lj1fkgbftfx¿df ljljwtf b]lvFb } g .        æclwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] cfly{s l:ylt gfh's 5 . d"No
s]xL lglZrt lj1fkgx¿ g} lgoldt¿kdf jf
lglZrt cGt/fndf 5flkPsf kfOG5g\ .                k|lt klqsf tLg ?k}of“ 5 t/ xs/÷laqm]tfn] b'O{ ?k}of“ &) k};f;Dd
         ;GWofsfnLgx¿sf] 3f]lift gLlt zlgaf/
cvaf/ k|sflzt gug]{ eP klg lj1fkg                 lng] / ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzsn] #) k};f dfq kfpg] oyfy{ klg 5 .Æ
k|flKtsf] ;Defjgfs} sf/0f j}zfv ! ut]
zlgaf/ k/] s f] eP klg $) k| l tzt             ;xL pkrf/sf] h¿/t                               uDeL/ ljifoj:t' n fO{ xNsfk' m Nsf /
;GWofsfnLgn] To; lbgdf ;d]t cvaf/                                                              ;To36gfnfO{ klg xr'jfh:tf] agfOlbg]
k|sflzt u/]sf] kfOof] . Ps jfSodf eGbf,        d'n's clxn] ;ª\qmd0fsf] qmddf 5 . Psflt/,
                                               lxhf];Dd åGå/t kIfx¿ ;D´f}tfa4x'b} ljrf/sf
                                                                                 “             efiffz}nL k|of]u gug]{ .
;du|df clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿                                                                                            {
                                                                                               zLif{s rog, ;dfrf/ n]vg÷k'gn]vg, ;"rgf
lj1fkgsf] b[li6n] s'kf]lift 5g\ . lj1fkgsf]    dfWodaf6 cf–cfÇgf nIotkm{ cl3 a9\g
                                               vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ . csf{lt/, gofF lsl;dsf åGå,     jf ;fdu|Lsf] ;Tofkg, ;fh;Hhf cflb;DaGwL
s'kf]if0fn] klg ;dfrf/÷ljrf/ ;fdu|Lsf]                                                         cfwf/e"t ;DkfbsLo ;Lkdf uDeL/tfk"j{s
:jf:YonfO{ kIff3ftsf] l:yltdf k'¥ofPsf]        ;ª\3if{ / cfjfhx¿ b]vf kl//x]sf 5g\ . o:tf]
                                               a]nf ;"rgfsf] v]tL ug]{x¿sf] e"ldsf klg         Wofg lbg'kg]{ .
x'g;S5 .                                                                                       ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ jf:tjdf g}
                                               ablnG5 . ablng' k 5{ . ;GWofsfnLg
laqmL l:ylt                                    cvaf/x¿ To;sf] ckjfb x'g ;Sb}gg\ .              ;GWofsfnLg x'g'kg]{ . cl3Nnf] lbgsf]
                                                        g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLgx¿ c´} afd] ;g]{      ;dfrf/nfO{ k:s]/, k|ftMsfnLg cvaf/x¿df
ljZjsf 7"nf Ps ;o cvaf/x¿sf] ;"rLdf                                                                                             "
                                                                                               k|sflzt ;dfrf/x¿nfO{ cfÇgf] cg'sn 9fn]/
PSsfO;f}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] ofª\;] Oelgª kf]i6     cj:yfdf g} 5g\ . kf7ssf] ljZjf; cfh{g
                                               ug{ logn] c´} lgs} s;/t ug{ af“sL g} 5 .        ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ lgsfNg] k|j[lQnfO{
-rLgaf6 k|sflzt_ sf] !& nfv !% xhf/ k|lt                                                       xtf]T;flxt ug]{ .
laqmLsf] t'ngfdf g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLgsf] l:ylt    oL cvaf/x¿n] tTsfn} Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fnfO{
gu0o 5 . ;Dks{df cfPsf k|sfzs÷ ;Dkfbs–         o;/L ;"rLa4 ug{ ;lsG5M
                                                                                                  ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿n] cfÇgf]
x¿n] 36Ldf b'O{ xhf/b]lv a9Ldf tL; xhf/;Dd                                                cl:tTjnfO{ hf]ufO/fVg] xf] eg] ljlzi6tf
laqmL ljt/0f x'g] u/]sf] bfaL u/]sf 5g\ .          ;dfrf/nfO{ b'?:t agfpg] . n]v/rgf /
;~hfnsf cWoIfsf] egfOdf eg] ;a}eGbf a9L            :tDex¿ k"0f{, :t/Lo, ;d;fdlos / ;'kfRo b]vfpg}k5{ . xs/÷laqm]tfx¿sf] rsf]{ cfjfhn]
                                                   x'g'kg]{ . ljZj;gLotfnfO{ dxŒj lbg] .  dfq cvaf/ l6sfpg ;ls“b}g .
                    { ]
laSg] cvaf/sf] ‘;s'n;g’ kfFr xhf/;Dd 5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                      35
     sfg"g


>dhLjL kqsf/ P]g
sfof{Gjogsf] k|Zg
      ;'/z cfrfo{ Joj:yflksf ;+;bn] >dhLjL kqsf/ P]g ;+zf]wg;lxt kfl/t u/]kl5 cfd kqsf/df >dhLjL kqsf/sf]
         ]
                     clwsf/ ;'/lIft aGb}5 eGg] cfzf knfPsf] 5 . klxn] sltko cfd ;~rf/sdL{ cfkm}+ cGof]ndf lyP .
                     pgLx¿nfO{ nfUYof], >dhLjL kqsf/sf] clwsf/ ;'/lIft ug]{ sfd of] b]zdf ;Dej 5}g . Joj:yfksx¿

                   7fGy], P]g sfof{Gjog x'g' eg]sf] cfkm" cyf{t\ Joj:yfkg            ;/sf/n] P]gdf Joj:yf ePsf] ‘kfl/>lds tyf
                   sdhf]/ x'g' xf] . pgLx¿ o;nfO{ sfof{Gjog gu/L                Ifltk"lt{ lgwf{/0f ;ldlt’ u7g gu/]sf] xf]Og . t/ Tof]
                   ;~rf/dfWod rnfpg rfxGy] . clxn] ;+zf]lwt P]g                 slxNo} k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]g . kqsf/ dxf;+3n] o;sf]
                   Jofjxfl/s agfpg vf]lhPsf] cfef; ePsf] 5 / nfu"               cWoIf k|sfzsdWo]af6 5fGg lbPsf] ;'emfj cg';f/
                   xf]nf eGg] cfzf klg a9]sf] 5 .                               ;/sf/n] klxnf] cWoIf lxdfno 6fOD; b}lgssf pHHjn
                                                                                zdf{nfO{ agfof] hf] P]gnfO{ cf+lzs ¿kdf ;d]t nfu"
                   lsg nfu" ePg P]g <                                           ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf 5}gg\ eGg] ;a}n] a'em]sf lyP . t}klg
                          g]kfndf >dhLjL kqsf/n] slxn] ;/sf/L dfGotf            pgsf] sfo{sfndf tTsfnLg ;/sf/L tnasf cfwf/df
                   kfof], Tolt k|:6 5}g . hgdt ;ª\u|xkl5 k~rfotL                Go"gtd kfl/>ldssf] 9f“rf tof/ u/]/ l;kmfl/; ul/Psf]
                   zf;gdf k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] u7g ubf{ >dhLjL                 lyof] . t/ To;} jif{ ;/sf/n] e|i6frf/ lgd"{n ug]{ eGb}
                   kqsf/dWo]af6 klxnf] k6s k|ltlglwTj u/fOPsf] lyof] .          sd{rf/Lsf] tna em08} bf]Aa/ agfPkl5 ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/;
                   @)#( ;fn df3 !@ ut] u7g ePsf] sfplG;ndf                      c;fGble{s ag]/ s'gfdf ylGsof] .
                   ab|Lk|;fb u'Ktf >dhLjL kqsf/sf] klxnf] k|ltlglw lyP .             bf];|f] cWoIf lgo'Qm ul/Psf g]kfn ;dfrf/kq
                          @)%! ;fndf >dhLjL kqsf/;DaGwL P]gdf /fhfn]            b}lgssf k|sfzs k'is/nfn >]i7n] kb g} :jLsf/ u/]gg\ .
                   nfndf]x/ nufP . Tolta]nf d'n'sdf Pdfn]sf] cNkdtsf]           oBlk >dhLjL kqsf/ ;DaGwL P]g sfof{Gjogsf nflu
                   ;/sf/ lyof] . P]gsf] d:of}bf p;n] u/]sf] lyPg, h;            lgodfjnL agfpg] ;ldltdf of] n]vs;“u} pgL klg ;b:o
                   lng] a]nfdf dfq pm cfOk'u]sf] lyof] . P]g aGg'k5{ eGg]       lyP . cfkm";d]t nfu]/ agfPsf] lgodfjnL sfof{Gjogsf]
                   s'/fdf klxn] s;}sf] ljdlt lyPg t/ P]g ag]kl5                 lhDd]jf/L kfp“bf pgL efUg'kg]{ sf/0f lyPg . t];|f] cWoIf
                   kqsf/x¿ ljeflht eP . Pdfn]n] NofPsf] P]g nfu" x'“bf          agfOPsf dx]Gb| z]/rg /fhwfgL b}lgssf k|sfzs x'g\ .
                   ;a} kqsf/ Pdfn] aGnfg\ eGg] dgf]u|GyLsf sf/0f,                                  [                    '
                                                                                pgL ;ldltsf] g]tTjdf cfpgf;fy d'nsdf /fhgLlts
                   sfª\u|];n] agfPsf] k|]; o'lgog P]gsf] 3f]/ lj/f]wL aGof] .   k|ltudg rn]sfn] ;ldltdf /x]sf kqsf/af6} pgn]
                   /d]z t'kmfg o'lgogsf cWoIf lyP . /f;;df cem} pgsf]           ;xof]u kfpg ;s]gg\ . pgL cfkm}+ P]gsf] sfof{Gjogdf
                   hflu/ 5 . tTsfnLg g]kfn kqsf/ ;+3 -clxn]sf]                                                                       }
                                                                                slt OdfGbf/ /x] eGg] k|Zg cfkm\gf] 7fp“df hLljt 5“b5 .
                   dxf;+3_ l;4fGttM P]gsf] ;dy{gdf lyof], t/ nfu" ul/xfNg            n]vs dxf;+3sf] ;efklt ePsf a]nf o;sf]
                   rflx“ o;sf] g]tTj cfkm}df tof/ lyPg . P]gn] kqsf/nfO{
                                   [       +                                                                              {
                                                                                sfof{Gjogsf ljifodf Joj:yfksx¿;“u b'Ok6s 5nkmn
                   ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L u/]/ b'O{ efudf ljefhg u/]sf]             ePsf] lyof] . s;}af6 o;sf] sfof{Gjogdf c;lhnf] x'g]
                   lyof] . kqsf/ ;+3df ;/sf/L kqsf/n] ev{/} dfq k|j]z           atfOPg . a¿ /fHon] lj1fkg lbg'kg]{ gLlt agfpg
                   kfPsf] To; cj:yfdf ;+3sf] g]t[Tj of] ljjfb km]l/ z'?         ;xof]u ug{ cfu|x ul/of] . t/ kl5 eg] sfg"g g}
                   ug{ rfx“b}gYof] . ;f] P]g lghL If]qdf dfq nfu" x'g]          Jofjxfl/s gePsf] eGg] l6Kk0fL u/]sf] ;'lgof] . sfg"gsf]
                   k|sl[ tsf] ePsfn] ;/sf/n] To;sf] sfof{Gjogdf rf;f]           s'g bkmfn] Joj:yfksnfO{ s] s:tf] ;+s6 kf¥of] eg]/
                   b]vfPg . P]gsf] kfngf gu/]df bl08t x'g'kg{] sfg'gL           rflx“ s;}n] pNn]v u/]g . ;"rgf ljefun] k|]; kf;
                   k|fjwfg g} g/flvPsf sf/0f Joj:yfksx¿n] To;nfO{               hf/L ubf{ l;kmfl/;kqsf] ;f6f] lgo'lQmkq dfUg] ;xdlt
                   ;xh} a]jf:tf u/] . ;a}lt/af6 pk]lIft ;f] P]g cGttM           dxf;+3n] ljefu;“u u¥of] . t/ To;sf] k|efjsf/L
                   af“b/sf] k'R5/sf ¿kdf ;Lldt x'g k'Uof] .                     sfof{Gjog ePg . k|]; /lhi6«f/sf] lhDd]jf/L kfPsf

36                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
ljefusf dxflgb]zsnfO{ s'g} klg ;~rf/dfWoddf sfd ;+:yfx¿n] c¿ s'g} ;'ljwf glbO{ >dhLjLnfO{ sfd
                    {
ug]{ >dhLjLsf af/]df hfgsf/L dfUg] sfg"gL clwsf/ nufPsf 5g\ .
5 . t/ ltgn] ‘Joj:yfksx¿ lrl9g]’ o; sfddf xft                     k]zfut xslxtsf nflu cfjfh p7fpg'kg]{ ;+:yf
xfNg rfx]gg\ .                                           g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3 xf] . xfdLsxf“ >dhLjL kqsf/sf
                                                         nflu dfq} eg]/ n8\g] ;+:yfsf] ljsf; x'g;s]sf] 5}g .
sfg"gL l5b| / cJofjxfl/s k|fjwfg                         P]gsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu u7g x'g] ;ldltdf dxf;+3sf]
      P]gsf] bkmf % df s/f/df >dhLjL kqsf/ lgo'Qm        k|ltlglwTj clgjfo{ /xG5 . o; ;Gbe{df dxf;+3n] P]gsf]
ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . >dhLjL kqsf/x¿sf] kfngf u/fpg Ifdtf k|bz{g ug{ g;s]sf] :jLsf/
zf]if0f ug{ afgL k/]sf Joj:yfksx¿n] o;} bkmfnfO{ ug'{k5{ .
zf]if0fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] xltof/sf] ¿kdf k|of]u u/] .
s/f/df /flvPsfx¿nfO{ To;df pNn]v eP afx]s s'g} ;+zf]wgkl5sf] gof“ Joj:yf
;'ljwf lbg' gkg{] / s/f/ gylklbg] qf;sf] t/af/                    ;+zf]lwt P]gn] ‘;~rf/ k|lti7fg’ nfO{ k'gM kl/eflift
6fpsf]dfly e'm08\ofP/ ;w}“ lg/Lx Pj+ /IffTds cj:yfdf     u/L ;~rf/;DaGwL s'g} Joj;fo jf ;]jf ;~rfng ug]{                   >dhLjL kqsf/
/fVg ;lsg] ePsfn] Joj:yfksx¿sf nflu of] ‘/fdaf0f’ p2]Zon] tLg hgf jf ;f]eGbf a9L >dhLjL kqsf/,                              P]gsf] kl5Nnf]
7xl/of] . P]gnfO{ To;sf] efjgfcg'¿k sfof{Gjog u/fpg sd{rf/L jf sfdbf/ sfo{/t /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs jf lghL                      ;+zf]wgn] To;nfO{
;/sf/n] klg bfloTj lnPg / kqsf/ cfkm}+ klg sfg"gsf ;~rf/dfWod jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ ;Demg'k5{ eg]sf]                           lgs} xb;Dd
cfwf/df :yfoL÷c:yfoL lgo'lQmkq / ;]jf, ;'ljwfx¿sf] 5 . o;cl3 klqsf k|sfzg ug]{ ;+:yf dfq ;~rf/dfWod                      Jofjxfl/s agfPsf]
dfu ug{ cl3 ;/]gg\ . Joj:yfkgn] lbPsf] df}lvs eg]/ kl/eflift lyof] . t/ o; k6ssf] kl/efiffn] sfo{qmd
cfZjf;gdf g} w]/}h;f] e/ k/] / zf]lift eO/x] . pTkfbg dfq} ug]{ ;+:yfnfO{ ;d]t ;d]6]sf] 5 . of] sfg"g                   5 . t/, ;/sf/ /
Joj:yfkg;“u clwsf/sf] n8fO“ n8\g] cf“6 u/]gg\ . kfngf ug{ k|;f/0f jf k|sfzg ug}{ kg]{ h¿/L 5}g .                         kqsfl/tfhut :jo+
ev{/} elgP em}+, sfg"gsf] plrt sfof{Gjog gubf{ ;fy} ckjfbsf ¿kdf g]kfn ;/sf/n]] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f                        o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf
Joj:yfkg bl08t x'gkg{] s'g} k|fjwfg gePsf] a¿ >dhLjL ;ldltsf] k/fdz{df g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg
                      '                                                                                                 nflu ;lqmo gx'g] xf]
kqsf/nfO{ g} b08 ;hfo ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf /x]sfn] u/L kqklqsfsf] laqmL ;ª\Vof, /]l8of] oGqsf] Ifdtf,                         eg] P]g >dhLjL
                                                             '
pQm P]g kqsf/x¿sf nflu sfunfO{ a]n kfs]eGbf vf;} s]an 6]lnlehgsf] u|fxs ;ª\Vof, cgnfOg klqsf k|of]u
a9L x'g ;s]g .                                           ;ª\Vof, sfo{qmd pTkfbg ;ª\Vof, ;dfrf/ ljt/0f                   kqsf/sf nflu km]l/
      kqsf/nfO{ ;/sf/L sd{rf/L;/x labf lbg'kg{] ;ª\VofnfO{ ljrf/ u/L s'g} ;~rf/ k|lti7fgdf of] P]g                        klg sfunfO{ a]n
lgodfjnLsf] k|fjwfg rflx“ cfkm}+df cJofjxfl/s lyof] . nfu" gx'g] ug{ ;Sg] k|fjwfg klg ;+zf]wgn] ;d]6]sf] 5 .            kfs];/x x'g k'Ug]5 .
lgodfjnLn] e}k/L cfpg] / kj{ labf ^–^ lbgsf b/n]                  ;+:yfdf sfd ug]{sf] kbsf] juL{s/0f o;cl3 ;+:yf
!@ lbg, 3/ labf #) lbg / la/fdL labf !@ lbg u/L                +}
                                                         cfkm+n] ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf /x]sf]df clxn] ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f
jif{df %$ lbg lgoldt labfsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . u/]adf]lhd ug'{kg]{ ul/Psf] 5 . tL kbsf] nflu rflxg]
o;afx]s ^) lbg ;'Ts]/L labf, !% lbg lsl/of labf / of]Uotf, cg'ej, sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tyf pQ/bfloTj
kf“r jif{ sfd ug]nfO{ Ps jif{;Ddsf] a]tnjL labf lbg'kg]{ eg] ;DalGwt Joj:yfkssf] lhDdfdf 5fl8Psf] 5 . ;fy}
                  {
k|fjwfg 5 . cfjZostf kbf{ !* 306f;Dd sfd ub{} / o;k6s P]gn] lgo'lQmkq glbO{ s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ sfddf
nufO“b} cfPsf]df Ps lbgdf * 306feGbf a9L sfddf nufpg gx'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
nufpg gkfOg] / yk sfdsf] nflu yk /sd lbg'kg]{                     cl3Nnf] sfg'gdf slt hgf;DdnfO{ s/f/df lgo'lQm
Joj:yf ;~rf/dfWodsf nflu cgf}7f] lyof] . o;sf ug{ ;lsg] eGg] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] lyPg . o;k6s
;fy}, lgodfjnLn] Joj:yf u/]sf] jflif{s tna j[l4, eg] s'g} JolQmsf] ljz]if1 ;]jf lng'kg]{ ePdf Joj:yfksn]
                                                           ]
sNof0fsf/L sf]ifsf] :yfkgf, ;~rosf]if, pkrf/ vr{, k|; /lhi6«f/sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ lglZrt ;dofjlw tf]sL
pkbfg, bz}+ vr{ / aLdfsf] k|fjwfgnfO{ klg Joj:yfkg       kGw| k|ltzt;Dd dfq >dhLjL kqsf/ /fVg kfpg]
kIfn] yk e'Qmdfgsf ¿kdf lnof] . s]xL ;Lldt ;+:yfn] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy}, s/f/df lgo'Qm ePsf] JolQmsf]
b'3{6gf aLdf ul/lbg' afx]s clxn];Dd klg ;~rf/ ;d]t kfl/>lds, ;~ro sf]if tyf c¿ ;'ljwf ;~rf/

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                             37
                       k|lti7fgsf] ;dfg kb jf txdf sfo{/t >dhLjL kqsf/n]          / ;/sf/sf k|ltlglw /xg]5g\ . af“sL rf/ hgfdWo]
                       kfpg]eGbf sd ug{ kfO“b}g . sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf s'g}           kqsfl/tf If]qdf ljlzi6 of]ubfg u/]sf] JolQm cWoIf
                       >dhLjL kqsf/nfO{ rf]6k6s nfu]df, lghsf] c+ue+u             /xg]5 eg] g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf] ;efklt, ;~rf/
                       ePdf, d[To' ePdf jf lghsf] JolQmut ;DklQ gi6               ;+:yfdf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/L / >d tyf cy{ ljz]if1
                       ePdf pkrf/ vr{ jf Ifltk"lt{sf] /sd ;DalGwt ;~rf/           ;b:o /xg] 5 g\ . ;ldltsf] of] ;+ / rgfn] lqkIfLo
                       k|lti7fgn] g} Joxf]g'{kg]{ Joj:yf klg sfg"gn] u/]sf] 5 .   ;Gt'ngnfO{ sfod u/]sf] 5 .
                            Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug{ aGg] ;ldltsf]                  s'g} klg ;~rf/ ;+:yfdf ztk|ltzt kqsf/ s/f/df
                       ;+/rgfdf Jofks x]/km]/ ePsf] 5 . ca ;/sf/af6               /fVg ;lsg] 9f]sf aGb u/]/ !% k|ltzteGbf a9L /fVg
                       ;x;lrj:t/sf JolQmn] k|ltlglwTj ug{]5g\ eg] g]kfn           gkfpg] ul/Psf] 5 . of] k|fjwfg Hofb} dxŒjk"0f{ 5 t/
                       kqsf/ dxf;+3sf ;efklt kb]g ;b:o /xg]5g\ .                  o;nfO{ nfu" u/fpg ;/sf/n] 7"n} s;/t ug'{kg]{
                       Joj:yfkssf] plrt k| l tlglwTj x' g ] 5 / ;~rf/             x'g;S5 . JolQmut ¿kdf s/f/d} sfd ug{ rfxg]
      s'g} klg ;~rf/ k|lti7fgdf sfd ug]{ sfdbf/ jf sd{rf/Laf6 klg k|ltlglw        JolQmx¿sf sf/0fn] of] k|ltzt gf£of] eg] s] ug]{ < of]
   ;+:yfdf ztk|ltzt    /xg]5g\ . sy+sbflrt\ ;ldltn] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug{         afWofTds k|fjwfgaf6 pDsg ;+:yfut ¿kdf s'g} clen]v
 kqsf/ s/f/df /fVg ;s]g eg] ;/sf/ cfkm}+n] Go"gtd kfl/>lds tf]Sg ;Sg]             g} g/fvL -df}lvs ;xdltsf] dfq cfwf/df_ >dhLjL
 ;lsg] 9f]sf aGb u/]/ j}slNks Joj:yfnfO{ ljwfosx¿n] /fd|f] dfg]/ ;dfj]z           kqsf/ lgo'Qm ug]{ vt/f o;n] a9fPsf] 5 . s/f/sf]
  !% k|ltzteGbf a9L u/]sf 5g\ .                                                   bfo/fnfO{ cln v'snf] ul/lbPsf] eP To:tf] vt/f sd
                                                                                                       '
                            s'g} Joj:yfksn] of] P]g ljk/Lt sfd u/]df kRrL;        x'g]lyof] .
 /fVg gkfpg] ul/Psf] xhf/ ?k}of“;Dd hl/jfgf ug{ ;lsg] / ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn]                ;+zf]wgsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ kIf sfg"gsf] kfngf gug]{
 5 . of] k|fjwfg Hofb} To;f] u/]df ;/sf/n] lbg] ;'ljwfdf /f]s nufpg ;lsg]         ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ /fHon] ug]{ juL{s/0fdf g/fVg] / /fHon]
dxŒjk"0f{ 5 t/ o;nfO{ Joj:yf P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . ;'ljwf /f]s nufpg] ;Gbe{df          lbg] c¿ ;'ljwf klg /f]]Sg ;Sg] k|fjwfg xf] . cvaf/sf
 nfu" u/fpg ;/sf/n] ;/sf/n] kqklqsfnfO{ juL{s/0fdf ;dfj]z gug{, cg'bfg            xsdf juL{s/0fdf g/x]kl5 /fHo s'g} ;'ljwf lbg afWo
                  {
   7"n} s;/t ug'kg]{   jf lj1fkgdf /f]s nufpg jf s6f}tL ug{, ;~rf/ ;fdu|L           “}
                                                                                  x'bg . juL{s/0f cfjZos eP klg /]l8of] / 6]lnlehgnfO{
                               “
                       Pj+ ;f];u ;DalGwt sRrf kbfy{sf] cfoftdf /f]s nufpg         juL{s/0f ug]{ k|fjwfg 5}g .
  x'g;S5 . JolQmut / ;/sf/L e|d0f bndf ;xefuL gu/fpg ;S5 .                              xfd|f ;Gbe{df /fHon] lbg] ;'ljwf pNn]vgLo gePsf]
¿kdf s/f/d} sfd ug{         ;+zf]lwt P]gn] >dhLjL kqsf/x¿nfO{ o; cl3              of] Joj:yf ;f]r] hlt k|efjsf/L gx'g] vt/f 5 . sfg'g
   rfxg] JolQmx¿sf     Joj:yf gePsf] 6«]8 o'lgog u7g ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/              kfngf gubf{ ul/g] b08 hl/jfgf lgs} sd 5 . g}lts
  sf/0fn] of] k|ltzt   lbPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn] >dhLjL               bfloTj af]w ug]{ ;+:yfsf nflu Go"gtd hl/jfgf klg
  gf£of] eg] s] ug]{ < kqsf/sf] Jofj;flos bIftf, Ifdtf / ;Lk ljsf;sf]             7"nf] ;hfo xf] . t/ cl3Nnf] k6s !@ jif{;Dd sfg'gsf]
                                                               ' {
                       nflu cWoog tyf tflndsf] Joj:yf ug{kg]5 . o;lglDt           a]jf:tf ug{ glxlRsrfPsf ;+:yfx¿ / ;+:yfut x'g
                       ;/sf/n] ;~rf/ k|lti7fgnfO{ cfly{s tyf k|fljlws             g;ls/x]sf] xfd|f] kqsfl/tf–;+:sf/sf sf/0f @% xhf/
                       ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg ;Sg]5 eg] ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn]              ?k}of“sf] b08 hl/jfgf klg sfg"g kfngfsf ;Gbe{df
                       klg cfkm\gf] jflif{s s'n cfosf] Ps k|ltzt /sd              vf;} cy{k"0f{ gxf]nf eGg] 8/ 5 .
                       5'6\ofpg'kg]{5 .                                                 >dhLjL kqsf/ P]g klxn] sfg"gL l5b|, cJofjxfl/s
                                                                                  k|fjwfg / rf}tkmL{ pk]Iffsf sf/0f a]jfl/;] x'g k'usf]]
                            ca sfof{Gjog xf]nf P]g <                              xf] . kl5Nnf] ;+zf]wgn] To:tf l5b| x6fP/ o;nfO{ lgs}
                                 sfg"g ;+zf]wgdf s]xL cfwf/e"t kl/jt{g ePsf       xb;Dd Jofjxfl/s agfPsf] 5 . t/, ;/sf/ /
                            5g\ . klxnf] t cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gsf] dfGotfcg'¿k    kqsfl/tfhut :jo+ o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;lqmo
                            kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ;ldltdf ;/sf/, Joj:yfkg /           gx'g] xf] eg] ‘;~rf/ k|lti7fg’ sf] Joj:yfkgn] k'gM
                            >dhLjLsf] ;dfg k|ltlglwTjsf] k|of; ePsf] 5 . !#       k'/fg} /j}of ckgfpg] / P]g >dhLjL kqsf/sf nflu
                            ;b:oLo ;ldltdf #—# hgf Joj:yfks, >dhLjL kqsf/         km]l/ klg sfunfO{ a]n kfs];/x x'g k'Ug]5 .



  38                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                    b[li6sf]0f



dlxnf d'2f /
cfhsf] cfjZostf
        1fg" kf08] g]kfndf /f0ffsfnLg cGwsf/ o'un] ult lnO/x]s} ;doaLr lj=;+= !(%* df ‘uf]vf{kq’ sf] k|sfzg z'? ePsf]
                     xf] . o;sf] ;“u;“u} g]kfndf kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; z'? ePsf] dflgG5 . Tof] Oltxf;df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]
                     ;Gbe{ eg] krf; jif{kl5 lj=;+=@))* ;fnb]lv dfq uf“l;Psf] xf] . oBlk sltkon] g]kfndf dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf]


                                        Oltxf; lj=;+= !(*) af6} yflnPsf] xf] eg]sf]        ;~rf/If] q df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]
                                        klg kfOG5 t/ g]kfnleq} /x]/ g]kfnL dlxnfn]         ultlj:tf/
                                        kqsfl/tf ug{ z'? u/]sf] ;do eg]sf] @))*            g]kfndf 5fkf tyf ljB'tLo b'j} ;~rf/dfWoddf
                                        ;fn g} xf] . ;fwgf k|wfg / sfdfIffb]jLsf]                                              }
                                                                                           dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] ult ;“u;“uh;f] cufl8
                                        ;+oQm ;DkfbsTjdf @))* ;fn h]7df ‘dlxnf’
                                            '                                              a9]sf] kfOG5 . ‘dlxnf’ dfl;saf6 cf/De ePsf]
                                        dfl;s k|sflzt ePkl5 g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfdf            5fkfdfWoddf dlxnf ;xeflutfnfO{ Tolta]nf
                                        dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] Oltxf; cf/De ePsf]               lk|oDabf zdf{, s'GtLb]jL, /dfb]jL, /Ltf, sNkgf,
                                        xf] . oBlk dlxnf ljifodf dfq s]lGb|t ePsf]         rGbf, ljhonIdL dNn, nIdLb]jL lrqsf/,
                                        pQm klqsf g]kfn dlxnf ;+3sf] d'vkq lyof]           ;/f]lhgL dfgGw/, nIdL /l~htsf/nufotsf
                                         / To;a]nf s]jn Psjif{ dfq lg:s]/ Tof] aGb         dlxnfx¿n] cufl8 a9fpg] sfd u/]sf] a'lemG5 .
                                                 ePsf] lyof] . t/ klg dlxnf                oL dlxnfx¿n] cfkm" ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs
                                                   kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; lgdf{0fdf To;n]      agL k| e f -@))*_, hgljsf; -@)!)_,
                                                   k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] pRr d"Nof+sg       hg;flxTo -@)!!_, ef]/ -@)!!_ , /+ud~r -
                                                   gul//xg ;lsGg .                         @)!!_, 1fgljsf; -@)!%_ h:tf dfl;s tyf
                                                             Toltv] / pQm klqsfdf          å}dfl;s klqsf cufl8 NofPsf lyP . logLx¿s}
                                                    ;x;Dkfbssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{         ;"rLdf c¿ tLg dlxnfsf] gfd klg cfp“5 .
                                                    zLnaGbL, dw's/L, k|ldnfnufotsf                \                  ]
                                                                                           tL x'gM zlzsnf zdf{, k|ds'df/L kGt / cfzf
                                                    dlxnfx¿sf] gfd klg oxf“lg/ :d/0fLo     l;+x zfx . zlzsnf zdf{sf] ;DkfbsTjdf
                                                   x'g cfp“5 . g]kfnh:tf] dlxnf hfltk|lt   @)!% ;fnaf6 k|sflzt x'g z'? ePsf]
                                                   cToGt ;+sl' rt ;f]r kfNg] ;fdflhs       ‘:jf:gLdfG5]’ -z'?df q}dfl;s kl5 å}dfl;s_
                                                kl/j]z ePsf] d'nsdf -Tof] klg cfhsf]
                                                                   '                       lgs} kl5;Dd klg lgl:s/x]sf] lyof] . kqsfl/tf
                                              s'/f xf]Og_ Tof] hdfgfdf dlxnfx¿n]           ljifodf ljb]zaf6 pRr lzIff xfl;n u/L o;
                                                kqsfl/tfdf xft xfNg' eg]sf] ;fdfGo s'/f              ]
                                                                                           If]qdf k|jz ug]{ k|yd g]kfnL dlxnf cfzf l;+xn]
                                                     xf]Og . tL dlxnfx¿n] Toltv]/ To:tf]   @)#@ ;fnb] l v cfkm\ g } ;DkfbsTj Pj+
                                                          cu|;/tf gb]vfOlbPsf eP eGg       k|sfzsTjdf lgsfNg z'? u/]sf] ‘l;ld|s’
                                                             ;lsGgYof], cem} slt nfdf]     -;fKtflxs_ n] klg lgs} kl5;Dd g} lg/Gt/tf
                                                             ;do xfdLn] s'gkYof]{ xf]nf
                                                                             {'                          ]
                                                                                           kfO/x\of] . k|ds'df/L kGtsf] kqsfl/tfsf] ofqf
                                                             g]kfndf dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf]     @)@# af6 z'? ePsf] xf] . z'?df ‘bL ljSnL
                                                             Oltxf; z'? ePsf] x]g{ .       ld//’ af6 cufl8 cfPsL pgL kl5 uP/ ‘bk{0f’,


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                          39
                                                                                                  @)$^ ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5
                                                                                        t kqsfl/tfdf dlxnf cfsif{0f pNn]vgLo 9+un]
                                                                                        g} a9\b} uPsf] kfOG5 . jf:tjdf b]zdf l;+u}
                                                                                        kqsfl/tfhut g} km:6fp“b} hfg', lghL ¿kdf
                                                                                                                                “
                                                                                        -klg_ gof“–gof“ ;+rf/ ;+:yfx¿ v8f x'b} hfg',
                                                                                        Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ gof“gof“ b}lgs cvaf/x¿
                                                                                        wdfwd lg:sg z'? x'g,' lghL:t/df 6]lnlehgsf
                                                                                        Rofgnx¿ klg Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ ylk“b} hfg',
                                                                                        cem Pkm=Pd :6];gsf] :yfkgfdf t emg\ af9L g}
                                                                                        cfpg' cflb sf/0fn] ubf{ klg x'g;S5 5ofnL;
                                                                                        ;fnkl5sf jif{x¿df dlxnfx¿df kqsfl/tfnfO{
                                                                                        g} d'Vo k]zf agfP/ cufl8 a9\g] xf]8 lgs} a9]/
                                                                                                                              “ “
                                                                                        uPsf] b]lvG5 . t/ d'Vo s'/f, Tolt x'bfx'b} klg
                                                                                        dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] ;ª\Vof k'?if ;xeflutfsf]
                                                                                        t'ngfdf cem} klg cToGt Go"g /x]sf] 5 .
                                                                                                  g]kfnsf ;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfx¿sf] cu'jf
                                                                                        ;+:yf cl:dtfn] kl5Nnf]kN6 lj=;+=@)%( ;fndf
                                                                                                    {
                                                                                        u/]sf] ;j]If0fn] ;+rf/df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]]
                                                                                        ;+Vof !(=#* k|ltzt b]vfPsf] 5 . ;f]xL ;+:yfaf6
                                     ‘g] ; gn :6f/’, ‘8] n L ld//’ h:tf c¿                                       {
                                                                                        klxnf] kN6 @)$( df ;j]If0f ul/+bf Tof] k|ltzt
                                     klqsfx¿sf] ;Dkfbg tyf k|sfzgdf klg ;lqmo                                       {
                                                                                        !@=#@ dfq lyof] . pQm ;j]If0fn] b]vfPcg';f/
                                     /lxg\ . ‘b ljSnL ld//’df z'?df pgL ;Dkfbg          bz jif{sf] cjlwdf ;~rf/If]qdf dlxnf
                                     ;xof]uLsf ¿kdf ;+nUg ePsL lyOg\ t/ s]xL            ;xeflutfsf] cj:yfdf h'g ultn] clej[l4 ePsf]
                                     jif{kl5 To;sf] ;Dkfbg tyf k|sfzgsf] k"/f           kfOof] Tof] lgZro g} sd dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f xf]Og .
                                     cleef/f PSn}n] af]sL lgs} kl5;Dd To;               t/ klg o; cjlwdf b]zsf]] l;+uf] ;+rf/hutn]
       @)$^ ;fnsf] /fhgLlts          klqsfnfO{ pgn] lg/Gt/tf lbO/lxg\ . pgL             h'g 9+udf ljsf;sf] km8\sf] df/]sf] 5 To;sf]
                                     cem};Dd kqsfl/tfdf ;lqmo g} 5g\ .                  t'ngfdf dlxnf ;xeflutf clej[l4sf] Tof] ult
      kl/jt{gkl5 b]zdf ;a}eGbf                otf ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWoddf dlxnf            ;Gtf]ifk|b s'/f xf]Og . dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
       a9L km:6fPsf] If]q eg]sf]                                '
                                     ;xeflutfsf] ;Gbe{ z'? x'gdf /]l8of] g]kfnsf]       ;DaGwdf jl/i7 kqsf/ xl/x/ lj/xLn] tLg jif{
     kqsfl/tf g} xf] . t/ klg s'g}   :yfkgf dxŒjk"0f{ dfWod ag]sf]] b]lvG5 . dbfn;f                                   {
                                                                                        cl3 Ps ;Gbe{df JoQm ug'ePsf] egfO oxf“
      ljb]zLn] ‘ltd|f] b]zdf clxn]   l;+x, zfGtf >]i7, /lZd /fHonIdL /f0ff, k|ef        pNn]v ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g] b]V5' . dlxnf
      dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf] ;ª\Vof        a:g]t, /~hgf zdf{, ld7"bjL, uf}/L s]=;L=, s[i0ff
                                                             ]                                                              \
                                                                                        kqsf/x¿sf] cj:yfaf/] s'/f sf]6ofp“bf of]
                                                                          '
                                     tfd|fsf/, jLgf u'?ª, /fgL u'?ª, g'k/ e§frfo{,      k+lQmsf/l;t pxf“n] eGg'ePsf] lyof], æ@)$^
     slt 5 <’ eg]/ k|Zg u¥of]] eg]                { '
                                     wg nfdf, ;"osdf/L kGt, sNof0fL l/dfn, ;l/tf        ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5 b]zdf ;a}eGbf
        nfhn] lz/ lgx'/fpg'kg]{      e§, ef/tL l;njfnnufotsf dlxnfx¿sf] gfd             a9L km:6fPsf] If]q eg]sf] kqsfl/tf g} xf] . t/
           cj:yf 5 xfd|f] .          g]kfnsf] ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWodsf cu|h dlxnf           klg s'g} ljb]zLn] ‘ltd|f] b]zdf clxn] dlxnf
                                     kqsf/x¿sf] ;"rLdf kb{5 . oLdWo] s]xL               kqsf/x¿sf] ;ª\Vof slt 5 <’ eg]/ k|Zg
                                     cem};Dd klg /]l8of] g]kfndf ;lqmo ¿kdf             u¥of]] eg] nfhn] lz/ lgx'/fpg'kg]{ cj:yf 5
                                     sfo{/t 5g\ . ljB'tLo ;~rf/dWoddf dlxnf             xfd|f] .Æ
                                     ;xeflutf clej[l4 u/fpg g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf]
                                     :yfkgfsf] klg p:t} dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x\of] .       ;~rf/df dlxnf d'2f
                                     vf;df eGg] xf] eg] g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf] :yfkgf        dlxnf d'2f dlxnfsf] dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf]Og,
                                     -:yfkgf @)$!, lgoldt k|;f/0f @)$@_ b]lv            Tof] l;+uf] ;dfhs} ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] eGg] s'/f
                                     g} g]kfndf ;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfx¿sf] ;+Vofdf            g]kfnL ;~rf/If]qn] cem};Dd klg /fd|/L a'em\g
                                     clej[l4 x'g z'? ePsf] xf] / ;~rf/sdL{              g;s] em}+ k|tLt x'G5 . lsgls xfdLsxf“ z'?b]lv
                                     dlxnfx¿k|lt cfd ;dfhsf] rf;f] klg a9]/             g} dlxnf d'2fnfO{ dlxnfsf] dfq rf;f]sf] ljifo
                                     hfg yfn]sf] xf] .                                  xf] h:tf] Jojxf/ ul/“b} cfPsf]] kfOG5 . sltko

40                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
cj:yfdf t :jo+ dlxnfx¿ g} klg o; k|sf/sf]
;f] r n] u| : t ePsf] e] l 6G5 . dlxnf
;~rf/sdL{sf] cj:yf ljifosf] cg';Gwfgsf]
qmddf ;lqmo kqsfl/tf ul//x]sf clwsf+z
dlxnfx¿n] eg] s f lyP– ‘w] / } h ;f]
;~rf/dfWodx¿df dlxnf kqsf/nfO{ dlxnf,
                             \
afnaflnsf, :jf:Yo, z[ªuf/, ;fh;Hhfh:tf
ljifoafx]s cGo ljifodf ltgn] rfx] klg sfd
                   }
ug{ lhDdf lbO“bg . 7f8} elgG5– /fhgLlt,
cy{, k//fi6« jf pBf]uJofkf/h:tf ljifo hl6n
x'g,\ dlxnf kqsf/n] oL ljifonfO{ kf/ ug{
;Sb}gg\ .’ cg';Gwfgsf] l;nl;nfdf ul/Psf]
5nkmn sfo{ q mddf :tDen] v gdf ;lqmo
dlxnfx¿sf] klg s'/f ;'Gg] cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] .
tLdWo] s] x Lsf] egfO lyof] – ‘dlxnf
:tDesf/x¿n] hlxn] klg dlxnfs} ljifodf dfq
n]lvlbof];\ eGg] rfxG5g\ ;Dkfbsx¿ .’ sltko
:tDesf/x¿n] eg] cfkm" :jo+ g} dlxnfsf]
ljifodf s]lGb|t x'g ?rfPsf] atfPsf lyP .
          oxf“ oL ;Gbe{x¿ p7fP/ dlxnf
kqsf/n] dlxnf d'2f p7fpg'nfO{ a]7Ls eGg
     ]
vf]hsf] lsdfy{ xf]Og . rfx] cx|fP/ xf];\ of :j]R5fn]
dlxnfn] dlxnfsf] d'2fdf snd rnfpg' jf
                                       {
sfo{qmdx¿ lgdf{0f ug',{ k|:t't ug'nfO{ cGoyf
cy{df a'em\g ldNb}g . t/ d'Vo s'/f s] eg]
dlxnf d'2f s]jn dlxnfs} dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo
xf] eGg]h:tf] Jojxf/ ug'{ rflx“ ;xL xf]Og . kqsf/
k|tLs k|wfg dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf] k|jl[ Qaf/] s'/f         cfhsf] cfjZostf
p7]sf] a]nf k|foM eGg] u5{g,\ ‘dlxnfn] dlxnfs}         jf:tjdf ;~rf/dfWodsf] sfd ;dfhdf ;"rgf
ljifodf -dfq_ n]vg\ jf n]Vg'k5{ eG7fGg' ;xL
                     '                                 ;Dk|i] f0f ug'{ dfq xf]Og, ;dfhnfO{ lzlIft ug'{
xf]Og .’ t/ oyfy{ nueu To:t} To:t} dfq b]Vg'kbf{       klg xf] . kqsfl/tfsf] ;fdflhs bfloTjk|lt
pgL x}/fg x'G5g\ . /, eG5g\– ‘dlxnf kqsfl/tfdf         cgle1tfsf] Jojxf/ ug'{ ;DalGwt s;}nfO{ klg          kqsfl/tf k]zfdf /xg /x/ dfq ug'{
plxn]bl] v g} b]lv“b} cfPsf]] of] k/Dk/fsf] ca         ;'xfpg] s'/f x'Gg . cfkm\gf] of] bfloTjk|lt st}
cGTo x'gk5{ / dlxnfn] dlxnf d'2fafx]s c¿
           '                                           g]kfnL ;~rf/hut cfjZos dfqfdf ;hu x'g                  kof{Kt x'Gg, cfOkg]{ ofjt r'gf}tLsf]
d'2fdf klg lg/Gt/ snd rnfpg'k5{ .’ k|wfgsf]            r'ls/x]sf] t 5}g < o;af/] d'nssf] ;~rf/If]qsf
                                                                                     '                                                 {
                                                                                                         ;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; tyf w}osf] klg plQs}
of] egfOk|lt ;dy{g hgfpg lxlRsrfpg'kg]{ s'g}           xtf{stf{x¿n] uDeL/ eP/ ;f]Rg'kg]{ vf“rf]                vf“rf] 5 . hxf“;Dd sfo{If]qdf
               }
sf/0f b]lv“bg . t/ d'Vo s'/f, dlxnf d'2f               68\sfl/Psf] 5 . ;dfhdf dlxnfsf] cj:yfdf
                                                                                                                                            {
                                                                                                         n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'kg]{ s'/f
dlxnfsf] dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] eGg] ;f]r            kl/jt{g gcfp~h]n b]z ljsf;sf] ;kgf sbflk
xfd|f] ;~rf/If]qdf plxNo}bl] v cfh;Dd klg xfjL         k"/f x'g;Sb}g eGg] tYo 5n{· eO;s]sf] cfhsf]            5 To;sf nflu klg dlxnfnfO{ x]g{ ]
5, ;a}eGbf klxnf t To;}df kl/jt{g cfpg'                ;dodf ;~rf/dfWodsf xtf{ s tf{ x ¿af6                k'?ifsf] k'/ftg ;f]rdf kl/jt{g cfP/
h?/L 5 . ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm" dftxtsf k'?if                ;dfhnfO{ k|lzlIft ug{ kxn ug'{ t stf xf] stf      dfq k'Ub}g, k'?ifnfO{ x]g{ ] dlxnfsf] ;f]rdf
kqsf/nfO{ klg dlxnf d'2fdf snd rnfpg jf                pN6f] cfkm\g} If]qleq sfo{/t dlxnfx¿k|lt ;d]t
sfo{qmd lgdf{0f ug{ k|fT;flxt ug'{ h?/L 5 .
                          ]                            lje]bk"0f{ Jojxf/ ul/G5 eg] Tof]eGbf nfhdbf]{     klg kl/jt{g cfpg' plQs} vf“rf] 5 eGg]
gq eg] dlxnf d'2f dlxnf kqsf/ jf dlxnf                 s'/f c¿ s] x'g;Snf < kqsfl/tf ug{] /x/ lnP/                      a'em\g' h?/L 5 .
:tDesf/x¿n] p7fpg sd ubf{ cvaf/df jf                                                   ]
                                                       o; If]qdf kfOnf 6]Sg cfOk'usf dlxnfx¿df
/]l8of] 6]lnlehgx¿df Tof] ljifo emg\ 7\ofDd}           kqsfl/tf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ / ;~rf/df dlxnf
gcfOlbg] kf] xf] ls ! s]xL eGg ;lsGg .                 ;xeflutfsf] ;ª\Vof ;do ;'xfp“bf] 9+udf a9fP/

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                      41
nUgsf nflu ;a}eGbf klxnf o; If]qdf JofKt
n+l} us cGwtfsf] cj:yfsf] cGTo x'g' cfjZos
5 / sfof{noleqsf] ef}lts ;+/rgf, Joj:yfkg
                                                                           dlxnf kqsf/sf ;d:of
kIf tyf lg0ff{os txb]lv ;xsdL{sf] tx;Dd               xfdLsxf“ kqsfl/tf If]qdf dlxnfsf xsdf plxn]bl] v cfh;Dd klg Pp6f k|jl[ Q 68\sf/f]
                               '
;j{q n}l+ usd}qL ;f]r xfjL x'gkg]{ vf“rf] 5 .                                                                                    ]
                                                      ¿kdf b]lv“b} cfPsf] 5– dlxnfx¿ o; If]qdf z'?df v"a pT;flxt eP/ k|jz u5{g\ t/
xfdLsxf“ ;+rf/If]qdf gLltlgdf{0ftxdf dlxnf            ToxL pT;fxsf ;fy nfdf] ;do;Dd l6ls/xg eg] ;Sb}gg\ . lsg xf]nf < ;~rf/If]qdf
pkl:yltsf] cefj cem};Dd klg v6\ls/x]sf]               dlxnf ;xeflutf a9f];\ eGg] ;f“Rr} rfxgf xf] eg]] o; If]qsf xtf{stf{ ;a}n] ;a}eGbf
      ]
kl/k|Io 5 . lg0ff{os txdf dlxnfsf] plrt               klxnf o;sf] sf/0f klxNofpg hf“u/ b]vfpg' cfjZos 5 . dlxnf kqsf/x¿n] ef]Ug
;xeflutf geP;Dd ;~rf/dfWoddf                          kl//x]sf] b]lvg]–gb]lvg] tdfd ;d:ofx¿sf] klxrfg gu/L / tL ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu
dlxnfx¿sf] :jljj]sLo df}lns Ifdtfsf] k|efj            pkfox¿ cjnDag ug{ tbf?stf gb]vfO{ s]jn dlxnfx¿d} dfq ;w}“ sdhf]/L b]Vg' jf
emNsg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f a'emL To;df ;'wf/               b]vfpg' lsdfy{ Gofo;+ut s'/f x'Gg . x'g
Nofpg ;DalGwt ;a} If]qaf6 kxn x'g h?/L                t kqsfl/tf eg]sf] cToGt r'gf}tLk"0f{ k]zf
5 . ;~rf/dfWodsf sfof{nox¿ leqsf] dfq                 xf] . of] efu vf]h]/ cfpg] If]q x'“b} xf]Og .
s'/f xf]Og, ;~rf/If]qdf n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0f          Ifdtfjfg\ geO{ s' g } klg JolQmn]                     ;~rf/dfWodsf
l;h{gf u/fpg / ;~rf/dfWodx¿df dlxnf                   -rfx] dlxnf xf];\ of k'?if_ of] k]zfnfO{               sfof{nox¿leq
;xeflutf clej[l4 u/fpg /fHon] klg                     lg/Gt/tf lbg ;Sb}g . t/ klg a'em\g'kg]{             +
                                                                                                        n}lusd}qL jftfj/0fsf]
/0fgLlts 9+un] kxn ug'kg]{ vf“rf] 5 . h:tf]
                         {                            s'/f s] xf] eg] JolQmdf Ifdtf 5 g} eg] klg
                                                      olb sfo{If]qdf c;xof]uL lsl;dsf] jftfj/0f          cefj ePsf] sf/0f
ls s'g} klg k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0f ;+:yfnfO{
Ohfht lbg] a]nfdf /fHon] rfx]df ltgsf cufl8           xfjL x'G5 eg] To;n] p;sf] Ifdtfdf g}               dlxnfx¿ o; k]zfdf
zt{ /fVg ;S5– ltgn] kqsf/ egf{ ug]{ a]nfdf            k|lts"n k|efj k'¥ofpg ;S5 cyjf p;sf]               nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sg
lglZrt k|ltzt :yfgdf cfwf/e"t of]Uotf                 pT;fxdf 7]; nufpg ;S5 . /, cGttM pm                     g;s]sf x'g\ .
ePsf dlxnf pDd]bjf/x¿aLr dfq k|lt:kwf{                cgfof; k]zfaf6} knfog x'g afWo x'gk'U5 .
u/fpg'k5{ eg]/ . /fHon] c¿ klg o:tf sltko                                           “
                                                      dlxnfsf xsdf k|foM o:t} x'b} cfPsf] ljleGg
                                                      cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 .
/0fgLltx¿ clVtof/ ug{ ;S5 .
                                                                ;~rfl/sf ;d"xsf] tTjfjwfgdf @)^) ;fndf ePsf] ‘;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfsf]
/, cGTodf                                             cj:yf’ zLif{ssf] cg';GwfgfTds -Ps jif{sf]_ cWoogsf] l;nl;nfdf k|dv cg';Gwftfsf]
                                                                                                                              '
clt dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f s] eg] kqsfl/tf If]qdf                                        '
                                                      ¿kdf of] k+lQmsf/nfO{ d'nssf kf“r} ljsf; If]qdf 5l/P/ /x]sf ;lqmo dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
dlxnf ;xeflutf clej[l4sf nflu cGoqaf6                 glhs k'u]/ ltgn] ef]Ug' kl//x]sf y'k|} ;d:ofx¿ af/] hfGg]–;'Gg] cj;/ k|fKt ePsf] lyof]
kxn ul/g'kg]{ vf“rf] t cfkm\gf] 7fp“df 5“b5       }   / ;fy;fy} d'n'ssf] ;~rf/If]qdf gb]lvg] u/L u8]/ a;]sf sltko ;d:of tyf q'l6x¿
                                                      klg glhsaf6 lgofNg] cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] . cg';Gwfgsf] bf}/fgdf sltko dfdnfdf
To;sf cltl/Qm o; If]qdf nflu/x]sf dlxnfx¿
                                                      :jo+ dlxnf kqsf/x¿d} klg q'l6 sdhf]/L /x]5 eGg] tYo klg kQf gnfu]sf] xf]Og, t/
     “
cfkm}n] klg k];fsf] bfloTj lgjf{xdf cfkm"nfO{
                                                      w]/} xb;Dd rflx“ ltgLx¿k|lt ;~rf/dfWodsf xtf{stf{ k'?ifx¿sf] b[li6sf]0f g} k"jf{uxL |
v/f] ptfg{ k|of; u/L pbfx/0fLo ag]/ cufl8
                                                      ePsf] e]l6Psf] xf] . hfgL–hfgL eGbf klg w]/}h;f] cj:yfdf cGhfgdf g} ;~rf/dfWodsf
                     {
cfpg k|of; ug'kg]{ vf“rf] 5 . kqsfl/tfdf              sfof{noleq dlxnfx¿k|lt k'?if xflsd tyf k'?if ;xsdL{x¿af6 q'l6k"0f{ Jojxf/ x'g]
dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] s'/f ubf{ ;ª\Vof dfq a9\gnfO{ '     u/]sf] a'lemPsf] lyof] . xfd|f] ;dfhdf htftt} JofKt ;+/rgfut q'l6sf] k|efj ;~rf/If]qdf
kof{Kt dfGg ;lsGg, u'0ffTdstfdf klg clej[l4           klg xfjL /x]sf] / ;~rf/dfWodsf sfof{nox¿leq n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0fsf] cefj ePsf]
x'gkg]{ cfhsf] cfjZostf xf] eGg] s'/f x/xd];f
   '                                                  sf/0f dlxnfx¿ o; k]zfdf nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sg g;s]sf x'g\ eGg] tYo cg';Gwfgaf6
x]Ssf /fVg' h?/L 5 . kqsfl/tf k]zfdf /xg              v'nf;f ePsf] lyof] .
/x/ dfq ug'{ kof{Kt x'Gg, cfOkg]{ ofjt\ r'gf}tLsf]              kqsf/ 6+s kGtn] ‘kqsfl/tfdf dlxnf’ zLif{ssf] cfkm\gf] n]vdf pNn]v u/]sf]
                                {
;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; tyf w}osf] klg plQs} vf“rf]           s'/f oxf“ p4[t ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g] b]V5' . pgn] eg]sf 5g\– ‘xfd|f] ;dfhdf k'?if /
5 eGg] s'/f a'em]sf dlxnf kqsf/x¿n] ga'em]sf          dlxnfaLrsf] lje]b ;fdflhs / /fhgLlts Joj:yfaf6 pTkGg ePsf] xf] . g]kfnL
dlxnf kqsf/x¿nfO{ a'emfpg–l;sfpg sbflk                kqsfl/tfhut klg ToxL Joj:yfleq g} af“r]sf] 5 . /fHosf] rf}yf] c+u klg c¿ tLgj6f
          {'
kl5 kg'xGg . hxf“;Dd sfo{If]qdf n}l+ usd}qL           c+u h;/L g} ;dfhdf xfjL /x]sf] zlQm k|0ffnL / xf]8afhLsf] v]nleq k|foM ;Dk"0f{ ¿kdf
                         {
jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'kg]{ s'/f 5 To;sf nflu            s}bL 5’ -kqsfl/tf, j}zfv–h]7, @)^) M !*_ . lgZro g} of] cj:yfn] dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
klg dlxnfnfO{ x]g{ ] k'?ifsf] k'/ftg ;f]rdf kl/jt{g   pT;fxdf afwf k'lu/x]sf] 5 . dlxnfsf] ultzLntfsf] clwsf/k|lt cToGt cg'bf/ ljBdfg
cfP/ dfq k'Ub}g, k'?ifnfO{ x]g{ ] dlxnfsf] ;f]rdf     kfl/jfl/s–;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] v6gk6gl;t h'‰g dlxnf kqsf/x¿nfO{ p;} klg sd
klg kl/jt{g cfpg' plQs} vf“rf] 5 eGg] a'em\g'         ufx|f] kl//x]sf] 5}g . Toltn] gk'u]/ km]l/ sfo{If]qleq klg p:t} lsl;dsf] lje]b JofKt
h?/L 5 eGg] nfU5 .                                    ePsf] b]Vg–ef]Ug kg'{ slt b'MvnfUbf] s'/f xf] dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf nflu !


42                                                                                                                               df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                   ;/sf/L ;'ljwf


nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg
lxhf] / cfh
    '
 d'sGbk|;fb cfrfo{           @))& ;fncl3 g]kfndf ;dfrf/kqsf] ¿kdf uf]/vfkq dfq k|sflzt x'GYof] . k"0f{ ;/sf/L k|sfzgsf]
                             ¿kdf . c¿ klqsfx¿ lzIff, pBf]u, ;flxTo ljifosf dfq x'Gy] . ;ft ;fnkl5 lghL If]qaf6, /fhwfgL
                                                                                                             ]
                             sf7df8f}+ tyf cGo lhNnfx¿af6 ;d]t ljleGg kqklqsfx¿ lg:sg yfn] . t/, e/kbf]{ ;|ftsf] cefjdf
                             tL klqsfx¿ yf]/} ;dod} x/fp“b} klg uP . @))& b]lv @)!& ;fn;Dd k|sflzt ;dfrf/kqx¿dWo]
                                                                                }
                             clwsf+ztM s'g} g s'g} /fhgLlts bn;“u cfa4 lyP . w]/h;f] ;fKtflxs klqsfx¿df clxn] klg ToxL
                             k|j[lQ b]lvG5 .


;/sf/L ;xof]u
@)!% ;fnsf] cfd lgjf{ r gkl5 :yflkt
;/sf/n] @)!^ dfu{ dlxgfb]lv g]kfndf
k| s flzt kqklqsfx¿nfO{ rf/ >] 0 fLdf
ljeflht u/L dfl;s ?=^)) b]lv ?=@))
;Ddsf] ;/sf/L lj1fkg tTsfnLg k|rf/ tyf
k|;f/ ljefuaf6 pknAw u/fpg] gLlt cjnDag
u/]sf] lyof] . of] g} ;/sf/L:t/af6 lgoldt
¿kdf kqklqsfnfO{ lj1fkgafkt egL /sd
pknAw u/fpg] k|lqmofsf] yfngL xf] . t/ o;
cGtu{t klqsfx¿sf] juL{s/0f ug]{ :ki6 cfwf/
eg] to ePsf] b] l vGg . ;fy} , of] gLlt
sfof{Gjog x'g yfn]sf] 5 dlxgf gk'Ub} ;/sf/L
gLltsf] cfnf]rgf ug]{ kqklqsfx¿nfO{ o:tf]
lj1fkg lbg aGb ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
          @)!& ;fnkl5sf] ;/sf/n] klg
lj1fkgafkt egL kqklqsfnfO{ x/]s dlxgf
lglZrt /sd pknAw u/fpg] k|lqmofnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbof] . o;qmddf k~rfotL ;/sf/n]
                                          '
cfkm\gf] kIfdf jsfnt ug]{ klqsfx¿nfO{ ‘6]an
d'lgaf6’ ;d]t /sd pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf]
lyof] .

klqsf juL{s/0fsf nflu
dfkb08 lgdf{0fsf] k|of;
k|]; sld;g, @)!%
        k|]; sld;gsf] k|ltj]bg @)!% df
;/sf/L lj1fkg lbgsf nflu lgDglnlvt
l;4fGtnfO{ cfwf/sf] ¿kdf lng l;kmfl/;
ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                         43
s_ klqsf k|sfzgsf] cjlwM b]zsf] kqsfl/tfsf]
ljsf;df s]xL b]g lbPsf klqsfx¿n] k|fT;fxg
kfpg\ eGg] p2]Zo /fvL sDtLdf Ps jif{
                                    ]                            ]
                                                               k|; sfplG;nåf/f kqklqsfsf] juL{s/0f
k|sfzg eO;s]sf] klqsfnfO{ lj1fkg lbg]                @)$@ ;fnb]lv k|]; sfplG;nsf] dftxtdf kqklqsf ljt/0f ;+k/LIf0fsf] sfo{ z'? ePsf] xf] .
cfwf/ agfpg l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 .                     To;a]nf kqklqsfx¿df cvaf/L sfuhsf] vkt / lj1fkg;DaGwL sfdsf] dfq cWoog ug]{
v_ ;fwgsf] cefj M k|ltj]bg lb“bfsf avt !             ul/GYof] . ;fy} sfplG;nn] u/]sf l;kmfl/;nfO{ ;/sf/n] x]/km]/ ug]{ klg ub{Yof] .
jif{ e Gbf a9L k| s fzg cjlw k' u ] s f                       ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnon] @)%# r}t @% ut] ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sflzt u/L
kqklqsfx¿sf] ;ª\Vof $.% j6f dfq ePsf]                                            ]
                                                     @)%$ ;fn >fj0f ! ut]bl] v k|; sfplG;naf6 juL{s/0f ePsf kqklqsfx¿n] dfq ;x'lnotafkt
oyfy{ k|:t't ub}{ kqsfl/tf If]qdf b'O{ jif{bl] v     cvaf/L sfuh ;'ljwf k|fKt ug]{ / To;kl5 lgodfg';f/ juL{s[t gePsf kqklqsfx¿n] o:tf]
sfd ub}{ cfPsf JolQmåf/f ;+rflnt kqnfO{              ;'ljwf gkfpg] Joj:yf u¥of] .
klg ;/sf/L lj1fkgsf] ;x'lnot lbg'k5{ eGg]                       k|]; sfplG;n P]g, @)$* df kqklqsfsf] juL{s/0f;DaGwL sfo{nfO{ sfplG;nsf]
                                                     5ftfleq ;d]l6of] .
;'emfj lbOPsf] 5 .
                                                                xfn sfplG;nn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dfkb08cg';f/ g} g]kfne/af6 k|sflzt x'g] b}lgs,
u_ ljt/0f ;+Vof M ;/sf/n] lj1fkg lbg'sf]             ;fKtflxs, cw{;fKtflxs / dfl;s kqklqsfx¿sf] x/]s jif{ juL{s/0f ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf]
p2]Zo s'g} s'/f hgtfdf k'¥ofpg rfx]sf] x'Fbf         juL{s/0fdf ;dfrf/ kq÷klqsfsf cltl/Qm ;flxlTos Pj+ cGo ljwfsf kqklqsfx¿nfO{ klg
dfly -s_ / -v_ a'bfdf plNnlvt zt{ k"/f
                   “                                 ;dfj]z ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 .
gug]{ t/ lgoldt u|fxs ePsf cvaf/nfO{
lj1fkgsf] l;kmfl/;sf] cfwf/ dfGg'kg]{ tyf          klg 5}g . t;y{ lj1fkgafktsf] of] cg'bfgsf]         /sddf cEo:t kqklqsfx¿nfO{ of] /sd
-s_ / -v_ a'Fbfsf zt{ k"/f u/]s} eP klg            /sd k|bfg ug]{ k|yfnfO{ ;dfKt ug'{k5{ eGg]         glb+bf pTkGg x'g] gof“ l:yltdf hfg ;lhnf]
lj1fkg lb+bf u|fxs ;+VofnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]sf]         cfof]usf] /fo 5 . o;cg';f/ ca eljiodf              xf];\ eGgfvflt/ oL kqklqsfx¿nfO{ b'O{ jif{sf]
v08df dfq gfddfqsf ljt/0f ePsf kqn]                btf{ eO{ k|sflzt x'g] kqklqsfx¿nfO{ of]            cjlwsf nflu dfq of] cg'bfgsf] /sd k|bfg
;fFlRrs} hglk|o kqsf] a/fa/L bfFhf]df ;x'lnot      cg'bfgsf] /sd k|bfg gug]{ Joj:yf x'g'kb{5 .        ug'{kb{5 eGg] cfof]usf] /fo 5’ egL pNn]v
kfpg] g/fd|f] cj;/ /f]Sg ;lsg]5 eGg] ;'emfj        w]/} sfnb]lv c6'6 ¿kdf kfOcfPsf] cg'bfgsf]         u/]sf] 5 .
lbOPsf] 5 .
        o;sf cltl/Qm k| ] ; sld;gn]                ;/sf/åf/f lj1fkgafkt dfl;s ¿kdf pknAw u/fO“b} cfPsf] /sdsf] ljj/0f
kqklqsfsf] ljsf;sf nflu b]zleq ‘k|; va/’
                                   ]               o; k|sf/ 5M
cfbfgk|bfg ubf{ b"/;~rf/ ;x'lnot k|bfg ug{,         @)@$ df3b]lv
5fKg] sfuh ljleGg ;fOhdf ;'ne b/df
lgoldt ¿kdf pknAw x'g] Joj:yf ug{ /                  klqsfsf] lsl;d                                          /sd
kqsfl/tf lzIffsf] Joj:yf ug{ klg l;kmfl/;             b}lgs                                                 !))).–
u/]sf] 5 .
                                                      cw{–;fKtflxs                                          &%).–
       ]
zfxL k|; cfof]u, @)#*                                 ;fKtflxs                                              &)).–
         o;}u/L zfxL k|]; cfof]u @)#* n]              kflIfs                                                $%).–
cfkm\gf] k|ltj]bgdf ‘xfn ;"rgf ljefun] b}lgs,
;fKtflxs / kflIfs ;dfrf/ kqklqsfnfO{
k|To]s dlxgf lj1fkg pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf]
                                                                        ]
                                                   @)$& kmfu'gb]lv g]=6«=ln=af6 b]xfosf] /sd a/fa/sf] cvaf/L sfuh -Go"hlk|G6_
k|rng cg';f/ jflif{s ?=^,)$,(%) cf=j=
                                                   ;"rgf ljefusf] l;kmfl/;df pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf yflnof] M
@)#^÷#& df vr{ ePsf] b] l vG5 . o;
k|sf/sf] k|rngn] g t lj1fkgsf] p2]Zo k"/f             klqsfsf] lsl;d          s                   v                     u                3
u/]sf] 5, g kqklqsfx¿nfO{ g} s'g} ;fy{s
cfly{s 6]jf g} k|bfg ug{ ;s]sf] 5’ egL pNn]v        b}lgs                    #))).–              @@)).–             !%)).–           –
u/]sf] 5 .                                          cw{–;fKtflxs             !*)).–              !%)).–             –                –
         cfof]un] ‘;Lldt ;fwgnfO{ o;/L ;fgf–        ;fKtflxs                 $))).–              #))).–             @))).–           !))).–
;fgf /sddf ljeflht u/L kqklqsfx¿nfO{
ljt/0f ug]{ jt{dfg cg'bfgsf] k|yf k|efjk"0f{

44                                                                                                                                  df3–r}t @)^$
@)%# r}tb]lv pQm /sddf j[l4 u/L b]xfo cg';f/ k'¥ofOof]] M

   klqsfsf] lsl;d             s                    v                   u                  3

 b}lgs                    &))).–              %%)).–                  $%)).–             #))).–
 cw{–;fKtflxs             $))).–              #))).–                  @))).–             !))).–
 ;fKtflxs                 ^))).–              $%)).–                  #))).–             !%)).–
 kflIfs                   @))).–              !%)).–                  !))).–             %)).–
 dfl;s                    $))).–              #))).–                  @))).–             !))).–


         kqklqsfnfO{ Go" h lk| G 6 pknAw               b] l v Go" h lk| G 6sf] ;§f nf] s sNof0fsf/L
u/fpFbf x/]s cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo÷gof“ cf=j=            lj1fkgafkt egL k|lt dlxgf gub} ¿kdf
sf] z'?lt/ g]zgn 6«l] 8ª lnld6]8n] Go"hlk|G6sf]        /sd pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfof] . o;sf
efp j[l4 ug{] tyf sltko kqklqsfx¿n] o;/L               nflu juL{s/0fdf k/]sf kqklqsfn] ;"rgf
;'ljwfafkt ;x'lnot b/df vl/b u/]sf]                    ljefuaf6 pknAw u/fOPsf] lj1fkg tf]lsPsf]
Go"hlk|G6 aflx/ ahf/df laqmL ug{] u/]sf] u'gf;f]       ;ª\Vofdf dfl;s ¿kdf 5fKg'kg{] Joj:yf
cfpg yfn]kl5 ;/sf/n] cf=j= @)%&÷%*                     ul/of] .                                       sltko kqklqsfx¿n] ;'ljwf
@)^! sflQsb]lv lgDg cg';f/ /sd pknAw u/fpg yflnof] M                                                   afkt ;x'lnot b/df vl/b
                                                                                                          u/]sf] Go"hlk|G6 aflx/
   klqsfsf] lsl;d             s                    v                   u                  3
                                                                                                         ahf/df laqmL ug{] u/]sf]
  b}lgs                   !$))).–                  !!))).–             ())).–          ^))).–             u'gf;f] cfpg yfn]kl5
  cw{;fKtflxs             *))).–                   ^))).–              $))).–          @))).–          ;/sf/n] cf=j= @)%&÷%*
  ;fKtflxs                !@))).–                  ())).–              ^))).–          #))).–             b]lv Go"hlk|G6sf] ;§f
  kflIfs                  $))).–                   #))).–              @))).–          !))).–         nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgafkt
  dfl;s                   *))).–                   ^))).–              $))).–          @))).–         egL k|lt dlxgf gub} pknAw
                                                                                                        u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfof] .
@)^@ sflQsb]lv cw{–;fKtflxsnfO{ klg ;fKtflxsn] kfP;/x / kflIfsnfO{ klg dfl;sn]
kfP;/x ;'ljwf pknAw u/fO“b} cfPsf] 5 .

@)%&÷%* b]lv @)^#÷^$ ;Dd nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgafkt ul/Psf] e'QmfgL
o;k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 M

    cf=j=                         e'QmfgL /sd                         s}lkmot

  @)%&÷%*                         ^%))))).–                       )%& ;fn kmfu'gb]lv gub e'QmfgL
  @)%*÷%(                         ^@&@%)).–
  @)%(÷^)                         ^^&)))).–
  @)^)÷^!                         !)^&)))).–
  @)^!÷^@                         @%#@&%)).–                      cl3Nnf] ;fnsf] gk'u ;d]t
  @)^@÷^#                         !%)($%)).–
  @)^#÷^$                         $@(&^))).–                      cl3Nnf] ;fnsf] gk'u ;d]t
  s'n                             !!##!)%)).–



df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        45
        lj8Dagf s] eg], ahf/df
         slxNo} b]vf gkg]{ t/ k|;
                               ]                        pRr:t/Lo ldl8of cfof]usf] ;'emfj
         sfplG;nsf] juL{s/0fdf                    b]zdf nf]stGqsf] 3f]if0ffkl5 ag]sf] ;/sf/n] u7g u/]sf] pRr:t/Lo ldl8of ;'emfj
      lgoldt ¿kdf dflyNn} txdf                    cfof]un] cfkm\gf] k|ltj]bg, @)^# df ‘lj1fkg gLlt’ sf ;DaGwdf klg pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .
               juL{s/0f e}                        ;/sf/n] lj1fkg;DaGwL efjL gLlt tyf ;+oGq lgdf{0f ubf{ To;nfO{ Vofn /fVg'
                                                  pko'Qm x'g]5 . cfof]usf] ;'emfj lgDg cg';f/ /x]sf] 5M
        nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg
       afktsf] ;/sf/L ;'ljwfsf]                         – lj1fkgsf] k|sl[ t, lj1fkgsf] p2]Zo / To;sf] c;/÷k|efjsf cfwf/df lj1fkgnfO{
                                                  ‘nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg’, ‘;fj{hlgs ;"rgf;DaGwL lj1fkg’ / ‘Jofkfl/s lj1fkg’ egL
         pkef]u ug]{ kqklqsfsf]                   juL{s/0f ug{'kb{5 . ;dfhsf] ;jf{·L0f lxt / sNof0fsf] b[li6n] ul/g] lj1fkgnfO{ nf]s
       ;ª\Vof pNn]Vo /x]sf] 5 .                   sNof0fsf/L lj1fkg, ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/ / rf;f];“u ;DaGwL ;"rgfd"ns lj1fkgnfO{
                                                  ‘;fj{hlgs ;"rgf;DaGwL lj1fkg’ / j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] nufgL / laqmL k|j4{gsf] p2]Zo
                                                  af]s]sf lj1fkgnfO{ ‘Jofkfl/s lj1fkg’ egL juL{s/0f ug{' jf~5gLo b]lvG5 . o;dWo]
                                                  nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg / ;/sf/L lgsfosf ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf;DaGwL lj1fkg /fHon]
                                                  ;dfg'kflts lsl;daf6 ljt/0f ug]{ Joj:yf ug{'kb{5 .
pk;+xf/                                                 – lj1fkg Joj;fonfO{ Pp6f :jtGq pBdsf ¿kdf k|j4{g ug'{ cfjZos 5 . t/
cfh xfdL nf]stflGqs kl/j]ztkm{ pGd'v eO/x]sf      ;fdflhs d"No–dfGotf, ;f+:s[lts cfbz{, ;fj{hlgs lxt, :jf:Yo, ;'/Iff, afnaflnsf /
                                                  pkef]Qmfsf] tfTsflns Pjd\ bL3{sflns lxt k|lts"n x'g] lsl;dn] lj1fkg ug{ gkfOg]
5f}+ . nf]stGqsf d'Vo cfwf/x¿df kf/blz{tf,
                                                  Joj:yf ul/g'kb{5 . :j:y ¿kdf lj1fkg Joj;fo k|j4{g ug{ ljZjJofkL dfGotfcg'¿ksf]
OdfGbf/L / cfTdfg'zf;g klg x'g\ . /fHon] pknAw    ‘lj1fkg cfrf/;+lxtf’ th'{df u/L k|efjsf/L cg'udgsf] Joj:yf ul/g'kb{5 .
u/fpg] ;a} k|sf/sf ;]jf÷;'ljwfdf ;a}sf]
;dfg'kflts kx'r Pj+ ltgsf] Gofof]lrt pknAwtf
               F                                        – /fHon] xfn;Dd 5fkf ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ lbFb} cfPsf] nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgsf]
nf]stGqsf] d]?b08 xf] .                           cg'bfg /sd j[l4 ub}{ n}hfg'kb{5 . of] /sd g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] :jLsf/ u/]sf] d'b|f:kmLlt
                                                  b/cg';f/ a;]{lg j[l4 x'g'kb{5 . of] lj1fkg cfh;Dd 5fkf dfWoddf dfq ;Lldt /x]sf]df
          lj8Dagf s] eg], ahf/df slxNo} b]vf
                                                  ca sDtLdf df]km;nsf PkmPd /]l8of]x¿nfO{ ;d]t juL{s/0fsf] cfwf/df pknAw
gkg]{ t/ k|]; sfplG;nsf] juL{s/0fdf lgoldt        u/fOg'kb{5 .
¿kdf dflyNn} txdf juL{s/0f eO{ nf]ssNof0fsf/L
lj1fkgafktsf] ;/sf/L ;'ljwfsf] pkef]u ug]{                – xfn;Dd ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefuaf6 kqklqsfx¿nfO{ ljt/0f
kqklqsfsf] ;ª\Vof pNn]Vo /x]sf] 5 . o;n]          x'Fb} cfPsf] nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg cfOGbf PkmPd /]l8of]x¿nfO{ ;d]t lbg] / To:tf]
                                                  lj1fkgsf] ljt/0f lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltx¿dfk{mt ug]{ . o;sf lglDt nf]ssNof0fsf/L
g]kfndf :j:y / :jR5 kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;sf           lj1fkgsf nflu ljlgof]lht ah]6af6 lglZrt /sd -pbfx/0ffy{– k|To]s lh=lj=;=nfO{ ?=@
nflu e/y]u ug]{ ;/sf/L k|of;sf] k|efjsfl/tfnfO{   nfv_ x/]s lhlj;nfO{ ;dfg ¿kdf pknAw u/fpg] / afFsL /sd lhNnfsf] hg;+Vofsf]
sdhf]/ t'NofPsf] 5 . o:tf] k|jl[ Qdf nufd nufpg   cg'kftdf lhlj;x¿aLr g} afF8kmfF8 ug]{ . o:tf] /sd ah]6 k'l:tsfdf g} pNn]v u/L cy{
;/sf/ / kqsfl/tf If]q b'j}sf] k|of; cfjZos        dGqfnoaf6 ;Lw} lhlj;x¿df hfg] Joj:yf ug]{ .
5 . ;fy}, nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgsf gfpFdf
                                                         – lk5l8Psf If]q, ;d'bfo, ju{sf] lxtsf lglDt nlIft tyf g]kfnL afx]s g]kfnsf
;/sf/n] lgoldt ¿kdf pknAw u/fpg] pNn]Vo           cGo efiffx¿df k|sflzt jf k|;fl/t x'g] ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg lb“bf
wg/flznfO{ ;dy{ / c;dy{ ;a}sf nflu Psgf;n]        k|fyldstf / yk ;'ljwf lbg] .
                  {
slgsf 5/] em}+ ug'eGbf kf/bzL{ dfkb08 ckgfP/
vf;u/L u|fdL0f tyf lk5l8Psf If]q, ;d'bfo /              – s'g} klg ;~rf/dfWodaf6 k|sflzt / k|;fl/t x'g] ;fdu|Lx¿df $) k|ltzteGbf
                                                  a9L lj1fkgsf] efu x'g gx'g] . ;fd'bflos / ;fj{hlgs /]l8of], 6LeLdf k|;f/0f ;dosf]
ju{sf nflu o;sf] pkof]u ug{ ;s]df a9L /fd|f]
                                                  !% k|ltzteGbf a9L lj1fkgsf] efu x'g gx'g] .
x'g] b]lvG5 .
                                                        – :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«o:t/sf lj1fkg :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«o:t/sf kqklqsf
;Gbe{ ;fdu|L                                      Pjd\ /]l8of]nfO{ lbg'kg]{ .
!_     g] k fndf 5fkfvfgf / kqklqsfsf]                                             [
                                                       – ;+k/LIf0f ;ldltaf6 juL{st ePsf tyf kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf kfngf u/]sf
       Oltxf;M u|Lidaxfb'/ b]jsf]6f               kqklqsf Pjd\ /]l8of]n] dfq lj1fkg k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf ug]{ .
@_                          ]
       k|sfzgsf] lbUbz{g M k|; sfplG;n g]kfn
#_     pRr:t/Lo ldl8of ;'emfj cfof]usf]                   – k|sflzt tyf k|;fl/t lj1fkgx¿ lj1fkg–cfrf/;+lxtf cg'?k 5g\–5}gg\ eGg]
       k|ltj]bg, @)^#                             s'/fsf] cg'udg / tT;DaGwL ph'/L–u'gf;f] ;'Gg] sfo{ k|]; sfplG;nn] ug]{ Joj:yf
                                                  ug] { .
-;"rgf ljefusf dxflgb]{zs cfrfo{, of] cfn]v               o;/L cfof]un] cfkm\gf] ;'emfjdf lj1fkgsf] ljt/0f / lgodgsf nflu 5'§} lgsfosf]
tof/ u/] s f] s] x L ;dokl5, ut dª\ l ;/df        u7gsf nflu ;'emfj glbO{ eO/x]sf s]Gb|Lo tyf :yfgLo:t/sf lgsfox¿nfO{ g} of] lhDd]jf/L
;]jflgj[Q x'g'ePsf] 5 ._                          k|bfg ug]{ ;'emfj lbPsf] 5 .

46                                                                                                                           df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                     k':ts ;dLIff


eflifs ;'wf/sf lglDt
dfu{bz{s
                                                                                                                      ]
    ;f]dgfy l3ld/] xfd|f] efiff – g]kfnL xfd|f] /fi6«efiff xf] . xfdL xfd|f] cfkm\g} efiff– cfkm"n] ;'Gg]–af]Ng], k9\g–n]Vg] efiff klg
                                                                                                                               ]
                           z'4 / k|:6;“u k|of]u ug{ ;Qm}gf}+ eg] xfd|f nflu Tof] nfhdbf]{ s'/f xf] . t/ xfdLx¿ o;k|lt k6Ss} ;+jbgzLn
                           5}gf}+ . To;}n] g]kfnL efiffsf] k|of]udf cg]s k|sltsf ljs[lt / q'l6sf] k|r/tf a9\b} uPsf]] 5 / g]kfnL efiff
                                                                            [                           '
                                  +
                           j0f{;s/ aGb} uPsf] 5 . o:tf ljs[lt tyf ;d:ofx¿sf] lg/fs/0f ug{ / g]kfnL efiffsf] df}lns :j?k

                                             hf]ufpg ‘xfd|f] efiff’ dfu{bz{s u|Gysf ¿kdf                                                  {
                                                                                                efiffn] q'l6 / ljs[ltsf] 7"nf] ef/jxg ug'k/]sf]
                                             cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . Jofjxfl/s / Jofj;flos             5 . au|]NtL v'n]sf Pkm Pd /]l8of] / ;8s
                                             b'j} If]qdf efiffz}nLsf] k|efjsfl/tf a]hf]8 /xg]   ;8sdf laR5\ofOPsf 5fkfx¿sf] dfq s] s'/f
                                             ub{5 . olb af]nfO–n]vfOdf z'4tf, ;/ntf /           ug]{, /fli6«o k|;f/0f / /fli6«o k|sfzgsf] ku/L
                                             :ki6tf /x]g eg] efj ;Dk|]if0f gx'g], cy{sf]            ]
                                                                                                u'tsf ;~rf/dfWodx¿df ;d]t dfgs efiffsf]
                                             cgy{ nfUg] / ;Dk|]if0fLotf z"Go x'g] cj:yf         k|of]u x'g;s]sf] b]lv“b}g . Psflt/ o:tf] l:ylt
                                             l;lh{t x'G5 . efiffsf] k|of]udf b]lvg] cg]s        5 eg] csf{lt/ g]kfnL efiffz}nLsf] Jofjxfl/s
                                             k|sl[ tsf uNtL, sdhf]/L x6fpg ;s] dfq z'4tf        cWoog ug{ rfxg] / z'4, ;/n / :t/Lo efiff
                                             / :t/Lotf sfod ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf lglDt              k| o f] u sf nflu nfnflot x' g ] x ¿sf nflu
                                             eflifs ;r]ttf ckl/xfo{ 5 . k|:t't k':ts            dfu{bz{s kf7\o;fdu|Lsf] cefj klg plQs}
                                             o:t} pRr ;r]ttfsf] pkh xf] . o;n] cfkm\gf          v8\lsO/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . of] l:yltdf z'4,
                                             k|To]s kf7sdf Tof] ;r]ttf ;~rfl/t ug{]             ;/n, ;xh / af]wuDo z}nLdf n]vgsnfsf]
                                             ;fdYo{ /fV5 . cfkm\gf] efiff ;'wfg{, 5l/tf]–       ljsf; ug]{ cfwf/lznf tof/ ug{ j:tLn] ljz]if
                                             /f] r s / :t/Lo agfpg, cleJolQmnfO{                k|of; ug'{ePsf] 5 . uxlsnf] lgb]{lzsfsf
                                             ;Dk|if0fLo Pjd\ k|efjsf/L t'Nofpg rfxg]sf
                                                   ]                                            ¿kdf ‘xfd|f] efiff’ k|:t't u/]/ pxfFn] l;sf¿
                                             nflu of] ;a}eGbf pTs[i6 pkxf/ xf] .                n] v sx¿sf nflu dfq ge} Jofj;flos
                                                       c9fO{ bzseGbf nfdf] ;dob] l v            ;+rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ ;d]t eflifs bIftf xfl;n
                                             kqsfl/tf– n] v g, ;Dkfbg, k| l zIf0f /             ug{ af6f] b] v fpg' e Psf] 5 . k| l zIffyL{
                                             k|fWofkg–df ;+nUg /xFb} cfPsf l;4x:t kqsf/         kqsf/x¿nfO{ efiff / z}nLsf] ;"Id 1fg lbg]
                                             z/RrGb| j:tLsf] k|of]ul;4 cg'ejsf] k|r'/           qmddf hlGdPsf] eP klg of] s[ltn] h'g;'s}
                                             k|of]u o;df ePsf] 5 . z'4 / ;/n z}nLdf             k]zf, Joj;fodf ;+nUg /x]sf h'g;'s} tx, If]q
                                             g]kfnL n]vgsnfsf] ljsf;sf nflu of] s[lt            / cj:yfsf lh1f;'–1fglkkf;'x¿nfO{ af6f]
                                             pTk|]/s dfq geO{ dfu{lgwf{/s g} ag]sf] 5 .         b]vfpg] cflwsfl/s x}l;ot /fVb5 .
                                             /fi6«efiffk|lt ;r]t / ;+jbgzLnx¿sf nflu
                                                                           ]                               g]kfnL efiffdf Jofs/0fsf y'k}| k':ts
                                             of] s[lt >Lv08 xf] eg] eflifs z'4tf, ;/ntf         k|sflzt 5g\ . st} st} z}nL k':tssf] klg
                                             / lzi6tfk|lt cr]t / c;+jbgzLnx¿sf nflu
                                                                             ]                  k| s fzg ePsf] e] l 6G5 . t/, ;fj{ { h lgs
                                             sf7 dfq klg x'g ;S5 . s[ltsf/s} zAbdf              k|of]usf pbfx/0fx¿ lbP/ n]vg / sygdf
                                             eGg] xf] eg]– æg]kfnL klg l;Sg'k5{ / < d h]        e]l6g] u/]sf q'l6, lj;+ult / ljs[ltx¿ 5n{ª\u
                                             n]V5' ToxL g]kfnL xf]Æ, eg]/ cfÇgf] eflifs         x'g] u/L s]nfpg] / z'4, ;/n n]vgsf nflu
                                             cIfdtfnfO{ g} cledfgsf] ljifo agfpg]x¿             af6f] b]vfpg] o:tf] s[lt eg] o;cl3 k|sfzgdf
                                             klg g]kfnL ;dfhdf 5\ofK5\ofKtL e]l6G5g\ .          cfPsf] 5}g . efiff;DaGwL k':ts eP klg
                                             j0f{ljGof;, zAblgdf{0f, jfSou7g / cg'R5]b          cToGt /f]rs / k9"“ k9"“ nfUg] x'g' o;sf]
                                             n]vgaf/] ;fdfGo 1fg klg g/fVg] t/ cfkm"nfO{        cgf}7f] ljz]iftf xf] . g]kfnL efiffsf] k|of]udf
                                             cAan >]0fLsf] jQmf / n]vsdf bh{ u/fpg              /fli6«o:t/sf / /fi6«JofkL ljt/0fdf /x]sf rlr{t
                                             vf]Hg] d"9fu|xLx¿sf] ln+8d;f]df k/]/ g]kfnL
                                                                          ] ]                   kqklqsfx¿df ;d]t b]lv+b}cfPsf] ljljw

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                              47
k| s [ l tsf] q' l 6 tyf c/fhstf / :yflkt          hg;fwf/0fsf nflu ;d]t ;Dk|if0fLo x'gkb{5
                                                                                    ]         '               ;Eotf < ;Eotf eGbf dnfO{ >f4–
n]vsx¿sf n]vgdf ;d]t JofKt x'Fb}cfPsf]             eGg] dfGotf /fv]/ g} u|Gysf/ j:tLn] eflifs         tk{0f u/]sf] ;Demgf cfp“5=== ;Eo cfrdg,
cz'l4 Pjd\ lj;+ult cf}+NofpFb} z'4, ;/n /          q'l6 / lj;+ultsf] clen]v /fvL ltgsf] pbfx/0f       c;Eo cfrdg . a;\, otfsf] hg} ptf .
;xh af]wuDo z}nLdf n]vgsnfsf] ljsf; ug]{           lb+ b } rrf{ ug' { e Psf] b] l vG5 . s[ l tleq                                    ]
                                                                                                             –‘tf/fk'~h–cGwfsf] a|n’ lgaGwdf
cfwf/lznf tof/ ug{ s[ltsf/n] u/]sf] k|of;          ;d]l6Psf] klxnf] pbfx/0f g} x]/f}– ækqsf/
                                                                                        +                       z+s/ nfld5fg] .
;/fxgLo /x]sf] 5 . rlr{t kqklqsf / :yflkt          eg]sf] af}l4s k]zf xf] .Æ jf:tjd} o:tf jfSosf]             cfrdg ;Eo÷c;Eo x' F b } g ,
n]vsx¿df b]lvPsf eflifs q'l6x¿sf] ;+slnt           k|of]u 7fp“7fp“df e]l6G5 . t/ kqsf/ JolQm          ;Jo÷ck;Jo x' G 5 . hg} b] a | ] sfF w df
sl6ªnfO{ k|lzIffyL{x¿sf cufl8 k|:t't u/]/          xf], k]zf xf]Og . kqsfl/tf dfq k]zf xf] .          /flvPsf]nfO{ ‘;Jo’ / bflxg] sf“wdf /flvPsf]nfO{
jf:tljs l:yltaf]w u/fPsf] pNn]v s[ltsf/n]          k]zj/x¿d} cfkm\gf] k]zfaf/] o:tf] ;fdfGo 1fg
                                                          ]                                           ‘ck;Jo’ elgG5 .
k|fSsygdf ug'{ePsf] 5 . tL ;fdu|Lsf] ljj/0f        klg gx'g] u/]sf cg]s pbfx/0f e]l6G5g\ .
                   "
s[ltleq} cg';rLsf ¿kdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] eP            n]vsn] cf}NofPem}+ ‘j]wzfnf’nfO{ ‘j]bzfnf’ n]Vg]              s[ltsf/n] cn+sf/ / bf]ifx¿sf] klg
n]vsn] cjZo klg pgLx¿sf] pkxf; u/]sf]              / tL b' O { zAbaLrsf] cGt/ klg gb] V g]            zf:qLo rrf{ u/]/ k|of]udf b]lvg] lj;+ultsf
cleof]u v]Kg'kg]{ x'g ;SYof] tfklg To;af6          ;+rf/sdL{ klg 5g\ . ck]Iff / pk]IffaLrsf]          y'k|} pbfx/0f lbg'ePsf] 5 . ;'Gb}df sfg
oyfy{ pb\3fl6t x'g]lyof] / w]/}sf cf“vf            cy{e]b klg ga'em\g] / Pp6f cy{ lbgsf nflu          66\ofpg], cg'lrt cy{ nfUg], hah{:tL cy{
v'Ng]lyP . n]vsn] kl5Nnf ;+:s/0fx¿df Tof]          csf]{ ljk/Ltfy{s zAb k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf            tGsfpg'kg]{, jfl~5t cy{ glbg], pN6f] cy{
;fx; ug'{x'g] of] k+lQmsf/sf] ck]Iff 5 . g]kfnL    pbfx/0f klg kqklqsf, /]l8of], 6]lnlehg h:tf        lbg], rflxg]eGbf a9L zAb yf]kg],{ cy{ bf]xf]l/g],
               ]
efiffsf] ;Dk|if0fLotfnfO{ rxlsnf] / k|efjzfnL      ;+rf/dfWoddf lbgx'“h;f] e]l6G5g\ . hLljtsf]        cfjZos zAbsf] cefj x'g], jfSodf k|wfg
kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] olt uxg pkof]uL k':ts           hGdf]T;j / d[tssf] hGdhoGtLsf] e]b ga'em]/         j:t' ck|wfg aGg k'Ug], egfOdf qmd gldNg],
clxn];Dd c¿ gePsfn] gfd} ls6]/ q'l6 /              hLljts} hGdhoGtL dgfPsf] va/ n]lvg] /              sf/0fxLgtf, Pp6f jfSodf csf]{ jfSosf] k|jz,    ]
lj;+ult Ol·t ug{ klg s[ltsf/ lxlRsrfpg'            5flkg] u/]sf] ;d]t kfOG5 . o:t}, ‘s[lifhGo’sf]     zAb 7Ls 7fpFdf g/xg] / cy{ u8a8 x'g],
x'“b}g .                                           k|of]unfO{ ‘s'v'/fhGo’ ;Dd lj:tf/ ug]{ k|j[lQ      7Ls 7fp“df s'/f g;lsg], ckl/is[t zAbsf]
           g]kfnL efiff g]kfndf g]kfnLx¿aLrsf]     ;+ r f/hutdf JofKt 5 . s' v ' / f;DaGwL            k|of]u x'g], cZnLn zAb, cy{ / cfzo emNsg],
dfq af]nLrfnL / n]Vo efiffsf] ?kdf ;Lldt                             '
                                                   Joj;fonfO{ ‘s'v/fhGo’ Joj;fo eGg ldNb}g .          cn+sf/df klg rfdTsfl/s d"ntTj g} gi6
5} g . o;n] cGt/f{ l i6« o kl/j] z ;d] t           t/ o:tf] k|of]u x'g] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . gfd           x'g], ;/n / ;'af]wuDo z}nLsf] ;§f z}nLs}
cf]ul6;s]sf] 5 . /fli6«o–cGt/f{li6«o ;~rf/–        zAbnfO{ ljz]if0fsf ¿kdf k|of]u ug]{ / ljz]if0f                                           {
                                                                                                      sf/0f cy{sf] cgy{ nfUg] / emg} b'af]wtf emNsg]
dfWodx¿df o;sf] k|of]u x'G5 . ljZjsf               zAbnfO{ gfdsf ¿kdf k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf w]/}         h:tf cg]s kIfdf Wofg k'¥ofP/ n]vsn]
ljleGg efuaf6 ;+;f/e/ k'Ug] u/L g]kfnL             pbfx/0f e]l6G5g\ . To:t} csf]{ pbfx/0f– æ!)        s];f| s];f| s]nfpg'ePsf] 5 . cleJolQm lzNknfO{
efiffdf ;"rgf, ljrf/ / cleJolQmx¿ ;Dk|l] ift       jif{cl3sf] t'ngfdf clxn] jL/u+hdf s's/sf]    '     k|v/ kfg{ rfxg] h'g;'s} k]zf, Joj;fo / txsf
/ cfbfgk|bfg x'g yfn]sf 5g\ . b]zleq 5fkf          hg;+Vof lgs} a9]sf] 5 .Æ p4[t jfSodf               JolQmnfO{ klg of] k|of]uk/s rrf{n] j:t'ut
                     +                ]
dfWodx¿ xhf/f}sf] ;ª\Vofdf k'usf 5g\ eg]           dflg;df dfq k|of]u x'g] hg;+Vof zAbsf] k|of]u      1fg lbg ;S5 . efiff–z}nLsf ofjt kIfdf b[li6
PkmPd /]l8of] / 6]lnlehgsf] ;+Vof / kx'r       “   s's'/df klg ul/Psf] 5 . ‘s's'/sf] ;+Vof            k'¥ofP/ Pp6} s[ltdf olt w]/} ljj]rgLo kIf
Ps bzsotf ce"tk"j{ tj/n] j[l4 ePsf] 5 .            a9]sf]’ eGg'kg]{df s's'/sf] hg;+Vof a9]sf]                \
                                                                                                      ;d]6g ;Sg' n]vssf] 7"nf] v'aL xf] .
Psflt/ o:tf] pT;fxk"0f{ l:ylt 5 eg] csf{lt/        n]lvPsf] 5 . k':tsdf n]vsn] o:tf em08}                        k|:t'ltdf /x]sf] ;/ntf, /f]rstf,
g]kfnL kqsfl/tf If]qdf eflifs k|of]usf] l:ylt      kf“r ;o gd"gf k|:t't ug'{ePsf] 5 .                 k|of]uk/stf / ljifoj:t'sf] uxgtf Pjd\
c;fdfGo q'l6x¿sf] ax'ntfn] el/Psf] 5 .                      g]kfnL efiff n]vgdf vf;u/L tLg            pkof]lutfsf sf/0f ‘xfd|f] efiff’ kqsfl/tfsf]
j0f{ , zAb / jfSosf] k| o f] u b] l v lnP/         k|sf/sf uNtLx¿ a9L e]l6G5g\ . klxnf] uNtL          tflnddf dfq xf]Og, ljBfno :t/b]lv lnP/
ljifoj:t'sf] k|:t'ltdf ;d]t kof{Kt q'l6x¿ e]l6g]   Jofs/0f / zAb–zAbfy{l;t ;DalGwt /x]sf]             pRrlzIffsf] txdf ;d]t kf7\o;fdu|Lsf ¿kdf
/ ;Dk|]if0f g} k|efjxLg x'g] cj:yf slt k|r'/                           |
                                                   b]lvG5 eg] bf];f] uNtL jfSo / cy{nfO{ g}           ;dfj]z ug'{kg]{ vfnsf] 5 . n]vs :jo+n]
5 eGg] s'/f s[ltsf/n] pbfx/0f;lxt k|:6             k|b"lift ug]{ vfnsf] x'G5 . cy{sf] cgy{ nfUg]                          “}
                                                                                                      n]vgdf k"0f{tf x'bg / q'l6/lxttf klg gx'g;S5
kf/]/ ;+rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ ;fjwfg / ;r]t                / pN6f] cy{ lbg] vfnsf jfSo o;leq kb{5g\ .         eg] tfklg k|ltkfB ljifoj:t'sf] ;LldttfnfO{
kfg'{ePsf] 5 . n]vsn] g]kfnL efiffsf k]z]j/             |
                                                   t];f] uNtL cfzo, hf]8, Wjlg / ;du| k|efjdf                                                 ]
                                                                                                      x]bf{ ‘xfd|f] efiff’ k"0f{tfsf] glhs k'usf] :t/Lo
k|of]ustf{x¿df cIfdtf slt 5, hyfefjL k|of]u        cf3ft k'¥ofpg] vfnsf] b]vf kb{5 . z'4, ;/n         k':ts ;flat x'G5 . Pp6} jfSodf cg]s q'l6
ug]{ k/Dk/fn] slt h/f] uf8]sf] 5 / cfd g]kfnLn]    / :ki6 cleJolQmsf lglDt o:tf uNtLx¿                / c:ki6tf e]l6g] hl6n ;d:ofn] u|:t g]kfnL
dft[efiff / dfWod efiffsf] ¿kdf Jofks k|of]u       x6fpg' clgjfo{ 5 . s[ltsf/n] g]kfnL efiff          n]vg / kqsfl/tf If]q ‘xfd|f] efiff’af6 lglZrt
ul//x“bfsf] l:yltdf klg slt c;fjwfgL,              n]vgdf b]lvg] u/]sf o:tf q'l6x¿sf] /f]rs           ¿kdf nfeflGjt x'g;S5 . o:tf] uxg s[lt
nx8afhL / pk]Iffefj JofKt 5 eGg]lt/ klg            lr/kmf/ ug'{ePsf] 5 . kqsf/ / cvaf/L               tof/ ug]{ v'aL k|bz{g ug'{ n]vssf] ljlzi6tf
plQs} rf;f] /fv]/ q'l6, sdL–sdhf]/L /              n]vsn] dfq xf]Og gfdL ;flxTosf/x¿n] klg            xf] . g]kfnL efiffefifL ;a}sf nflu pkof]uL
lj;+ultx¿ s]nfpFb} z'4 / ;xL 9·sf] k|of]usf        s'/} ga'emL lj1tf 5fF6\g] u/]sf] / pN6f]kfN6f]     x'g] uxg s[lt tof/ u/]/ /fi6«efiffsf] ;d[l4df
                         {
lglDt dfu{lgwf{/0f ug'ePsf] 5 .                    s'/f p¢[t÷k|:t't ug{] u/]sf] pNn]v ub{} To:tf      z/RrGb| j:tLn] pNn]Vo of]ubfg k'¥ofpg'ePsf]
           g]kfnL efiff z'4 n]lvg'kb{5, z}nL ;/n   lj;+ u ltx¿tkm{ ;d] t pxfF n ] Wofgfsif{ 0 f       :jLsf/ ug{ s'g} s~h':ofO“ ug'{kb}{g .
x'g'kb{5, eGg vf]h]sf] s'/f k|:6 x'g'kb{5 /        u/fpg'ePsf] 5 . Ps gd'gfM


48                                                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                          k':ts ;dLIff


cg'ejn]
;f/ule{t / pkof]uL
       z/RrGb| j:tL g]kfnL kqsfl/tf bf];f| ] ztfAbLsf] ofqfdf /x] klg g]kfnLdf n]lvPsf kqsfl/tf ;DaGwL sfdnfUbf k':ts
                                          +                     }
                                xftsf] cf}nfdf uGg ;lsG5g\ . k|f9tfn] vfl/Psf, ;'bL3{ cg'ejsf] cfkm\g} hudf plePsf, kqsf/x¿nfO{
                                dfu{bz{g ug{ ;Sg] / p¢[t ug{ ;lsg] k':tsx¿sf] t nueu csfn g} 5 . s]xL jif{ otf xf]8afhLs} ¿kdf


kqsfl/tfaf/] y'k|} k':ts lg:s]sf 5g\ h;nfO{           eg]sf] c¿n] gkfPsf] ljlzi6 ;dfrf/ xf] eGg]
b'O{ ju{df af“8\g ;lsG5 . klxnf] ju{df To:tf          l;sfOPsf] x'G5 . ltgdf sxL“ ‘ljb]zdf ag]sf
k':ts kb{5g\ hf] n]vsn] ljb]zdf kqsfl/tf              d]l;g klg xfd|f kqklqsfn] k|fKt ug{ ;s]sf
;DaGwL s'g} tflnd ln“bf kfPsf x\of08cfp6 /            5}gg\’ elgPsf] x'G5 t sxL+ ‘oxf“ kqsfl/tf ;DaGwL
l6lkPsf gf]6nfO{ tfgt'g kf/]/, k9\g'k/]sf             k|lzIf0f lbg] pko'Qm Joj:yf 5}g’
lstfax¿sf cwsNrf k|;· / p4/0f ;s];Dd                  n]lvPsf] x'G5 . o:tf
a9L vf“b/ pTkfbg ul/Psf x'G5g\ . g]kfnL ;Gbe{
         ]                                            k':tsx¿sf] uDeL/
/ cg'ejsf] uGwaf6 c;Dk[St o:tf k':tsdf                kof{ j nf] s g u/L
kg{ k'u]sf sltko s'/fsf] dd{af/] n]vs :jod\           ‘kqsfl/tfsf ljBfyL{n]
cgle1 /x]sf] tYo ltg} k':tssf kfgfn] k|s6             kmnfgf]–kmnfgf] k':ts
ul//x]sf x'G5g\ .                                     gk9\ g " ’ eg] / ljZj–
           bf];|f] ju{df tL k':tsnfO{ ;dfj]z ug{      ljBfnox¿sf kqsfl/tf
;lsG5 h;sf n]vssf] kqsfl/tf ;DaGwL 1fg,               ljefun] ;+o'Qm ;fj{hlgs
cWoog / cg'ej eg]sf] obfsbf kqklqsf k9\gdf      '     ;"rgf hf/L gug{] xf] eg]
;Lldt x'G5 . kqsfl/tfsf] cf}krfl/s lzIff Kn;–         kqsfl/tf xf“;f] / r'6\lsnfsf]
6' / xfO{ :s"n txdf ;d]t le8fpg] dfq xf]Og,           ljifo aGg k'Ug] b]lvG5 .
;s]–kfPb]lv k|fylds sIffaf6} z'? u/fpg vf]Hg]                    >L/fdl;+ x a:g] t n]
xfd|f] cb\e];|f] pT;fxn] o:tf k':tssf] pTkfbgsf       n]v]sf] ‘kqsfl/tfsf cfofd’ eg]
nflu pj{/ e"ld tof/ kfl/lbPsf] 5 . kqsfl/tfsf]        To:tf k':tsdf k5{ h;n] pN6f] s'/f
1fg lbg] -eP kf] lbg] Û_ eGbf klg h;f]t;f] u/]/       k:sFb}gg\ / n]vsn] g} krfpg
cfkm\gf] k|efjIf]qsf÷lrg]hfg]sf :s"n–sn]hdf           g;s]sf] ljifoj:t' kf7s;fd' jdg
lasfpg] p2]Zon] n]lvPsf o:tf k':tsaf6                 ub{ } g g\ . c9fO{ bzsb] l v g] k fnL
kqsfl/tfsf] xf]Og, n]vsLo d"9tfsf] dfq 1fg            kqsfl/tfdf ;+ n Ug /x] / cWoog,
k|fKt x'G5 . ltgn] ‘nL8’ nfO{ ‘k|yd k[i7sf            cWofkg, tflnd, ;dfrf/ ;ª\sng,
dxTjk"0f{ ;dfrf/, h;nfO{ af]N8 k]m;df lbOG5’          ;Dkfbg h:tf o;sf ljljw kIfdf
eg]/ kl/eflift u5{g\ eg] ‘OG6«f’] eg]sf] ‘;dfrf/sf]   ;'of]Uotfk"j{s ;lqmo /xFb} cfPsf n]vssf]
z'?df ;dfrf/sf d'Vo / dxŒjk"0f{ kIfnfO{               1fg / cg'ejn] o;nfO{ uxlsnf] Pjd\
ck]Iffs[t df]6f cIf/ / af]N8 km]; lbOG5, Tof]         ;f/jfg\ agfOlbPsf 5g\ . ;}4flGts kIfnfO{
c+z g} OG6«f] xf]’ eg]/ cYof{p“5g\ . ‘kmf]6f]         ;/n–;xh ¿kdf k|:t't ug'{ / sfo{If]qsf ljljw
kqsf/x¿n] Pp6} 36gfsf j:t'x¿sf] kmf]6f] lvRg]         cg'ejx¿sf cfwf/df To;nfO{ :ki6 kfg'{ o;sf]
cg'dlt lbG5’ eg]/ kmf]6f] kqsf/sf] kl/efiff k|:t't    ‘df}lnstf’ xf] . n]vs :jod\n] k':tsnfO{ cfkm\gf]
u5{g\ . ltgdf ‘se/]h’ eg]sf] cfj/0fk[i7 xf],          cWoog, cGt/lqmof / cg'ejsf] ld>0f atfPsf
‘skL/fO6’ eg]sf] n]vs:j xf] / ‘PS;Sn'hg’              5g\ . Tof] t x'“b} xf], yk s] klg xf] eg] k':ts


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                               49
     kqsfl/tfaf/] pT;'stf /fVg]x¿, kqsfl/tfsf ljBfyL{–              b]lv ‘gf+uf]’ kqsfl/tf;Dd / ‘Anluª’ b]lv ‘Kof/f;'6’
     k|lzIffyL{x¿ / k|lzIfsx¿sf nflu ;d]t plQs} pkof]uL             kqsfl/tf;Ddsf] ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 . bf];f| df ;+rf/dfWod
                                                                                                                 ]
     5 . ahfl/of d?e"lddf P]/]u}/] k':tsn] d[ut[i0ffsf]             ;DaGwL ‘;fdfGo 1fg’ ;d]l6Psf] 5 . t];|f]df kqsfl/tfaf/]
     ;[li6 ul//x]sf] j]nf of] s[lt Pp6f hnfzo ag]/ k|s6             JoQm ul/Psf dxŒjk"0f{ egfO lbOPsf] 5 eg] clGtd cWofodf
     ePsf] 5 .                                                      kqsfl/tfsf k|fljlws zAbx¿sf] ;"rL k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .
               kqsfl/tfn] cfh cgluGtL cfofd ;d]l6;s]sf] 5                     ljifoj:t' k|:t't ug{] qmddf a:g]tn] oqtq wfl/nf]
                                             \            +
     t/ k':ts ‘;s];Dd a9L cfofd ;d]6g’] WofpGgdf ef}tfl/Psf]        efiffdf ;6Ls s'/f u/]sf 5g\ hf] g]kfnL kqsf/x¿n] cf–
     5}g . a:g]t cfkm"n] hfg]sf], a'em]sf], krfPsf] / cflwsfl/stf   cfkm\gf] sfo{sIfsf leQfdf 6f“:g'kg{] vfnsf 5g\ . pgL
     cfh{g u/]sf] cfofddf dfq k|j]z u5{g\ . h;df k|j]z              sxL+ ‘6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df b]lvgsf nflu dfq’ kqsf/
     u5{g\ To;af/] lgå{Gå eP/, cfTdljZjf;sf ;fy ljifoj:t'           ;Dd]ngdf k|Zg ;f]lw6f]kNg] k|j[lQ -k[i7 !*$_ lj?4 cf}+nf]
     k|:t't u5{g\ . ;/n efiff–z}nL / w/ftnLo ;Gbe{ Pjd\             78\ofp“5g\ t sxL+ ‘kqsf/ kl/rokq g t ;'/Iffsjr xf] g
     pbfx/0fx¿sf] ;xof]uaf6 s'/f] 5n{· kf5{g\ . cjZo klg,           htf;'s} a]/f]s6f]s cfjfudg ug{ kfOg] nfO;]G;’ -k[i7
     ljifoljz]ifdf s]lGb|t /xL To;sf] ;}4flGts–bfz{lgs JofVof       !&!_ eGb} cfkm"nfO{ ;dfhsf] ;fF9] ;Demg] kqsf/–
     k|:t't ug{], ulxl/P/ ;fª\uf]kfª\u ljZn]if0f ug{] / To;af/]     dfgl;stfnfO{ e'O{+df y]rf5{g\ . pgL ‘;dfrf/nfO{ eGbf
     gofF b[li6 jf cjwf/0ff cl3 ;fg{] vfnsf], k|f9t/ kf7sk|lt
                                                     }              vfglkg / pkxf/nfO{ dxTj lbO{ t“5f8d5f8 ub{} hfg]’
     nlIft k':ts of] xf]Og . o;df t To:tf a]Unfa]Un} k':ts          -k[i7 !*%_ / ‘/flqef]hx¿df cTolws dlb/f ;]jg u/L
     aGg ;Sg] bh{geGbf a9L ljifo ;d]l6Psf 5g\ h;df n]vs                 +{
                                                                    e'Od} nDk;f/ kg{] jf emu8f ug{’] -k[i7 !#)_ kqsf/x¿nfO{
     Tolt dfq ulxl/Psf 5g\ hlt ‘cfjZos’ 5 . kqsfl/tf                cfkm\gf] cfr/0f ;'wfg{ ;ts{ u/fp“5g\ . slxn] ‘;dfrf/bftfn]
     k9fO x'g] g]kfnsf tLg 7"nf ljZjljBfnosf ljefuLo                n]v]/ a'emfPsf] ;dfrf/df efiffut / Jofs/0fut z'4fz'l4
         '
     k|dvx¿sf] -dfq_ dGtJo ;d]l6Psfn] k':ts d"ntM Toxf“sf           dfq gx]/L tYout z'4tf / k"0f{tftkm{ klg Wofg lbg'
     ljBfyL{nfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ n]lvPsf] a'lemG5 . a9L ulx/fOn]       ;Dkfbsx¿sf] st{Jo xf]’ -k[i7 !%!_ eGb} cof]Uo÷u}/lhDd]bf/
     ltgnfO{ ps';d's'; x'g] / cTof; nfUg ;Sg] ePsfn]                ;Dkfbsx¿nfO{ g/d zAbdf s8f r8sg–Ro"/f rvfp“5g\
     To;tkm{ g8f]¥ofOPsf]df cGoyf dfGg' h¿/L klg 5}g .              t slxn] ;DkfbsLo eg]sf] xtktL ga'lemg] efiffd} n]lvg'k5{
               #!) k[i7 / !& cWofodf km}lnPsf] k':tssf] z'?sf       eGg] e|dsf] sf/fuf/df aGbL ag]sfx¿nfO{ ‘;DkfbsLo klg
     kf“r cWofo kqsfl/tfsf] kl/ro / o;sf] Oltxf;df s]lGb|t                            ]
                                                                    ;/n z}nLdf n]v/ ;j{;fwf/0fb]lv af}l4s ju{sf ;a} kf7ssf
     5g\ . ;j{k|yd cfd;~rf/sf] cjwf/0ff cYof{p“b} n]vs              nflu k7gLo agfpg' plrt xf]’ -k[i7 @@!_ eg]/ sf/fd'Qm
     kqsfl/tfsf] cy{, cfwf/, p2]Zo, dxŒj / e"ldsfaf/] :ki6          ug{ rfxG5g\ .
     kf5{g\ . To;kl5 ljZj kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; 5f]6s/Ldf                        Oltxf;k|ltsf] uf}/j / ;Ddfgefj k':tssf]
     k|:t't u5{g\ / g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] ljut Pjd\ jt{dfgnfO{         pNn]vgLo kIf xf] . qmflGtsf/L aGg Oltxf;nfO{ 3[0ff
     ljljw r/0fdf lj:tf/k"j{s lgofN5g\ . /f0ffzf;geGbf                     {                                \ '
                                                                    ug'k5{ / cfkm\g} Oltxf;;“u ;DaGw tf]8gk5{ eGg] cfTd3ftL
     klxn]sf] ;+rf/ k4ltb]lv dfcf]jfbL ljb|f]xn] lgDTofPsf] åGå     wf/0ff cfhef]ln Jofks aGb} uPsf] 5 . b]zdf o;cl3
     kqsfl/tf / To;kl5sf] l:ylt;Dd pgn] ;d]6]sf 5g\ .               slxNo} s]xL /fd|f] ePs} 5}g eGg' cu|ufldtfsf] kl/ro
     kf“rf}+ cWofodf uf]/vfkqsf] Oltxf; / of]ubfgsf] ljj]rgf        h:tf] x'g yfn]sf] 5 . t/ a:g]t Oltxf;k|lt s[t£g x'g
     ul/Psf] 5 . k':tssf] ;jf{lws pkof]uL v08sf ¿kdf                rfx“bf /x]g5g\ . To;}n] pgL k~rfotsfndf kqsfl/tfdf
     /x]sf To;kl5sf 5 cWofo kqsfl/tfsf] ;Lksf lgldQ                 ePsf dxŒjk"0f{ sfdsf] klg pNn]v u5{g\ clg uf]/vfkqsf]
     ;dlk{t 5g\ h;nfO{ n]vssf] nfdf] :ynut cg'ejn] hLjGt            dxŒj Pjd\ b]gsf] j0f{g ug{ l;+uf] cWofo ;dlk{t u5{g\ .
     t'NofPsf] 5 . k|ydtM ;dfrf/nfO{ ‘;du| kqsfl/tfsf] d'6’'        b]zsf] h]7f] cvaf/ blIf0f Pl;ofnL kqsfl/tf If]qd} b'ne /  {
     atfpFb} To;sf ljleGg kIfaf/] ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 . To;sf]      ;Ddflgt :yfg agfpg ;kmn ePsf] tYo :ki6Øfp“b} pgL
     nuQ} ;dfrf/bftf / ;dfrf/ ;+sngaf/] ljzb ljj]rgf                eG5g\— ‘uf]k g]kfnn] uj{ ug{ ;Sg] Ps k|d'v /fli6«o
     ul/Psf] cWofo 5 . o;df vf]h, ;+;bLo, k|sf]k, åGå, ljsf;        ;Dkbf aGg uPsf] 5’ -k[i7 (^_ . Oltxf;nfO{ lwSsf/]/
     / of}g kqsfl/tfaf/] ljz]if rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . o;kl5              uf}/jflGjt x'g rfxg]x¿sf] eL8df a:g]tn] hf]ufPsf]
     kqsf/ ;Dd]ng, ;Dkfbg, cGt/jftf{ / ljrf/ n]vg;DaGwL             j:t'lgi7tf k|z+;gLo 5 .
                                                        {
     cWofo /x]sf 5g\ h;n] tTtt\ ljifonfO{ ;"Idtfk"js s]nfPsf                  g]kfnL n]vsx¿df cfkm\gf] efiffk|lt cgf}7f] xLgefjgf
     5g\ . To;kl5sf b'O{ cWofon] ;dfrf/ ;ldlt / cfd;~rf/            5 / cfTdljZjf;sf] cefj klg . pgLx¿ g]kfnLsf nflu
     Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;d]6]sf 5g\ . clGtdsf rf/ cWofo ljz]if            g]kfnLdf kf7Øk':ts n]V5g\ t/ kfl/eflifs zAb÷zAbfjnL,
     /f]rs / hfgsf/Ld"ns /x]sf 5g\ . klxnf]df ‘vfnL v'§f’           zLif{s÷pkzLif{snfO{ ;Lw} jf sf]i7sdf /fv]/ cª\u|]hLdf

50                                                                                                               df3–r}t @)^$
glbP;Dd ltgnfO{ lrQ a'em\b}g . ltgnfO{ dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f          7fp“ d f v' § f sf6\ g ] , h:t} gjLgtd\ -%_, b' M vb\
g]kfnLdf dfq n]Vbf To;n] kof{Kt cy{ lb+b}g eGg] nfUbf]         -!@*_, lgs6td\ -!@(_, Go"gtd\ -!#!_, dfkm{t\ -#÷!##_,
xf]nf cyjf ‘kf7sn] dnfO{ cof]Uo 7fGg]5g\’ eGg] eo x'“bf]       dgg\ -!&!÷@)$_ k|j[lQ afSn} b]lvG5 . ck"0f{gLo
xf]nf . ‘kqsfl/tfsf cfofd’ klg o:tf] k|j[lQsf] lzsf/           -!^@÷!&)_, tgdgtf -!#*_, lgk"0f{ -!#*_, lhWbL
x'gaf6 eg] aRg ;s]sf] 5}g . ‘;DkfbsLo’ elg;s]kl5               -!&!_, xfFl;n -!&%_, >]os/ -!#)_, OdfGbfl/tf -@^&_
km]l/ Editorial -k[i7 @@)_ lsg eGg'k/]sf] xf], cyjf ‘zLif{s’   h:tf zAbn] bfFtdf 9'·f nufpF5g\ . a:blyP, ;'GblyP
n]lv;s]kl5 km]l/ Headline -k[i7 !(*_ lsg n]Vg'k/]sf]           h:tf lqmofkb -!%#_, jfSosf aLrdf cfPsf cjfl~5t
xf], a'em\g ;ls“b}g . k':tssf clwst/ k[i7 o:t} h~hfndf         k|ZglrGx -!!÷!&%÷@^(_ / ck"/f jfSo -!%*_ n] lbUbf/L
h]lnPsf 5g\ . o;/L ‰jf§ x]b}{ lj¿k nfUg] efiff÷lnlksf]         a9fp“5g\ . Pp6} jfSodf lxHh];DaGwL rf/j6f;Dd uNtL
j0f{;+s/ 9f“rf v8f ug'{ s'g} klg b[li6n] pko'Qm xf]Og .        b]vf kg{' -!)!_ /fd|f] xf]Og . k|'kmsf uNtL klg Tolt
ljlzi6 kfl/eflifs zAb, zAbfjnL jf jfSo÷jfSof+znfO{             kftnf 5}gg\ .
cª\u|]hLdf ;d]t lb“bf lh1f;'sf nflu Hofbf pkof]uL x'G5                   ‘hGo’n] pTkGg x'g]÷ePsf] eGg] cy{ a'emfp“5 .
eGg] clek|fo eP ltgnfO{ k':tssf] k'5f/lt/ cg';"rLsf            ‘of}ghGo cfgGb’ eGg t ldN5 t/ of}ghGo snfs[lt
¿kdf 5'§} ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsG5 . xf]Og, oqtq cª\u|]hLdf            -!&(_, of}ghGo ljifo -!)_, of}ghGo kqsfl/tf -@^(_
                          ]
n]Vbf g} a9L :ki6, ;Dk|if0fLo / nlIft kf7ssf nflu Hofbf        eGg ldNb}g . tL of}g;DaGwL jf of}gdf cfwfl/t xf]nfg\,
;/n–;xh x'G5 eGg] nfU5 eg] t k"/} k':ts g]kfnLsf] ;§f          of}gaf6 pTkGg ePsf xf]Ogg\ . hgdfg; -hgtfsf] dg_
cª\u|]hLd} n]Vg]lt/ nfUg' g} a9L a'l4dfgL x'g]5 .                         “
                                                               pQ]lht x'bf] xf]nf t/ ‘hgdfg;nfO{ hfgsf/L’ -!*@_ lbg'kb{g, }
           o;}sf] csf{] kf6f]sf ¿kdf g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] /f]u   ‘hgtf’nfO{ lbP k'U5 . ‘zfGt / w}o{wf/0f u/]/’ -!&@_ df
/x]sf] 5— ;xL zAbsf] 5gf]6÷k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf]            ‘zfGt’sf] 7fp“df ls ‘zflGt’ n]Vg' /fd|f] x'G5 gq ‘zfGt
cefj . To;sf s]xL pbfx/0f o; k':tsdf klg b]lvG5g\ .            /x]/ /’ eGg' plrt x'G5 . ‘dfgj;dfhdf ;a}eGbf k'/fgf]
h:t} ‘;TotYo’ k[i7 ^ df Accuracy nfO{ elgPsf]] 5 eg]           Joj;fo aGg] uf}/j kfPsf] j]Zofj[lQ’ -!&(_ df ‘uf}/j’sf]
k[i7 (* df Truthness nfO{ . t/, Accuracy eg]sf]                ;§f cs{} zAb vf]Hg' /fd|f] x'G5 . lsgeg], j]Zofj[lQ uf}/jsf]
tYo xf] eg] Truthness eg]sf] ;To . b'O{ km/s s'/fnfO{          ljifo xf]Og .
ld;df; u/]/ cw{gf/LZj/ v8f ug'{sf] s'g} nfe 5}g . o;}                                        {
                                                                         o;afx]s, df8L b'36gf:ynsf] tl:a/sf] SofK;gdf
d];f]df sxL+ ;dfrf/ ;+sngnfO{ -k[i7 !#%_ Reporting             ‘of] 36gfn] g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ sf cWoIf k|r08 :jo+nfO{
elgPsf] 5 t sxL+ ;dfrf/ ;Dk|]if0fnfO{ -k[i7 !$!_ . :ki6}                                                               “}
                                                               lrlGtt t'NofPsf] lyof]’ -!&#_ jfSosf] k|of]hg :ki6 x'bg .
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5, ;+sng / ;Dk|if0f cnu–cnu s'/f x'g\ . To:t}, c+uhLsf]        ;dfrf/ ;+sng -!@^_ s} ;Gbe{df lbg'kg{] ‘cfjZos ;fdu|L’sf]
Disaster nfO{ ‘k|sf]k’ eGg] ul/Psf]÷elgPsf] 5 -k[i7            ;"rL kqsf/ ;Dd]ng -!*#_ sf] ;Gbe{df dfq lbOPsf] cln
!^) / cGo_ . t/ Disaster sf] cy{ k|sf]k geP/ 3f]/              cgf}7f] nfU5 . ljz]if ;Gbe{df ;Lldt åGå kqsfl/tfsf]
ljklQ, b'3{6gf jf ;+s6 xf] . k|sf]kn] t sf]k -qmf]w_ sf]       kl/ro ‘;+;f/ åGådo 5’ h:tf jfSoaf6 -k[i7 !^(_ z'?
k|antf eGg] cy{ hgfp“5 h;nfO{ cª\u|]hLdf Wrath jf              ul/Psf] b]Vbf åGåfTds ef}ltsjfbLn] åGåsf] JofVof ug{
Fury eG5g\ . Stringer nfO{ ‘:yfgLo ;dfrf/bftf’ elgPsf]         yfn]h:tf] nfU5 .
-k[i7 !#$_ klg nueu To:t} xf] . Stringer sf] cy{ xf]—                    ‘kqsfl/tfsf cfofd’ o:tf sdL–sdhf]/Laf6 d'Qm
sltj6f -slt nfdf÷s:tf_ ;dfrf/ k|of]u eP, To;sf]                g/x] klg clnslt ;fjwfgL / ;r]i6tf ckgfpg] xf] eg] tL
cfwf/df kfl/>lds kfpg] -dfl;s tna gkfpg] _                     ;Rofpg g;lsg] vfnsf 5} g g\ . a:g] t sf] k] z fut
;dfrf/bftf . To:tf] ;dfrf/bftf ‘:yfgLo’ dfq xf]Og,             k|lta4tfnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ bf];|f] ;+:s/0fdf k':ts q'l6/lxt
‘j}b]lzs’ klg x'g ;S5 . ‘;/ntf Pj+ :ki6tf’sf] cª\u|]hL         / cem eml/nf] eP/ cfpg] cfzf ug{ ;lsG5 . ;dLIff
Simple and Clear -k[i7 !)#_ xf]Og, cª\u|]hLsf b'j}             n]Vg l;sfpFb} n]vsn] eg]sf 5g\– ‘olb ;dLIff ul//xg
ljz]if0fnfO{ efjjfrs gfd agfPkl5 dfq tfndfn ldN5 .             cfjZos gePsf] k':ts 5 eg] hah{:tL ;dLIff n]Vg'x'“b}g’
‘If a dog bits a man that is not a news’ df news               -@@&_ . t/, k}/jL a's xfp;n] 5fk]sf], !() ?k}of“ d"Nosf]
;“u cfPsf] a -k[i7 (&_ nfO{ d]l6lbg kfP slt hftL               of] k':ts ;dLIff ug{ dfq xf]Og, lsg]/ k9\g / ;fd"lxs
x'GYof] .                                                      5nkmn ug{ klg pko'Qm 5 . vf;u/L g]kfnL kqsfl/tf;“u
           g]kfnL efiff;“u dfq ;DalGwt ;fgf–7"nf ;d:of         ;DalGwt / o;k|lt rf;f] /fVg]x¿sf nflu of] ;'vb pkxf/
klg k':tsdf e]l6O/xG5g\ . x|:jnfO{ bL3{ agfpg], h:t}           g} xf] . olt dxŒjk"0f{ / pkof]uL k':tssf nflu >L/fdl;+x
WjgL -*÷!@^_, zf]sfs"n -!#!_, ;'k/Lj]If0f -!#@_, s"n           a:g]t awfO{sf kfq 5g\ . eljiodf pgsf] snd cem
-!#%_, q'6L -!^)_, cle?rL -!#(_, jL/n} -@&%_ / grflxg]         wfl/nf] / kl/kSj aGb} hfcf];\, z'esfdgf ¤

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                  51
sfplG;n ultljlw


ldl8of–;+jfb
k|fks–k|ltlqmof k|fKt ug{] k|of;
     dx]Gb| lji6                                                                     '
                       cfd;~rf/ k|lqmof ;kmn x'g d"ntM o;n] rf/j6f r/0f kf/ ug{kb{5 eg]/ dflgG5 . tL rf/ r/0fnfO{ ;|ft            ]
                       -Source_, ;Gb]z -Message_, dfWod -Channel_ / k|fks -Reciver_ egL cfd;~rf/sf lj1x¿n] JofVof ug{]
                                     ]
                       ub{5g\ . oxf“g/ k|Zg cfp“5— To;f] eP cfd;~rf/ Psf]xf]/f] ;~rf/ k|0ffnL xf] t < To;sf] hjfkmdf km]l/ lj1x¿
                       eG5g\— xf]Og, of] t bf]xf]/f] ;~rf/ k|0ffnL xf] . ta k|fks / ;|f]tnfO{ s] n] hf]8\5 < k|ltlqmof
                       -Feedback_ n] . jf:tjdf cfd;~rf/ pkef]Qmfn] lbg] k|ltlqmof ljgf of] k|lqmofn] k"0f{tf k|fKt ug{] ;Qm}g . o;y{



lj1x¿n] g} ;RofP/ eGg] u/] s f 5g\ —
cfd;~rf/sf rf/ xf]Og, kf“r r/0f x'G5g\ .
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k|]; y'k|} vfnsf 9f“rfaf6 u'lh|Psf] 5 .
;j{;QfjfbL, ;fDojfbL jf :jtGqtfdf cfwfl/t
k| ] ; l;4fGtnfO{ k5fl8 ws] n ] / cfw' l gs
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k|; ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTjsf] l;4fGtdf cl3
al9/x]sf] 5 . o;n] ljs]lGb|t ;~rf/sf]
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cjwf/0ff cg'¿k ;"rgfsf] ;|ft -kqsf/_ /
k|fks -kf7s÷>f]tf÷bz{s_ aLr a9LeGbf a9L
cGt/lqmofdf hf]8 lbG5 . To;}n] sltkon]
o;nfO{ ljsf;jfbL l;4fGt, sltn]
;xeflutfd"ns l;4fGt / sltn] ;a}eGbf a9L
nf] s tflGqs l;4fGt klg eGg] ub{ 5 g\ .
kqsfl/tfsf l;4fGt, dof{ b f, ;DkfbsLo
:jtGqtf, sfg" g sf] kl/kfngf / kqsf/
cfrf/;+lxtfnfO{ kqsfl/tfsf] cEof;df slxNo}        o; cGtu{t kqsfl/tf;“u ;DalGwt s'g} klg              s] eO/x]sf] 5 < tfhf 36gf jf ljifodf
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e'Ng'xbg / kqsfl/tf ;dfhk|lt lhDd]jf/ k]zf        kIf / ljifodf ljlzi6 JolQm -x¿_ sf] ljZn]if0f,      ldl8ofsf] pkl:ylt s:tf] /x\of], 7Ls ls
xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ Jojxf/df ptfg{ x/bd k|oTg       cledt / d"Nof+sg kqsf/x¿n] ;'G5g\ /                 a]7Ls < ca s] ug'{k5{ < o:tf cg]sg\ k|Zgsf]
ul//xg'k5{ eg]/ o; l;4fGtn] ;Demfp“5 .            pgLx¿;“u v'n]/ ;+jfb u5{g\ . sfplG;nsf              hjfkm vf]Hg of] d~r ;femf rf}tf/L xf];\ eg]/
nf]stflGqs k4ltsf] cEof;;“u} g]kfnL k|];n]        cWoIf /fh]Gb| bfxfnn] ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’ sf]            ;|ft JolQmnfO{ a9LeGbf a9L v'n/, cf}krfl/s
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;fdflhs pQ/bfloTjk"0f{ kqsfl/tfsf] klg            z[ª\vnf k|f/De x'“bf -@)^# df3 !& ut]_              jf cgf}krfl/s h'g ¿kdf pgLx¿nfO{ ;xh
cEof; cf/De ug{}kb{5 . o;n] To:tf] rfxgf          eg]sf] :d/0f ug{] xf] eg] ‘of] ldl8ofsf] To:tf]     nfU5 ToxL ¿kdf ;+jfbsf] k|lqmof cl3 a9fpg]
/fv]sf] klg 5 . t/ ;|f]t / k|fksaLrsf] uxg        rf}tf/L xf], hxf“ kqsfl/tfsf] ljifoj:t'leq k;]/     ul/Psf] 5 . @)^# df3b]lv @)^$ h]7;Dd
cGt/lqmofsf] lglDt pko'Qm d~r v} <                lj1sf] d'vaf6 cEof;stf{n] ;Lwf k|ltlqmof                                 \
                                                                                                      kf“r dlxgfdf of] z[ªvnf cGtu{t ePsf kf“r
             ]
            k|; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’   kfpg ;Qm5 .’ g]kfnL k|];n] h] ul//x]sf] 5,          j6f ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’nfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] cfkm\gf]
ToxL l/Qmtf k"/f ug{] Pp6f cEof; xf] . k|]; /     Tof] k]zfut dof{bfsf] s;Ldf s:tf] 5 < uj{           p2]Zocg'¿k o;n] xfl;n u/]sf] pknlAw
k| f ksnfO{ hf] 8 \ g ] dfWod . of] ldl8ofn]      ug'{kg{] s'/f s] 5g\ < u'gf;f ;'Gg'kg{] 7fp“ sxf“   ;Gtf]ifhgs dfGg ;lsG5 .
hgtfaf6 ;xL k|ltlqmof k|fKt ug{] / ljZjf;sf]      5g\ < ldl8ofsf] ‘se/]h’ / k|fyldstf s:tf]                   klxnf] ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’sf] ljifo ‘/fhgLlt
dt lng] jf lng dfu{bz{g kfpg] cj;/ xf] .                                                       '
                                                  5 < ljifoj:t'sf] lgwf{/0f / k|:t'lt s:tf] x'gk5{,   / ldl8of’ lyof] h;df /fhgLlts ljZn]ifs

52                                                                                                                                    df3–r}t @)^$
                      '
k|f= s[i0f vgfnn] d'nssf] ;du| ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg            /fhgLlts bn / ;+;bnfO{ Tof] s'/f ;DemfOlbg         ;+;bdf uDeL/ ax; x'g] ljifonfO{ ldl8ofn]
/fhgLlts cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f ub{} eGg'ePsf]                                            '
                                                        ldl8of;“u cfu|x ;d]t ug{eof] . k|f= vgfn em}+      a'em\g ;Sg'k5{ / To;nfO{ phfu/ klg ug'{k5{
lyof]—‘o:tf] a]nf ldl8ofsf] e"ldsf cem ;zQm             pxf“n] klg ldl8ofn] s]jn ‘se/]h’ xf]Og,            eGg] ;'emfj lbg'eof] . ‘;+;bdf ax;, dte]b
x'g'k5{ .’ pxf“sf] ljrf/df ;ª\qmd0fsfndf ((             ljifoj:t'sf] uDeL/tf a'em]/ tbg'¿k To;df           :jfefljs xf] t/ ldl8ofdf ToxL dfq 5fp“5’,
k|ltzt ;"rgf ldl8ofaf6 g} k|fKt x'G5 .                        ]      {
                                                        k|jz ug'k5{ eGg]tkm{ Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg'eof] .      kGtsf] u'gf;f] lyof]—‘;xdltdf k'luG5 t/
g]kfndf ldl8ofsf ;a} ljwf 5fkf, /]l8of],                ‘c¿ lgjf{rg / ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgdf s]           Tof] s] s;/L eof], ldl8ofn] elglb“b}g .’
6]lnlehg / cgnfOg;d]tsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/                 km/s 5, o:tf] lgjf{rgdf cGoq s:tf] cEof;                    ;ft kf6L{sf] ‘xfOsdf08’ n] ;a} s'/fsf]
h'g /km\tf/df ePsf] 5, To;cg'¿k ltgn]                   ePsf] 5 ;dfg'kflts–ldl>t cflb k|0ffnLsf            lgwf{/0f ug{] ePsf]n] Joj:yflksf–;+;b gL/;
ljifoj:t' -sG6]G6_ df eg] ks8 sfod ug{                  kmfObf–a]kmfObf s] 5g\, bnx¿aLr o;df dt}So         / dxTjxLg ePsf] ;xefuL kqsf/x¿sf]
;s]sf 5}gg\ eGg] pxf“sf] ljZn]if0f lyof] .                  “
                                                        gx'bf s:tf] k|efj kb{5, pDd]bjf/sf of]Uotf–        l6Kk0fLdf ;f+;båo vf;} c;xdt /xg'ePg .
/fHosf] ¿kfGt/0f k|lqmofnfO{ s;/L cufl8                 cof]Uotf, ;Gt'ng, plrt k|ltlglwTj cflbsf]          pxf“x¿n] yKg'eof]— ‘t}klg o;sf] h'g ;fj{ef}d,
n}hfg] eGg] ljifodf g]kfnL ldl8of of]hgfa4              ;Daf] w g s;/L x' g ' k 5{ h:tf ljifodf            ;j{JofkL dxTj 5, To;nfO{ rflx“ gla;f}+{ .’
9+ u n] nfUg' k g{ ] ;' e mfj lb+ b } pxf“ n ] k| Z g                                          '
                                                        ;~rf/dfWodx¿n] af]lnlbg'k5{,’ k|dv cfo'Qm                   Gofofnosf] e|i6frf/sf] rrf{ / ;L8L
p7fpg'eof]— ‘PkmPdnufotsf dfWodx¿df                     kf]v/]nsf] cfu|x lyof] . pxf“n] yKg'eof], ‘s:tf]   k|s/0f ldl8ofdf 5/ki6 ePsf] a]nf @)^$
;d]t /fhgLlts JolQmx¿n] g} k|fyldstf                    lsl;dsf] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL xfdL rfxG5f},+ s:tf       j}zfv !^ ut] cfof]lht ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’ sf]
kfp“5g\, hgtfsf cfjfh cem} cf]em]nd} k/]                                                            '
                                                        pDd]bjf/ xfdL rfxG5f},+ s:tf] jftfj/0f x'gk5{,     rf}yf] sfo{qmddf ‘Gofofno / ldl8of’ ljifodf
ls <’ k|f= vgfnsf] egfO lyof]— dw]zsf]                  ;'/Iff Joj:yfkg s;/L ul/g'k5{, dtbftf lzIff        cGt/lqmof ;DkGg eof] . sfo{ q mdsf
u' g f;f] ldl8ofn] ;' G g' k 5{ , g] k fnu~hsf]         k'u]sf] 5 ls 5}g, 5}g eg] s:tf] /0fgLlt                ]
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36gfnfO{ k|ltufdL v]n dfq eg]/ kG5fpg]                                                       '
                                                        ckgfOg'k5{, cfrf/;+lxtf s:tf] x'gk5{ oL ;du|                                 ]
                                                                                                           clwjQmf e/t/fh pk|tLn] ldl8ofn] cfkm\gf]
                             ''
s'/fdf ldl8of ;+nUg x'gxGg . O/fsdf g]kfnL                             ]  ]
                                                        ljifodf k|; / k|;dfkm{t hgtfsf efjgf phfu/         ;Ldfsf] x]Ssf /fVg'kg{] t/ e|i6frf/sf ljifonfO{
dfl/+bfsf] 36gf -@)^! ebf} !^_ nfO{ lnP/                x'g'kb{5 .’                                        tYok/s eP/ aflx/ Nofpg rflx“ lxlRsrfpg
ldl8ofsf] cg';Gwfg x'g'kb{Yof] .                                                         |
                                                                    ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’sf] t];f] s8L ‘cGtl/d    gx'g] wf/0ff /fVg'eof] . ‘cbfnt jf GofofwLzsf
          ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’n] cfTd;dLIff ug{] /            ;+;b / ldl8of’ sf ;|f]t JolQm ;f+;båo              af/]df s'g} s'/f aflx/ Nofp“bf cbfntsf] dfgxflg
w]/} l/Qmtf d]6\g] ljZjf; ub{} k|f= vgfnn]              /fw]Zofd clwsf/L / /3'hL kGt x'g'x'GYof] .         kf] x'G5 ls eGg] xfpu'hL kqsf/x¿aLr
ldl8ofsf] ljZj;gLotf / k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg                @)^$ j} z fvdf ;DkGg pQm 5nkmndf                   b]lvG5,’ jl/i7 clwjQmf cof{nsf] egfO lyof]—
ljifoj:t'sf] ljZn]if0f, ;fdu|Ldf ljljwtf, n}l+ us       pxf“x¿sf] ;femf u'gf;f] lyof]— ldl8ofn] c¿         k|sflzt–k|;fl/t ;dfrf/n] d'2fsf] sf/afxLdf
;Gt'ng, ;fdflhs d'2fsf] ;xL k|ltlglwTj,                 If]qnfO{ h;/L k|fyldstf lbG5, ;+;bnfO{             k|ToIf c;/ kg{] :ki6 gb]lvP;Dd cbfntsf]
kf7skq h:tf gful/ssf cfjfh cfpg] :yfgsf]                lb“b}g . ;+;bsf ljjfbf:kb ljifo ldl8ofdf           cjx]ngf x'Gg, GofofwLz / cbfntsf] :jR5
j[l4, efiffut ljljwtf cflb kIfdf a9L Wofg               5fp“5g\ t/ uDeL/ ljifon] k|j]z g} kfp“b}gg\ .      cfnf]rgf ug{ kfOG5 .
lbg ;+rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ ;'emfj lbg'eof] .                                                      ]
                                                                    ;+;bdf ldl8ofnfO{ k|jz v'nf ul/Psf]               ]
                                                                                                                    k|;n] cbfntsf ljifox¿nfO{ klxn]eGbf
          ‘ldl8of–;+ j fb’sf] bf] ; | f ] s8L           Pj+ ;'/Iff–;+j]bgzLn ljifodf 5nkmn ePsf]           a9L :yfg lbPsf]df v'zL JoQm ub{} pxf“x¿
‘;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg / ldl8of’ ljifodf s]lGb|t        cj:yfdf afx]s ;ldltsf a}7sdf ;d]t kx'Fr            b'j}n] Gofofnosf] dfldnfdf k|]; cfkm}+ klg
                  ]
lyof] . o;df ;|ft JolQmsf ¿kdf lgDTofOPsf               lbOPsf]nfO{ plrt sfo{sf ¿kdf ln“b} ;f+;båon]       36gfd'vL / ckl/kSj /x]sf] u'gf;f] ug'{eof] .
    '
k|dv lgjf{rg cfo'Qm ef]h/fh kf]v/]nsf] hf]8             6]lnlehgnfO{ klg ;+;bsf] a}7sdf k|j]z                ]
                                                                                                           k|; :jtGqtf / cbfntsf] cjx]ngfsf ljifodf
klg gofF g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f s;/L ;+ej 5 eGg]              lbOg'kg{] wf/0ff JoQm ug'{eof] . ‘sd ;] sd         uxg 5nkmn u/f}+, Gofofno a9L ;+j]bgzLn
s'/fdf ldl8ofn] a9L snd rnfpg'k5{ eGg]d}                ;+;bsf] k|Zgf]Q/ ;donfO{ rflx“ k|ToIf k|;f/0f      / sltko cy{df k|fljlws ;d]t ePsf] sf/0f
lyof] . @)^# r}t #) ut] ;DkGg o; ;+jfbdf                ug' { k 5{ , ef/tdf klg o:tf] 5’, ;f+ ; b          cbfntL l/kf]l6{ªsf k|lzIf0f klg rnfcf}+,
kf]v/]nn] b'O{ dlxgf cyf{t\ h]7leq ;+ljwfg;efsf]        clwsf/Lsf] egfO lyof]—hgtf;“u ;/f]sf/ /fVg]        pxf“x¿sf] cfu|x lyof] .
lgjf{rg ug{ s] s:tf r'gf}tL 5g\ eGg] s'/fnfO{           ljifosf sfg"g lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf ldl8ofsf]                kqsf/af6} ldl8ofsf] ;dLIff u/fpg
3'dfO{–3'dfO{ k|:t't dfq ug'{ePg ;/sf/,                 a9L Wofg hfg'k5{ . csf{ ;f+;b /3'hL kGtn]          ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’ sf] kf“rf}+ sfo{qmddf ‘clxn]sf]


                     ]                    }                                      +
                  ‘k|; :jtGqtfsf nflu n8\gk5{, t/ n8\bf kf6L{sf] em08fd'lg ghfcf},
                                                           +                        +
            g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf] sfof{no / em08fd'lg hfcf}, ToxL+af6 P]Soa4tf hgfcf},
                                        Pp6} :j/ b]cf}+ .’
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                          53
g]kfnL kqsfl/tf’ zLif{scGtu{t @)^$ h]7              d}n] dflggF, p;sf] bafanfO{ 6]l/gF lsgls             ]
                                                                                                      ‘k|;dfly cem} r'gf}tL 5g\’, pxf“sf] d"Nof+sg
@% ut] jl/i7 kqsf/ o'j/fh l3ld/]nfO{ ;|ft       ]   d}n] ;]gfaf6 kqsfl/tf l;s]sf] xf]Og,’ cfkm"nfO{   lyof]— kqsfl/tf ug{] plrt jftfj/0f, kqsf/sf]
JolQmsf ¿kdf lgDTofOPsf] lyof] . pxf“n]             k|tLssf ¿kdf k|:t't ub{} pxf“n] To;j]nfsf]        k]zfut ;'/Iff / cfly{s dha'tL geP;Dd of]
             ]
g]kfnL k|;df y'k}| ljrng cfpg vf]h] klg                      ]
                                                    g]kfnL k|;sf] cj:yf / /fHosf] ;Ldfsf] ljj]rgf     k]zfdf /fd|f dfG5]x¿ nfUg ;Q}mgg\, /fd|f dfG5]
;du|df @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngkZrft\                 ug'{eof] . pxf“sf] ljrf/df g]kfnL k|];n] zfxL     gcfP;Dd of] k]zfn] r'gf}tL wfGg ;Qm}g .
g]kfnL kqsfl/tf Jofj;flostftkm{ pGd'v               sfndf c;Gt'lnt kqsfl/tfsf] cEof; klg                      oL sfo{qmdx¿sf] cfwf/df ‘ldl8of–
                       {       ]
/x]sf] ljZn]if0f ug'eof] . ‘k|fkf]u08f dRrfpg]      b]vfof] . ‘km]a|'c/L ! b]lv @! ;Dd sflGtk'/ /                                        ]
                                                                                                      ;+jfb’ sf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ g]kfnL k|; hlt Jofks
  ]
k|;n] zfxL sfndf clwgfosjfbsf] jsfnt                b sf7df8f}+ kf]i6n] To;a]nfsf] kl/l:yltaf/]df     / Jofj;flos aGb} uPsf] 7flgPsf] 5, o;n]
u/], k|hftGqsf] lj?4df klg nfu], ljrng /                                  ]
                                                    ;DkfbsLo;Dd n]vgg\’, pxf“sf] l6Kk0fL lyof]—       Tof] ¿ksf] kl/kSjtf xfl;n ug{ eg] lgSs} g}
sfnLbf; k|jl[ Q klg b]lvof], tL ;a unt              clk|n @( kl5 rflx“ ;Gt'ng u'dfP/ n]v,] Tof]                   {
                                                                                                      d]xgt ug'kg{] cfjZostf 68\sf/f] b]lvPsf]
x' g \ , ’ l3ld/] s f] cfTd;dLIff lyof] — ‘k| ] ;   7Ls xf]Og . ljZn]if0f ;du|df x'g'k5{ .            5 . Tof] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’
                          }
:jtGqtfsf nflu n8\gk5{, t/ n8\bf kf6L{sf]                      sfg"gL zf;gsf] dfGotfnfO{ crfgf]df     sf] lg/Gt/tf sf];]9'+uf ;flat x'g ;Qm5 .
em08fd'lg ghfcf},+ g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf]            /fv]/ nf]stGq of u0ftGq sxL+ klg cfp“bg      }    o;sf] lg/Gt/tf rflx“ ldl8of pBf]usf x:tL
sfof{no / em08fd'lg hfcf},+ ToxL+af6 P]Soa4tf       eGb} l3ld/]n] k|]; sfplG;nh:tf ;+:yfn]            / ;DkfbsLo g] t [ T jsf] rfv Pj+ ;lqmo
hgfcf}+, Pp6} :j/ b]cf}+ .’                         cfrf/;+lxtfsf ljZjJofkL dfGotfnfO{ oxfF klg       ;xeflutfdf e/ kg{] s'/f xf] .
            ‘df3 !( kl5 ;]gfn] n]v—gn]v eg]sf]                                 { ]
                                                    nfu" u/fpg k|oTg ug'kg{df hf]8 lbg'eof] .


         :of6nfO6 nfOa|/Lsf] :yfkgf
                       ]                                                            lgjf{rg ;~rf/ cg'udg
                                                    ldl8of /                 @)^$ ;fn dª\l;/ ^ ut] x'g] to
                                                    kqsfl/tf;DaGwL           ul/Psf] ;+ljwfg;ef ;b:o lgjf{rgsf
                                                    cWoog–cg';Gwfg           ;Gbe{df 5fkfdfWodaf6 k|sfzg x'g]
                                                    ug]{ l;+ufk'/sf] ;+:yf   / ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWodaf6 k|;fl/t
                                                    ‘Plds’ (Asian            x'g] ;fdu|Lx¿ ‘;+ljwfg;ef ;b:o
                                                    Media Information        lgjf{rg cfrf/;+lxtf, @)^$’ cg'sn   "
                                                    and                      eP gePsf] cg'udg ug{ lgjf{rg
                                                    Communication            cfof]un] k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnnfO{
                                                    Centre-AMIC) sf          cfu|x u/]sf] lyof] . ;f]xL cfu|xnfO{
                                                k|sfzgx¿ g]kfnL              :jLsf/ u/L cfof]un] ;~rf/dfWodsf
                                                kf7sx¿sf] lglDt              nflu hf/L u/]sf] cfrf/;+lxtf nfu"
                                                k|]; sfplG;n                 ePkl5 lgjf{rg ;DkGg geP;Dd
                                                g]kfndf pknAw x'g            b]ze/sf ;a} ;~rf/dfWodx¿ -5fkf
 yfn]sf 5g\ . @% h]7 @)^$ df sfplG;nsf cWoIf /fh]Gb| bfxfn                   / ljB'tLo k|;f/0f_ sf] cg'udg ug{sf nflu sfplG;n / lgjf{rg
 / ‘Plds’ sf g]kfn k|ltlglw ljgf]b e§/fO{aLr ePsf] ;Demf}tf                  cfof]uaLr ;Demf}tf ;DkGg eof] . cfjZos hgzlQm /
 cg';f/ ‘Plds’ n] cfkm\gf k|sfzgx¿ l56f]5l/tf] dfWoddfkm{t                   pks/0fsf nflu sl/a ?= ! s/f]8 ^) nfv a/fa/sf] cfly{s
 sfplG;nnfO{ pknAw u/fpg]5 / sfplG;nn] OR5's                                 ;xof]u cd]l/sL ;/sf/ USAID/OTI n] lbg] lgwf] cg'?k
 cWo]tfx¿nfO{ tL k|sfzgsf] cWoog Pj+ cGo pkof]usf lglDt                      cfjZos ;dembf/L eof] . USAID/OTI af6 k|fKt pks/0fx¿
 cfjZos ;'ljwfsf] Joj:yf ug]{5 . ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ ug{                      sfplG;n ;lrjfnodf h8fg ul/Psf] / ;~rf/ cg'udgsf nflu
 cfof]lht ;df/f]xdf ldl8of / kqsfl/tf;DaGwL ljleGg $) yfg                    rflxg] !#) hgf hgzlQmsf] 5gf]6 u/L ltgLx¿nfO{ PsxKt] tflnd
 k':ts sfplG;nnfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] .                                 lbg] sfo{ ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] .
                                        ]
       ‘:of6nfO6 Plzog ldl8of nfOa|/L’ gfd lbOPsf] ‘Plds’sf]                       lgjf{rg cfof]un] ljleGg ;~rf/dfWodx¿åf/f lgjf{rgsf]
 o; k|sf/sf] of] bf];|f] k':tsfno xf] . klxnf] o:t} k':tsfno                 k|rf/k|;f/sf] l;nl;nfdf k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0f ePsf ;"rgfx¿sf]
 lkmlnlkG;df ;~rflnt 5 . PlzofnL d'n'sx¿sf] ;"rgf, ;~rf/                     lgoldt cg'udg u/L b]vf k/]sf] cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3gsf s'/fx¿
 / kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf; Pj+ Joj:yfkgdf ljut #^ jif{b]lv pNn]Vo                  ;Rofpg lgjf{rg cfof]un] ;DalGwt ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ lbg] /
 of]ubfg ub}{ cfPsf] ‘Plds’ n] xhf/f}+ cg';GwfgfTds sfo{kq /                 lgjf{rg cfof]un] lbPsf] lgb]{zg kfngf ug]{ st{Jo ;DalGwt
 #)) eGbf a9L k':tsx¿ k|sflzt ul/;s]sf] 5 . ‘Plds’ sf                        ;~rf/dfWodsf] x'g] tYonfO{ dWogh/ u/L cfof]un] ;~rf/
 tfhf / k'/fgf k|sfzgx¿sf] pknAwtfaf6 g]kfnL kqsf/ tyf                       cg'udg ug]{ lhDdf sfplG;nnfO{ lbPsf] xf] . t/ ;+ljwfg;efsf]
 ;"rgf—;~rf/ / kqsfl/tfsf ljBfyL{, lzIfs Pj+ cGj]ifsx¿                       lgjf{rg :ylut ePsf]n] ;~rf/ cg'udg;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ klg
 ljz]if ¿kdf nfeflGjt x'g] ljZjf; sfplG;nn] /fv]sf] 5 .                      :ylut ul/Psf] 5 .


54                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
  ]
k|; 8fo/L
  j}zfv, @)^$                                 k|wfg ;Dkfbsdf ljho rfln;]sf]            e/fpg] sf7df8f}+ lhNnf cbfntsf]
  ) g]kfn jfg 6]lnlehgsf sfdbf/x¿åf/f         lgo'lQm .                                km};nf -o:tf 36gfdf Ifltk"lt{ e/fpg]
     ljleGg dfu /fvL sf7df8f}l+ :yt         ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ o'lgogsf] bafasf         klxnf] cbfntL lg0f{o_ .
     sfof{nodf ^ ut] tfnfaGbL .               sf/0f !@ ut] g]kfn ;dfrf/kq            ) uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgcGtu{t ljleGg
     kqsf/x¿åf/f @) ut]bl] v @$ 306]          b}lgssf] k|sfzg aGb .                    lhNnfdf s/f/df sfo{/t $% hgf
     l/n] cgzg k|f/De, To;kl5               ) dfcf]jfbLåf/f ;~rflnt PkmPd              kqsf/ lgisfl;t . lgisfl;t ul/Psf]
     clglZrtsfnLg cgzg . dfu k"/f             /]l8of]x¿ ;fd'bflos /]l8of]sf ¿kdf       xf]Og, s/f/ cjlw gylkPsf] dfq xf]
     ug{ Joj:yfkg ;xdt ePkl5 @# ut]           ;~rf/ dGqfnodf btf{ x'g k|f/De .         eGg] ;~rf/dGqLsf] :ki6Ls/0f .
     cgzg ;dfKtÙ cfGbf]ng lkmtf{ .          ) hgcf:yf ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs;lxt          ) ‘;u/dfyf’ 6]lnlehgåf/f !$ ut] /
  ) cGt/f{li6«o k|]; :jtGqtf lbj;sf           tLg kqsf/dfly cbfntsf] cjx]ngfsf]        ‘PleGo'h’ 6]lnlehgåf/f #@ ut]
     cj;/df @) ut] b]ze/ k|eftkm]/Lsf         cf/f]kdf d'2f bfo/ .                     k|;f/0f k|f/De .
     ;fy} ljljw sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf .                                                ) s~rgk'/l:yt ‘cfhsf] ;dfrf/’
     ljleGg kqsf/x¿ ;Ddflgt .               c;f/                                       b}lgssf ;Dkfbs k|sfz 7s'/Lsf]
                                            ) /]l8of] ;u/dfyfnfO{ lg/Gt/ hgtfnfO{      c;f/ @! ut] dfcf]jfbLåf/f ckx/0f .
  h]7                                         ;';"lrt ub{} k|]; :jtGqtfsf nflu
  ) dw]zL kqsf/x¿åf/f ‘dw]z ljsf;             ;+3if{ u/]afkt a]nfotsf] ;+:yf ‘jg     ;fpg
      kqsf/ ;+3’sf] :yfkgf, ef/tLo /fhb"t     jN8{ a|f]8sfl:6ª 6«:6’ åf/f ‘jg jN8{   ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ ;+u7gsf] cj/f]wsf
      lzjz+s/ d'vhL{af6 pb\3f6g .             a|f]8sfl:6ª :k]zn cjf8{’ k|bfg .         sf/0f cGgk"0f{ kf]i6 / b lxdfnog
  ) ;fKtflxs÷kflIfs klqsf ;~hfnåf/f         ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ o'lgogsf] bafasf         6fOD; b}lgssf] ljt/0f % / ^ ut],
      ;DalGwt kqsf/–x¿nfO{ cfktlaktdf         sf/0f ;GWofsfnLg dxfgu/ b}lgssf]         tTkZrft\ @^ ut] k"/} 7KkÙ @&, @*,
      ;xof]u ug{ kqsf/ sNof0f sf]ifsf]        k|sfzg % ut]b]lv / g]kfn                 @( / #) ut] k|sfzg aGb . pQm
      :yfkgf .                                ;dfrf/kq b}lgssf] k|sfzg ^               klqsfx¿sf] ljt/0fdf afwf gk'¥ofpg
  ) /fli6«o kmf]6f] kqsf/ ;d"xåf/f ;fu/       ut]b]lv ( ut];Dd aGb .                   k'g/fj]bg cbfnt -nlntk'/_ åf/f ;f]
      >]i7n] lvr]sf] ‘;z:q k|x/Lx¿n]        ) ‘uf]vf{ d'lQm ;]gf ;dfh’ atfpg]          ;+u7gsf gfddf cfb]z hf/L .
                            ]
      Pshgf afnsnfO{ s'6sf]’ tl:a/ jif{       ;d"xåf/f ;nf{xLsf] af“s] vf]nfdf       ) cgnfOg ;]jfdf sfd ug{]
      @))^ sf] k|]; kmf]6f] 5gf]6 .           sflGtk'/ klAns]zG;sf] uf8Ldf             kqsf/x¿nfO{ klg k|]; kf; k|bfg ug{]
  ) e"6fgL z/0ffyL{sf] :jb]z lkmtL{           cfuhgL .                                 ;"rgf ljefusf] lg0f{o .
      cleofgsf] l/kf]l6{ª ul//x]sf kqsf/    ) kqsf/ 1fg]Gb| v8\sfdfly ef]hk'/df      ) ;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL ljw]os
      bof/fd bfxfnnfO{ ef/tLo k|x/Låf/f       ;'/IffsdL{x¿åf/f s'6kL6 .                Joj:yflksf–;+;båf/f ;j{;Ddltaf6
      d]rL k'naf6 lu/km\tf/L / oftgf .      ) ‘g];gn l/klAnsg cfdL{–g]kfn’ gfds        kfl/t . ;"rgf n'sfpg]nfO{ hl/jfgfsf]
  ) ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/dGqL s[i0faxfb'/           ;+u7gåf/f dx]Gb|gu/                      Joj:yf .
      dx/fåf/f ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/                -sGrgk'/_ df kqsf/ k|sfzl;+x           ) k"j{ ;lrj tyf sfg"gljb\ sfzL/fh
      dGqfnosf] efjL gLlt tyf sfo{qmd         7s'/Lsf] xTof .                          bfxfnsf] ;+of]hsTjdf ;/sf/åf/f
      ;DaGwL cjwf/0ff ;fj{hlgs . ;"rgf      ) g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf zfvf                ;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL lgod d:of}bf
      tyf ;~rf/ af]8{ u7g ul/g] / åGå         ;efkltx¿sf] lrtjgdf e]nf .               sfo{bn u7g .
      kLl8t ;~rf/sdL{ sNof0f sf]ifsf]         dxf;+3nfO{ ;dfj]zL agfpg] /            ) g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf] dxfk|aGwsdf
      :yfkgf ul/g] hfgsf/L .                  of]Uotfsf cfwf/df kqsf/x¿sf]             Clif/fh a/fn lgo'Qm .
  ) uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgsf] cWoIfaf6               juL{s/0f ug{] nufotsf lg0f{o .         ) ‘;+3Lo lnDa'jfg\ /fHokl/ifb\’ sf
      t]hk|sfz kl08t / g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf]    ) d"Nof+sg dfl;ssf k|wfg ;Dkfbs            sfo{stf{åf/f emfkfdf sflGtk'/
      cWoIfaf6 a]Gh' zdf{sf] /flhgfdf kl5     Zofd >]i7nfO{ ;+s6sfndf u}/sfg"gL        klAns]zG;sf] uf8L tf]8kmf]8 .
      pQm kbx¿df qmdzM cf]d zdf{ / 8f=        y'gfdf /fvL oftgf lbPafkt              ) dfcf]jfbL lgs6 u0ftflGqs
      Clif/fh a/fn lgo'Qm . uf]/vfkqsf]       ;/sf/åf/f !% xhf/ ?k}ofF Ifltk"lt{       /]l8of]sdL{



df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                            55
     d~rn] tfnfaGbL u/]kl5 lxdfnog              lgb{ ] z g .                            sflQs
        ]               ]]
     a|f8sfl:6ª skf{/;gåf/f ;~rflnt         )                              '
                                                /fli6«o ;"rgf cfof]usf] k|dv cfo'Qmdf   ) b]zel/sf kqsf/ dlxnfx¿sf]
     PraL;L PkmPdsf] k|;f/0f aGb .              ljgos'df/ s;h" / rnlrq ljsf;               /fhwfgLdf e]nf, kqsf/ dlxnfsf
     To;sf] s]xL lbgkl5 skf{]/];gsf                    {
                                                af]8sf] cWoIfdf O{Zj/rGb| 1jfnL            nflu ljz]if gLlt agfpg'kg{] lgisif{sf
     Joj:yfks jL/]Gb| bfxfn k|];dflysf]         lgo' Q m .                                 ;fy !! a“'b] 3f]if0ffkq ;fj{hlgs .
     x:tIf]ksf] lj/f]w ub{} cfd/0f          )   ;fpg @& ut] z'¿ ePsf] PraL;Lsf          ) kqsf/ jL/]Gb| zfxsf] l:ylt ;fj{hlgs
     cgzgdf .                                   Joj:yfks jL/]Gb| bfxfnsf] cfd/0f           ug{ kqsf/ dxf;+3åf/f b]zJofkL
 )   Joj:yflksf–;+;båf/f >dhLjL                 cgzg rf}wf}+ lbg cf7 /fhgLlts              sfo{qmdsf] 3f]if0ff, b]ze/ wgf{ Pj+
     kqsf/ ljw]os ;+zf]wg;fy kfl/t .            bnsf g]tfn] k|]; :jtGqtfsf] kIfdf          h'n'; k|bz{g, bh{gf}+ kqsf/ kqmfp .
     >dhLjL kqsf/nfO{ lgo'lQmkq ljgf            lnlvt k|lta4tf JoQm u/]kl5 ebf} (       ) dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{n] kqsf/ jL/]Gb|
     sfddf nufpg gkfOg] tyf P]g nfu"            ut] ;dfKt .                                zfxsf] ckx/0fkl5 xTof u/]sf]
     gug{] ;~rf/ ;+:yfnfO{ /fHosf           )   ;fpg @@ df aGb ePsf] PraL;L                dfcf]jfbL cWoIf k|r08åf/f
     tkm{af6 lbOg] ;'ljwfdf /f]s nufpg          PkmPdsf] k|;f/0f ebf} ( ut] k'gM           :jLsf/ . zfxsf] kl/jf/nfO{ ;xof]u
     ;lsg] Joj:yf .                             k|f/De . !@ ut] ;f] ;+:yfåf/f ;Dk"0f{      :j¿k ?=!) nfv lbg] ;/sf/sf]
 )   k|]; sfplG;n kqsfl/tf k'/:sf/ /            kqsf/ / sd{rf/LnfO{ kl/rokq /2             3f]if0ff .
     k|]; sfplG;n :tDe n]vg k'/:sf/             u/L ;]jfaf6 lgisf;g . lgisfl;t
     @)^@ ;fnsf nflu qmdzM s'Gtf                kqsf/x¿åf/f cfGbf]ng k|f/De .           dª\l;/
     zdf{ / ;'nf]rgf dfgGw/nfO{ k|bfg       )   ‘gofF ;Qf’ b}lgssf ;+jfbbftf z+s/       ) kqsf/ dxf;+3åf/f c;'/lIft
     ul/g] 3f]if0ff . ;fy}, @)^# ;fnsf          kGyLsf] ;8s b'3{6gfdf d[To' . ;'gjn       kqsf/x¿sf] ef}lts, cfly{s tyf
     nflu pQm k'/:sf/x¿ qmdzM ul/df             glhs /fhdfu{df @( ut] IftljIft            sfg"gL pkrf/sf nflu sfg"gL 8]:ssf]
     dfl;s / 8f= t'n;Lk|;fb e§/fO{nfO{          nfz k|fKt .                               :yfkgf ug{] lg0f{o .
     k|bfg ug{] lg0f{o .                                                                ) kqsf/ dxf;+3, /f}tx6 zfvfsf !)
 )   g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf ;efklt            c;f]h                                         hgf kqsf/åf/f c;'/Iffsf] sf/0f
     lji0f' lgi7'/LnfO{ :jtGqtfsf kIfdf     ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ o'lgogåf/f sflGtk'/         hgfp“b} dxf;+3sf] ;fwf/0f ;b:oaf6
     u/]sf] of]ubfgsf nflu blIf0f             klAns]zG;sf] lj1fkg ;+sng /                 ;fd"lxs /flhgfdf .
     sf]l/ofsf] ‘dfGx] kmfpG8];g’ åf/f #)     k|sfzgdf /f]s nufPsf sf/0f sflGtk'/       ) kqsf/x¿sf] 6f]nL ;':tfsf] cjnf]sg
     xhf/ cd]l/sL 8n/ /flzsf] ‘dfGx]          / b sf7df8f}+ kf]i6 b}lgssf c;f]h !!        e|d0fdf, ef/tn] g]kfnsf] e"ld
     u|fG8 k'/:sf/’ k|bfg . pQm /sdsf]        ut]sf s]Gb|Lo ;+:s/0f aGb . k'g/fj]bg       cltqmd0f u/]sf] lgisif{ .
     cfwf c+z lgi7'/Låf/f ‘kqsf/ sNof0f       cbfnt -nlntk'/_ sf] cfb]zkl5 c;f]h        ) ;'g;/Ldf kqsf/ uf]ljGb l3ld/]nfO{
     sf]if’ nfO{ ;dk{0f .                     !@ ut]bl] v k|sfzgx¿ k'gM ahf/df .          ;z:q k|x/Låf/f k|x/L lj¿4 ;dfrf/
 )   kqsf/ dlxnfx¿sf] k|yd /fli6«o          ) kqsf/ eLd u'?ªdfly c;f]h @^ ut]             n]v]sf] eGb} lu/km\tf/L / s'6lk6 .
     ;Dd]ng kf]v/fdf ;DkGg . !% a'“b]         /flt w/df ;'lt/x]sf] j]nf a'6jn glhs
     3f]if0ffkq hf/L .                        s]/afgL uflj;df ;z:q ;d"xåf/f             k';
 )   kqsf/x¿sf] cfGbf]ngkl5 uf]/vfkq          uf]nL k|xf/ .                                   ]
                                                                                        ) k|; tyf cleJolQm :jtGqtf ;DaGwL
     ;+:yfgåf/f c;f/df lgisfl;t             ) kqsf/ ;~ho ;Gtf]ifL /fO{dfly c;f]h            cGt/f{li6«o ld;g g]kfn e|d0fdf .
     kqsf/x¿nfO{ k'ga{xfnL ug{]               @# ut] w/fg, a];SofDk glhs 5'/f           ) jL/u~haf6 k|sflzt x'g] xfOj]
     -s/f/sf] Dofb yKg]_ lg0f{o .             k| x f/ .                                     ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs k'is/nfn >]i7sf]
 )   s]an 6L=eL= ;~rfnsx¿åf/f               ) PleGo'h 6]lnlehg, g]kfn PkmPd / b[li6         hgtflGqs t/fO{ d'lQm df]rf{ -Hjfnfl;+x
     gjLs/0f z'Ns / /f]oN6L b:t'/             ;fKtflxssf ;+jfbbftf jL/]Gb| ;fxsf]           ;d"x_ åf/f uf]nL xfgL xTof .
     ;DaGwL dfu /fVb} cfGbf]ng . g]kfn        af/f lhNnf, lkk|f uflj;af6 c;f]h !*       ) l/kf]6{;{ ljbfp6 af]8{;{åf/f ;g\ @))&
     6]lnlehg / Pg6LeL–@ Rofgnx¿sf]           ut] dfcf]jfbLåf/f ckx/0f / xTof .             sf] k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs . To; jif{
     k|;f/0f ;fpg @^ ut]b]lv / cGo            dfcf]jfbLåf/f ;f] 36gfdf cfkm\gf]             ljZjel/ *& hgf kqsf/x¿sf] xTof
     g]kfnL Rofgnx¿sf] k|;f/0f ebf} !         ;+nUgtf c:jLsf/ .                             ePsf], **& hgf kqmfp k/]sf, !
     ut]b]lv @ ut];Dd aGb .                   kqsf/ dxf;+3, ;+;bLo ;ldlt /                  xhf/ %!! hgfdfly ef}lts cfqmd0f
                                              dfgjflwsf/jfbL ;+:yfx¿åf/f a]Unfa]Un}         ul/Psf] jf wDsL lbOPsf] tYof+s
 ebf}                                         5fglag kZrft\ ;fxsf] ckx/0f /                 k|sflzt . ;fy} rLgdf ## / So"jfdf
 ) b]ze/ Pp6} 6]lnkmf]g b/ lgwf{/0f ug{       xTofdf dfcf]jfbLsf] ;+nUgtf /x]sf]            @$ hgf / ljZje/df !#% hgf
   Joj:yflksf—;+;båf/f ;/sf/nfO{              k'li6 .                                       kqsf/ y'gfdf /x]sf] hfgsf/L .


56                                                                                                                  df3–r}t @)^$
      klxnf] leqL cfj/0fsf] afFsL

                              kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf===
-&_ pRr Jofj;flos cEof;M kqsfl/tfsf cfwf/e"t dfGotf           -%_ e]befj x'g] u/L ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|i] f0f ug{ gx'gM hftLo,               ]
      / l;4fGtk|lt k|lta4 /xL hjfkmb]xL Pj+ pQ/bfloTj tyf          n}lËs, wfld{s, If]qLo, eflifs / /+uh:tf cfwf/df
                                        {
      ljZj;gLotfsf] lgjf{x ug{ lgi7fk"js pRr Jofj;flos             e]befj x'g] u/L ;dfrf/ / ljrf/sf] ;Dk|i] f0f ug'xbg .                { F' }
                   {
      cEof; ug'kb{5 .                                         -^_ kLl8tnfO{ yk kL8f k'Ug] u/L ;"rgf ;Dk|i] f0f ug{ gx'gM                             ]
-*_ lzi6 Jojxf/M Jofj;flos cEof;df ;fdflhs lzi6tfsf]               kLl8tnfO{ yk kL8f k'Ug] u/L efiff, Wjlg, tl:a/, lrq
                                                }
      ;Ddfg ub}{ g}lts, lzi6 Pj+ dof{lbt sfo{znL / efiffsf]        / b[Zo;d]tsf] k|of]u u/L ;dfrf/ tyf ljrf/ k|sfzg–
      k|of]udf ;hu /xg'kb{5 .                                      k|;f/0f jf pTkfbg–ljt/0f ug'{x'Fb}g .
-(_ uNtL ;Rofpg] tTk/tfM k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0fsf qmddf           -&_ kLl8t JolQmsf] gfd, 7]ufgf v'nfpg gx'gM of}ghGo              ]
      ePsf q'l6 Pj+ uNtLsf] hfgsf/L x'gf;fy oyfzL3| To:tf]         ck/fw / ;fdflhs ckx]ngf Pj+ 3[0ffhGo 36gf jf
      uNtL Pj+ q'l6 ;Rofpg] tyf ;k|df0f v08g jf k|ltlqmof          ;Gbe{df kLl8t JolQmx¿sf] ;r]t :jLs[ltlagf gfd,
      cfPdf k|:6 efiffdf plrt :yfg lbO{ k|sfzg–k|;f/0f ug{'        7]ufgf / klxrfg v'Ng]u/L ;dfrf/, tl:a/ / b[Zo
      kqsf/ tyf ;~rf/dfWodsf] st{Jo x'g5 .  ]                      k|sfzg–k|;f/0f jf pTkfbg–ljt/0f ug'xbg .      { F' }
-!)_ ;fdflhs bfloTjM czQm, c;xfo, ckfË, afnaflnsf,                                               ]
                                                              -*_ lx+;f, cftÍ / ck/fwnfO{ k|fT;fxg ug{ gx'gM ljWj+;,             ]             +
      dlxnf tyf lk5l8Psf ju{, If]q, efiff–efifL / cNk;+Vos                                     ]
                                                                   lx+;f, cft+s / ck/fwnfO{ k|fT;fxg x'g] u/L tyf To:tf
      ;d'bfosf] pTyfg / ljsf;df ;"rgf / ljrf/ k|jfxåf/f            lqmofsnfknfO{ clt/l~ht ug]{ u/L ;dfrf/, ljrf/,
      ljz]if ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' kqsf/ / ;~rf/dfWodsf] ;fdflhs                               {          [
                                                                   tl:a/, dt ;j]If0f, Wjlg jf b[Zox¿ k|:t't ug'xbg .                   { F' }
                 ]
      bfloTj x'g5 .                                           -(_ aLeT; b[Zo / tl:a/ k|sfzg÷k|;f/0f ug{ gx'g]M
-!!_ cfk;L ;DaGwM kqsf/ tyf ;+rf/–dfWodx¿aLrsf] cfk;L              ;dfhdf g}/fZo, 3[0ff, ;Gqf; / pQ]hgf km}nfpg]
      ;DaGw Jofj;flos, :j:y, ;+oldt, dof{lbt / k]zflgi7            lsl;dsf gUg, IftljIft / aLeT; b[Zo Pj+ tl:a/x¿
      x'g'kb{5 .                                                   c;fGble{s, cZnLn / pQ]hgf km}lng ;Sg] k|sf/n]
                                                                   k|:t't ug'{x'Fb}g .
kqsf/, ;~rf/dfWod / ;~rf/ ;+:yfx¿n] b]xfosf                   -!)_ 36gf;Fu c;DalGwt JolQmsf] gfd pNn]v ug{ gx'gM                                   ]
             }
sfo{x¿ ug]{ 5}gg\M                                                 s'g} 36gf;Fu ;DalGwt ;dfrf/ k|sfzg–k|;f/0f ubf{
                                                                   36gf;Fu ;DaGw gePsf gft]bf/ jf glhssf JolQmsf]
-!_ /fli6«o cv08tfdf k|lts"n k|efj kfg{ gx'gM ax'eflifs,
                                                  ]                gfd hf]8L p;sf] dof{bfdf cfFr k'Ug] jf rl/qxTof x'g]
    ax'wfld{s / ax'hftLo d'ns g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, cv08tf
                              '                                                                    { F' }
                                                                   u/L ;dfrf/ ;fdu|L k|:t't ug'xbg .
    jf ljleGg hft, hflt jf ;Dk|bfox¿sf aLrsf] ;'–             -!!_ tYo aª\Uofpg gx'g]M s'g} l6Kk0fL jf :ki6tflagf
    ;DaGwdf vnn kfg]{ jf ufnL–a]OHhtL jf cbfntsf]                  tl:a/, lel8of] b[Zo, Wjlg jf tYonfO{ tf]8df]8 u/L
    cjx]ngf x'g] jf ;fj{hlgs lzi6frf/ jf g}ltstfsf]                klxrfg g} abNg] jf unt klxrfg lbg] jf unt cy{
    k|lts"n x'g] ;dfrf/ / ljrf/ k|sfzg, k|;f/0f tyf                nfUg] u/L ;dfrf/ ;fdu|L k|sfzg–k|;f/0f jf pTkfbg–
    pTkfbg–ljt/0f ug'{x'Fb}g .                                     ljt/0f ug'{x'Fb}g .
-@_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;b\efjdf k|lts"n c;/ kfg{ gx'gM        ]                                                           ]
                                                              -!@_ lj1fkgnfO{ ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ gx'gM lj1fkgnfO{
    ;fdflhs Gofo / ;b\efjdf k|lts"n c;/ k'¥ofpg] tyf               ;dfrf/sf] ¿kdf k|:t't ug'{, lj1fkgdfkm{t ;dfrf/sf]
    Jofj;flos dof{bf ljk/Lt x'g] ljs[t / pQ]hs ;fdu|L                             ' F' }
                                                                   v08g ug{xbg . To:t}, Pp6f ;~rf/dfWodaf6 k|sflzt
    k|sfzg–k|;f/0f tyf pTkfbg–ljt/0f ug'{x'Fb}g .                  k|;fl/t ;dfrf/sf] v08g ;fdfGotM csf]{ ;~rf/dfWodn]
-#_ ;dfrf/sf] uf]Ko ;|ft vf]Ng gx'gM ;dfrf/ k|:t't ubf{
                         ]             ]                           ug'{x'Fb}g .
    ;dfrf/sf] cflwsfl/stf / ljZj;gLotfsf nflu ;|ft      ]               ]       [                                 ]
                                                              -!#_ ;|ft pb\wt gu/L k'gM k|of]u ug{ gx'gM s'g} ;dfrf/
    pNn]v ug'kb{5 . t/, uf]Ko ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ bfloTj
                 {                  ]                              ;+:yf jf dfWodn] k|jflxt u/]sf] ;dfrf/ jf k|sflzt–
                      F     ]
    kqsf/sf] x'g] x'bf ;|ftsf] OR5f / cg'dlta]u/ To:tf             k|;fl/t ;fdu|L pkof]u ubf{ To;sf] d"n ;|ft pb\wt                ]             [
    uf]Ko ;|ftsf] gfd jf klxrfg v'nfpg'xbg .
             ]                               F' }                  gu/L k'gM k|sfzg, k|;f/0f jf ljt/0f ug'xbg . To;/L   { F' }
-$_ lghL :jfy{kl" t{sf nflu k|of]u ug{ gx'gM ;+rf/dfWod jf
                                           ]                       pb\w[t ubf{ ;fdfGotM d"n;|f]tsf] ;xdlt lng'kb{5 .
    kqsf/n] k|sfzg–k|;f/0f jf ;dfrf/ ;fdu|Lsf] ¿kdf                   ]
                                                              -!$_ ;|ft;Fu ;DaGwM kqsf/ jf ;+rf/dfWodn] ;dfrf/;|ft;Fu                       ]
    ljt/0f ug]{ p2]Zon] lnOPsf ;"rgf ;fdu|L ;fj{hlgs               Jofj;flos dof{bf / ;Ldf aflx/ x'g] u/L cg'lrt
    k|of]u gu/L JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] lghL :jfy{kl" t{sf nflu          ;DaGw /fVg Pj+ JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] lglxt :jfy{sf
               { F' }
    k|of]u ug'xbg .                                                lglDt ;+rf/dfWodsf] b'?kof]u ug{xbg .  ' F' }
       "
    ;';lrt x'g] ;lhnf] pkfo
g]kfnel/af6 k|sflzt x'g] b}lgs, cw{;fKtflxs, ;fKtflxs / kflIfs kqklqsfx¿sf] btf{
;ª\Vof @^)) k'lu;s]sf] 5 . o;df k|To]s jif{ em08} @)) j6f gofF klqsf ylkg] u/]sf
                            +
5g\ . oL kqklqsfdf tkfO{n] cfkm\gf] rf;f]sf] ljifo jf cfkm\g} ;+:yfsf af/]df 5flkPsf
;fdu|L s;/L km]nf kfg'{ < km]l/ olt w]/} kqklqsf sxfF / s;/L lsGg' < lsg]/ klg slxn]
k9]/ Eofpg' < of] ;fFRr} hl6n ;d:of xf] .
t/ v'zLsf] s'/f, To;sf] ;dfwfg eg] Psbd} ;lhnf] 5 M k|; lSnlkª ;]jfsf] u|fxs aGg] .
                                                      ]
         ]
s] xf] k|; lSnlkª ;]jf <
u|fxsn] cg'/f]w u/]sf] ljifodf g]kfnsf kqklqsfdf x/]s
lbg k|sflzt ;dfrf/, n]v, lr¶L, lj1fkg, ;"rgf cflb
Ps}7fpFdf ;+sng u/L k9\g / clen]v /fVg ;d]t ;lhnf]
x'g] u/L tof/ kfl/Psf] ;"rgf ;]jf xf] . pbfx/0fsf] nflu
…kf]lnof]Ú ljifodf lSnlkª ;]jf dfu ug]{ u|fxsn] ;a}
kqklqsfdf k|sflzt To; ljifo;DaGwL ;fdu|L $–% b]lv
!%–!^ kfgf -P–$ ;fOh_ df 5flkPs} :j?kdf kfpg ;S5 . of]
  ]
k|; sfplG;nsf] d'gfkmf/lxt ;]jf xf] .
u|fxs s;/L aGg] <
   cfˆgf] ?lr / cfjZostfcg';f/ of] ;]jfsf] u|fxs aGg ;lsG5 .
     ]
   k|; lSnlkª x/]s lbg laxfg !! ah]leq u|fxssf] 3/–b}nf] jf sfof{nodf k'¥ofpg]
   Joj:yf 5 .

          ;]jfsf] lsl;d                                        ;]jf z'Ns -dfl;s_
                   '
          b}lgs -b|t_ ;]jf                                     ?=#)))÷–


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                             Od]n M prescoun_mdf@wlink.com.np
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                         k|; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] q}dfl;s k|sfzg, df3–r}t @)^$ k|jzfÍ
                           ]

                                                                                                              leq
                         SAMHITA- A Quarterly Publication of Press Council Nepal Jan-Mar 2008



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                            vf“rf] k"lt{ ug]{ k|of;
g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tf / kqsf/sf lqmofsnfkx¿ af/] lgoldt ¿kdf              p7fpg xfdLdWo] clwsf+z rfx“bf /x]g5f}+ . bzf}+ xhf/ kqsf/,
v'nf 5nkmn, ljZn]if0f / 6Lsfl6Kk0fL ug{] ;f‰ff d~r jf dfWodsf]        xhf/f}+ kqklqsf / ;of}+ k|;f/0f dfWodsf] /huhL :yflkt eO;Sbf
vf“rf] dx;"; ul/Psf] kf“r–;ft jif{ cl3 g} xf] . g]kfnL k|];sf]        klg ldl8of, kqsfl/tf jf kqsf/sf lqmofsnfknfO{ ljifoj:t' agfP/
abln“bf] :j¿k, o;sf] ult / k|jl[ Q, o;df b]lvPsf sdhf]/ Pj+ ;an                                                          ]
                                                                      snd rnfpg] k]zflgi7 ‘ldl8of lqml6s’ cyf{t\ k|;–;dLIfsx¿ k}bf
                            ]
kIf, ;dfh ?kfGt/0fdf k|;n] lgjf{x u/]sf] / ug{ ;Sg] e"ldsf,           x'g g;Sg'sf k5fl8 cGo sf/0f cjZo x'g ;S5g\ t/ Pp6f k|dv           '
k|ljlwsf] tLa| lj:tf/af6 kqsfl/tfsf] :j¿k, z}nL, d"No–dfGotf Pj+                     ]
                                                                      sf/0f eg] k|;÷kqsfl/tfn] ;dfhdf sfod u/]sf] PskIfLo jr{:j /
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cfrf/;+lxtf kl/kfngfdf k/]sf] c;/ cflb cfofdx¿ ;d]6g] k|sfzgaf/]      To;af6 lg;[t x'g] eo g} b]vfk5{ . sf/0f h] h:tf] eP klg, g]kfnL
  ]
k|; sfplG;n g]kfn, / cGo ;fGble{s ynf]x¿df s}of}+ k6s rrf{            k|; of ldl8ofsf] u'0fbf]ifsf] ;dLIffk|lt g]kfnsf] ;r]t, hfu¿s jf
                                                                        ]
ePsf] klg xf] . t/ 7f]; sfo{ st}af6 x'g ;ls/x]sf] lyPg . @)^#         af}l4s ju{sf] o; k|sf/sf] lg:k[xtf cem egf}+ pbf;LgtfnfO{ crDdnfUbf]
;fpgdf k'gu{7g ePsf] sfplG;nsf] k|f/lDes a}7sn] tTsfnnfO{             dfq geO{ lrGtfs} ljifo xf] eGg] lgisif{df xfdL k'u]sf 5f}+ .
q}dfl;s ¿kdf To:tf] k|sfzg cf/De ug{] cf}krfl/s lg0f{o u¥of] .                                         “
                                                                                hfu¿s / af}l4s ju{;u} ldl8ofsf cfd pkef]Qmfx¿ k|;–    ]
sfplG;nsf x/]s sfo{ kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ;]/f]km]/f]d} s]lGb|t x'g]                                                                '
                                                                      kqsfl/tfsf q'l6–sdhf]/L lj¿4 cfjfh p7fpg cfkm}+ ;lqmo gx“bf;Dd
dfGotfsf cfwf/df k|sfzgsf] gfd klg ‘;+lxtf’ /fVg] lgwf] ul/of] .      ;Gt'lnt / ;To–tYolgi7 kqsfl/tfsf] ;kgf cw'/f] g} /lx/xG5 .
;+lxtfsf] klxnf] c+s rf“8} k|sflzt ug{] nIo /fvL ;Dkfbg 6f]nL         xfdL sxf“ ldl8ofsf pkef]Qmf cyf{t\ klqsfsf kf7s, /]l8of]sf >f]tf
lqmofzLn klg eof] t/ ljleGg sf/0fn] k|yd c+ssf] ofqf cln nfd}         / 6]lnlehgsf bz{sn] cfkm"nfO{ dsf{ k/]sf] jf lrQ ga'em]sf]
eof] . k|yd c+ssf] nf]sfk{0f kZrft\ casf] ofqf ;'rf? x'g] s'/fdf          ]
                                                                      k|;÷kqsf/sf Jojxf/sf af/]df s;/L / sxf“ cfjfh p7fpg] eGg]
xfdL ljZj:t 5f}+ .                                                    k|Zg klg cfkm}+df sd hl6n 5}g . ‘;DkfbsnfO{ lr7L’ :tDedfkm{t
         ‘ldl8of OlyS; Og PlzofÆ k':tssf ;Dkfbs j]s6 P]/n]
                                                        + ]           cvaf/sf kf7snfO{ cfkm\gf] ljrf/ k|jfx ug{ lbg] k|rng 5fkf
kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf -ldl8of OlyS;_ sf af/]df ‘zxLb x'g] cf“6 jf         kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; hlQs} k'/fgf] xf] . klqsfsf kf7s / ;DkfbsaLr
PSnf] pNn' ;fljt x'g] hf]lvd jxg ug{ ;Sg] axfb'/n] dfq snd            bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb :yflkt ug{ tyf ;DkfbsLo q'l6–sdhf]/L ;Rofpg of]
rnfpg ;S5’ eGg] p4/0faf6 cfkm\gf] n]v z'? u/]sf 5g\ . ‘;+lxtf’        :tDesf] cxd\ e"ldsf x'g ;S5 . t/ ;a} ;Dkfbsx¿n] o;nfO{
sf] Ps jif{eGbf nfdf] cys\ ofqfdf xfdL klg nueu To:t} cg'ej           plQs} dxTj lbg] ub{}gg\ . g]kfnsf] tTsfnLg ;Gbe{df x]bf{ s]xL
ug{ k'Uof}+ . k|]; / kqsfl/tfsf ;an Pj+ sdhf]/ kIfdf ;Lwf snd         cvaf/sf ;Dkfbsn] ‘lr7L’ :tDenfO{ q'l6–sdhf]/L ;'wfg{] dfWodsf
rnfpg] hf“u/, /x/ / cf“6 yf]/}df dfq} e]l6of] . ;dfhsf c¿             cltl/Qm ;dfhdf p7]sf rlr{t d'2fsf af/]df clgolGqt 5nkmn
;b:osf af/]df lgw{Ss rrf{ ug{] rrf{sf/ / c¿sf] sfd / k|jl[ Qdfly      ug{] v'nf d~rsf ¿kdf ;d]t k|:t't u/]sf] b]lvG5 eg] sltko
lgeL{s l6Kk0fL ug{] l6Kk0fLsf/x¿ klg kqsf/sf af/]df rrf{ of           cvaf/df cl3Nnf] c+sdf k|sflzt ;fdu|L tyf ;f]xL cvaf/n]
l6Kk0fL ug{ eg] xlRsbf /x]5g\ . Joy{df ‘cnf]slk|o x'g]’ hf]lvd                                           +
                                                                      lnPsf] c8fgsf] kIfkf]if0f / k|z;f ul/Psf PskIfLo lr7Lx¿nfO{

                            ‘zxLb x'g] cf“6 jf PSnf] pNn' ;flat x'g] hf]lvd jxg ug{ ;Sg]
                                axfb'/n] dfq kqsf/sf af/]df snd rnfpg ;S5 .’

2                                                                                                                           df3–r}t @)^$
dfq :yfg lbg] u/]sf] klg kfOG5 . cfkm"n] jf cfkm\gf ;xsdL{n]         x'nfs 7]ufgf ;d]t lbg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . t/ s'g} sfo{qmdsf af/]df
                                     {
u/]sf] q'l6nfO{ ;xif{ jf ljgd|tfk"js :jLsf/ ug{] / dsf{ k/]sf kIf    slt >f]tf jf bz{sn] s] s:tf] 6Lsfl6Kk0fL u/], cfnf]rgf jf k|z;f   +
tyf cfkm\gf kf7s÷>f]tf÷bz{sx¿;“u Ifdfofrgf;lxt uNtL                  dfq} u/] ls ;'emfj klg lbP eGg] s'/f bz{s÷>f]tf;Dd k'¥ofpg] :ki6
gbf]xf]¥ofpg] k|0f ug{] pbf/lrQsf                                                                    / kf/bzL{ pkfo k|;f/0f dfWodx¿n]
;Dkfbsx¿ km]nf kfg{ ;dsfnLg                                                                          klxNofpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . vf; d'2f
g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfdf ;lhnf] 5}g .                                                                     / lglZrt vfsf -km/Dof6_ df ;Lldt
kf7sn] k7fPsf] ‘v08g’ eg]kl5                                                                         sltko sfo{qmdx¿df y'k}| bz{s /
x]b{} gx]/L /2Lsf] 6f]s/Ldf kmfNg                                                                    >f] t fx¿sf] ;xeflutf b] l vPs}
nufpg] u/]sf] Joxf]/f ;xif{ ;'gfpg]                                                                  cfwf/df s'g} k|;f/0f dfWod / p;sf
;Dkfbsx¿ e]6\g d'lZsn kb{}g .                                                                        pkef]QmfaLr bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb eO/x]sf]
s'g} klg ;dfrf/ jf n]vsf] ‘v08g’                                                                                       “}
                                                                                                     dfGg klg ;ls+bg, lsgeg] To:tf
g5fKg] cfkm\gf] ‘;DkfbsLo gLlt’ /x]sf]                                                               sfo{qmddf ljifoj:t' / ;DefJo
s'/f sfplG;nnfO{ cf}krfl/s ¿kd}                                                                      ;xefuLsf] 5gf}6b]lv k|Zgsf] lgdf{0f,
hfgsf/L u/fpg cK7\of/f] gdfGg]                                                                       k|:t'lt / lgisif{df ;d]t ;Da4 ldl8of
k|sfzgx¿ klg xfdLaLr hLjGt                                                                           jf kqsf/sf] Psnf}6L jr{:j /x]sf]
5g\ .                                                                                                x' G 5 .
         o;/L clwsf+z ;Dkfbs,                                                                                            ]
                                                                                                              :jtGq k|;sf] nfdf] cEof;
kqsf/ / k|sfzgx¿ g} bf]xf]/f]                                                                        / cg'ej ;“ufn]sf sltko klZrdL
;+jfbsf lglDt tof/ gePsf] l:yltdf                                                                    d'n'sdf k|];df cfPsf tYoxLg,
cvaf/sf kf7s, dsf{ kg{] kIf cyjf                                                                     c;fGble{s / ;g;gLk"0f{ ;dfrf/af6
                   ]                                 +
cfddflg;nfO{ k|;–kqsf/sf sdL–sdhf]/Laf/] cf}nf p7fpg cjZo                                                                  ]
                                                                     k|efljt JolQmx¿nfO{ /fxt lbg / d2t ug{ :jo+;jL ;+:yfx¿;d]t
;lhnf] 5}g . cem lemldSs cfP/ ldlnSs lanfpg] /]l8of] tyf             lqmofzLn kfOG5g\ . a]nfotsf] ldl8of jfOh 6«i6 -Pd 8An' 6L_ n]
6]lnlehgaf6 k|;fl/t ;fdu|LnfO{ lnP/ k|Zg p7fpg t k|df0fsf]             ]
                                                                     k|;sf] hfg–cghfg HofbtLaf6 kLl8t kIfx¿nfO{ lgMz'Ns ;Nnfx
cefjdf emg} sl7g x'G5 . kqklqsfsf] clen]v ;fj{hlgs                   / sfg"gL pkrf/df dfq} ;3fO/x]sf] 5}g, cgfxsdf lrof]rrf{ u/L
                                                         ]
k':tsfnox¿sf cltl/Qm ljleGg sfof{no, ;+ul7t ;+:yf, k|; sfplG;n                                                    ]
                                                                     JolQmsf] lghL hLjgdf vnn k}bf ug{] k|; / kqsf/dfly c+sz             '
g]kfn / sltko JolQmsf] lghL ;+sngaf6 ;d]t k|fKt ug{ ;Dej 5,          nufpg] s8f sfg"gsf] kIfdf ;+;bdf ‘nljª’ ;d]t ug{] u/]sf] 5 .
t/ k|;f/0f dfWodaf6 k|;fl/t ;fdu|Lsf] ;fj{hlgs clen]v                Toxf“sf kqsf/x¿sf] ;o jif{ k'/fgf] 5ftf ;+u7g g];gn o"lgog ckm
-/]s8{_ /fVg] sfo{sf] yfngL g} x'g;s]sf] 5}g .                       hgf{lni6;\ -Pg o" h]_ n] kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3g ug{] ;b:onfO{
         cfkm\gf >f]tf jf bz{s;“u bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb :yflkt ug{ k|foM   ;+u7gaf6} lgisf;g ug{] u5{ . t/, g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{ lgs} leGg 5 .
/]l8of] / 6]lnlehgn] kmf]g jf k|ToIf cGtjf{tf{sf] dfWodaf6 pgLx¿sf   cfwf/e"t k|hftGqs} lglDt cfwf ztfAbL;Dd ;+3if{ ug'{ k/]sf sf/0f
ljrf/nfO{ a9LeGbf a9L :yfg lbg] u/]sf 5g\ . ;dfrf/d"ns /                                 ]
                                                                     g]kfnsf] :jtGq k|;sf] Oltxf;, cEof; / cg'ej ;fk]IftM Psbd}
tfTsflns ljifo -s/]G6 ckm]o;{_ ;“u ;DalGwt x/]s h;f] sfo{qmdsf]      5f]6f] 5 . oxf“ ljleGg ‘Aofg/’ d'lg kqsf/x¿ ;+ul7t t ePsf 5g\
cGTodf >f]tf / bz{ssf] k|ltlqmof ck]Iff u/L kmf]g gDa/, O{dn / ]                                                             \
                                                                     t/ pgLx¿ cfkm\gf] k]zfut xs–clwsf/sf] n8fO“ 6'ªUofP/ gful/s

               Pp6f k|sfzgn] t s'g} klg ;dfrf/ jf n]vsf] ‘v08g’ g5fKg] cfkm\gf] ‘;DkfbsLo gLlt’
                 /x]sf] s'/f sfplG;nnfO{ cf}krfl/s ¿kd} hfgsf/L u/fpg klg cK7\of/f] dfg]g .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                            3
                         ]
/ ;dfhsf] tkm{af6 k|; / kqsfl/tfsf] e"ldsfsf af/]df ;f]Rg]           cfjZos x'G5 . g]kfndf kqsfl/tfsf] ;'?cft ePsf] Ps ;o jif{
txdf k'Ug af“sL g} b]lvG5 .                                          gfl3;s]sf] eP klg o;nfO{ ;f“rf] cy{df /fHosf] rf}yf] c+usf] ¿kdf
          g]kfnL kqsf/x¿;“u cfkm\gf k]zfut cg'ej / kqsfl/tfaf/]                                               {
                                                                     ljsf; ug{ cem} nfdf] ofqf to ug'kg{] oyfy{ ;a}sf ;fd' 68\sf/}
                                ]
nfu]sf s'/fx¿ ;f6f;f6 ug{] k|; Sna h:tf cgf}krfl/s d~rx¿             5 . o; ;Gbe{df g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfsf sdL–sdhf]/L / lj;+ultx¿
klg 5}gg\ . To:tf] :yfgsf] rrf{ rNbf b'O{–c9fO{ bzs cl3b]lv of]      36fp“b} o;nfO{ c¿ a9L :t/Lo, lhDd]jf/, ;fy{s / ;dfhf]kof]uL
                           +            +
k]zfdf /x]sf sf7df8f}sf kqsf/x¿ a}unf]/ skmL xfp; ;lDemg             t'Nofpg' h¿/L 5 eGg] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . t/ ‘s;/L’ eGg] k|Zgsf]
k'U5g\, hxf“ pgLx¿ Ps sk lrof / s]xL ksf}8fsf] e/df                  olsg hjfkm sfplG;n PSn}n] lbg ;Dej 5}g . To;} eP/ k|foM
ljZjljBfnosf k|fWofks / cjsfzk|fKt s"6gLlt1x¿, ;/sf/sf               k|sfzgsf] klxnf] c+snfO{ eljiosf] lglDt dfu{bz{s atfOg] k|rng
;lrj / dxfk|aGwsx¿ tyf y'k}| ;|i6f / ;r]t gful/sx¿;“u                ljk/Lt xfdL ‘;+lxtf’ sf] k|yd c+snfO{ dfu{bz{s 7flg/x]sf 5}gf}+ .
ljleGg ljifodf s'/f u/]/ 306f}+ latfpg] uy{] . To; qmddf Pp6f        g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf; / k|ult;“u} hgdfg;df o;k|ltsf] cf:yf
      {
l/kf]6/n] cl3Nnf] lbgsf] ;dfrf/df ePsf ;an / sdhf]/ kIf              / ljZjf; clej[l4df 6]jf k'¥ofpg sfplG;nsf] k|sfzg s:tf] x'gk5{    '
                             }
tyf q'l6 dfq} yfxf kfp“bgYof], csf{] lbgsf lglDt ;dfrf/sf]                              {            ]
                                                                     eGg] s'/fsf] lgSof]n ;d:t k|;hut / To;sf pkef]Qmf cyf{t\ kf7s,
ljifoj:t' / b[li6sf]0f klg ToxL+ km]nf kfg{ ;SYof] . o; lsl;dsf]     >f]tf / bz{sx¿sf] rfxgf / ;'emfjsf cfwf/df qmdzM lg:s“b}
;femf ynf]df ljgf cf}krfl/stf k|fKt x'g] ;'emfj / k|ltlqmof Pp6f     hfg]5 . of] k|yd cyjf k|f¿k c+s sfplG;n / o;sf] ;Dkfbg
;Rrf kqsf/sf] lglDt ljZjljBfnosf] lzIffeGbf sd pkof]uL               6f]nLs} ck]Iff / ;kgf cg'¿k klg ;fsf/ x'g;s]sf] 5}g, h;sf
x“bg . tyflk kqsfl/tfsf] cGtj{:t' Pj+ k|jl[ Q, kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf,
  '}                                                                 k5fl8 ljleGg sf/0f 5g\ .
          ]
;dfh–k|; ;DaGwsf ljljw cfofd tyf kqsf/sf lqmofsnfkaf/]                                                 ]
                                                                             k|f/lDes cjwf/0ff ‘k|;–hg{n’ sf] eP klg em08} Ps jif{sf]
;Lw} 6Lsf–l6Kk0fL, ljZn]if0f / 5nkmn ug{] ;fj{hlgs d~r jf            k6\of/nfUbf] k|oTg / cg'ej kl5, ‘;+lxtf’ nfO{ ljz'4 ‘hg{n’ cyf{t\
dfWodsf] vf“rf] eg] cfkm\gf] :yfgdf /xL g} /x]sf] 5 . ‘;+lxtf’ sf]   uxg, cg';Gwfgd"ns / k|fl1s k|sfzgsf ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg
k|sfzgn] dfq Tof] vf“rf] jf l/Qmtf k"/f x'g;Sb}g eGg] oyfy{kl| t                                         ]
                                                                     g;lsg] / To;f] ug{ g]kfnsf] k|;, kqsf/ hut\, af}l4s ju{ / cfd
sfplG;n ;r]t 5 . tyflk, g]kfnL ldl8of÷k|];sf af/]df ul/g'kg{]        kl/j]z kl/kSj x'g af“sL g} /x]sf] xfdLnfO{ nfu]sf] 5 . tTsfnsf
cWoog–lrGtg–5nkmn / ax;sf] lglDt of] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ yfngL            lglDt ‘hg{n’, ‘Dofuflhg’ / ‘a'nl] 6g’ sf] ;lDdl>t :j¿k g} Jofjxfl/s
x'g;S5 eGg] ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5 . sfplG;nn] kqsfl/tfnfO{                x'g;Sg] 7flgPsf] 5 . o;} eP/ o; c+ssf] nflu z'?df ck]Iff ul/P
                                                        ]{
d"ntM :jtGqtf / kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 x]g÷ljZn]if0f     em}+ d"n ljifodf ;Lw} k|jz u/]sf n]v /rgfsf] kIfdf w]/} hf]8
                                                                                                   ]
ug{] x'bf ‘;+lxtf’ sf ljifoj:t'x¿ klg d"ntM To;s} ;]/f]km]/f]df
        “                                                            lbOPsf] 5}g . t/, o;sf] cfzo, ‘;+lxtf’ sf cfufdL c+s o:t}
/xg]5g\ .                                                                ]         '
                                                                     x'g5g\ jf x'gk5{ eGg] klg xf]Og . ljz]iftM kqsf/ tyf kqsfl/tfnfO{
          /fHosf tLg d'Vo c· sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsf /                ;fdflhs sf]0faf6 ;dLIffTds ¿kdf lgofNg] ;r]t kf7sx¿sf]
Joj:yflksfnfO{ ;Gt'lnt / hgtfk|lt hjfkmb]xL agfp“b} ;an              ;'emfj–k|ltlqmofn] g} ‘;+lxtf’ sf] efjL :j¿k / o;n] ;d]6g] ljifoj:t'sf]
                                                                                                                             \
/fi6«sf] lgdf{0f ug{ rf}yf] c· cyf{t\ kqsfl/tfsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{                           ]
                                                                     5gf}6nfO{ lgb{l] zt ug{5 . t;y{, ;a}af6 ;a}vfn] ;'emfj–k|ltlqmofx¿
cjZo x'G5 t/ To;sf nflu of] ‘c·’ :jo+df ;zQm / ;an x'g'              k|fy{gLo 5g\ .



                                                                  ]
            g]kfnL kqsf/x¿;“u cfkm\gf k]zfut cg'ej ;f6f;f6 ug{] k|; Sna h:tf cgf}krfl/s
           d~rx¿ klg 5}gg\ . o; lsl;dsf] ;femf ynf]df ljgf cf}krfl/stf k|fKt x'g] ;'emfj /
                                                                                      '}
           k|ltlqmof Pp6f ;Rrf kqsf/sf] lglDt ljZjljBfnosf] lzIffeGbf sd pkof]uL x“bg .

4                                                                                                                            df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                 ljZn]if0f


;dfrf/sf] ‰ofnaf6
6]lnlehg x]bf{
 /fds[i0f /]UdL              )                                      ]
                                  dfgj ;dfhsf nflu 6]lnlehg x]// /dfpg] ;fwg xf], ;lhnf] dgf]/~hgsf] dfWod xf] / o;nfO{ To;}
                                  ¿kdf ljsl;t ub{} nfg'k5{ .
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                                  xf]Og, of] ;"rgfsf] k|efjzfnL cfwf/ xf], ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;xh ¿kdf ;';lrt ug{] cfd;~rf/dfWod xf],
                                  o;nfO{ ToxL p2]Zo k|flKtsf lgldQ k|of]u ub{} hfg'k5{ .

k/:k/lj/f]wL h:tf b]lvg] dflysf cjwf/0ffn]
6] l nlehg ;+ r f/leq y/Ly/Lsf j} r fl/s
ljBfno g} vf]lnlbPsf 5g\ . s;} s;}n] o;nfO{
6]lnlehgleqsf] åGå eg]/ JofVof u/]sf] b]lvG5
t s;}s;}n] OGkmf]6]gd]06sf] klx/gdf b'j}nfO{
cs{} ljwfsf] ¿kdf k]z ug{] k|of; u/]sf]
kfOG5 .
           dWodfu{df a;]/ ;Gt'lnt 9·n] o;nfO{
b'j}–dgf]/~hg / ;"rgf–sf nflu k|of]u ug{]
k|j[lQ klg gePsf] xf]Og . pBf]u, Jofkf/,
lj1fkgsf] kmf“6df 6]lnlehgnfO{ u|fxs5]p k'Ug]
bl/nf] ;"q 7flgPsf] 5 . zlQmsf, ljz]if u/L
/fHozlQm jf /fhgLltsf v]nf8Lsf lgldQ of]
/0fgLlts cf}hf/ eg]/ lrlgG5 . ;fdflhs
¿kfGt/0fsf cu'jfx¿n] o;df kl/jt{g /
                       ]
ultzLntfsf] hfb" e]6sf 5g\ . 6]lnlehgleqsf
cg]s ;+efjgf / cj;/n] o;nfO{ Ps ;fwg–
cgluGtL pkof]usf] l:yltdf :yflkt u/]sf]
xf], Ps dfg]df ;~rf/–sfdw]g' 7flgPsf] xf] .
           :of6] n fO6 k| l jlwn] 1 6] l nlehgsf]
zlQmnfO{ HofldtLo lx;fan] a9fPsf] 5 . k|f/
Dedf vf; :yfg / kl/j] z df ;Lldt
6]lnlehgsf] kx'“r o;sf sf/0f ljZjJofkL
         ]
aGg k'usf] 5 . Ps cy{df clxn]sf] a]nf ;Dk"0f{
k[YjL 6]lnlehgsf] c“ufnf]df ;d]l6Psf] 5 .
306f 306fsf] ;dfrf/ -/f]lnª Go"h_ z[ªvnfn]     \
                                 '
o;nfO{ ljZj–dfgj;“u cb\et lsl;dn] uf“;sf]          ]
5 . cf]nlDks jf km"6ansf] ljZjsk ePsf]
a]nf jf vf; /f]u ljZje/ km}lnPsf] ;dodf
t[0fd"n txdf of] s'/fsf] cg'ej ul/G5 . df};d
                                              + +
;dfrf/ lbg]n] l;8\gL, 6f]lsof], a]Olhª cf}Nofp“b}
lbNnL, sf7df8f},+ s/f“rL, /f]d, aln{g, d:sf],
n08g b] v fp“ b } Go" o f] s { , Soflnkmf] l g{ o fsf]
xfjfkfgLsf] l:ylt atfp“bf klg w]/nfO{ o:t}}
nfUg] /x]5 . sltn] eGg] u/]sf 5g\ oxL

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        5
‘¿kjflxgL’ n] ubf{ ;+;f/sf] s'g} klg zx/         sxf“ 5 < 6]lnlehgdf s]sf] cWoog ug{] <               ;g\ !(^), ;]K6]Da/df ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf]
klt{/sf] 6f]n;/x ePsf] 5 . e"d08nLs/0fsf]        b[Zosf], efiffsf], af]nLsf], efjel·dfsf],            /fi6«ktLo r'gfjsf] l;nl;nfdf s]g]8L /
ljifonfO{ cy{ljb\ jf /fhgLlt1n] hlt Rofk]        ljifoj:t'sf], k|:tf]tfsf], oGqsf], kbf{sf],                                           ]
                                                                                                      lgS;gaLrsf] dxfjfbljjfb -u|6 l8a]6;_ nfO{    \
klg To;nfO{ oyfy{df knkn ;a}nfO{ cg'ej           36gfljz]ifsf], :jLrsf], tf/sf], :6];gsf],            Toxf“sf ;ft s/f]8 6]lnlehg bz{sn] x]bf{ o;
ug{ ;+ej t'Nofpg] ;fwg 6]lnlehg g} xf] .         Sofd]/fsf] jf Tof] rnfpg]sf] < cWoog s;/L            dfWoddflysf] kf/Dkl/s dfgl;stfdf tflTjs
o;n] ljZj cf“ugsf] kl/sNkgfnfO{ Jojxf/df         ug{] < s] ljlw ckgfpg] <                             cbnabn cfPsf] xf] . t/ klg nfdf] ;do;Dd
                                        '
cg'jfb ul/lbPsf] 5 . lqm; Kof6;{g n]Vg'xG5—                6] l nlehgsf] ;' ? cftdf o;k| l t          o;nfO{ pkGof;, lkmNd tyf gf6ssf] sfNklgs
Television could not exist in its                /flvPsf] b[ l i6sf] 0 fn] klg o;;DaGwL               ljifoj:t'sf] w/ftndf /fVg'kg{] / af}l4shutn]
contemporary form without Satellites.            cWoognfO{ k| e fljt t' N ofPsf] b] l vG5 .           o;sf] cWoog ug{' gkg{], zf]w ug{' gkg{], /
cyf{t\ :of6]nfO6ljgf 6]lnlehgsf] jt{dfg          k|f/Dedf ;+o'Qm clw/fHo / o'/f]ksf s]xL              o;df u+eL/tf;fy ;+nUg x'g' klg gkg{] k'/fgf]
cl:tTj ;+ej 5}g .                                d'n'sdf o;nfO{ hg;]jf -klAns ;le{;_ sf]              zf:qLo ljrf/ sfod g} /lx/x\of] . ;dfhsf
         g] k fnL 6] l nlehgnfO{ :of6] n fO6                                          '
                                                 b[li6sf]0fn] ckgfOPsf] lyof] eg] ;+oQm /fHo          nflu of] xflgsf/s ePsf] wf/0ff klg cfpg],
Rofgnsf] k|;f/0fsf] kl/j]zdf x]g{] xf] eg]       cd]l/sflt/ ahf/df cfwfl/t j:t'sf] ¿kdf               lanfpg] u/]sf] xf] . clxn] klg sltn] 6]lnlehg
cfd;+rf/sf If]qdf cg]s /dfOnf nx/x¿ km]nf        ljsl;t ul/Psf] lyof] . dfS;{jfbL, k|hftGqjfbL                                    ]
                                                                                                      ;dfrf/n] bf]xf]¥ofO{ t]x¥ofO{ lrq b]vfO{–b]vfO{
k5{g\ . ljz]if u/L oxf“sf ;dfrf/df ltgsf]                             ]
                                                 / cGo sltkon] k|;sf] ;j{dfGo l;4fGts}                ck/fwL / cft+sjfbLnfO{ k|l;4 u/fp“5 -
k|efjnfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] kqsf/sf nflu                                                                           Unf]l/kmfO{_ eGg] cf/f]k nflu/x]5 .
pkof]uL ;+s]tx¿ b]lvG5g\ . tL                                                                                    pHofnf] b] v fpg] 6] l nlehg w] / }
aLrsf] ax'cfofdLo ;DaGwnfO{                                                                                      jif{;Dd cWoogsf] b[li6n] Ps k|sf/n]
cg';Gwfgsf] k|m]ddf /fv]/ cWoog                                                                                  cGwsf/df /lx/x\of] .
ug{] cg]s ljifo x'g;S5g\, zf]w               klqsf eP k9]/, /]l8of] eP ;'g/ cWoog
                                                                               ]                                           6]lnlehgsf] k|efj ;dfhdf
pkfo / z}nL klg cgluGtL 5g\ .                                                                                     a9\b} hf“bf ;g\ !(&) df h]D;
k|:t't cfn]vn] ljb]zL :of6nfO6               ug{] j:t' kfpg ;lsGYof] t/ 6]lnlehgdf                                x\ofnf]/fgn] cfd;+rf/n] hgtfnfO{
Rofgnsf] af9L / g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf              s]sf] cWoog ug{] < b[Zosf], efiffsf],                              s] u5{ eg]/ g;f]wf}+, a? hgtfn]
;dfrf/df To;n] kf/]sf] c;/ df                  af]nLsf], efjel·dfsf], ljifoj:t'sf],                               o;nfO{ s] u5{g\ egL k|Zg u/f}3       +
s]lGb|t eP/ ljifoj:t'nfO{ lgofNg]                k|:tf]tfsf], oGqsf], kbf{sf], 36gf–                              egL k|:tfj /fv]kl5 af}l4s SnanfO{
hdsf{ ] u/] s f] 5 . o;df                                                                                          ;f]Rg afWo kf/]sf] a'lemG5 . ;g\
;fª\ l VosLo cfwf/df xf] O g                   ljz]ifsf], :jLrsf], tf/sf], :6];gsf],                               !(&$ df /] d f] 0 8 ljlnodn]
Sjfln6]l6e d]yf]8f]nf]hLn] lgb{l] zt          Sofd]/fsf] jf Tof] rnfpg]sf] < cWoog                                 6]lnlehg k|;f/0f cWoogdf clt
ug{] ;fdfGo cWoogsf cfwf/df                       s;/L ug{] < s] ljlw ckgfpg] <                                    dxŒjk"0f{ cfofd of]hgfa4 k|jfx
cjnf]sg ug{] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 .                                                                                     xf] egL cfkm\gf] k':tsdf4 jsfnt
                                                                                                                   ubf{ w] / } n fO{ nfUof] – 6] l nlehg
6]lnlehgnfO{ k9\g] kf] s;/L <                                                                                      cWoog ug{'kg{] uxg ljifo /x]5,
cfd;~rf/df 6]lnlehgnfO{ lng] ls glng],                                                                k9\g'kg{] zf:q /x]5 . hf]g Pln;n] cfkm\gf]
k|];cGtu{t o;nfO{ kfg{] ls gkfg{], o;sf] a]Un}                                                        lstfj lelhan lkmS;gdf l;g] d f /
cl:tTjnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{] ls gug{] eGg] ljifodf                                                          6]lnlehgnfO{ cnu cnu ljwf eg]/ 5'6\ofO{
klZrdL ljåfg\x¿aLr k|f/Dedf tLa| ljjfb                                                                ;fgf–;fgf ;]ud]06df 6]lnlehgnfO{ ;xh
ePsf] xf] . 6]lnlehgnfO{ s;/L k9\g], s'g                                                              ¿kdf cWoog ug{ ;lsg] cjwf/0ff k|:t't
ljwfcGtu{t cWoog ug{], s:tf] ljlwn] k9\g],                                                            u/]/ o;;DaGwL cWoogsf] dxQfnfO{ :yflkt
s] s'/fnfO{ lnP/ cWoog ug{] tyf o;sf]                                            {
                                                 cfwf/df o;nfO{ cWoog ug'kg{] s'/fdf hf]8             ug'{eof] .5
cWoogsf] cf}lrTo s] eGg]df pgLx¿df :ki6tf        lbOcfPsf] b]lvG5 . 6]lnlehgleqsf] dgf]/hg    +                ;f+:s[lts cWoogqmddf 6]lnlehgnfO{
lyPg . cg] s kl08tx¿ ;f] R g] ub{ y ] ,          ;+;f/sf lrGtsx¿ eg] km/s ljrf/ /fVb}                 c“ufNg] ;Gb]z :6'cf6{ xnn] !(&$ df cfkm\gf]
ljZjljBfno kl/;/ / cGo af}l4s k|lti7fglt/        eG5g\— o;nfO{ k|bz{g Joj;fo (Show Biz)               lgaGw Ogsf]l8ª P08 l8sf]l8ª Og 6]lnlehg
o;nfO{ ;dfhzf:q, /fhgLltzf:q, ;+rf/zf:q,         sf l;4fGtaf6 x]l/g'k5{ .2                            l8:sf] ; { d f lbg' e Psf] 5 . jld{ ª \ 3 d
gf6s, lkmNd, dfWod, efiff cWoog cflbdf                   ;g\ !(%@ df ;/ Oofg Hofsf]an]                ljZjljBfnon] ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf u/]sf]
;fgf] kl/R5]b lbP k'U5, Tof]eGbf a9L Wofg                           ]                 [
                                                 aLaL;Lsf] dxflgb{zssf] ¿kdf g]tTj ;DxfNbf            ;f+:s[lts cWoogdf 6]lnlehg / dgf]/~hg
lbg' plrt x'“b}g lsgeg] 6]lnlehg 6«fG;ld6/       log} s'/fn] pxf“nfO{ lk/f]n]sf] lyof] . /]l8of]sf]   cfofdsf] ljZn]if0f ;dflji6 x'g' / kl5 hf]g
-k|;f/s_ eGbf a9L s]xL xf]Og . 6]lnlehg          babaf ePsf] Tof] a]nf 6]lnlehgnfO{ :yflkt            lkm:ssf] o:t} k| o f; /xg' n ] 6] l nlehg
leqsf] rfl/lqs :jefjn] pgLx¿nfO{ cndndf          ug{ ;lhnf] lyPg . t/ To;} jif{ h'g dlxgfdf           cWoognfO{ cl3 a9fof] . 8]le8 df]nL{n] !(*)
kf/]Yof] . klqsf eP k9]/, /]l8of] eP ;'g]/       dxf/fgL Plnhfa]ysf] /fHofleif]ssf] 6]lnlehg          df bz{s cg';Gwfgdf To:t} k|of; u/]sf]
cWoog ug{ ] j:t' kfpg ;lsGYof] t/                k|;f/0f clt /fd|f] x'g uof] h;sf sf/0f a]nfotL       b]lvG5 . ToxL cjlwdf kqsfl/tf If]qdf
ljZn]if0fsf nflu 6]lnlehgdf s] l6Kg] < ljrf/     hgtfsf] 6]lnlehgk|ltsf] cjwf/0ffd} ;f/k"0f{          6]lnlehgaf/] n]v, l6Kk0fL, ;dLIff cflb
-sG;]K6_ sf nflu af}l4s w/ftn vf]O{ < bz{g       kl/jt{g x'g k'Uof] . cem To;sf] cf7 jif{kl5          k|sflzt x'g,] ;flxTodf / cfnf]rgfdf 6]lnlehg

6                                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
                             klZrddf 6]lnlehg cWoogsf] j}rfl/s ljsf; qmd

  slxn]            “
               sf];u ;Da4 <                       ePsf] s] <                          rf;f] lsg <                            ljz]if
  !(@#     Enflbld/ hf]l/lsg          rNg] lrq k|;f/0f ug{] 6\o"a ag]sf]     lrq k|;f/0fsf] ;Defjgf              6]lnlehgsf] cfljisf/

                                      6]lnlehg o'udf k|j]z u/]sf]                                                of] ;] j f bf] ; | f ] ljZjo' 4
  !(#^     aLaL;L                                                            6]lnlehg ;]jfsf] cEof;
                                                                                                                 -!(#(–!($%_ df /f]lsP/kl5
                                                                                                                 !($^ df k'gM k|f/De ul/of]

  !(#(     Go"of]s{ jN8{ km]o/        6]lnlehg                               k|bz{gsf] dfWodaf6 6]lnlehg          cf/ ;L P eGg] ;+:yfn] k|bz{g
                                                                             k|;f/0fnfO{ xf};nf                   u/]sf]
  !(&)     h]D; x\ofnf]/fg            hgtfn] cfd;+rf/dfWodnfO{ s]            bz{ssf] b[li6af6 6]lnlehgnfO{        bz{sk|wfg b[li6sf]0fsf] ;"qkft
                                      u5{g\ eg]/ ;f]wf}+ eg]sf]              x]g'{kg{] lrGtg k|:t't u/]sf]
  !(&$      :6'cf6{ xn                6]lnlehg k|:t'ltnfO{ cy{ lbg] /         cfd;~rf/sf] k|:t'ltaf6 ;+:s[ltsf] !(*) df 8]le8 df]nL{n] o;sf
                                      c“ufNg]tkm{ hf]8                        cWoog ug{] cfofdsf] k'li6         cfwf/df bz{s zf]w u/]sf

  !(&$      /]df]08 ljlnod            6]lnlehg k|:t'ltnfO{ cWoog ug{] /]l8of] / kqklqsf cWoogeGbf o;} cfwf/nfO{ hf]g Pln;n]
                                      cfwf/ of]hgfa4 k|jfx xf] eGg] ljrf/ km/s u/L 6]lnlehg cWoog ug{] ;]ud]06sf] ¿kdf ljsl;t u/L
                                      k]z ePsf]                           k|of;                        cWoogsf] cfwf/ l;kmfl/; u/]sf]

  !(*!       cfg sfKnfg               6] l nlehg k| : t' l tdf hgtfsf]       k| l tlglwTj gug{ ] cfd;~rf/        k|hftGqdf clt cfjZos ;f]r
                                      k|ltlglwTjsf] ;jfn p7fOPsf]            ;fdu|Lsf] s] cy{ eGg] ;f]rsf]
                                                                             ljsf;
  !(()       cg]s cfd;~rf/sdL{        6]lnlehg cWoog ug{] rf/ cfwf/           –     cy{ nufpg]                   6]lnlehg cWoog ax'cfoflds
   kl5                                                                        –     bz{ssf] b[li6                cfwf/df x'g] k|rng a9]sf]
                                                                              –     pTkfbg kl/j]z
                                                                              –     l6eL Oltxf;



;Gbe{ ;w}+ plq/xg], ;fdflhs zf:qsf] kmf“6df               ;g\ !(() sf] bzsdf / clxn] klg            :jtGqtf ;w}+ g} ljjfbsf] ljifo ePsf] 5 .
6]lnlehgn] ;fdflhs sfo{ ug{] u/]sf] eGg]         6]lnlehg cWoogsf rf/ wf/ b]lvG5g\ .                xfnsf jif{df dfq s]xL b]zdf o;nfO{ ahf/df
                                 ]
efsfdf cWoog eO/xg] s'/f rfnf{6 a|G;8gn]         Pp6fn] 6LeL 6]S:6nfO{ kl/efiff ug{] / cy{          hfg lbOPsf] xf] . sltdf :of6]nfO6 6LeL
                               {
6]lnlehg :6l8hdf pNn]v ug'ePsf] 5 . ToxL         nufpg'kg{] eG5, csf{]n] 6LeL s;n] x]5{ / s'g       k|;f/0fn] /fli6«o ;fj{ef}ldstfdf xdnf eof],
                             ]
qmd bzssf] pQ/f4{lt/ k'u/ k|ltlglwTjsf]          tl/sfn] x]l/G5 eGg]df cWoog x'g'kg{] 7fG5,         lj:tf/jfbsf] uGw cfof] eg]/ ;"rgf lgoGq0fsf
       ]
-/]lk|h06];g_ cfofdaf6 6]lnlehgnfO{ cWoog           |
                                                 t];f] ;fdu|L pTkfbgb]lv kbf{df k|;f/0f;Ddsf]       cg]s pkfo u/]sf] klg kfOG5 .
ug{] ljlwtkm{ pGd'v ePsf] b]lvG5 . cfg           cjlwdf x'g] k]lrnf sfo{sf] ljZn]if0fnfO{ ljz]if
sfKnfgsf] l/ufl8{ª 6]lnlehg k':tsdf ;+slnt       dfG5, / rf}yf]n] 6LeLsf] ult, ljsf;, j[l4 /        kl/j]z g]kfnsf], kbf{ 6]lnlehgsf]
!(*! ;Dd]ngsf] ;fdu|Ln] oxL k'li6 u5{ .          Oltxf;nfO{ dxŒjk"0f{ 7fG5 .                        g]kfn ljb]zL :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf] af9Ldf 5 .
o;} qmddf 6] l nlehgdf hgtfsf] slt                                       '
                                                          ljZjsf cGo d'nsdf 6]lnlehg ;+:s[lt        ltgaf6 jif{g] ;dfrf/sf], ;~rf/ k|j[lQsf]
                                         '
;xeflutf / k|ltlglwTj eGg]af/] cWoog x'gkg{]     klZrdaf6 ;/]sf]n] ToxL+sf] ljrf/ qmd Totflt/       rk]6fdf k/]/ oxf“sf] ;~rf/ ;+/rgf s:tf] x'“b}
s'/fdf hf]8 /x]sf] kfOG5 . ;g\ !(*& df           lj:tf/ ePsf] kfOG5 . Pl;ofnL, clk|msL /            hfg] xf], clxn] eljiojf0fL ug{ ;lsGg . c;/
Go"sDa / lx;{sn] ;f]r]sf] ‘Eo"Oª l:6«k’n]        blIf0f cd]l/sL b]zdf 6]lnlehgnfO{ ;/sf/sf]         cg]s If]qdf b]lvg yfn]sf] w]/} eof] . g]kfnL
6]lnlehgdf bz{snfO{ k|wfg cf;gdf /fv]/           lgoGq0fdf /fv]/ ljsl;t ug{] ljz]if k|jl[ Q         6]lnlehgsf ;dfrf/Lo Jojxf/, ljifoj:t', z}nL
cWoog ug'{kg{] s'/f cf}+NofPsf] xf] .            clxn] klg 5 . Toxf“ 6]lnlehgnfO{ ldNg] k|];        / k|:t'ltdf To;sf] cg'e"lt x'G5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       7
          ;"rgfk|ljlwsf] hfb" ;/xsf] j}1flgs      eP/ /xg'k5{ . gful/ssf] ;"rgfsf] xsnfO{          a]Un} cfofd /]vf+sg ePsf] 5 . b|i6fsf nflu
k|lqmof / pks/0fn] xfjfaf6 ;Gb]z l6Kg ;Sg]        hu]gf{ ug{] cxd\ cfwf/ klg oxL xf] . /fHo /      of] clt g} lk|o ljwf x'g uPsf] 5 . gful/ssf]
/ To;nfO{ k|;f/0f ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf sf/0f          gful/saLrsf] ;+jfbaf6 ;dfrf/ k|efljt             hghLjgdf, /fli6«o sfo{kl/;/df, /fhgLltdf,
g]kfndf ljb]zL :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf] laulauL          eO/x]sf] x'G5, lj1sf] 1fgnfO{, j}1flgssf]        ;d'bfodf, kl/jf/df 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n]
a9]sf] xf] . cfd;~rf/ljb\x¿sf] efiffdf o;nfO{     vf]hnfO{ ;j{;fwf/0fdf lkm+hfpg] / t[0fd"n        68\sf/f] cGt/ NofPsf] 5 . :of6]nfO6n]
;"rgfsf] pRr /fhdfu{ eg]/ ;Daf]wg ul/G5 .         txsf hgtfsf] sf]/f cg'ejnfO{ cGodf k'¥ofpg]      6]lnlehgsf] k|;f/0f IfdtfnfO{ a9fp“bf pld|Psf
of] af6f]n] ;do / :yfgdfly ljho xfl;n             ;fwg oxL xf] . of] ;/sf/L gLlt / of]hgf,         ljb]zL Rofgnsf ;dfrf/n] g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf
u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 k|frLg k"jL{o lrGtgdf            pbL{ / ;"rgfnfO{ b]ze/ km}nfpg] pkfo xf] .       ;dfrf/df cg]s k|efj kf/]sf 5g\ . s]xL
pNn]v ul/P em}+ dGq hKgf;fy -kf;j8{ k|:t't        pbf/ kl/efiffdf :jtGq k|];sf] kof{o:j¿k          ;sf/fTds 5g\, s]xL gsf/fTds 5g\ . s]xLn]
               \                ]
ugf{;fy_, r'6sLsf] e/df -;+st lbgf;fy_ jf         eP/ :yflkt ePsf] 5 ;dfrf/ . o;nfO{ /f]Sbf        ;dfrf/sf] ul/df a9fPsf 5g\ s]xLn] To;nfO{
l:jr bafpgf;fy vf]hsf] ;fdu|L km]nf k5{,
                         ]                        k|hftGq efl;G5, lg/+s'ztf emf+luG5 eGg]          36fPsf 5g\ .
;Da4 ljifo, 36gf, JolQmTj, ;+uLt, v]n jf          /fhgLltzf:qLsf] 7x/ 5 . rf} y f] c·sf]                      6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sf] ljsf;qmdnfO{
;+jfb JolQmsf ;fd' tTsfn cfOk'U5– zAbdf,          5ftfd'lGt/ o'usf] rngcg'¿k snd, 6]k/]s8{/        x]bf{ yfxf x'G5 – o;df vf; gd'gf jf pbfx/0f
lrqdf, cfjfhdf jf cGo s' g } ul0ftLo                                         ]
                                                  / Sofd]/f lnP/ kqsfl/tf ug{n] To;df :jLs[lt      jf vf; 9f“ r f agfP/ o:t} x' g ' k 5{ egL
;+s]tdf . o;s} sf/0f Ps cy{df cfsfzaf6–           hgfPsf 5g\ . ltgsf nflu ;dfrf/ Ps :tDe           ;dfrf/sIfn] k|;f/0f yfn]sf] xf]Og . ub{} hf“bf,
cGtl/Ifaf6 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sf] jiff{ ;+ej          xf] h;sf cfwf/df /fi6« c8]sf] x'G5 .             l;Sb} hf“bf, gLlt–lg0f{ostf{sf cfb]zdf, ;/sf/L
                 '
ePsf] xf] . s]an ;]jf lbg] ;+:yfn]                                                                               lgb{ ] z gdf, ;dfhsf cu' j fsf
o;nfO{ ;+ s ng u/] / g] k fnL                                                                                    k/fdz{df, b|i6fsf] k|ltlqmofsf
sf]7fdf vf; d"Nodf k'¥ofpg]                                                                                      cfwf/df ;dfrf/nfO{ kl/eflift u/L
Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .                                                                                                ;+sng÷k|;f/0f ug{] lylt a;]sf]
          pbfx/0fsf nflu g]kfndf,                                                                                xf] . k| f /lDessfndf 5fkf
                    +
ljz]if u/L sf7df8f}df / To;aflx/                       cem} klg ;dfrf/sf l;nl;nfdf                               dfWodsf] 5fk 6]lnlehg k|;f/0fdf
cg]s 7fp“df k|rlnt s'g} klg                      o;nfO{ 5fkf / /]l8of]sf] 5fof“n] cK7]/f]                        k/]sf] :ki6 b]lvG5, kl5 /]l8of]sf]
s]an ;+hfnsf] ;]jfnfO{ lgofn]df
    '                                            kf/]sf] cg'ej s]xLsf] 5 . k|]; ;Dd]ng                           b[ Z o ;+ : s/0f t xf] lg eGg]
yfxf x'G5– o;af6 Go"gtd klg                                                                                       cjwf/0ffn] 6]lnlehgnfO{ lgs}
                                                   geg]/ ;dfrf/ ;Dd]ng elgof];\ eGg]                              lk/f]n]sf] kfOG5 . rrf{ / k|rf/df
^%–^^ j6f Rofgnsf] ;]jf k|fKt
                                                    o;sf] cfzo ;j{q k"lt{ ePsf] 5}g .                             hgtfaLr l56} lk|o eP klg 5'66}   \
x'G5 . oLdWo] s]xL x'g\– aLaL;L,
                                                  ‘k|; k;{G;’sf] ;§f ‘Go"h k;{G;’ pko'Qm
                                                     ]                                                            cfd;+rf/ dfWodsf] cl:tTjaf]w x'g
;LPgPg, :6f/ Go"h, cfhts,
                                                 x'G5 eGg] o;sf] egfOnfO{ ;w}“ ;'lg“b}g .                         o;nfO{ s]xL ;do nfu]sf] 5, cem}
8L8LGof;gn, hLGo" h , lx:6« L                                                                                     klg ;dfrf/sf l;nl;nfdf o;nfO{
Rofgn, :6f/ d'leh, km];g 6LeL,                                                                                    5fkf / /]l8of]sf] 5fof“n] cK7]/f]
aL$o" Do'lhs, ;f]gL, :6f/ Kn;,                                                                                    kf/]sf] cg'ej s]xLsf] 5 . k|];
6]g :kf]6\{;, hL6LeL, OP;kLPg,                                                                                    ;Dd]ng geg]/ ;dfrf/ ;Dd]ng
:6f/ jN8{, :6f/ jfg, 8L8L :kf]6{\;,                                                                elgof];\ eGg] o;sf] cfzo ;j{q k"lt{ ePsf]
                                      "
l8:se/L, cf:yf, l/ofln6L 6LeL, sf6{g g]6js{,                                                                ]
                                                                                                   5}g . k|; k;{G;sf] ;6\6f Go"h k;{G; pko'Qm
g];gn lhof]u|fkmL, Pd6LeL, jN8{ g]6 cflb .                                                         x'G5 eGg] o;sf] egfOnfO{ ;w}+ ;'lg“b } g .
logdf ;a} ;dfrf/k|wfg 5}gg\, t/ clwsf+z                                                            o;leqsf] Sofd]/f k|ljlw, k|;f/0f ;+oGq, :6'l8of]
Ps g Ps lsl;dn] ;dfrf/;“u cfa4 5g\ .                                                               ;+/rgfsf jf:tljs cfjZostf tyf afWotfn]
ltgn] Psflt/ g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf ;dfrf/–                                                             klg o;sf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ k|efljt t'NofPsf]
b|i6fnfO{ x/ kn vf]l;/x]5g\ / csf{l] t/ ;dfrf/             dfgj ;Eotfsf] ;/;tL{ cWoogn]            5 . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df kyk|bz{s x'g] >]o
                                                  b]vfp“5— ;dfrf/nfO{ k|f/Dedf j}slNks             kfPsf aLaL;L / ;LPgPgsf] ufyf k9\bf /
ljwfdf oxf“ cg] s c;/ 5f] l 8/x] 5 g\ .
                                                  ;~rf/n] / kl5 ;g\ !$$) df u'6]gau{n]             clxn]sf] cEof; x]bf{ cg'ej x'G5– 6]lnlehg
b|i6fx/0fsf] ;d:of, k|lt:k4f{sf] df/ tyf ahf/       ]
                                                  k|; agfPkl5 cfd;~rf/sf] 5fkf dfWodn]             ;dfrf/df k|of]u rfn" 5, l;sfO hf/L 5 .
Pj+ ljQLo ;Lldttfsf dfem tL c;/n] g]kfnL          v]nfp“b} cfPsf] xf] . To;sf] em08} $%% jif{kl5                  |              '
                                                                                                              t];f] ljZjsf d'nsdf ltgsf] cg'ej
6]lnlehgnfO{ c“7\ofO/x]sf] cg'ej x'G5 .                                         ]
                                                  !*(% lt/ u'lUnPNdf] dfsf{gLsf] /]l8of] j]e       st} 6]lnlehg ‘uLtf’ ag]/ k'u]sf] 5 st}
k|efjsf] tLa| ks8 ;dfrf/sf] kmf“6df 5 .           cfljisf/sf sf/0f ;dfrf/nfO{ ckgfP/ /]l8of]n]     6]lnlehg ‘afOan’ ag]/ / st} 6]lnlehg
          ;dfrf/ eg]sf] kqsfl/tfdf o:tf] ljwf     a]Un} xfjfsf] zAb ;+;f/ :yfkgf u/]sf] xf] .      ‘s'/fg’ ag]/ . cg]s 7fp“df aLaL;L / ;LPgPg
xf] h;sf dfWodaf6 cfd;~rf/ ul/G5 . of]            af]nL ;dfrf/ z'? ePsf] sl/a @* jif{df            cgf}krfl/s 6]lnlehg ljZjljBfno aGg k'usf      ]
o:tf] ljlw xf] h;af6 ;j{;fwf/0f ;';l" rt x'g]     !(@# lt/ ;dfrf/sf] hfb"kfzdf 6]lnlehg            5g\ . /fli6«o cfjZostf / afWotfn] To;df
cj:yf k}bf x'G5 . of] o:tf] ljwfg xf] h'g         kg{ cfPsf] xf] . o;df /x]sf] >Job[Zo zlQmsf      yk36 eO/x]sf] 5, gSsn / cg]s vfnsf
lg/Gt/ ;To–tYok"0f{, ;Gt'lnt / ljZj;gLo           sf/0f ;dfrf/sf] cg'xf/, k|efj / ult ;a}df        cg';/0f tLa| ¿kdf rfn" 5g\ . xfnsf jif{df


8                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
:of6]nfO6 Rofgnsf] k|;f/0fn] To;df ljz]if                • ;dfrf/ zx/ / ;'ud If]qsf] dfq             5 . ljz] i fu/L ‘tkfO{ + ’ sf] k| o f] u ubf{ s f]
k| e fj kf/] s f] 5 . tL Rofgndf /x] s f]                      x'G5 eGg]df hf]8                              '
                                                                                                     6fpsf]bvfO / ‘ltdL’ eg]/ a9L cfw'lgs aGg]
6\ofAnf]O8 z}nLn] oxf“ ;g;gLk"0f{ k|;f/0f ug{            • cf} k rfl/s sfo{ q md ;dfrf/ xf] ,        /x/ pNn]vgLo 5 . slt ;Gbe{df bf]wf/
k|l] /t u/]sf] b]lvG5, d"ntM ck/fw, of}g tyf                   cgf}krfl/s sxf“ vf]Hg] eGg] ;f]r      b]lvG5, p:t} l:yltdf s;}nfO{ tkfO{+ / s;}nfO{
dgf]/~hgk|wfg ;dfrf/df of] k|j[lQ kfOG5 .                • ;dfrf/df klg k|f]6f]sn x'G5 eGg]          ltdL eg]sf] k|;·n] ;w}+ laemfp“5 . rf]/, 8fFsf,
cg]s :of6]nfO6 Rofgndf kfOg] ljZn]if0ffTds                     dfGotf                                anfTsf/LnfO{ s;/L tkfO“ eGg] k|Zgdf bd
;dfrf/, vf]hk"0f{ ;dfrf/, /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o           • ljb]zaf6 k|fKt ;a} ;dfrf/ /fd|f] x'G5                    +
                                                                                                     xf]nf, t/ tkfO{df k|ultzLntf n·8fp“5 eGg'
hLjgsf cg] s kIfsf ;dfrf/ / b} l gs                            eGg] wf/0ff                           t s;/L< ;dfrf/sIfdf ;fgf] :6fOna's
hLjgf]kof]uL ;fdu|Lsf ;dfrf/af6 eg] kf7                  • 306f 306fdf ;dfrf/ lbg] df]x              cEof; ubf{ 6'l·g] k|;·df Wofg gk'Ubf
l;Sg] k|j[lQ sd b]lvG5 .                                 • h] klg ;dfrf/ xf] eGg] cjwf/0ff           6]lnlehgn] bz{snfO{ lg/Gt/ luHofO/x]sf]
                                                         • h;n] klg ;dfrf/ pTkfbg ug{ ;S5            l:ylt 5 .
;dfrf/sf] vf; v]df                                             eGg] ljZjf;
g]kfnL 6]lnlehg– ;dfrf/sf] 5ftf 7"nf ljsl;t              • xfdLn] lbPkl5 Tof] ;dfrf/ x'G5 x'G5                           \
                                                                                                     x;\ xf] ls xj;\, 5'6g] a]nfdf ;w}+ ;s;
b]zsf] t'ngfdf Tolt a[xt\ 5}g . t/ of] lg/Gt/                  eGg] cf8Da/             >Job[Zo / cGo k|:t'ltdf 5'6\g] a]nfs]f jfSo,
lj:t[t x'g] qmddf 5 . g]kfn 6]lnlehg, d]6«f],            • ;Gb]z t s] xf] / egL ;dfrf/sf]
                                                                                       jfSof+z jf cleJolQmnfO{ kfl6{ª ;Gb]z eg]/
Rofgn g] k fn, Od] h Rofgn, sflGtk' /                          hLjGttfnfO{ r'gf}tL lbg] afgL
                                                                                       ljz]if dxŒj lbOG5 . ;dfrf/df o;sf] k|of]u
6]lnlehg, g]kfn jfgsf ;dfrf/n], ljz]if u/L               • k|lqmofsf] ;g;gL kf] cfjZos 5 eGg]
                                                                                       x'g' g/fd|f] xf]Og, t/ o; qmddf cg]s k|:tf]tfn]
ltgn] gf} b]lv !^ kN6;Dd k|;f/0f ug{] ;dfrf/                   k|j[lQ                  xj;\ eGg] zAbnfO{ k|of]u u/]sf] kfOg' crDd
sfo{qmdn] o;nfO{ clxn] kl/eflift u/]sf 5g\ .             • c¿sf] gSsn ug{] /x/         5, Tof] slxn] x;\ eOlbG5 t slxn] xf];,\ clg
PleGo'h / ;u/dfyf 6]lnlehg Go"h Rofgnsf                  • 6\ofAnf]O8 z}nLsf] cfsif{0f slxn] xif . ljbf x'gsf nflu ;w}+ o;sf] k|of]u
¿kdf o;df ;lDdlnt eO;s] s f 5g\ .                        • lrqdo k|:t'lt g} 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/
                                                                                       x'g' slt a'l4dQf xf], slt pko'Qm xf] ¤ ljz]if
Go"hnfOg 6LeL, g];gn 6LeL, O06/g];gn                           xf] eGg] c8fg           u/L k"jL{ g]kfndf k|rngdf /x]s]f ‘xj;\’
ckln+s k|f=ln=, af]lwu|fd, P; s] 6LeL nufot                                            ljbfOsf] zAb xf] / <
                                                               o; k|sf/sf cjwf/0ffn] ;dfrf/sIf
w]/}n] k|;f/0fsf] cg'dlt lnPsf] a'lemG5 .        k|efljt ePsfn] g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ xn'sf     6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ :qmf]ndf /ge'Nn
ltgnfO{ cjnf]sg ubf{ 6LeLsf] v]tLk|lt                                                  5 . 6]lnlehg kbf{sf] k'5f/df k|jflxt x'g]
                                                 ePsf 5g\, ;dfrf/ k|:tf]tf ;xL cy{sf cf+s/
nufgLstf{ cfs[i6 ePsf] yfxf x'G5 . em08}                                               Ps nfOgsf] alu/x]sf] h:tf] b]lvg] x/km–:qmf]n–
                                                 geP/ 6]lnk|Dk6/df h] cfp“5 Tof] k9\g] ‘jfrs’
@% s/f]8sf] k"hL xftdf lnP/ gof“ l6eL ;]jf
                “                                            ]                         n] kqsfl/tf, ljz]if u/L ;dfrf/Lo w/ftndf
                                                 x'g k'usf 5g\, 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/–;do hglk|o
k|f/De ug{ vf]Hg' eg]sf] nufgL–;+;f/df rfgr'g]         '                               ljz]if :yfg lnO;s]sf] 5 . of] :yfgnfO{ cGoq
                                                 x'gsf] ;f6f] Rofgn abNg] a]nf ePsf] 5 .
s'/f xf]Og eGg] lj1x¿sf] ljrf/ 5 .                                                     em}+ oxf“ klg lj1fkgsf cltl/Qm ;dfrf/sf
                                                 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ sfo{qmddf Sofd]/f k|wfg
          jf:tjdf of] df]x klg ljZjdf b]vf       x'G5 g}, t/ To;sf ;fdu|LnfO{ bz{ssf lgldQ
                                                                                       lgldQ k|of]u ul/G5 . cGo sfo{qmd ;~rf/
k/]sf cg]s :of6]nfO6 Rofgnsf] k|efj xf] .                  "
                                                 cy{k0f{ kfg{sf nflu k"0f{ l/kf]l6{ª, ;xL cf+sl/ª
                                                                                       eO/x]sf] avt dxŒjk"0f{ ;dfrf/ lbg'k/]df
cGoq Toltsf l6eL rn]sf 5g\ eg] oxf“ lsg              '                      ]          {
                                                 x'gk5{, ;dfrf/nfO{ k|f8S;g ug'k5{ . ;dosf]
                                                                                       o;sf] pkof] u x' G 5 . t/ s:tf s:tf
rNb}g, / Tof] 6LeL To;/L rn]sf] 5 eg] of]                                              ;Gb]zd"ns ;fdu|LnfO{ :qmf]n ;dfrf/df /fVg]
                                                 cefjn] xf] ls, ;fwgsf] sdLn] xf] ls, l/kf]6/df{
6LeL klg lgZro g} rNg'k5{ eGg] cfwf/df           ;Lk ;DkGgtf geP/ xf] ls jf ;dfrf/nfO{ eGg] dfkb08 ljsl;t ePsf] b]lvGg, xr'jfsf]
of] k|j[lQ lj:tf/ eO/x]sf] xf] .                         "                             e/df o;sf] cEof; eO/x]sf] 5 . cg]skN6
                                                 ax'dNo pTkfbg agfcf}+ eGg] rfxgf geP/ xf]
          Jofj;flos cg';Gwfg k"/f u/]/ To;n]     g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df o:tf sdL b]vfk|:t'lt :ki6 gx'g], ;dfrf/ rogdf sdhf]/L
cf}+NofPsf ;+s]tnfO{ dgg u/]/ 6LeL k|f/+e                                              /xg] / efiff gldNg] l:ylt cfOk/]sf] s'/f w]/}
                                                 k5{g\ . o;df pko'Qm ;'wf/ x'g g;s] g]kfnL
ePsf] pbfx/0f oxf“ 5}g eGbf x'G5 . Pp6f          6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n] cfkm\gf ;Dk"0f{ bz{sbz{sn] cf}+NofPsf] kfOG5 . ;+lIfKt / ;fgf]
;"of]{bob]lv csf{] ;"of]{bo;Dd jif{}el/ lg/Gt/   O06/g] 6 df k| f Kt cgnfOgsf] k| l t:k4L{
                                                                                       eP/ klg o;sf] k[i7e"lddf /x]sf] cfd;+rf/
d'6'sf] w8\sg;“u k|lt:k4f{ ub{} ;~rflnt                                           ]
                                                 ;dfrf/lt/ cf]Ol/Psf] b]Vg'kg{5 . Toxf“ bz{snfO{
                                                                                       zlQm / dxŒjnfO{ gsfg{ ;lsGg . bz{s jf
6LeLdf k|;fl/t x'g] ;dfrf/ sfo{qmd dxŒjk"0f{     cfkm\gf] ;dodf, rfx]sf] a]nfdf, rfx]sf] hlt
                                                                                       u| f xssf] ;" r gfsf] clwsf/b] l v lnP/
x'G5 hf] :jo+ :of6]nfO6 k|efj xf] . logdf                                            }
                                                 ;dfrf/ x]g]{ ;+efjgf ;'/lIft 5“b5 . Ps ljb]zL
                                                                                       kqsfl/tfsf uDeL/ ;Lk h:tf s'/fsf] rf;f]
lgDg cjwf/0ff;Fu cfj4 k|jl[ Q ljBdfg /x]sf]                                            o;df 5 . o;af6 vf; sfo{qmd x]l//x]sf
                                                 k|;f/s kqsf/n] s'g} cGtjf{tf{df eg] em}+
b]lvG5 eGg] cfd;~rf/ zf]wstf{sf] egfO                                                  b|i6fsf] Wofg e· x'g hfg] s'/fdf xf]lzof/L
                                                 6]lnlehgsf] @$ 306] /f]lnª ;dfrf/df ;+/rgf
5 . zf]wsf] ¿kdf ljZj;gLo tj/n] logsf]           / cfsf/ km]nf kb{g .6   }             ckgfpg'k5{ . ;fy} ;"rgf–pkef]Qmfn] yk
;fª\ l VosLo cWoog ePsf] kfOGg t/                              o;sf] ;fy} c¿ k|;·df klg k|efj
                                                                                       ;Gt' l i6 kfpg] ljifodf klg hfu[ t x' g '
cgf}krfl/s tj/n] cfd;~rf/df ?lr /fVg]n]                                                          ]
                                                 gk/]sf] xf]Og . logsf] ;+lIfKt rrf{ pko'Qm x'g5 .
                                                                                       cfjZos 5 .
u/]sf] cWoogn] oL s'/fnfO{ cf}NofPsf] e]l6G5M
                               +                                                                 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/nfO{ ‘nfOe’ n]
                                                                      +
                                            ‘ltdL’;“u Kof/, ‘tkfO{’nfO{ afO{afO{       lglZrt ¿kdf hLjGt kf/]sf] 5 . o;sf sf/0f
    • /fhgLlt dfq ;dfrf/ xf], g]tfsf] af]nL g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df vf; JolQmnfO{ b|i6fx¿ vf; 36gf, JolQm / k|;·;“u k|ToIf
      dfq ;dfrf/ xf] eGg] e|d               s:tf] cfb/fyL{ zAb k|of]u ug{] eGg]df cndn ¿kdf cfa4 x'g k'u]sf] kfOG5 . t/ s'g

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                        9
s'/fnfO{ s;/L nfOe lbg] eGg] ljifodf :ki6        k|ltzt ljZn]if0fdf zf]wsf] lgod gnufpg]        ;/fxgLo 5, To;df xLgefjgf lng'kg{] l:ylt
   “
gx'bf nfOedf b|i6fx¿ x/fPsf] :ki6 b]lvG5,                   ]
                                                 ePkl5 ;e{af6 s] cy{ nufpg] < sd{sf08Lo         5“ b } 5 } g . t/ c¿ :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf]
cg]skN6 clt g} k6\of/df k/]sf] b]lvG5 .          ¿kdf o;nfO{ rnfO/xg] xf] eg] Ps s'/f xf],      gSsnsf] l;nl;nf a9\b} uPsf] s'/fsf] x]Ssf
ltgsf nflu 6]lnlehgn] cy{k"0f{ ;Gb]z lbg'kg{]    hgdtsf] ;xL lx;fan] ;+sng u/]/ b|i6fnfO{       /fVg' clgjfo{ eO;s]sf] 5 . c¿af6 t l;Sg]
dfGotf cf]em]ndf k/]sf] 5 . nfOe xfdL lbG5f},+   k"0f{ hfgsf/L u/fpg] xf] eg] o;df ;'wf/ x'g'   xf], l;s]sf] s'/fnfO{ cfkm\gf] kl/j]zdf /fv]/
;dfrf/ b|i6fx¿n] agfpg'xf]nf eg]/ 6]lnlehg       cfjZos 5 . pko'Qm Wofg glb+bf unt ;Gb]z        pko'Qm ePdf nfu" ug{], geP 5f]8\g] k|j[lQsf]
;dfrf/ pTkfbsn] eGg t lgZro g} gldNnf ¤          km}ng ;S5 .                                    ljsf; x'gk5{ . aflx/lt/ P]Zjof{ /fo / cleif]s
                                                                                                              '
@)^$ sf] d] lbj;df 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df                      ;dfrf/sf cg] s cjojdf Wofg            aRrgsf] lax]sf] To;/L ;dfrf/ lbOof] eg]/
>lds ljifos ljifoj:t'nfO{ cg]s jQmf              gk'Ubf 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ / b|i6faLrsf]           oxf“ s'g} ljjfxnfO{ ToxL dfqfsf] ;dfrf/Lo
g]tfhLx¿n] lg:t} vfOlbPsf] pbfx/0f 5, To;}       ;DaGwdf lzlyntf cfpg] :ki6 5 .                 dxŒj lbP/ k|rf/–k|;f/ ul/of] eg] s] g} /fd|f]
lbg j;Gtk'/df Ps g]tfhLnfO{ efif0fdf k/]sf]      cfd;+rf/sdL{x¿sf] ljrf/df Kof/f;f];n           xf]nf / ¤ v]nf8L 8]le8 a]sx\ofd / leS6f]l/ofsf]
vf; cK7]/f]nfO{ h:tfsf] t:t} b]vfpg ePsf]        ;DaGwsf sf/0f 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/;“u b|i6fx¿       k|;·nfO{ ljb]zdf To;/L ;dfrf/df 7fp“ lbOG5
cndn cfkm\g} 7fp“df 5 . aif{}e/ jfn'jf6f/sf]     ljz]if ¿kdf ufFl;Psf x'G5g\, of] u“;fO         egL oxf“ s'g} v]nf8L / p;sL cwf{l·gLsf af/]
9f]sfaflx/af6 g]tfhL cfPsf]–uPsf],                                                                              p;}u/L 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ lbOof]
uf8Lleqaf6 dg gnufO{                                                                                            eg] s] cy{ xf]nf / ¤ b]vfj6Lkg /
                   ]
gnufO{ w]/} af]nsf] / vf;df                                                                                     k|bz{gnfO{ ;dfrf/df ljj]sk"0f{
                 ]
s]xL klg gaf]nsf] b[Zo k|;f/0f                                                                                  lg0f{o ljgf cEof; ug'{ vt/gfs
g} nfOe ;dfrf/ xf] eg]/                                                                                         x' g ;S5 . o;n] ljifoj:t' s f]
kl/efiff ug'{ s;/L < /fodfemL                    ;ft bn, ltgsf g]tfhL / pxf“x¿sf]                               ulx/fOdf hfg] qmdnfO{ /f]S5 .
cfof]udf aofg lbg cfpg] /                        j/k/ 3'Dbf3'Db} ;dfrf/n] d"n s'/f]                                      g] k fnL      6] l nlehg
hfg] ;a}h;f]n] Pp6} kl/b[Zodf                       ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg 3f]lift                               ;dfrf/df p2]Zok|ltsf] lhDd]jf/L
                     '
;w}+ !$ dxLg] lg/+sz zf;gdf                                                                                     gePsf] xf]Og . t/ To;nfO{ k|fKt
cfÇgf] uNtL s]xL gePsf], cfkm"                    ;dodf x'g g;Sg] eGg] s'/f a]ndf }                             ug{] dfu{df ;do ;dodf c:j:y
rf]vf] /x]sf] bfaL u/]sf] s'/fnfO{                kQf nufpg ;s]g, hgcfGbf]ngn]                                  xf]8afhL / u}/lhDd]jf/L b]vf k5{ .
nfOe ;dfrf/sf] kof{o 7fGg'                       k}bf u/]sf] kl/jt{gn] ck]Iff /fv]sf]                           o;sf sf/0f ;dfrf/n] ;Dk"0f{
s;/L <                                              gof“ g]kfnsf] vfsf ;dfrf/df                                 g]kfnnfO{ ;d]6\g ;s]sf] 5}g,
                                                                                                                ;Dk"0f{ hfltsf nflu of] ltgsf]
cgdf]n :tDedf a]jf:tf                                        cfpg ;s]g .                                        af] n L aGg ;s] s f] b] l v“ b } g .
6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sIfsf zf]ef                                                                                      6] l nlehg ;dfrf/sf nflu
/ 6] l nlehg kqsfl/tfsf                                                                                         g]kfndf hDdf #% lhNnf 5g\ h:tf]
cgdf]n :tDe;/xsf xfOnfO6\;,                                                                                     b] l vG5 . tLafx] s sf :yfgsf
a|l] sª -tfQftf]_ Go"h, eS; kk, s/]06                                                           ;dfrf/ ;+sng ug'{ gkg{] xf] ls < ;d;fdlos
ckm]o;{ / ljZn]if0fnfO{ g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn]                                                       ljifo p7fpFbf jf O:o"nfO{ ;dfpFbf of] Jofks
;DxfNg g;s]sf] b]lvG5 . ltgsf] pko'Qmtf                                                         / ;dfj]zL x'g;s]sf] 5}g . kmntM @)^# sf]
klxNofO{ kqsfl/tf / Sofd]/f–;Lkn] ltgsf]                                                        kl/jt{gsf cg]s cfofdnfO{ g]kfnL 6]lnlehg
k|of]u ug{] ljj]s ljsl;t eO;s]sf] b]lvGg .                                                      ;dfrf/n] Gofo ug{ ;s]sf] b]lvGg . ;ft
;dfrf/ ;+u;+u} lnOg] cGtjf{tf{n] 6]lnlehg                                                       bn, ltgsf g]tfhL / pxfFx¿sf] j/k/ 3'Dbf3'Db}
;dfrf/sIfnfO{ lrof ukmdf kl/0ft u/]sf]                                                          ;dfrf/n] d"n s'/f] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg
b]lvG5 . ltgsf] jhgnfO{ /fd|/L dx;'; ug{         efjgfTds, ulx/f] / bL3{sfnLg klg ePsf]         3f]lift ;dodf x'g g;Sg] eGg] s'/f j]n}df
g;lsPsf] / To;af6 ;dfrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tf          kfOG5 . slt gful/sn] t 6]lnlehgn] ;dfrf/       kQf nufpg ;s]g, ;+ljwfg;ef s] xf], lgjf{rg
36]sf] :ki6 5 . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df ‘xfd|f’        lbPkl5 Tof] c;To xf] eGg] s'/f dfGg g;Sg]      s;/L x'g] xf], ldl>t lgjf{rgsf] cy{ s] x'G5,
;dfrf/bftf slxn] cfpg] xf] , csf{ ] s f          l:ylt x'G5 . elgG5, 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df          ;+3Lo /fHo eg]sf] s] xf] / Tof] s] s:tf] cfwf/df
                                    “}
;dfrf/bftf slxn] hfg] xf] kQf] x'bg, b]z         cflwsfl/stf, ljZj;gLotf, / k|efjsfl/tf         lgdf{0f x'g ;S5 eGg] ;DaGwdf agfpg ;lsg]
ljb]zsf ;dfrf/df ;dfrf/ ;ldltsf] ;dfrf/          cGo ;~rf/dfWodsf] t'ngfdf a9L g} x'G5 .        cg]s k|;·sf ;dfrf/ ag]gg\ . To;}u/L
s'g xf] kQf nufpg ;+ej 5}g . ;dfrf/sIfsf]        o:tf] uxg s'/fdf g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn] Tolt        hgcfGbf]ngn] k}bf u/]sf] kl/jt{gn] ck]Iff
;fgf] u[xsfo{n] ;'wf/ cfpg] oL s'/fdf nfdf]      ;f/f] Wofg glbP h:tf] 5 .                      /fv]sf] gof“ g]kfnsf] vfsf ;dfrf/df cfpg
;do;Dd Wofg k'u]sf] b]lvGg .                             ;du| d f eGbf g] k fnL 6] l nlehg      ;s]g . g]kfnsf] /fli6«o ljsf;, ;+;fwgsf]
         P;\ P d\ P ;\ s f] dfWodaf6 hgdt        ;dfrf/sf] efiff, z}nL / k|:t'ltdf cfd;~rf/sf   k|of]u, /f]huf/L, k"jf{wf/sf] lj:tf/, pBf]u,
;+sngsf] nx/nfO{ klg :of6nfO6s} k|efj eGg        d"Nocg'¿ksf] ;'wf/ cfjZos 5 . 5l/tf]kgdf       Jofkf/, oftfoft, u|fdL0f ljsf; cflb leq
gldNg] xf]Og . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ ;dodf             ljZj;gLotf / zL3|tfdf ljj]ssf] cEof; ug'{      ;dfrf/sf] kx'“r ePg . j}b]lzs ;DaGw /
o;nfO{ :yflkt ug{] t/ k|Zg, pQ/, ;+Vof,          pko'Qm b]lvG5 . ;dfrf/df lnOPsf] pT;fx         lzIffsf ljifodf klg gof“ g]kfnsf] rfxgf


10                                                                                                                                 df3–r}t @)^$
                            gof“ g]kfnsf] l;h{gfdf g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ sIf ;a}sf]
                         k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu v'nf /fVg'k5{, Toxf“sf ;dfrf/sdL{ ;xL cy{sf] lgikIf
                                  åf/kfn aGg'k5{ . o;f] geP ;dfrf/ ‘;]jf’ aGg ;Snf / Û

d'vl/t ePsf] kfOPg . w]/} b]zdf /fhb"t kb                  rf/ jif{kl5 @)$^ df hgcfGbf]ngsf                   6]lnlehg If]qsf] cu'jfO{ ug{] lhDdf Psflt/
                            }
vfnL ePsf] s'/f bf]xf]¥ofp“bdf / ljZjljBfnodf     sf/0f #) jif{] k~rfotL Joj:yf ktg x'Fbf                     !@ jif{sf] ;z:q åGåsf] ;+rfns tyf cg'ejL
lgo'lQm gePsf] s'/fnfO{ af/Daf/ pNn]v ub{df  }    ax'bnLo ;+;bLo k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] efsf                / csf{ l t/ zflGtk" 0 f{ hgcfGbf] n gsf
;do lat]sf] 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/nfO{ ofb} ePg .        l6Kg] cj;/ o;n] kfPsf] b]lvG5 . To; a]nf                    ;xsdL{nfO{ ldn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L / lghL
ggO:o"nfO{ Wofg lb“bf ;dfrf/df d"n O:o"           o;sf ;dfrf/df ToxL /fu kfOG5 .                              6]lnlehgsf] ;dfrf/ casf lbgdf s;/L cl3
                                   '
x/fPsf cg]s pbfx/0f 5g\, p7\gkg{] cg'kftdf        sfnfGt/df of] ;ª\Vofdf / u'0f:t/df emfl·b}                  a9\g] xf] Tof] x]b{} hfg' 5 . hgcfGbf]ng b'O{sf]
gp7]sf O:o" klg y'k|} 5g\ . ul/aL, e|i6frf/,      uO{ ;/sf/L / lghL wf/df k|jflxt ePsf]                       dd{ljk/Lt Tof] hfg' x'Gg eGg] ;dfrf/ If]qsf]
dfgj laqmL, kof{j/0f x|f;, unt zx/Ls/0f,          5 . jt{dfg g]kfnL 6]lnlehg d"ntM lghL                       dfGotf xf] . o; cy{df g]kfnL 6]lnlehg
;+;fwgsf] b'?kof]u, s'zf;g, c;dfj]zL                                            '
                                                  If]qsf] pT;fxdf !$ dxLg] lg/+sztfsf] ;fdgf                                                 \ '
                                                                                                              ;dfrf/n] ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ ;d]6gkg{,] /fli6«otfsf]
b[li6sf]0f / bnut :jfy{sf cg]s ;d:ofdf                                                     {
                                                  ub{} hgtfsf] kIfdf pleg, hgcfGbf]ng b'OnfO{                 hu]gf{ ug'{kg{], cNkdt, cNk;+Vossf] cfjfh
;dfrf/sIfsf] Wofg gk'u]sf] :ki6 5 .               l/kf]6{ ug{ / pmhf{ lbg lgs} ;kmn ePsf]                     aGg'kg{], dfgjclwsf/, nf]stflGqs cEof;sf]
          kl/jt{ g sf s' / f ug{ , ;/sf/nfO{      b]lvG5 . s'g s'g lghL If]qsf 6]lnlehgn]                     ;Da4{g ug'{kg{], ljlwsf] zf;gdf hf]8 lbg'kg{],
va/bf/L ug{, nf]stGq :yfkgfkl5 klg hf/L                                                 ]
                                                  o; cjlwdf s:tf] s:tf] vf; 5fk 5f]8sf 5g\                    ljjfb / ;d:ofnfO{ se/ ubf{ k"0f{tM lgikIftf
/x]sf lj/f]w sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg /           To;sf] n] v fhf] v f ug{ ] sfd eljiosf                      ckgfpg'kg{], dfgj cle?lr / cfjZostfsf
@)^# j} z fvb] l v @)^$ j} z fv;Dd                zf] w stf{ s f] xf] . o;} ;dodf 6] l nlehg                  ;fdu|L k]z ubf{ lzi6tfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'kg{,]
g] t fhLx¿sf] /fhgLltleqsf] ;xdlt /               ;dfrf/n] g]kfndf ;/sf/L / lghL k|jl[ Qsf]                   of}g, ck/fw ;dfrf/ k|:t'ltdf ;+od lng'kg{]
c;xdltsf] k|lqmof / ljj/0f k]z ug{ eg]            vf; nIf0f b]vfPsf] :ki6 x'G5 . s'g} vf;                     / ;g;gLnfO{ /f]Sg'kg{,] e]befjnfO{ x6fpg'kg{]'
6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n] afhL df/]sf] eGg'k5{ .                      {
                                                  ;dodf b'Oj6f 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ ;'Gbf b'O{                     h:tf a'“bfdf Wofg lbg' h¿/L 5 . ;+If]kdf
To;f] t cGtl/d ;+ljwfg nfu" ePkl5 t/fO{df         k/:k/lj/f]wL wf/sf ;"rgf k|jflxt eO/x]sf]                   eGg] xf] eg] gof“ g]kfnsf] l;h{gfdf g]kfnL
ePsf] lj/]fw / cGosf c;Gtf]ifsf] nx/nfO{          x'GYof]– Pp6f aGbsf] a]nfdf Pp6f 6]lnlehgn]                 6]lnlehgn] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ sIf ;a}sf]
l6Kg klg ;dfrf/ ;kmn ePsf] dfGg'k5{ .             g]kfn v'n]sf] b]vfpg' / csf{]n] ;Dk"0f{ b]z                 k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu v'nf /fVg'k5{, ToxfFsf
t/ /fi6« ljv08glt/ hfg] vt/fdf xf]lzof/           aGb ePsf] b]vfpg' ;fdfGo s'/f lyof] .                       ;dfrf/sdL{ ;xL cy{sf] lgikIf åf/kfn aGg'k5{ .
x'g,] /fli6«o Pstfdf cf“r cfpg] sfo{ gug{                  cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# nfu" ePkl5                     o;f] geP ;dfrf/ ‘;]jf’ aGg ;Snf / ¤
r]tgf hufpg], /fli6«o k|fyldstfsf] lgwf{/0f
     '
x'gkg{] s'/fdf bafa lbg] / ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg
               \
l:yltnfO{ 5f]6ofP/ gof“ g]kfnsf] /f]8Dofkdf
nfUg] ljifodf k|sfz kfg{ ;dfrf/ kl5 k/]sf]
                                           {
:ki6 x'G5 . o; b[li6df ;dfrf/df ;'wf/ ug'kg{]     l6kf]6
s'/f w]/} b]lvG5 .
                                                  1
                                                      ;g\ !(^@ df 6]ln:6f/ :of6]nfO6af6 ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf] gf;f ;+:yfn] lrq k|;f/ u/]kl5 6]lnlehg k|;f/0fdf
la;fpg'cl3                                            :of6]nfO6sf] a[xt\ e"ldsfsf] ;Defjgf b]vf k/]sf] xf] . k|of]u ub}{ hf“bf o;sf] ;xhtf, :ki6tf / km'6lk|06sf] -se/]h
                                                      Pl/of_ Jofkstfsf] klxrfg eof], ;g\ !(*) bzssf] dWolt/ bz{sdf k|ToIf k|;f/0f k'¥ofpg] Ifdtf ljsl;t eof] /
g]kfnL 6]lnlehg k/Dk/fsf] k[i7e"lddf o;sf             !(() sf] bzsdf l8lh6n dfWodaf6 k|;f/0f a9L k|efjsf/L x'g k'Uof] .
                                       '
;dfrf/df b]lvPsf bf]ifaf6 lg/fz x'gkg{] l:ylt     2
                                                      o;sf] ;+s]tsf nflu ;g\ !(*) sf] bzssf] dxŒjk"0f{ lkmNd / l6eL hf]g{n l:qmg cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .
5}g . 6]lnlehg zAb ljZjdf k|yd kN6 k|of]u
ePsf] *^ jif{kl5, ljZjdf 6]lnlehg k|;f/0f         3
                                                      James Halloran observes: "We should ask not what the media does to people, but what
ePsf] cfwf ztfAbLkl5, :of6]nfO6 / 6]lnlehg            people do to media."
k|;f/0f uf“l;Psf] @$ jif{kl5, tTsfnLg /fhfsf]     4
                                                      Raymond William notes in 1974 book Television: Technology and Cultural Form"the
OR5f / k|ToIf lgb{]zgdf g]kfndf 6]lnlehg              defining feature of broadcasting is Planned Flow."
          ]
o'u p3|sf] xf] . æljb]zlt/ hf“bf pRrkb:ynfO{      5
                                                      John Ellis suggests "The key unit of the television text is the segment," which he defines
b]zdf 6]lnlehg 5}g eGg cK7]/f] dx;';                  as "small, sequential, unities of images and sounds whose maximum duration seems to
                                                      be about five minutes."
ePsf]nÆ7 NofOPsf] of] af]Ng] ef“8f] z'?df b]zdf
        ]
lgb{nLo /fhgLltsf] cEof;sf sf/0f v'n]/            6
                                                      Paul Mason ( BBC Correspondent Newsnight ) says " And the most common criticism
hg;]jfdf pqg ;s]g, ;dfrf/ vf; 7fp“ /                  of 24 – hour rolling news is its inability to tell a story coherently."
JolQmsf] lgb{]zgeGbf k/ hfg ;s]g .                7
                                                      of] sygsf] vf; k|df0f km]nf kb}{g, t/ tTsfnLg ;dfrf/sdL{x¿ o; s'/fdf ljZj:t b]lvG5g\ .


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                                        11
          ljZn]if0f
                           ]
   cfGbf]ngkl5sf] g]kfnL k|;

                      {
    cfkm\g} e"ldsf la;]kl5
        d~h'>L yfkf          s'/f o;} jif{sf] z'?lt/sf] xf] . lhtdfg a:g]tsf] lstfa c“Wof/f @%* lbg sf] ljdf]rg sfo{qmddf b08xLgtfsf
                             af/] 5nkmn rNof] . jlsn, dfgjclwsf/sdL{ / dfgjclwsf/sf] pNnª\3gaf6 kLl8tx¿n] el/Psf] To;
                             sfo{qmddf b08xLgtfsf] kIfdf s;}n] af]Ng] ;Defjgf g} lyPg . ljdf]lrt lstfasf] cfzo / sfo{qmdsf] ljifo
                             klg b08xLgtfsf] cGTo x'g'k5{ eGg] g} lyof] . To;}n] Toxf“ b08xLgtfsf] cGTosf] dfu ul/g' gf}nf] s'/f lyPg .
                                                                        '                                   {
                             t/ klg Pskl5 csf{ jQmfn] lgSs} efj's x“b} eGb} uP, ca b08xLgtfsf] cGTo ug}k5{ . s'/f] 7Ls xf] eGb} ;a}n]

                               6fpsf] xNnfp“b} uP . To;kl5 Pshgf jlsnn] d}gf              gls6L ck/fwLx¿sf] af/] s'/f ubf{ xfdL pgLx¿nfO{
                               ;'g'jf/sf] xTofsf] s'/f p7fP . pgn] eg]—To; s];df          ;fdflhs ;'/Iff / b08xLgtf ;d]t k|bfg u5f}{+ .
                               s]s] ePsf] lyof], bf]ifL sf]sf] lyP / Gofo lbnfpg s;–               jfs\:jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ kfP/ dfq k'Ub}g,
                               s;n] s:tf]–s:tf] cj/f]w k'¥ofPsf 5g\, xfdL ;a}nfO{         To;sf] k|of]u ug{ klg hfGg'k5{ eGg] lgisif{df d k'u]+
                               yfxf 5“b}5 . clg ltgn] /fodfemL cfof]usf] k|ltj]bgsf       To; sfo{qmddf . c“Wof/f @%* lbg sf n]vsn] eg]
                               s'/f p7fP . Toxf“ klg pgsf] egfO lyof]—k|ltj]bgdf          cfkm" / c¿x¿dfly ck/fw ug]{x¿sf af/] v'n:t
                               s]s] n]lvPsf] 5, To;n] s;–s;nfO{ bf]ifL 7x¥ofPsf] 5        n]v]sf 5g\ . pgLaf6 xfdLn] o;/L g} s'/fsfgL ug{
                               / To;sf] sfof{Gjogdf cj/f]w k'¥ofpg s;–s;n] s]s:tf         l;s] xfd|f] ;fj{hlgs ax;sf] :t/ cln p7\g] lyof]
                               rnv]n ul///x]sf 5g\, xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5“b5 . To;/L
                                                                             }            eGg] dnfO{ nfUof] . dnfO{ o:t}o:t} ;f]rljrf/ To;eGbf
                               g} g]kfnu~h / uf}/sf] s'/f klg ltgn] p7fP . Toxf“          cl3 kqklqsf k9\bf jf /]l8of] 6]lnlehgcl3 kbf{ klg
                               s]s:tf ck/fw eP, xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5“b5 eGg] ltgsf]
                                                                          }               cfO/xGYof] . 1fg] G b| zfx / ;] g faf6 vf] l ;Psf]
                               egfO lyof] .                                               jfs\:jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ nf]stGq ;“u;“u} kmls{of] .
                                        ltgsf] s'/f ;'g/ dnfO{ s] nfUof] eg] oL ;a
                                                         ]                                ldl8ofdfkm{t v'nf ax; rnfpg] :jtGqtf kmls{of] .
                               36gfsf] jf:tljstf d}n] dfq ghfg]sL /lx5', sfo{qmddf        ax; x'g'kg{] ljifo klg y'k|} lyP . Psflt/ zflGt
tLtf] ;Tosf] l/kf]l6ª ug]{     pkl:yt af“sL ;a}n] cjZo} hfg]sf xf]nfg\ . jQmf cfkm}nfO{
                                                                                   +      k|lqmofsf] sfd s'/f sf7df8f}+df eO/x]sf] lyof] eg]
                               t To;af/] ;fª\uf]kfª\u 1fg x'“b} xf]nf . b'Mv nfUof],      csf{lt/ u|fdL0f If]qsf cfzf cfsf+Iffx¿ ck"/} lyP .
                 {
cfkm\gf] wd{ la;]/ ldl8of
                               lsgeg] pgsf] af]nfOaf6 oL 36gfsf] jf:tljstfaf/]            gof“ g]kfnsf] lgdf{0fqmddf ;of}+ y/Lsf sfd ug{'lyof] .
  zflGtk|lqmofsf] kIfdf        d}n] s]xL yfxf kfpg ;lsg“ . pgn] gfd} ls6]/ ;kf6           ufpFufpFaf6 nv]l6Psf ;/sf/L lgsfox¿nfO{ kmsf{pg'
    slxn]sfxL+ ;"Id /          efiffdf d}gf ;'g'jf/sf] xTof s;n] u¥of], /fodfemL          lyof] . /fi6«ufgb]lv /fHo;+/rgf;Ddsf /fi6«–klxrfgsf
slxn]sfxL+ e2f k|fkf]uG8f
                   ]           cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg sfof{Gjog ug{ s;n] cj/f]w k'¥ofof]],    k|Zgx¿ cg'Ql/t lyP . dfcf]jfbL / ;/sf/af6 uPsf]
                               g]kfnu~h / uf}/df s;n] s;nfO{ s] u¥of] cflb                bzsdf ePsf ck/fwx¿sf dfldnfdf kLl8tnfO{ Gofo
ug]{ sfddf nfUof] . dfgf}+
                               atfOlbPsf] eP dh:tf cgle1x¿n] klg hfGg] df}sf              lbnfpg' lyof] . ;To / d]nldnfksf] sfd afFsL lyof] .
               }
  ldl8of cfkm+n] zflGt         kfpFy] eGg] nfUof] . To;kl5 clncln l/; klg p7\of] .        ;]gf / k|x/Ldf ;'wf/ Nofpg' lyof] . k|ltufdLsf
  ;Demf}tf tof/ u/]sf]         clg nfUof], pgsf] hlQsf] c:ki6 s'/f t d klg ug{            rnv]nlj?4 ;ts{ x'g' lyof] . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj
 lyof], cGtl/d ;+ljwfg         ;Sy]+ . d klg b08xLgtfsf] cGTo x'g'k5{ eGg] efj's          t u/fpg' g} lyof] cflb OToflb . htf x]¥of] pt} gof“
                               dfu Toxf“ /fVg ;Sy]+ . ax;sf] :t/ x]bf{ tL lj1 / d         g]kfn lgdf{0fsf r'gf}tLx¿ v8f lyP .
      ]
 n]vsf] lyof] / pm :jo+
                               cgle1df s'g} cGt/ b]lvGgYof] .                                      ldl8ofn] oL ;a ljifoaf/] ax; grnfPsf] xf]Og
 ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg                  efiffsf] k|of]un] xfd|f] d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 .    t/ ax;sf] :t/ eg] rflxPsf] h:tf] ;kf6 ePg .
     u/fpg nflu/x]sf]          s'g} 36gfaf/] xfdLn] c:ki6 / efjgfTds s'/f dfq             nf]stGq Nofpg ldl8ofsf] cfkm\g} klg 7"nf] b]g ePsf]
          lyof] .              u¥of}“ eg] hfgLghfgL To;sf] oyfy{ n'sfpg ;xof]u            x'gfn] xf] ls, jf ;ft bnk|lt d'Vod'Vo ldl8of3/x¿df
                               k'¥ofO/x]sf x'G5f}+ . ;kf6 efiffsf] k|of]u gubf{ xfdL      /fhgLlts k"jf{u|x eP/ xf], cyjf lbglbg} abln“bf] t/n
                               cfkm\gf] / c¿sf] c1fgtfnfO{ hf]ufpg d2t u5f}{+ . gfd       cj:yfdf kqsfl/tf ug{ ldl8ofsdL{x¿ cgEo:t eP/


   12                                                                                                                             df3–r}t @)^$
xf], z'?z'?df ldl8ofn] ;/sf/ / g]tfx¿sf] sfdu/fOaf/]        cj;/ ;/sf/n] u'dfof] eg] csf{lt/ o;f] ug{'sf
w]/} ;f]wk'5 / s]/sf/ u/]g .                                vt/fx¿sf] 9fs5f]k ldl8ofn] ul/lbof], h;sf] lj:kmf]6
         pbfx/0fsf nflu lnpm“, zflGt ;Demf}tfaf/] rn]sf]    dw]zdf eO{ g} xfNof] .
ldl8of ax; . ;Demf} t fsf] b:tfj] h df cfkm\ g f] /                  t];f| ] pbfx/0f, ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgaf/] rn]sf]
dfcf]jfbLsf] ;xL5fk nufpg ;ft bnsf] ;/sf/nfO{               ldl8of ax;nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . lgjf{rgsf] ldlt h'g
hlt xtf/ ePsf] lyof] ldl8ofnfO{ To;sf] ;dy{g ug{            lbg tf]lsof], To; lbgb]lv ldl8ofnfO{ lgjf{rg u/fOxfNg]
Tolt g} xtf/ ePsf] b]lvGYof] . ;Demf}tfdf 7"nf;fgf          lgSs} cft'/L ePsf] b]lvof] . ;dod} lgjf{rg x'g'k5{,
q'l6x¿ lyP ls < u[xo'4af6 pDs]sf cGo b]zsf                  geP zflGtk|lqmof g} e+u x'G5 eGg] cgluGtL g]tfsf
;Demf}tfx¿sf] bf“hf]df xfd|f] ;Demf}tf ck"0f{ ePsf] lyof]   l/Qf egfOx¿ kqklqsfdf 5flkP, cgluGtL a'l4hLjLsf
                              {
ls < xtf/df sfd u/]/ km';bdf k5'tfpg'sf] ;§f cln            efjgfTds n] v x¿ k| s flzt eP . b' M vsf] s' / f,
                                {
l9n} eP klg kSsf sfd ug'kg]{ lyof] ls < ldl8ofdf            ldl8ofnfO{ hlt ;/sf/nfO{ lgjf{rg u/fpg cft'/L ePsf]
o:tf k|Zg lj/n} p7] . a? ;Demf}tfdf ;xL5fk nfUgf;fy         b]lvPg . ufpFufpFdf g uflj; ejgx¿ kmls{P, g
                        +
P]ltxfl;s sbdsf] k|z;f ug{lt/ k|foM ;Dk"0f{ ldl8of          k|x/Lrf}sLx¿, g t s]Gb|sf g]tfx¿ g} . lhNnf:t/sf
Psf]xf]l/of] .                                              /fhgLlt1 / clwsf/Lx¿;“u s'/f ubf{ tf]lsPsf] ldltleq
         csf{] pbfx/0f, cGtl/d ;+ljwfgaf/] rn]sf]           lgjf{rg x'g ;Sb}g eGg] klxn]b]lv g} kSsf b]lvGYof] .
ldl8of ax; xf] . /fHo;+/rgfdf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] dfu            t/ of] s'/f ldl8ofdf cfp“b} cfPg eg] klg x'G5 . a?
dlxnf, hghflt, blnt / dw]zL ;d'bfoaf6 tLa|;u          “     s]Gb|df ;/sf/ / g]tfx¿n] /r]sf] gf}6+sLd} e'Ng rfx\of]
pl7/x]sf] a]nf ;ft bnsf] ;/sf/n] s;}sf] s'/f g;'gL          ldl8of . sxf“;Dd eg] lgjf{rgsf nflu cfjZos
xtf/xtf/ kf; u¥of] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg . c;Gt'i6                 jftfj/0f tof/ ePsf] 5}g eGg' g} lgjf{rg layf]Ng]
;d'bfox¿n] ldl8ofdfkm{t cfkm\gf s'/f /fVg t kfP t/          k|of; xf] eGg] cj:yf klg l;h{gf eof] . /, cflv/df
pgLx¿sf u'gf;fnfO{ a9L dxŒj lbP zflGtk|lqmof g}                                                         “
                                                            lgjf{rgsf] ldlt ;fl/g] eof] eGg] 3f]if0ff x'bf c¿ sf]xLeGbf
layf]lnG5 eGg] z+sfn] xf] jf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] cEof;           ldl8of g} a9L rlst ePsf] b]lvof] .
:jo+ ldl8ofdf geP/ xf], oL ;d'bfox¿sf] dfunfO{                       oL pbfx/0f x]bf{ nfU5, dfgf}+ ldl8of cfkm+n]    }
ldl8ofn] kof{Kt 5nkmndf Nofpg ?rfPg . Psflt/                zflGt ;Demf}tf tof/ u/]sf] lyof], cGtl/d ;+ljwfg
/fHo;+/rgfdf ¿kfGt/0f Nofpg] Pp6f cGoGt /fd|f]              n]v]sf] lyof] / pm :jo+ ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg u/fpg
                                                            nflu/x]sf] lyof] . o;af6 Pp6f s] s'/f :ki6 x'G5 eg]
                                                            hgcfGbf]ngkl5 klg xfd|f] ldl8of cfGbf]lnt g} /x\of],
                                                            zflGtk|lqmofaf/] l/kf]l6{ª dfq ubf{ p;nfO{ ;Gtf]if ePg,
                                                            To;df k|ToIf xft xfNg vf]Hof] p;n] . zflGtk|lqmof




df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                              13
                              ;kmn xf];\ eGg] :jR5 cfsf+Iffn] g} eP klg tLtf] ;Tosf]          ldl8of efjgfdf w]/} alu/x]sf] 5 . ldl8ofsf] cfhsf]
                                                               {
                              l/kf]l6{ª ug]{ cfkm\gf] wd{ la;]/ ldl8of zflGtk|lqmofsf]        k|yd bfloTj cfkm\g} Joj;foLs/0fsf] ljsf; ug'{ xf] .
                              kIfdf slxn]sfxL“ ;"Id / slxn]sfxL“ e2f ‘k|fkf]uG8f’  ]          nf]stGqsf] /Iff ug]{ rfxgf ldl8ofdf 5 eg] To;sf]
                              ug]{ sfddf nfUof] .                                             ;aeGbf pTs[i6 pkfo oxL g} xf] . cgf}7f] nfU5, u[xo'4
                                        xfdLn] b]zsf] jf:tljstfnfO{ cgfu|xL 9+un]             rs{Fb} uPsf] a]nf s]Gb|sf gfd rn]sf ;Dkfbs /
                              lgofNg'kg]{ j]nf xf] of] . b|'t ultdf ¿kfGtl/t eO/x]sf]         kqsf/x¿n] ufp“ufp“ uP/ Toxf“sf] oyfy{af/] kf7snfO{
                              5 b]z . xfd|f] cfkm\gf] a'emfO klg l56l56f] ablnO/x]sf]         cjut u/fP . t/ nf]stGq cfPkl5 o:tf] hfFu/ yf]/}n]
                              5 . s]xL cl3;Dd dw]zL / t/fO{jf;LaLr s] leGgtf                  dfq b]vfP . y'k|} :yfgLo ;Qfx¿sf] ;Gt'ngdf afFRg'kg]{
                              5, xfdLdWo] clwsf+ z nfO{ yfxf lyPg . sltko                     df]km;nsf kqsf/x¿n] a? tLtf] ;To af]Ng] lxDdt t
                              aGbx¿kl5 dfq r'/]efj/ eg]sf] sxf“ xf] eg]/ w]/}n]               u5{g\ Û pgLx¿nfO{ s]Gb|n] an ylklbg'kg]{ xf], h'g sfd
                              ;f]Wg yfn]sf x'g\ . lnDa" / ls/f“t If]qdf s]s:tf] ax;                            }
                                                                                              w]/} ePsf] b]lvFbg . 36gfqmdx¿sf] l/kf]l6{ª klg kmf6km'6]
                              rln/x]sf] 5, Tof] s'/f aflx/ cfPs} 5}g . yf¿x¿sf] s]            tl/sfn] x'G5, To;df lg/Gt/tf x'Fb}g . k[i7e"ldsf]
                              ljrf/ 5 < clg g]jf, du/, td', s0ff{nLjf;Lx¿sf] <                cefjsf] ;d:of rsf]{ 5 . dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf]
                              cflv/ sf7df8f}+eGbf w]/} ljzfn 5 b]z . ef}uf]lns                    +
                                                                                              k|;u xf];\ of hghflt cfGbf]ngsf], ldl8ofsdL{x¿n]
                              agf]6n] of] v08v08df ljeflht 5 . g otfsf dflg;n]                36gfsf] l/kf]l6{ª t unf{g\, t/ ltgsf] k[i7e"ldaf/]
                              ptfsf dflg; lrG5g\, g ptfsf dflg;n] otfsf g} .                                                }
                                                                                              kf7snfO{ k|foM s]xL atfp“bgg\, h;n] ubf{ kf7sn] tL
                              xfdL ;a}n] Pscsf{nfO{ / cfkm"nfO{ klg lrGg] a]nf xf]            36gfsf] dxŒj a'em\b}gg\ . zfob, ldl8ofsdL{ cfkm}+n]
   efiffsf] k|of]un] xfd|f]   of] . b]zs} ;xL klxrfg 7Dofpg] a]nf xf] of] . cf–               klg sltko 36gfsf] k[i7e"ld a'em]sf gxf]nfg\, lsgeg]
 d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 .        cfkm\gf cfu|x, k"jf{u|xx¿df c8]/ a:g'eGbf xfdLn]                pgLx¿nfO{ lglZrt ‘la6’df sfd u/fpg] cEof; k|foM
   s'g} 36gfaf/] xfdLn]       b]z;“u;“u} cfkm\gf] a'emfOdf ¿kfGt/0f Nofpg'kg]{ a]nf           ldl8of3/df 5}g . kmntM cfkm\gf] ?lrsf] ljifodf
   c:ki6 / efjgfTds           xf] of] .                                                       kqsf/x¿n] ulxl/g] df}sf kfpFb}gg\ .
                                        of] ck"j{ df}sf gu'dfpg] xf] eg] xfdLn] kqsfl/tfsf]            lxhf] 1fg]Gb| zfx / ;]gfnfO{ x/fpg jL/tfsf
s'/f dfq u¥of}+ eg] hfgL      :t/ a9fpg}k5{ . ;+;f/el/s} ldl8ofdf ljifoj:t'sf]                ;fy n8\of] ldl8of . cfh nf]stGqsf zq'x¿ lrGg
   ghfgL To;sf] oyfy{         ulx/fOdf gk'uL ;txdf ax; ug]{ qmd hf/L 5 . xfdLsxf“             lxhf]eGbf w]/} ufx|f] ePsf] 5 . tL zq'x¿ vf]Hg ldl8ofn]
      n'sfpg ;xof]u           of] ;d:of ljz]if rsf]{ 5, h;n] ubf{ cfhsf] jf:tljstf            6f9f6f9f x]l//fVg'k5{ h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g . p;s}
                              s] xf] eg]/ kf7sx¿ 3l/3l/ cGof}ndf kl//xG5g\ .                  Joj;foLs/0fsf] cefjdf nf] s tGqsf zq' x ¿
k'¥ofO/x]sf x'G5f}+ . ;kf6    h:t}, g]kfnuGhdf s] eof], To;sf] /fd|f] l/kf]l6{ª g} gu/L       ;NanfO/x]sf 5g\ .
efiffsf] k|of]u gubf{ xfdL    ldl8ofdf To;nfO{ g]kfnu~h sf08 gfds/0f ul/of] /                          cGttM, km] l / klg, efiffsf] k| o f] u n] xfd| f ]
     cfkm\gf] / c¿sf]         To;sf] 3f]/ eT;{gf ul/of] . dw]zL hgflwsf/ kmf]/d               d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 . o; n]vsf] ;'?cftdf plNnlvt
   c1fgtfnfO{ hf]ufpg                        '
                              PSsf;L p7\gk5fl8sf hfoh sf/0fsf] vf]h gu/L To;dfly              sfo{qmddf ax;sf] h'g :t/ lyof], To;af6 dfly p7\g
                              cfz+sf k|s6 ul/of] . uf}/df ePsf] dfcf]jfbLx¿sf] xTofsf]        cToGt h?/L eO;s]sf] 5 ca . oyfy{sf] vf]hL gug]{,
d2t u5f}{+ . gfd gls6L        l/kf]l6{ªdf dfgjclwsf/jfbL ;d]taf6 q'l6 ePsf] s'/f              efjgfTds s'/f a9L ug]{, ljifodf gulxl/g], :ki6 /
 ck/fwLx¿sf] af/] s'/f        dlxgf lbgkl5 dfq yfxf eof] . o;n] ubf{ dw]zL d"nsf              ;kf6 s'/f gug]{, c:ki6 s'/f u/]/} a9L ;do v]/ kmfNg]
   ubf{ xfdL pgLx¿nfO{        hgtf emg} lrl9P . cfh r'/]efj/ If]qdf s] eO/x]sf] 5             h:tf afgLx¿n] ubf{ xfdL cfkm\gf] / c¿sf] c1fgtfnfO{
                              eGg] s'/f :ki6;“u cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . o; cfGbf]ngsf               hf]ufpg] cj;/ dfq lbO/x]sf 5f}+ . g]kfnL efiffsf] k|of]ud}
    ;fdflhs ;'/Iff /          g]tfx¿ sf] x'g\ / pgLx¿sf dfud'2f s] x'g\ < ;dfg'kflts          klg xfdL ;/nLs/0ftkm{ nfUg'kg{] ePsf] 5 . lSni6,
   b08xLgtf ;d]t k|bfg        / ;+3Lo /fHok|0ffnLsf s'/f Pstfsf lgSs} p7], cfh tL             ;+:s[tlgi7 efiffsf] e'd/Laf6 kf7snfO{ d'lQm lbnfpg] xf]
          u5f}{+ .            sxf“ k'u] < blntsf, dlxnfsf / cfh;Dd p7\g g;s]sf                eg] xfdL h;/L af]N5f}+, To;/L g} n]Vg] k|yf a;fNg'kg]{
                              c¿ ;d' b fosf cfGbf] n g s] ef] l n p7\ n fg\ <                 5 . lnlvt g]kfnLnfO{ ;kf6 / hLjGt agfpg'kg]{5 .
                              ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] dfu ug]{ ;a} hgfn] zflGtk|lqmof layf]Ng}                  b] z ;“ u ;“ u } xfdL cfkm} + klg nf] s tflGqs
                                    ]
                              vf]hsf x'g\ t <                                                 ?kfGt/0fsf qmddf 5f}+ . dnfO{ nfU5, efiffsf] k|of]uaf6}
                                        vf]h kqsfl/tfdf hf]8 lbg'kg]{ a]nfdf xfd|f]           xfdLn] nf]stGqsf] cEof; z'? u/] x'G5 .


    14                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                         b[li6sf]0f


ljZj;gLotf g} ;DklQ
                                      ]
       s'Gb bLlIft nf]stGqdfly em}+ k|; :jtGqtfdflysf] vt/f klg g]kfndf ;w}+ pu| jfd / pu| blIf0fkGyaf6 g} d8fl/g] u/]sf]
                          5 . hxf“;Dd dWodfuL{ /fhgLlts kf6L{x¿sf] s'/f 5, g]kfnL ldl8of Psflt/ logLx¿sf] ;w}+ s8f cfnf]rs
                          /xg] u/]sf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ ;a}eGbf bx|f] ;xof]uL klg . vf;u/L ;j{;QfjfbL zlQmx¿sf lj¿4 of] pgLx¿sf]

;xof]uL /x“b} cfPsf] 5 . sf/0f :ki6 5M
clx+;fTds ;ª\3if{ b'j}sf] lgb{]zs l;4fGt xf] .
          dWodfuL{ /fhgLlts kf6L{ x ¿
k| l t:kwf{ T ds Pj+ zflGtk" 0 f{ /fhgLltsf
dfWodaf6 ;Qfdf k'U5g\, ltgsf] ljZjf;
      ]
a'n6df xf]Og Aofn]6df x'G5 . otf, kqsf/x¿
klg snd t/af/eGbf zlQmzfnL x'G5 eGg]
s'/fdf ljZjf; u5{g\ . of] ljZjf; gx'g] xf]
eg] tL kqsf/ g} x'g ;St}gg\ .
          t/, pu|jfbL ;d"xx¿, ?l9jfbL /
kmfl;:6 hTyfx¿ Hffgfhfg ;z:q ;ª\3if{sf]
af6f] /f]H5g\ / lx+;fnfO{ /fhgLltsf] xltof/sf
¿kdf k|of]u u5{g\ . lx+;fn] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg
ub{}g a¿ To;nfO{ emg\ hl6n t'Nofp“5 eGg]
kf7 ;dsfnLg ljZj Oltxf;n] l;sfPsf] 5 .
t/ To;nfO{ ltgLx¿ k6Ss} jf:tf ub{}gg\ .
          ;dfhdf ljBdfg åGåx¿ ;+jfb Pjd\
;fj{hlgs 5nkmnåf/f ;dfwfg ul/g'k5{ .
o;df ldl8ofsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 .
g]kfndf @)$^ ;fn otfsf b'O6f hg–
cfGbf]ngn] o;sf] k'li6 ul/;s]sf 5g\ .
          g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGqn] ;w}+
Pscsf{sf] :jtGqtfsf] /Iff ub{} cfPsf 5g\ .
  ]
k|; :jtGqtf / nf]stGq j:t'tM Pp6} 9Øfssf
ufO{ / lqz"n h:tf x'g\ . Pp6f geP csf{sf]
cl:tTj /xg ;Sb}g . /fhfsf] tfgfzfxL lj¿4
;ª\3if{/t ldl8ofn] hgcfGbf]ngM @)$^ df
h;/L cfkm\gf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u¥of], @)^# sf]
nf]stflGqs cfGbf]ngnfO{ klg To;}u/L sf“w
yfKof] .
          @)$^ kl5 cfPsf nf] s tflGqs
;/sf/x¿n] ;fd'bflos /]l8of] / lghL If]qsf]
k|;f/0fnfO{ kmlnkmfk x'g] cj;/ l;h{gf u/]sf
lyP . jfo'–t/+udflysf] lgoGq0f ;dfKt ePkl5       g]kfnsf /]l8of] :6]zgx¿ nf]stGqsf] kIfdf       :jtGqtfnfO{ logn] cfkm\gf] k|fljlws u'0f:t/
logn] klg ;"rgfnfO{ ljs]lGb|t ub{} hg–           pleP, h;n] lognfO{ hGd lbPsf] lyof] . To;sf]   / k|:t't ul/g] ljifoj:t'nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ pkof]u
;fwf/0fnfO{ zlQm;DkGg t'NofP/ nf]stGqnfO{        nuQ} lgeL{s ;"rgf k|jfx / ;fj{hlgs ax;sf]      u/] . cfhef]ln g]kfndf pTkfbg x'g] d"nwf/sf
alnof] kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofP . df3 !( kl5,            dfWodaf6 :jtGq /]l8of]x¿n] hgcfGbf]ng—         cvaf/ Pjd\ klqsfx¿sf] 5kfO t cGt/f{li6«o
/]l8of]sf] d'v aGb ug{ vf]Hg] zfxL zf;gsf]       @ sf] ;kmntfsf nflu jftfj/0f tof/ kfg{                   }
                                                                                                :t/sf] 5“b5, ltgsf] hLjGt ljifoj:t' s] s'/fsf]
k|of; lj¿4 v8f eP/ /]l8of]n] cfkm\gf]            klg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n] .                    klg k|df0f xf] eg] g]kfnL kqsf/ kl/kSj
hf]bfxfkg k|dfl0ft u¥of] . PkmPddf ;dfrf/                g]kfnL ldl8ofdf @)$^ otf gf6sLo        Pjd\ Jofj;flos eO;s]sf 5g\ / cfkm\gf]
k|;f/0f dfly nufOPsf] k|ltaGwsf] cj1f u/]/       kl/jt{ g cfO;s] s f] 5 . o;aLr k| f Kt         lhDd]bf/L elnef“tL a'em\b5g\ .
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                             l;4fGtsf] a]jf:tf ug{] ljZjJofkL k|jl[ QnfO{
                                                                                             k|ltlalDat ub{5g\ . ljsf; ;DaGwL g]kfnsf
                                                                                             cfjZostfx¿nfO{ gla;{g] xf] eg] oxfF To:tf]
                                                                                             6] l nlehg Rofgn h¿/L 5 hf] sf] / f
                                                                                             dgf]/~hgeGbf cl3 a9]/ /fHo / p;n]
                                                                                             hgtfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] ;]jf ;'ljwfsf
                                                                                             ljifodf ;fj{hlgs ax; rnfpg] / hgtfnfO{
                                                                                             lzIff lbg] dfWodsf] e"ldsf k"/f ug{ ;Sg]
                                                                                             xf]cf];\ .
                                                                                                       ;/sf/n] rnfPsf ldl8ofsf] ;d:of
                                                                                             eg] a]Un} 5 . @)$^ / @)^# df b'O{ k6s
                                                                                             k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgf eO;Sbf klg / ax'njfb
                                                                                             tyf k|]; :jtGqtfk|lt af/Daf/ k|lta4tf
                                                                                                                        ]
                                                                                             hgfO;Sbf klg ;Qfdf k'usf /fhgLlt1x¿n]
                                                                                             g]kfn 6]lnlehg, /]l8of] g]kfn / uf]/vfkqnfO{
                                                                                             ;/sf/L lgoGq0faf6 d'Qm ug{ rfx]gg\ . ;/sf/
                                                                                             k|]; :jtGqtfsf] vf]qmf] ukm dfq u5{ / nfh}
                                                                                             gdfgL ;/sf/L ldl8ofx¿nfO{ cfkm\gf] kIfsf]
                                                                                             k|rf/sf nflu k|of]u u5{ . o;n] nf]stGqnfO{
                                                                                             sdhf] / agfPsf] 5 . ljB' t Lo ;/sf/L
                                                                                             dfWodx¿ nf]ssNof0fsf d"No–dfGotfåf/f
                                                                                             lgb{]lzt x'g'k5{ / kqklqsf ;+rfng ug{] wGbf
                                                                                             rflx“ ;/sf/n] r6Ss} 5f]l8lbg'k5{ .
                                               cjZo klg, ;d:of gePsf xf]Ogg\ .                         Oltxf;sf] kl5Nnf] r/0fdf g]kfnL
                                       tflnd / cj;/sf] cefjb]lv ;/sf/L x:tIf]k                             ]
                                                                                             ldl8ofn] v]nsf] e"ldsfn] l;sfPsf] kf7 s] xf]
                                       / clt Jofkf/Ls/0f;Dd cg]s vfnsf ;d:of                 eg] k|]; :jtGqtf cfkm\gf] k|Tofe"lt ;“u} lnP/
          ldl8ofdf cfly{s nufgL        5g\ . c¿ t c¿, ;kmntfsf] pbfx/0f dflgg]               cfp“b}g, k|]; :jtGqtfsf] ;'/Iff t o;sf]
                                       g]kfnL PkmPd /]l8of]x¿ klg clxn] ‘bf];f| ] k':tf’sf   clwstd k| o f] u åf/f dfq ug{ ;lsG5 .
          ]
       ug{x¿n] tTsfnsf] kmfObfeGbf     ;d:ofx¿sf] ;fdgf ul//x]sf 5g\ .                       o;dfly tfgfzfxx¿ / ;j{;QfjfbLx¿af6 dfq
               ]
        k/ x]/sf] v08df dfq clg                /]l8of] :6];gx¿ ylk+b} hf“bf sfo{qmd                       } ]
                                                                                             vt/f cfp“bg, k|;nfO{ sf]/f Joj;fo dfq 7fGg]
     ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] kq÷klqsf      lgdf{tf, k|fljlws / ;+jfbbftfx¿sf nflu                o;sf dflnsx¿af6 klg cfp“5 clg To:tf
                                       tflnd cTofjZos x'G5 . cg'dltkq lbg]                   k|sfzsx¿af6 klg cfp“5 hf] kqklqsfnfO{
     jf /]l8of] :6]zgnfO{ /fhgLlts     k|lqmof a9L kf/bzL{ x'g'k5{, To;n] gfkmf              6]Anf]O8sf] af6f]df lx“8fpg rfxG5g\ lsgeg]
     d~r dfGg 5f]8sf] v08df dfq
                      ]                gsdfpg] / Jofkfl/s /]l8of]x¿aLr 5\ofgAofg             To;f] ug'{ ;:tf] dfq xf]Og uDeL/ / lhDd]bf/
         g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGq       ug{ ;Sg' k 5{ / To;sf] ;+ r fng :jtGq                 kqsfl/tf ug'{eGbf ;lhnf] klg x'G5 .
                                       cg'udgsf/L lgsfoaf6 x'g'k5{ . g]kfnsf]                          ldl8ofdf cfly{s nufgL ug{]x¿n]
          xft]dfnf] u/]/ cl3 a9\g      ldl8of :yfgLo hg;d'bfo / ltgsf pk]lIft                                             ]
                                                                                             tTsfnsf] kmfObfeGbf k/ x]/sf] v08df dfq
     ;S5g\ . ljZj;gLotf kqsf/sf]       efiffx¿nfO{ cfjfh lbg ;Sg] eO;s]sf] 5 .               clg ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] kq÷klqsf jf /]l8of]
                                       t/ sd{rf/L÷kqsf/ egf{ ubf{ hftLo Pjd\                 :6]zgnfO{ /fhgLlts d~r dfGg 5f]8]sf]
     ;a}eGbf d"Nojfg\ ;DklQ xf]Ù h'g   n}+lus ljljwtfsf] plrt ;Gt'ng sfod ug{                v08df dfq g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGq
      ldl8of ;a}eGbf kTof/nfUbf] 5     o;n] cem} nfdf] af6f] l5rf]Ng af“sL g} 5 .            xft]dfnf] u/]/ cl3 a9\g ;S5g\ . lat]sf !%
     ToxL ;a}eGbf nf]slk|o x'g ;S5             cfly{ s ¿kdf /] l 8of] :6] ; gx¿              jif{ d f xfdLn] kf7 l;ls;s] s f 5f} + —
                                       cfTdlge{/ x'g h¿/L 5 / ltgnfO{ ldl8of                 ljZj;gLotf kqsf/sf] ;a}eGbf d"Nojfg\
        / To;}sf/0f cfly{s b[li6n]     Joj:yfkgsf] ;Nnfx rflxPsf] 5 . ltgdf                  ;DklQ xf], h'g ldl8of ;a}eGbf kTof/nfUbf]
              cfTdlge{/ klg .          Psflt/ k|;f/0f–;do eg{ ;d"x–ljz]ifn] s]Gb|df          5 ToxL ;a}eGbf nf]slk|o x'g ;S5 / To;}sf/0f
                                       tof/ kf/]sf sfo{qmd ahfpg] rng km}nb} uPsf]“          cfly{s b[li6n] cfTdlge{/ klg .
                                       5 eg] csf{lt/ /fhgLlts bn / Jofj;flos
                                       ‘:jfy{’x¿åf/f /]l8of] :6];g g} ‘sAhf’ ug{] k|jl[ Q    g]kfnL 6fOD; ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs
                                       klg a9\b} uPsf] 5 .                                   bLlIft OG6/ k|]; ;le{; -cfO{kLP;\_ sf] Pl;of–k|zfGt
                                               6]lnlehgsf ;d:of rflx“ a]Un} vfnsf            If]qLo lgb{]zs tyf kfgf]; OlG:6Ro'6 blIf0f Pl;ofsf
                                       5g\ h;n] Jofkf/Ls/0f / ;fj{hlgs k|;f/0fsf             lgb{]zs /lx;Sg'ePsf] 5 .



16                                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                  l6Kk0fL


kqsf/ / cfrf/;+lxtf

  /3'hL kGt            @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng ;kmn eP/ ‘g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&’ hf/L ePkl5 g]kfnL k|;n] aNn     ]
                                      "                                       ]
                       :jtGqtfsf] cg'elt ug{ kfPsf] lyof] . To;kl5 g]kfnL k|;n] :jtGqtfsf] ;fy;fy} cfkm\gf] lhDd]jf/Ltkm{ klg
                                 {
                       uDeL/tfk"js Wofg lbg yfNof], cfkm\gf] bfloTj / dof{bfsf] af/]df klg ;f]Rg yfNof] . ToxL sf/0fn] ubf{ ‘g]kfn
                       clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&’ hf/L ePsf] Ps–b'O{ jif{kl5 g} kqsf/x¿aLr cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ljifo Jofks ¿kdf

p7\ o f] . k| ] ; sfplG;nn] 5' § } kqsf/           sfd lyof] . kqsfl/tfsf] d"No–dof{bf jf             ug]{ k|j[lQdf sdL cfp“b} uPsf] 5 . of] /fd|f]
cfrf/;+lxtf agfP/ hf/L u¥of] eg] g]kfn             g}ltstf;“u ltgnfO{ dtna lyPg .                     pknlAw xf] / v'zLsf] s'/f klg . t/, of]
kqsf/ ;+3 -xfn dxf;+3_ n] cfkm}+n] cfkm\gf]                 k~rfot Joj:yfdf /fhf / b/afl/ofx¿         ljsf; ;“u;“u} 7"nf ;~rf/u[xx¿n] cfkm\gf
nflu cfrf/;+lxtf hf/L u¥of] . tTsfnLg k|];         s'g} klg k|wfgdGqLnfO{ nf]slk|o, alnof] /          cGo Jofkfl/s :jfy{x¿ k"/f ug{s} nflu ;~rf/
sfplG;nn] g]kfn kqsf/ ;+3;“u s'g} 5nkmn                                 }
                                                   ljjfb/lxt x'g lb“bg lyP . Psflt/ :jo+ /fhfsf       dfWodx¿sf] b'¿kof]u ug]{ vt/f;“u klg
gu/L cfrf/;+lxtf hf/L u/]sf]n] To;a]nf s]xL        ;lrjx¿n] cfkm\g} Ozf/fdf ljleGg cvaf/              rgfvf] x'g' h¿/L 5 .
ljjfb klg pTkGg ePsf] lyof] .                      rnfp“y] eg] csf{lt/ k~rfot ;dy{s cvaf/
                                                   b/af/ / k~r g]tfx¿sf ljleGg u'6;“u                 pNnª\3g hf/L 5
Joj:yfnfO{ xf]Og JolQmnfO{ ufnL                    ;DalGwt x'Gy] . Psn] csf]{ u'6sf dflg;sf]          clxn] klg sltko cvaf/x¿ k9\bf kqsf/
k~rfot Joj:yfdf e|i6 / d08n]x¿sf] af]njfnf         dfgdb{g ug{, ltgnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg hyfefjL          cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3g eO/x]sf] kfOG5 .
lyof] eg] kqsfl/tfdf klg d08n]tGq rsf]{            n]Vg] pgLx¿sf] d'Vo sfd x'GYof] . of] k|j[lQ       ahf/df gb]lvg] ‘cb[Zo’ klqsfx¿ dfq} xf]Og
¿kdf b]vf kg]{ uYof]{ . o;n] ubf{ of] If]q g}lts   cToGt emfl·b} uof] / eg]sf] hlt lj1fkg,            kf7sx¿aLr nf] s lk| o /x] s f sltko
¿kn] sdhf]/, cfly{s Pj+ cGo g}lts dfdnfdf          k};f jf vf]h]sf] ;'ljwf gkfp“bf sd{rf/L,           klqsfx¿dfly ;d] t a] n favt JolQmut
ljjfbf:kb / nf]stflGqs dfGotfdfly k|xf/ ug]{       Jofkf/L, /fhgLlts g]tf / cGo ljleGg If]qsf         rl/qxTof u/]sf], afu]l{ gª u/]/ k};f lng] u/]sf],
                     ]
;fwg;d]t aGg k'usf] lyof] . To;a]nf g]kfnL         JolQmx¿sf lj¿4 ;dfrf/sf gfddf dgk/L,               rl/qxTof ug]{ u/]sf] / wDSofpg] u/]sf] h:tf
kqsfl/tf Joj:yf lj/f]wL / Joj:yf ;dy{sx¿           rl/qxTof ug{] p2]Zosf skf]nslNkt s'/fx¿            cf/f]kx¿ nfUg] u/]sf 5g\ .
aLr ljeflht lyof] . k~rfotlj/f]wL ljrf/ /          n]Vg] sfd Jofks x'g yfNof] . k~r dGqLx¿                     s]xL klqsfx¿df 5flkPsf sltko
;dfrf/ lbg] klqsfx¿ t'ngfTds ¿kdf                  cfkm\gf] dGqfnosf lj1fkg / b]lvg] gb]lvg]          ;dfrf/nfO{ /fd|/L k9\g] / ljZn]if0f ug]{ xf]
nf]slk|o, dof{lbt / lhDd]jf/ lyP . o:tf            ;|f]taf6 k};f pknAw u/fP/ cfkm\gf] k|ltåGåL        eg] Pp6f ;r]t kf7sn] ;dfrf/df lglxt
klqsfsf clwsf+ z ;Dkfbs cfly{ s /                  g]tf jf dGqLnfO{ tNnf]:t/df ufnLunf}h              k/:k/lj/f]wL s'/fx¿sf cfwf/df ;dfrf/ em"7f]
g}lts¿kdf :jR5 lyP eg] k]zfsf] d"No–dof{bf         ul/Psf s'/f ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf n]Vg k|fT;flxt ]         /x]sf] :jtM kQf nufpg ;S5 . JolQmsf]
/ lhDd]jf/L /Iffsf nflu lrlGtt / cfkm\g}           uy]{ . k~r kqsf/x¿sf] Pp6f 7"nf] hTyf              rl/qxTof ug]{ k|jl[ Q cem}+ g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf
9+un] lqmofzLn lyP . pgLx¿n] kqsfl/tfnfO{          /fhf / Joj:yfsf] ;dy{g u/]jfkt cfkm"nfO{           68\sf/f] b]lvG5 . ‘kmnfgfn] 6]/]g, To;nfO{
nf]stGq :yfkgfsf] cleofgsf ¿kdf lnPsf              P]g–sfg"geGbf dfly 7fGYof] / unt 9+un]             7f]Sg} k¥of]’ eg]/ ;dfrf/ n]Vg] k|j[lQ ;dfKt
lyP / /fHoaf6 af/Daf/ d'2f / h]n ;hfo              cfly{s pkfh{g uYyf]{ . ltgsf nflu kqsfl/tf                                  ]
                                                                                                      ePsf] 5}g . cfkm"n] n]vsf] ;dfrf/nfO{ cToGt}
ef]Ug'kbf{ klg cfkm\gf] nIok|lt k|lta4 /xGy] .     ANofsd]lnªsf] dfWod / 7luvfg] ef“8f] lyof] .       xn'sf 9+un] lng] / To;k|lt pQ/bfloTjsf]
          k~rfot Joj:yf jf /fhfsf ;dy{s                     of] k|jl[ Qn] cfqmfGt g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf   af]w gug]{ u}/lhDd]jf/ k|j[lQn] ubf{ kqsfl/tf
dflgg] cvaf/x¿ k~rfotsfndf klg nf]slk|o            ax'bnLo Joj:yfsf] k'g:yf{kgfkl5 Jofks ;'wf/        k]zfdf /x]sf /fd|f dflg;x¿n] ;d]t a]nfavt
lyPgg\ . ckjfb:j¿k s]xL jl/i7 ;Dkfbs /             b]vf k/]sf] 5 . 7"nf] nufgLdf b}lgs klqsfx¿        nlHht x'g'kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
kqsf/x¿nfO{ 5f]l8lbg] xf] eg] k~rfot               k|sflzt x'g yfNg', PkmPd /]l8of]x¿ a9\b}                    sltko b}lgs / ;fKtflxs klqsfdf
;dy{s clwsf+z klqsf / ltgsf ;Dkfbsx¿               hfg' / lghL If]qn] klg 6]lnlehgx¿ ;~rfng           sfd ug]{ >dhLjLx¿n] cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds ;d]t
/fhf / Joj:yfsf] ho ufp“b} sdfp wGbfdf             ug{ yfNg'n] kqsfl/tfsf] If]q kof{Kt lj:tf/                                        “}
                                                                                                      lgoldt ¿kdf kfpg ;s]sf x'bgg\ t/ k|sfzs
nfu]sf lyP . ax'bnjfbL kf6L{ / ltgsf               ePsf] 5 . cfkm\gf] k]zf / dof{bfk|lt ;r]t          / dflns–;Dkfbssf] cfly{s x}l;ot a9\b} uPsf]
g]tfx¿nfO{ hyfefjL ufnL ug',{ /fhfsf] Psf]xf]/f]   o'jf kqsf/x¿sf] 7"nf] ;ª\Vof olta]nf g]kfnL        x'G5, 3/sf] tnf ylk+b} u/]sf] x'G5 . klqsfsf]
tfl/km ug'{ / k~rfot Joj:yfsf] lj/f]w              kqsfl/tfdf lg0ff{os ¿kdf b]vf kg{ yfn]sf]                                     “}
                                                                                                      lx;fa–lstfa kf/bzL{ x'bg . klqsfsf] laqmL /
ug]{x¿nfO{ ;Qf];/fk ug'{ g} ltgLx¿sf] d'Vo         5 . o;n] ubf{ kqsfl/tfnfO{ unt 9+un] k|of]u        lj1fkgsf] cfDbfgLsf] cg'dfg ubf{ klqsf 6f6

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       17
klN6;s]h:tf] nfU5 t/ k|sfzs jf dflns                     k~rfotsfndf P]ltxfl;s               ug{ gx'g,] 3[0ff / pQ]hgf km}lng] u/L aLeT;
;Dkfbsx¿ df]6fO/x]s} x'G5g\ .                                                                b[Zo / t:jL/ k|sfzg ug{ gx'g,] 36gf;“u
         k~rfotsfndf dxŒjk"0f{ P]ltxfl;s              e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf klqsfx¿            c;DalGwt JolQmsf] gfd pNn]v ug{ gx'g,]
e"ldsf v]nsf cfkm\gf] ;dosf sltko nf]slk|o
             ]                                        ax'bnsfndf cfly{s ;d:ofsf              tYoxLg ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ug{ gx'g,] lj1fkgnfO{
klqsfx¿ ax'bnsfndf cfly{s ;d:ofsf sf/0f                   sf/0f aGb eP . ltgsf                                                       ]
                                                                                             ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ gx'g] / ;|ft pb\wt       [
g} aGb eP . ltgsf ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf]                                                        gu/L ;dfrf/ pkof]u ug{ gx'g] h:tf ljifodf
klqsfnfO{ cfly{s ;d:of 6fg{sf nflu a]7Ls              ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] klqsfnfO{          ;+lIfKt cjwf/0ff cl3 ;f/]/ ltgnfO{ kqsf/
9+ u n] k| o f] u u/] / pHofnf] Oltxf;nfO{              cfly{s ;d:of 6fg{sf nflu             tyf ;~rf/dfWodx¿n] ug{ gx'g] sfo{sf ¿kdf
wldNofpg'eGbf klqsf aGb ug'{ plrt 7fg] .                                                                        ]
                                                                                             lng'kg]{ ljrf/ k|; sfplG;nn] cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 .
t/ ahf/df gb]lvg] / laqmL cToGt} sd x'g]              a]7Ls 9+un] k|of]u u/]/ pHofnf]                  ug{'kg{] / ug{ gx'g] dfly plNnlvt
k~rfotsfnb]lvs} s]xL klqsfx¿ eg] lg/Gt/                  Oltxf;nfO{ wldNofpg'eGbf            s'/fx¿nfO{ /fd|f];“u sfof{Gjog ug]{ xf] eg]
k|sflzt eO/x]sf 5g\ . o:tf sltko klqsfsf                                                     g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] k|efj, ;f/ / ljZj;gLotf
;Dkfbsx¿ Jofkf/Lx¿sxf“, eG;f/, /fh:j /                 klqsf aGb ug'{ plrt 7fg] .            clxn]sf] eGbf w]/} /fd|f] x'g]5 . o; sfo{df
>d ljefult/ km]/f] dfg{ hfg] u5{g\ . pgLx¿                                                   k|]; sfplG;n g]kfn cfkm}+n] klg w]/} sfd ug{
ljleGg dGqfnosf e|i6 sd{rf/Lx¿;“u ldn]/                                                      af“sL 5 . k|]; sfplG;nnfO{ Pp6f ;lqmo /
ltgsf] :jfy{sf nflu k|fof]lht ;dfrf/;d]t                                                     cfkm\gf] If]qsf] lqmofzLn cflwsfl/s / alnof]
n]Vg] u5{g\ eGg] u'gf;f] kLl8tx¿af6 af/Daf/:jtGqtf c;Lldt 5 . of] :jtGqtfnfO{ ;b'kof]u       ;+ : yfsf ¿kdf :yflkt gu/] ; Dd o;n]
;'Gg] ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf] k|j[lQ sfod /x];Dd ug] { sfd kqsf/x¿n] ug' { k b{ 5 . o;sf]          cfrf/;+lxtf kfngf u/fpg] sfddf pNn]Vo
kqsfl/tf k]zfnfO{ k"0f{¿kn] ;Ddflgt agfpg  b' ¿ kof] u x' g yfNof] eg] :jfefljs¿kdf          e"ldsf v]Ng ;Sb}g . To:t} kqsf/x¿ :jo+
                                           :jtGqtfdfly k| Z g p7fpg] x ¿n] df} s f
cK7\of/f] x'G5 . cfkm\gf] k]zfdf ljBdfg /x]sf                                                cfkm}+ cfkm\gf] cfrf/;+lxtfsf] kfngfdf uDeL/
pR5[ª\vntf / u}/–lhDd]jf/ k|j[lQnfO{ x6fpg kfpF5g\ . To;}n] kqsf/x¿ :jo+ kqsf/               ePgg\ eg] k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnn] rfx]/ dfq}
:jo+ kqsf/x¿ g} cl3 ;g'{ cfjZos 5 .        cfrf/;+lxtfk|lt ;r]t x'g'kb{5 . o; ljifodf        klg cfrf/;+lxtf /fd|f];“u nfu" x'g ;Sb}g .
         k~rfotsfndf d08n] kqsf/x¿         kqsf/x¿aLr /fi6« J ofkL 5nkmn, ax;                                     ]                          }
                                                                                                       g]kfnL k|;n] cfkm\gf] cfTd;dLIff cfkm+n]
‘xfdLx¿nfO{ h] ug]{ / h] n]Vg] klg 5'6 5,  rNg'kb{5, k6sk6s rln/xg'k5{ .                     uDeL/¿kdf ug{ cfjZos 5 . xfdLsxf“ hlt
/fhf / Joj:yf hf]ufpg] xfdL g} xf}+’ eGb}            g] k fn kqsf/ dxf;+ 3 ;d] t sf]         cvaf/ 5flkG5g\ tLdWo] y'k}| ahf/df k'Ub}gg\,
sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ysf{pg] uy]{ . pgLx¿n] eg]                    ]
                                           ;xeflutfdf k|; sfplG;n g]kfnn] kqsf/x¿n]                                  ]
                                                                                             t/ ;"rgf ljefu / k|; sfplG;nsf] clen]vdf
h:tf] ug{ gdfGg] / P]g–lgodcg'¿k rNg vf]Hg]    {
                                           ug'kg{] / ug{ gx'g] d"ne"t s'/fx¿sf] juL{s/0f     lgoldt ¿kdf k|sflzt b]lvG5g\ . o:tf
kqsf/x¿nfO{ ‘Joj:yflj/f]wL n]lvlbg]’ wDsL  u/L ‘kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf, @)^)’ hf/L u/]sf]         lj;+ u ltx¿nfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} ;/sf/n]
                                           5 . t'ngfTds ¿kn] cfrf/;+lxtfk|lt ;hu
lbP/ t;f{pFy] . of] k|jl[ Qn] clxn] klg a]nfavt                                              cvaf/;DaGwL gLltx¿sf] k'gd"{Nof+sg ug'{ /
km/s¿kdf 6fpsf] p7fpg] ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .     x'g] s'/fdf s]xL ;sf/fTds nIf0f b]lvP klg         ;dofg's"n gof“ gLltx¿ lgdf{0f ug'{ cfjZos
                                           o;k|lt g]kfnL kqsfl/tf If]q cem} /fd|/L rgfvf]
o:tf] k|jl[ QnfO{ lj:yflkt ug]{ sfd cem} /fd|/L                                              5 . k~rfotn] /fhf / Joj:yf hf]ufpg cfkm\gf
x'g;s]sf] 5}g . :jo+ /fd|f kqsf/x¿ cfkm\gf]                   ]
                                           x'g;s]sf] 5}g . k|; sfplG;nn] klxn]sf] t'ngfdf    ;dy{s klqsf / kqsf/x¿nfO{ kfNg] u/]sf]
k]zfleqsf ‘g/fd|f’ kqsf/x¿;“u h'‰g tof/    o; ;DaGwdf cfkm\gf] ultljlw a9fP klg Tof]                                            ]
                                                                                             lyof], ltgsf nflu /fHosf] ;|ft / ;fwgsf]
b]lv+b}gg\ . c¿x¿sf ;dfrf/ vf]Hg]x¿,       cem} ckof{Kt 5 .                                  b'¿kof]u ug]{ uYof]{ . t/ cfh cj:yf km]l/Psf]
c¿sf ljs[lt s]nfpg]x¿ cfkm\g} k]zfleqsf              cfrf/;+lxtf cGtu{t k|]; :jtGqtfsf]      5 . /fHon] cgfjZos e]befj ug]{ / ljz]if
v/fa k|j[lQx¿ b]Vof gb]v]em}+ u5{g\ .      ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{g, dfgjclwsf/ / cGt/f{li6«o                               { “' }
                                                                                             ;+/If0f lbg] sfd ug'xbg . ax'bnLo /fhgLlts
         s' g } gful/sdfly em" 7 f] nf~5gf ;DaGwsf] ;Ddfg, ;"rgfsf] xssf] /Iff /             k|0ffnL / v'nf ;dfh cg'¿ksf gLltx¿ cl3
nufpg', s;}sf] JolQmut rl/qdfly cfwf/xLg                                   ]
                                           k|rng, ;TotYo ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|if0f, ;DkfbsLo         ;fg{'k5{ . /fHosf] lgoGq0f sd kfb}{ nfg'kb{5
                                           :jtGqtf, uf]kgLotfsf] xssf] ;Ddfg, pRr
cf/f]k nufpg' / cfkm\gf] :jfy{k"lt{ gul/lbPs}                                                / klqsfx¿sf] nf]slk|otf / :t/cg'¿k
cfwf/df s;}sf] dfgdb{g ug{ vf]Hg' kqsfl/tf Jofj;flos cEof;, lzi6 Jojxf/, uNtL                lj1fkg jf cGo ;| f ] t df kf/bzL{ 9+ u n]
xf]Og, ck/fw xf] . JolQmsf] :jtGqtf /      ;Rofpg] tTk/tf, ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj, cfk;L          pgLx¿sf] kx'Fr k'Ug lbg'kb{5 .
;Ddfgsf] /Iff ug'{ :jo+ kqsfl/tf k]zfsf]   ;DaGwh:tf ljifodf ;+lIfKt cjwf/0ff cl3                      cfly{ s kmfObfsf nflu kqsf/
klg Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ bfloTj xf] . t/ of]     ;f/] / k| ] ; sfplG;nn] tL cjwf/0ffnfO{           cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNn+3g ug]{ k|j[lQ ;dfrf/
                                       }   kqsf/x¿sf st{Josf ¿kdf lgjf{x ug{ hf]8
bfloTjaf]w cem} /fd|/L x'g;s]sf] b]lv+bg . ;';l" rt                                          dfWodsf] nufgL;“u klg hf]l8Psf] x'G5 .
x'g] / hfgsf/L kfpg] hlt clwsf/ 5 Tolt g}  lbPsf] 5 .                                        ltgsf] gLlt / Jojxf/ /fhgLlts bnx¿;“u
JolQmsf] uf]kgLotf / ;Ddfgsf] klg clwsf/ /           To:t}, /fli6«o cv08tfdf k|lts"n k|efj   ltgsf] ;DaGwaf6 klg lgwf{l/t eO/x]sf] x'G5 .
dxŒj x'G5 . gful/ssf] ul/df / ;Ddfgsf]     kfg{ gx'g,] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf k|lts"n c;/          o:tf y'k|} kIf / ljifo 5g\ h;nfO{ 5nkmnsf]
sb/ ug{ ghfGg] kqsf/n] cfkm\gf] ;Ddfg Pj+                                    ]
                                           kfg{ gx'g,] ;dfrf/sf] uf]Ko ;|ft vf]Ng gx'g,]     3]/fleq Nofpg'kb{5 . cfrf/;+lxtf Pp6f
ul/dfsf] klg /Iff / sb/ ug{ ;Sb}g .        lghL :jfy{kl" t{sf nflu ;"rgf k|of]u ug{ gx'g,]   Jofks cjwf/0ff xf], h;n] kqsf/x¿sf ljrf/
                                           e]befj x'g] u/L ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|i] f0f ug{ gx'g,]                                  {
                                                                                             / Jojxf/nfO{ ;d]t lgb]z ub{5 . o;sf] kfngf
:jtGqtfsf] ;b'kof]u cfjZos                 kLl8tnfO{ yk kL8f k'Ug] u/L ;"rgf ;Dk|i] f0f      / 5nkmn 5'§} ljifo xf]Ogg\ a¿ Pscsf{;“u
g] k fndf clxn] s f] ;+ l jwfg / sfg" g n] ug{ gx'g,] kLl8t JolQmsf] gfd, 7]ufgf k|sfzg      cleGg ¿kn] uf“l;Psf 5g\ . To;}n] o;af/]
;~rf/dfWodnfO{ k"0f{ :jtGqtf lbPsf] 5 . ug{ gx'g,] lx+;f, cft+s / ck/fwnfO{ k|fT;fxg]        /fli6«o ax;sf] cfjZostf 5 .

18                                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                          ]
                                                                                                                        k|; / cg'zf;g


cfrf/;+lxtf
s:tf] 5 c¿lt/sf] cEof; <
                                                                 ] \
          k|tLs k|wfg kmf]6f]kqsf/ dfs{ xn]eL cd]l/sfsf] df;fRo';6;af6 lgSng] O{un–l6«Ao'g klqsfsf nflu Ps 6fk'df
                                                                                   |
                              ;fd'lb|s 5fnsf] kmf]6f] lvRg uPsf lyP . ;f] jif{ ;d'bdf ^) jif{sf] cjlws} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] 5fn cfpg]
                              atfOPsf] lyof] . ToxF“ pgn] Pp6L dlxnf b]v] hf] ;d'b|sf] lsgf/f glhs} a;]/ s]xL ub}{ lyOg\ . pgnfO{
                              kmf]6f]df ;d]6bf 5fnsf] cfsf/sf] cfsng ug{ d2t k'Ug] ePsfn] tL dlxnfnfO{ k|mddf /fv]/ dfs{ Ps kl5
                                            \                                                             ]

csf]{ tl:a/ lvRb}lyP . crfgs Pp6f 7"nf]          kfngf ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf klxn] c¿nfO{                af“sL kf7sx¿ ;f/} ?i6 b]lvP . Pshgf kf7sn]
5fn cfof] / tL dlxnfnfO{ ;f] x f] / ] /          arfpg] eGg] xf] . g]kfnsf] clxn]sf] cj:yfdf        t s];Dd eg] eg], ‘s] of] kmf]6f] 5fKg] ;+kfbs
nUof] .dlxnfn] cfkm\gf] k|f0f arfpgsf nflu       eGg] xf] eg] t Jofj;flos wd{sf] kfngf ug]{         clkm;df n'uf nufP/ cfp“5g\ <’ csf{sf] egfO
d2t dfUb} ubf{sf] kmf]6f] dfs{n] lvRg EofP .     sf]lzz ug'{k5{ eGg'knf{ lsgeg] g]kfnL              lyof], ‘pgLx¿n] kfl/jfl/s klqsfdf To:tf] kmf]6f]
kmf]6f] lvRbflvRb} dfs{n] klg d2tsf nflu         kqsfl/tf cem} To:tf] Jofj;flostfdf k'usf]   ]      5fk]/ d]/L gf} jifL{of 5f]/LNffO{ gUg dfG5] s:tf]
nfOkmuf8{x¿nfO{ u'xf/] . dlxnfnfO{ arfpg         5}g hxf“ kqsf/n] dfgjLo wd{nfO{ g} ltnf+hln        x'G5 eg]/ yfxf lbP, ca d Tof] klqsf slxNo}
s]xL JolQm cfP klg, t/ ltgsf] k|of; ;kmn         lbP/, dg{ nfu]sf] dfG5]nfO{ garfO{ cfkm\gf]        lslGbg“ .’ o:tf k|ltlqmof ;'g]kl5 klqsfsf
ePg . dlxnfnfO{ kfgLsf] e]nn] n'sfp“b}           Joj;fo u¿g\ . t/ Jofj;flos k|lt:kwf{ lgs}                      {
                                                                                                    k|aGw lgb]zs /g l:k/n] km]l/ To:t} vfnsf]
nUof] . tLg 3G6fkl5 csf]{ 7"nf] 5fnn] ltgsf]     rsf{] /x]sf] klZrdsf kqsf/nfO{ eg] dfgjLo          kmf]6f] cfof] eg] g5fKg] lg0f{o u/] .
lghL{j z/L/ lsgf/f nufOlbof] .                   x'g l;sfpg'kg]{ cj:yf 5 .
          Tof] kmf]6f] klqsfdf 5fKg 7Ls ls                 hxf“;Dd k]zfut dof{bf / ;+jbgzLntfsf]
                                                                                       ]            klZrddf cfrf/;+lxtf
a]7Ls eg]/ Go'h?ddf 7"n} ljjfb eof] .            k|Zg 5, kmf]6f]sf] k|of]udf xfd|f] kqsfl/tfn]      xfdL cem} cfrf/;+lxtfsf k|f/lDes s'/fx¿
hgtfn] ef] l n s] eG5g\ < lsg Tof]               cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNn+3g u/]sf 36gfx¿sf] nfd}         nfu" ug{d} clNem/x]sf 5f}+ . s'g} klg ;dfrf/
kmf]6f]kqsf/n] dlxnfnfO{ arfpg 5f8]/ clGtd       km]xl/:t tof/ x'G5 . hLp l5of–l5of ePsf            ;se/ ;|f]t pNn]v gu/L g5fKg", Pp6f ;|f]tn]
;do;Dd kmf]6f] lvlr/x\of] < s] xf] kqsf/sf]      nfzsf tl:a/, c·e· ePsf b[Zox¿ / kf7ssf]                        “}
                                                                                                    eg]/ dfq x'bg sDtLdf b'O{ jf ;f] eGbf a9L
wd{ < s]] dfgjLo wd{ Jofj;flos wd{eGbf           dg g} ljrlnt x'g] vfnsf lrqx¿ klg xfdL                ]     '
                                                                                                    ;|ft x'gkb{5, cflwsfl/tfsf] nflu sd;]sd
                                '       “}
7"nf] xf]Og < of] kmf]6f] 5fKg'xG5 ls x'bg <     ;lhn} 5flk/x]sf 5f}+ . gUgtf slt;Dd lbg] eGg]      Pp6f sfuhL k|df0f klg x'g'kb{5, Pp6f
          cGTodf ;Dkfbsx¿n] kmf]6f] 5fKg]        s'/fdf klg xfd|f ;Dkfbsx¿n] vf;} 5\ofgAofg         JolQmsf] ljifodf n]Vbf To;sf glhssf
lg0f{ o u/] lsgeg] pQm ;dodf Toxf“               u/]sf] b]lv“bg .
                                                               }                                    JolQmx¿sf] ab\gfd ug'{ x'Gg eGg] h:tf
kmf]6f]kqsf/ dfq lyPg . tL dlxnfnfO{ arfpg                 gUgtfsf] ;Gbe{df cd]l/sfsf] Pp6f csf]{   cfrf/;+lxtfsf clt ;fwf/0f s'/fx¿ klg
;Ifd cGo JolQmx¿ / nfOkmuf8{ ;d]t                /dfOnf] pbfx/0f 5 . b elh{lgof–kfOn6 tyf           xfdLn] nfu" ug{ ;s]sf 5}gf}+ . To;}n] hlxn]
kmf]6f]kqsf/eGbf pgsf] glhs} lyP . pQm           b n]h/–:6f/n] leqL k[i7df 7"n} cfsf/df o:tf]       klg gof“ ;/sf/ cfpg] lalQs} xfd|f ;fwf/0f
kmf]6f] w]/} glhsaf6 lvr]sf] h:tf] b]lvGYof] .   kmf]6f] 5fKof] h;df Pp6f gf+uf] dfG5] cfk\mgf]     uNtLx¿ cf} + N ofP/ ;/sf/sf tkm{ a f6
To;}n] ;Dkfbsx¿n] ;f] kmf]6f] 6]lnn]G; nufP/     cf“ugsf] 3f“; sfl6/x]sf] lyof] . Tof] kmf]6f]df    cfrf/;+lxtf nufpg] s'/f p7\g yfN5 .
sl/a %) lkm6 6f9faf6 lvlrPsf] xf] eg]/                                               ]
                                                 gUgtf :ki6 b]lvGYof] oBlk ;+jbgzLn c+u                      Jofj;flos kqsfl/tfsf] @)) jif{
;d]t :ki6 kf/] . t/ tL kmf]6f]kqsf/nfO{ eg]      b]lvPsf] lyPg . kmf]6f]n] cToGt} gsf/fTds          eGbf a9L cg'ej xfl;n ul/;s]sf klZrdf
;w}“ Pp6f s'/fn] lrdf]l6/x\of], lsg pgn] tL      k|ltlqmof lgDTofof] . ^) hgfeGbf a9L kf7sn]             '
                                                                                                    d'nsdf o:tf ljifox¿df ljjfb lgs} sd x'g
dlxnfnfO{ klxNo} Toxf“af6 x6\g eg]gg\ jf         Tof] kmf]6f]n] ;fdflhs dof{bf s'Nr]sf] atfp“b}     yfn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] pgLx¿nfO{ cfrf/;+lxtf
8'Ag nfUbf arfpg uPgg\ .                         ;Dkfbsk|lt /f]if k|s6 u/] . of] k|ltlqmof slt      nufpg] s'/f klg ub}{g / To:tf] ;f]Rg] w[i6tf
          of] 36gfsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] g}lts k|Zg   ;f“rf] xf] eGg] kQf nufpg ;f] klqsfn] $#^!         klg ub}{g . s'g} klg gfd rn]sf] ;+:yfn] hlxn]
eg]sf] ;dfrf/ ;+sng ug]{ qmddf kqsf/n]                                 {                 {
                                                 hgf kf7sx¿df ;j]If0f u¥of] . ;j]If0fdf ^%          klg k|]; sfplG;n, kqsf/ ;+3, ;Dkfbs ;+3
sf]/f Jofj;flos dfq x'g] ls dfgjLo wd{sf]        k|ltzt kf7sn] ;f] kmf]6f]nfO{ 7Ls} xf] eg] klg     jf To:t} cGo ;+:yfn] agfPsf] cfrf/;+lxtfeGbf

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                     19
   o'/f]ksf] clt ;d[4 b]z 8]gdfs{ klg s]xL cl3;Dd cfrf/;+lxtfdf xfn xfdLn] ef]lu/x]sf] kl/l:yltd}} ?dlNnO/x]sf]
    lyof] . t/ Toxf“sf] Ps b}lgsn] ;g\ !(*( df cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/]/ cfkm\gf kqsf/sf] e|d0fsf] vr{
     ;+:yfn] g} Aoxf]g]{ lgod agfof] . e|d0fdf n}hfg] ;+:yf;“u vr{sf] ljj/0f dfu u/]/ ;+:yfn] ;f] /sd ltl/lbg] /
                                                         +
                     ;+:yfn] ljj/0f gk7fP klqsf cfkm}n] vr{ cfsng u/]/ k7fOlbg] Joj:yf u¥of] .

Ps sbd cufl8 a9] / cfkm\ g f] ;+ : yfsf]
cfrf/;+lxtf :jod\ lgdf{0f ub{5 .
         pbfx/0fsf nflu, b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf]
cfrf/;+lxtfnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . ;+o'Qm /fHo
cd]l/sfdf k|];sf] cfrf/;+lxtfdf sfd ug]{
bh{gf}+ ;+:yfx¿ 5g\ . ;fy} cfO{ Pkm h], ;L
kL h] cflb cGt/f{li6«o kqsf/ ;+u7gx¿n]
klg cf–cfk\mg} lsl;dsf cfrf/;+lxtfx¿ nfu"
u/]sf 5g\ . t/ b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;n] s;}sf]
cfrf/;+lxtf dfGb}g . p;n] dfGg'kg]{ h?/t
klg 5}g lsgeg] p;sf] cfk\mg} ;+:yfsf]
cfrf/;+lxtf ;a}eGbf s8f 5 . @@ k]h nfdf]
pQm cfrf/;+ l xtfdf p;n] cfk\ m gf
sd{rf/Lx¿n] x/]s ljifodf s] s:tf] Jojxf/
ug'{k5{ eg]/ :ki6 n]v]sf] 5 . sl/a To:t}
cj:yf 5 la|6]gsf] k|Voft aLaL;L /]l8of] /
6LeLsf] . p;sf] cfrf/;+lxtf sl/a @))
k[i7sf] 5 h;nfO{ k|To]s sd{rf/Ln] Wofgk"j{s
k9]/ To;sf] kfngf ug'{kb{5 . kqsfl/tfdf
cGt/f{ l i6« o Voflt sdfPsf k| h ftflGqs
d'n'sx¿df ;a}lt/ o:t} cj:yf 5 .
         cfrf/;+lxtf / kqsfl/tfsf] s'/f ubf{
8]gdfs{sf] kqsfl/tfnfO{ klg Pp6f /fd|f]
pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . o'/f]ksf] of]
clt ;d[ 4 b] z Ps bzs cl3;Dd
cfrf/;+lxtfdf xfn xfdLn] ef]lu/x]sf] kl/l:ylt
/ 5nkmn ul//x]sf ljifod} ?dlNnO/x]sf]
lyof] . Toxf“ klg s'g} sDkgLn] k|mfG;df zfvf
vf]Nof] eg] To;sf] /fd|f] ;dfrf/ cfcf];\ eg]/
kqsf/nfO{ Kn]gdf /fv]/ n}hfg], s'g} 6«fen
Ph]G;Ln] gof“ ko{6sLo If]qsf] k|rf/k|;f/
ug'{k¥of] eg] kqsf/nfO{ l;Q}“df 3'dfpg], s'g}
df]6/ sDkgLn] cfk\mgf] df]6/sf] k|rf/ ug'{k¥of]
                      “
eg] kqsf/nfO{ l;Q}df 6]i6 8«fOedf n}hfg]
h:tf k|rng ;fdfGo lyP . t/ anL{·:s]
      ]
6fO{8G8] eGg] b}lgsn] ;g\ !(*( df cfk\mgf]
cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/]/ cfkm\gf kqsf/sf]
e|d0fsf] vr{ ;+:yfn] g} Aoxf]g{] lgod agfof] .
e|d0fdf n}hfg] ;+:yf;“u vr{sf] ljj/0f dfu
u/]/ ;+:yfn] ;f] /sd ltl/lbg] / ;+:yfn] ljj/0f


20                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
    kqsf/ / e|i6frf/
lkmlnlkG; ;]G6/ km/ OGe]l:6u]l6e hgf{lnHd
-kL;LcfOh]_ n] ‘ldl8of / e|i6frf/’
                                   {
ljifodf ;g\ !((* df u/]sf] Pp6f ;j]If0fn]
o:tf] kl/0ffd b]vfPsf] lyof] —
      {
   ;j]If0fdf ;d]l6Psf !)) hgf kqsf/dWo]
   &! hgfn] ;dfrf/ vf]Hg] qmddf ;dfrf/
                  ]                          ]
   jf ;"rgfsf] ;|ftn] cfkm"nfO{ k};f lbg vf]hsf]
   atfP . tLdWo] PsltxfO{n] k};f lnPsf]
   s'/f xfsfxfsL :jLsf/ u/] . To;/L k};f
   lng]dWo]sf !! hgfn] rflx“ Tof] k};f
   ;DkfbsnfO{ ;'lDkPsf] atfP eg] af“sLn]
   cfkm\g} vNtLdf /fv]sf] .
   æTo;/L k};f lng'x'G5 t <Æ k};f lng]x¿
                             {
   dWo]sf ax';ª\Vos l/kf]6/sf] hjfkm lyof]—
   æs'g} zt{ g/fvL / gdflusg lbPsf]
   x'gfn] lng cfklQ ePg .Æ yf]/}n] ælbPsf]
   k};f gln“bf ;|f]t l/;fpnf eg]/ lnPsf]Æ
   hjfkm lbP . ædnfO{ k};f rflxPsf] lyof]Æ,
   cyjf æc¿ ;a}n] lnG5g\, d lsg glng]
   eGg] nfu]/ lnPsf]Æ hjfkm lbg]x¿df cfkm"n]
   uNtL u/]sf] cfef; kfO“b}gYof] .                 vfPsf] sf/0f ;dfrf/sf] k|:t'ltdf s'g}     ‘Oge]nf]Kd]G6n’ -vfdaGbL_ kqsfl/tf /
   kTofpg cK7\of/f] nfu] klg ;|f]t;“u k};f         c;/ kg]{ gu/]sf]’ atfP .                  ‘c6\ofs–sn]S6–l8km]G8–sn]S6 -P;L8L;L_
   vfg] x/]s !) dWo] * hgf kqsf/n] ‘k};f           of] l/kf]6{ ;fj{hlgs ePsf] nuQ} ;Qf;Lg    cyf{t\ ‘uf]b–k};f n]pm, arfpm–k};f n]pm’
                                                   bnsf] tkm{af6 Ps l;g]6/n] kqsf/nfO{       kqsfl/tfsf] Jofkstf 5 .
                                                   s7f]/ cfrf/;+lxtfdf af“Wg' h?/L ePsf]     ;g\ !((* sf] /fi6«klt–r'gfjdf s]xL /]l8of]
                                                         “
                                                   ts{;u} lkmlnlkG;sf] ;+;bdf ljw]os btf{    :6]zgn] ‘;sf/fTds dfq} ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f
                                                   u/fP . To; ljw]ossf] Pp6f jfSo lyof]      ug{’ pDd]bjf/x¿;fd' @ s/f]8 k]zf]
                                                   –æ-kqsf/x¿_ ;~rf/dfWodsf] lgi7f           -sl/a ?=% s/f]8_ sf] Kofs]h k|:tfj cl3
                                                   cyjf ;/sf/L sfo{ – k| l qmofnfO{ e| i 6   ;f/]sf lyP .
                                                   t'Nofpg] vfnsf s'g} klg lqmofsnfkdf       s]xL nf]slk|o ‘6]ANjfO8’ sf ;Dkfbsx¿n]
                                                   ;+nUg x'g] 5}gg\ . Æ                                             ]
                                                                                             rflx“ pDd]bjf/sf] k|; jQmJo jf ;sf/fTds
                                                                                             ;dfrf/ 5fKg k|lt ;dfrf/sf] lx;fan]
                                                   kL;LcfO{h]s} Pp6f k|sfzg ‘Go"h km/ ;]n’   b/–/]6 g} tf]lslbPsf lyP .
                                                   df ldl8ofn] ug]{ y/Ly/Lsf e|i6frf/sf]     w] / } h ;f] ‘6] A NjfO8’ n] rflx“ ;Da4
                                                   pbfx/0f k]z ul/Psf] 5 . h:tf] M           pDd]b\jf/n] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ jf jQmJo
                                                                                             5flkPsf] c+s #),))) b]lv %),))) k|lt
                                                   lkmlnlkG;sf l/kf]6{/÷kqsf/nfO{ lbOg]      lsGg'kg]{ lgod a;fPsf lyP .
                                                   /sd -3";_ ;Lw} ltgsf] P6LPddf hDdf                         — ‘ldl8of OlyS; Pg Pl;of’
                                                   ul/lbOG5 .                                                             gfds k':tsaf6

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                       21
k|;+ujz

     !) jif{ a]nfotsf] k|wfgdGqL eP/ /flhgfdf lbPsf 6f]gL An]o/n] a]nfotsf klqsfx¿nfO{ ;Lwf ;dfrf/ l/kf]l6{ª
          gug]{ / Psbd gf6sLo 9·df ;dfrf/ kl:sg] dfWod eg]/ 7"nf] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ . ;dfrf/kqx¿
                      ;dfrf/k|wfg geP/ ljrf/k|wfg cyf{t\ ljrf/kq ePsf] klg pgsf] cf/f]k 5 .


gk7fP klqsf cfkm}+n] vr{ cfsng u/]/              /fhb"tsL >LdtL Eofn]? O{lnh Knfd] ;LcfO{PsL        Tof] Joª\UonfO{ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNnª\3gsf]
k7fOlbg] Joj:yf u¥of] .                          uf]Ko Ph]G6 ePsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ pgsf >Ldfg\n]       ¿kdf JofVof u/]sf 5g\ .
        of] ;+:yfn] lnPsf] lg0f{on] Toxf“sf]     O/fsn] /f;folgs xltof/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 ls                      ;g\ @))& sf] h'nfO{ dlxgfdf, !) jif{
kqsfl/tfdf 7"n} kl/jt{g NofOlbof] . ;a}n]        5}g eGg] ljifosf] Ps ld;gdf hfg kfPsf]             a]nfotsf] k|wfgdGqL eP/ /flhgfdf lbPsf 6f]gL
qmdzM cf–cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf agfP / pQm         pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm ld;gsf] l/kf]6{df        An]o/n] a]nfotsf klqsfx¿nfO{ ;Lwf ;dfrf/
b}lgss} af6f]df nfu]/ kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;df        O/fs;“u /f;folgs xltof/ 5}g eGg] pNn]v             l/kf]l6{ª gug]{ / Psbd gf6sLo 9·df ;dfrf/
Pp6f gof“ cWofo yk] .                            ePsf] s'/f klg /f]a6{ gf]efsn] Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf]   kl:sg] dfWod eg]/ 7"nf] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ .
                                                 cfkm\gf] :tDedf n]v]sf lyP . o; ljifonfO{          ;dfrf/kqx¿ ;dfrf/k|wfg geP/ ljrf/k|wfg
/fli6«o ;'/Iff / cfrf/;+lxtf                     ;/sf/n] /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] d'2f agfP/ 6fOd /        cyf{t\ ljrf/kq ePsf] klg pgsf] cf/f]k 5 .
;dfhsf] kl/jt{gsf qmddf gof“ gof“ ljifo jf       Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf kqsf/x¿nfO{ cbfnt k'¥ofof]        clxn] a]nfotsf] kqsfl/tfdf of] cf/f]kn] 7"nf]
k|jl[ Q b]vf kb{} hfG5g\ / ltgnfO{ kqsfl/tfn]          ]
                                                 / ;|ftsf] gfd geg]sf] cf/f]kdf h]n ;hfo            xnrn dRrfPsf] 5 . cfhsf] ljZjdf hxf“
s;/L x]g]{ / ;dfhnfO{ s] lbzf lbg] eGg]          ;d] t u¥of] . kl5 ;| f ] t x¿ cfkm} + n ] tL       On]S6«fl] gs dfWodx¿n] t'?Gt} ;dfrf/ ;Dk|i] f0f
ljifodf gof“ gof“ ljjfb cfp“b} hfG5g\ . h:tf]    kqsf/x¿nfO{ cfk\mgf] gfd eGg :jLs[lt lbPkl5        u5{g\ Toxf“ kqsfl/tfn] ljrf/df hfg x'g] ls
;g\ @))! ;]K6]Da/ !! sf lbg cd]l/sfdf            pgLx¿ h]nd'Qm ePsf lyP .                           gx'g] eGg] ljifodf ax; rNg yfn]sf] 5 .
lag nfb]gsf] cn–sfobf ;d"xn] u/]sf] cfqmd0f
kl5 kqsf/ / ;/sf/sf] ;DaGwsf ljifodf             ;dfh / cfrf/;+lxtf                                 ;a}n] ;w+} Wofg lbg] ljifo
7"nf] ljjfb pAHof] . /IffdGqL sf]G8flnhf         ;fdflhs cfrf/;+ l xtf / kqsf/sf]                   t/ s]xL To:tf ljifox¿ klg 5g\ h;df ;+;f/sf
/fO;n] kqsf/x¿nfO{ /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] k|Zg        cfrf/;+lxtfsf] w]/} glhssf] ;DaGw x'G5 .           ;a} kqsf/x¿n] ;w}+ ;hutf ckgfpg'kb{5 .
p7fp“b} lag nfb]gn] af]nsf s'/fx¿ ;Dk"0f{
                             ]                   h'g s'/fdf ;dfhdf rsf]{ ax; rn]sf] x'G5                             ]                     ]
                                                                                                    h:tf] unt ;|ft;“u aRg', cfk\mgf] ;|ftsf] unt
¿kdf 5fKg / k|;f/0f ug{ /f]s nufOg\ .            ;f] s'/fsf] kIf jf ljkIfdf snd rnfpg               dfu;“ u ;Demf} t f gug' { , ;lhn} pknAw
pgsf] egfO æcft°sf/Lx¿n] cfkm\ g f]              klZrdf kqsfl/tfdf klg lgs} cK7]/f] g} x'G5 .                                      ]
                                                                                                    ;dfrf/sf] nflu uf]Ko ;|ftsf] pkof]u gug',{
jQmJoleq}af6 cfk\mgf sfo{stf{nfO{ ;Gb]z lbg      h:tf] ue{ktg, hgfj/sf] clwsf/, d[To'b08sf]                       ]
                                                                                                    cfk\mgf] ;|ftnfO{ grflxFbf] tl/sfn] garfpg' cflb .
;S5g\Æ eGg] lyof] .                              ;hfo, kl/jf/ lgof]hgsf s[lqd ;fwgsf] k|of]u,       To:t}, s'g} k'ln;n] vf]lh/x]sf] ck/fwLsf] cGtjf{tf{
          kqsf/n] slt ;/sf/sf] s'/f ;'Gg] /      o'yfgl;of cyf{t\ bofk"0f{ xTof, dlxnfsf] of]lg     k'ln;nfO{ yfxf glbO{ 5fKg] jf g5fKg] < ;Dk"0f{
slt cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf dfGg] eGg] ljifosf]     5]bg, k'?ifsf] ln· 5]bg, ;fdflhs k|lti7f                       ]
                                                                                                    ¿kdf ;|ft gv'nfOPsf] ;dfrf/ af}l4s ;DklQsf]
ljjfb pQm 36gfkl5 z'? ePsf] eg] kSs}             hf]ufpg ul/g] xTof, ;dln·L ;DaGw / ljjfx,          rf]/L xf] ls xf]Og < hgtfn] >4f ug]{ JolQm -
xf]Og . zLto'4tfsf b jflz·6g kf]i6 klqsfn]       3/]n' gf]s/ / bf; k|yf, cfk\mgf] b]z n8fO“df       wfld{s g]tf, u'? cflb_ sf] JolQmut ljifodf
                  |
cd]l/sfn] ;d'bdf b"/;+rf/sf nflu la5\ofOg]       ePsf] a]nfsf] cj:yf cflbaf/] ;+;f/el/sf            slt ;dfrf/ 5fKg] < cfkm"n] s'g} ljifodf ljrf/
tf/df ¿;L kg8'AaLsf] cfjfh ;'Gg ;lsg] uf]Ko      kqsf/x¿ v'n]/ snd rnfpg ws dfGb5g\ .               n]lv;s]sf] 5 eg] ;f]xL ljifodf ;dfrf/ n]Vg]
oGq h8fg u/]sf] s'/f kQf nufPsf] lyof] .                 klZrdf ;dfhdf oL / o:tf                    ls gn]Vg] < s'g} ck/fwLsf gft]bf/x¿sf] gfd
p;n] ;f] ;dfrf/ /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] sf/0fn]        ljifox¿af/] ;w}+ ljjfb rNb} cfO/x]sf] 5 t/         ;fj{hlgs ug{] ls gug{] < ;dfrf/sf] uf]Ko ;|ft   ]
5fk]g . t/ kl5 ?;n] ;f] s'/f kQf] kfof] /        wfld{s Pjd\ ;fdflhs dfGotf / /Lltl/jfhnfO{                            '             ]
                                                                                                    kqsf/n] vf]Ng'xGg, t/ ;f] ;|ftn] lbPsf] ;dfrf/
cd]l/sfsf] Ps k|sf/n] a]OHhtL eof] . kf]i6n]     r6Ss} la;]{/ hfg ;Sg] cj:yf pgLx¿sf] klg                                                    ]
                                                                                                    Psbd} em"7f] k|dfl0ft eof] eg] pQm ;|ftsf] gfd
kl5Nnf] ;dfrf/ 5fKg vf]Hbf klg /Iff dGqfnon]     5}g . ;g\ @))% ;]K6]Da/df 8]gdfs{sf] Pp6f          vf]Ng] ls gvf]Ng] <
/fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] sf/0f b]vfP/ /f]Sg vf]Hof] .   klqsfn] Ps d'l:nd Odfdsf] ku/LnfO{ adsf]                     o:tf w] / } ljifox¿ 5g\ h;af/]
æxfdLn] ;f] ;dfrf/ 5fKof+} / ef]lnkN6 s'g}       ¿kdf lrlqt ubf{ ;+;f/el/sf d'l:nd ;d'bfon]         uDeL/tf ;fy 5nkmn tyf dgg ug{ / To;sf]
k|no ePg, ;"o{ ;bfem}+ k"jaf6 pbfof],Æ kf]i6sf
                           {                     cg]s 7fpFdf lx+;|s k|bz{g u/] h;df bh{gf}+sf]      lgisif{ cfkm\gf dfWoddf sfof{Gjog ug{ xfd|f
tTsfnLg sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs a]g a|f8nLn] eg] .       Hofg uof] . of] 36gfn] kqsfl/tfsf] :jtGqtfdf       kqklqsf, kqsf/ / ;Dk"0f{ ;+rf/dfWodx¿
          /fi6«klt a'zsf] O/fs gLltsf] lj/f]w
                     '                           7"nf] k|ZglrGx nufOlbPsf] 5 . 8]gdfs{              ;w}+ tof/ /xg' kb{5 . cGoyf kqsf/ / km6fxf
ub} cd]l/sL klqsfx¿n] Ps ;g;gL vf]h              ;/sf/ / klqsfn] ;f] Joª\Uolrqsf nflu               s'/f km}nfP/ cfkm\gf] :jfy{ l;4 ug]{ ufpF3/sf]
;dfrf/ 5fk] . To;df Pshgf e"tk"j{ cd]l/sL        Ifdfofrgf gu/] klg w]/} kqsf/x¿n] :jo+             rDa' JolQmsf] aLrdf s]xL km/s /xg] 5}g .

22                                                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                       ]
                                                                                                                             cd]l/sL k|;



PstkmL{ ax;sf]
vt/f
          SnFs{ xF]P6 b Go'of]s{ 6fOD; sf] ;DkfbsLo k[i7 O/fs o'4b]lv ue{ktg / ljZj tfkqmddf eO/x]sf] j[l4;Ddsf jt{dfg
                               ;dosf hNbfaNbf ljifodfly ax; x'g] b]zsf] ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ d~r xf] eg] x'G5 . ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/

                            ]
k[i7sf ;Dkfbs PG8«o' /f];Gyn eG5g\, æxfdL
;w}F To:tf ljrf/sf] vf]hLdf x'G5f}+ h;n]
dflg;nfO{ /GyGofOlbpmg\ . To:tf ljrf/, h;n]
      +             ]
tkfO{n] klxn] ;f]rsf s'/f Tolt /f]rs xf]Ogg\
eGg] :ki6 kf¿g\ .Æ
      t/, sltko ljrf/ a9L g} pQ]hs x'G5g\ .
ut ;ftf / uPsf] dlxgfsf b'O{ cltly n]vssf
ljrf/n] ;f] r ] e Gbf a9L kf7ssf] lj/f] w
lgDTofpg'sf ;fy} dxŒjk"0f{ k|Zg ;d]t p7fPsf
5g\ . s] s'g} ;d"x jf ljifo Tolt 3[0ff:kb
5g\ h;nfO{ ljrf/ k[i7df :yfg g} lbOg'xbg <“' }
olb 6fOD; n] s'g} ljifodf ljjfbf:kb ljrf/
k|sflzt u5{ eg] To;;DaGwL csf]{ kf6f]sf]
b[li6sf]0f;“u kf7snfO{ t'?Gt} cjut u/fpg'
o;sf] bfloTj xf] ls xf]Og < clg, ljrf/
k[ i 7sf n] v sx¿n] tYox¿;“ u v] n af8
ul//x] s f 5} g g\ eGg] ;' l glZrt ug{
;Dkfbsx¿sf] bfloTj s] xf] <
      ut ;ftf -!# h"g @))&_ 5flkPsf] n]v
                        [
Kofn]l:6gL ;/sf/sf] g]tTj ug{ lgjf{lrt ePsf]
/ Oh/fonsf] cl:tTj d]6fpg] p2]Zo af]s]sf]
xdf; kf6L{sf k|jQmf cxdb o';]kmsf] lyof] .
pgn] ‘xdf; s] rfxG5 <’ eGg] af/]df n]vsf       ]
lyP .
      To;k|lt y'k|} kf7sn] s8f /f]if JoQm u/] .                                      '
                                                         ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf k|dv OGrfh{            jftfj/0f agfpg] / cfk;L dte]bsf] cGTo
pgLx¿n] 6fOD; dfly cft+sjfbLnfO{ d~r                                    ]
                                                   8]le8 lzKn], hf] /f];Gynsf ;xfos klg x'g,\         ug]{’ pgn] atfPsf lyP . o';]kmn] pNn]v
k| b fg u/] s f] cf/f] k ;d] t nufP .              eG5g\, æxdf;n] ufhfdfly sAhf u/]sf] 36gf           gu/]sf] s'/f rflx“ s] dfq lyof] eg] ‘Kofn]l:6gsf]
Dof:ofRo';]6\;sf kf7s hf]g k]g;fssf] egfO          ;ftfsf k|dv ;dfrf/dWo] Ps lyof]=== / xdf;
                                                               '                                      k|To]s OGr hldgdf cNnfxsf] /fHo :yfkgf
lyof], 6fOD; n] o';]kmnfO{ :yfg lbg' eg]sf]        s] eG5 eGg] s'/f ;'Gg] of] -o';]kmsf] n]v_         ug]’{ p2]Zok|lt xdf; cf}krfl/s Pj+ 3f]lift
;Gt'lnt kqsfl/tf xf]Og a? k}/jL–kqsfl/tfsf]        /fd|f] cj;/ lyof] .Æ                               ¿kd} ;dlk{t 5, h;sf] cy{ x'G5 Oh/fonsf]
efjgfcg'¿k k|f]kf]uG8fnfO{ a9fjf lbg' xf] .              d}n] ;dfrf/af6 xdf;af/] h] a'em] sf] lyP“,   ;dflKt .
      æ7Ls xf], ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf] sfd         o';]kmn] k|:t't u/]sf] jf:tljstf To;eGbf                 ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7 vf;u/L ljjfbf:kb
g} ljleGg ljrf/nfO{ a9fjf lbg' xf],Æ /f];Gyn]      lgtfGt km/s eP klg, pgsf] ljrf/ cfpg'              ljrf/sf nflu ;w}“ v'nf x'g'kb{5 . o;f] ePdf
eG5g\, æxfdL ;dfrf/df h:tf] ;Gt'ng o;df            cfjZos lyof] eGg] s'/fdf d ;xdt 5' .               dfq v'nf ;dfhn] cfkm\gf nflu s] ;xL xf] /
lbg] g}lts afWotf dx;"; ub}{gf}+ lsgeg] of]        s'/f rsf{ eP klg pgsf] n]vfO g/d lyof] .           s] unt xf] eg]/ 5'6ofpg ;S5 . :j:y ax;sf]
                                                                                                                           \
ljrf/ k[i7 xf] .Æ                                  pbfx/0fsf nflu, xdf;n] Oh/fon;“u ‘zflGtsf]         kfl/nf] 3fddf ;xL ljrf/x¿ ljsl;t x'G5g\

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       23
eg] unt ljrf/x¿ cf]OnfP/ em5{g\ . n'sfpg],                                                            eg] To;};DaGwL csf]{ kIfsf] ljrf/ klg ToxL
                                                            ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7                       k[i7df 5fKg'k5{M emf/f 6fg]{ lx;fan] rf/–kf“r
l5kfpg] xf] / v'nf r'gf}tL glbg] xf] eg] v/fa
ljrf/x¿ ljiffn' Rofp;/x a9\g] u5{g\ .                    vf;u/L ljjfbf:kb ljrf/sf                     j6f xNsfkm'Nsf ‘;DkfbsnfO{ lr7L’ 5fk]/ p;sf]
      /f];Gyn / lzKn] b'j} eG5g\, æxfdL ;do–
          ]                                             nflu ;w}“ v'nf x'g'kb{5 . o;f]                bfloTj k"/f x'“b}g .
;dodf cTolws dxŒjk"0f{ ljifox¿dfly ljljw                                                                     d KnfGsn] lbPsf] pbfx/0fsf af/]df klg
                             \
k|sf/sf b[li6sf]0fnfO{ ;d]6g] sf]lzz ub{5f}+ .             ePdf dfq v'nf ;dfhn]                       k|Zg p7fpg rfxG5' . pgn] s'kf]if0fu|:t lzz'
x'g klg, ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf lgoldt                    cfkm\gf nflu s] ;xL xf] / s]                 qmfpg zfs'/sf] d[To'sf] k|;+u cl3 ;f/]sL
kf7sx¿n] Oh/fon–Kofn]:6fOg åGåaf/] ljleGg               unt xf] eg]/ 5'6\ofpg ;S5 .                   l5g\ . 8]9 dlxgfsf qmfpg slt sdhf]/ lyP
vfnsf ljrf/ k9\g] / kof{Kt hfgsf/L xfl;n                                                              eg] pgsf] hLpsf ;f/f x8\8L / s/ª 5n{ªu      \
ug]{ df}sf kfPsf 5g\ . o;af6 o';]kmsf] ljrf/             :j:y ax;sf] kfl/nf] 3fddf                                                  ]
                                                                                                      b]Vg ;lsGYof] . KnfGsn] n]vsL 5g\, ‘qmfpgsf]
slt ;xL xf] eg]/ lg0f{o ug{ pgLx¿nfO{ ;xof]u             ;xL ljrf/x¿ ljsl;t x'G5g\                    d[To' c1fgsf sf/0f ePsf] x'g ;S5 t/ o;
k'u]sf] 5 .                                                                                           36gfkl5 kf]if0fsf] ;DaGwdf v'nf ax; z'?
      t/, @! d] @))& df k|sflzt vfB tyf
                                                         eg] unt ljrf/x¿ cf]OnfP/                     x'g'kb{5 .’ kf]if0f eGgfn] aRrfnfO{ s] vfg
kf]if0f;DaGwL n]lvsf lggf KnfGssf] n]vsf]                em5{g\ . n'sfpg], l5kfpg] xf]                lbg] / s] glbg] eGg] dfq KnfGssf] cfzo xf]
s'/f eg] cln leGg} lyof] . ‘zfsfxf/af6 d[To'’             / v'nf r'gf}tL glbg] xf] eg]                eg], pgsf] s'/f 7Ls} xf]nf .
-8]y afO{ e]uflghd_ h:tf] ;g;gLk"0f{ zLif{s                                                                  o; d'2fdf ;/sf/L jlsnn] qmfpgsf
/flvPsf] pgsf] n]vn] dflg;sf] ;f]rfOdf                      v/fa ljrf/x¿ ljiffn'                      dftflktfn] cfkm\gf] aRrfnfO{ hfgfhfg ef]s}
o';]kmsf] n]vn] eGbf a9L wSsf lbPsf] lyof] .               Rofp;/x a9\g] ub{5g\ .                     /fv]/ df/]sf] blnn k]z u/]sf lyP h;nfO{
cfkm\gf] n]vdf pgn] ;kf6 zAbdf c08f /                                                                 GofofwLzx¿n] klg kTofP . o; ;DaGwdf
b'Uw pTkfbg ;d]t g?rfpg] ljz'4 zfsfxf/L                                                               ;Dk|]if0f ePsf ;dfrf/n] klg ;DalGwt
JolQmn] cfkm\gf] dfq geO{ cfkm\gf afnaRrfsf]                                                          lrlsT;s, vfB ljz]if1 tyf cGo lj1sf]
:jf:YonfO{ ;d]t vt/fdf kfl//x]sf] 3f]if0ff g}                                                         xjfnf lb“b} qmfpgnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] -
ul/g\ . klxn] cfkm}“ zfsfxf/L /lx;s]sL                                                                zfsfxf/L xf];\ jf df+;fxf/L_ kof{Kt ef]hg
KnfGsn] elgg\, æue{jtL cj:yfdf df5f–df;'            jif{df ;DkfbsLo k[i7df Pp6f klg n]v jf            glbOPsf] g} lgSof]{n lgsfn]sf lyP .
gvfg' t emg} u}/lhDd]jf/ x'g' xf] .Æ pgsf]          ljrf/ k|sflzt u/]sf] 5}g . kf“r jif{otf                  ;f] d'2fdf ax; ug]{ km'N6g sfpG6Lsf
egfO lyof], s]an ;fu;AhL / af]6–la?jfaf6            o;af/] l56k'6 ;dfrf/ eg] 5flkPsf 5g\ .            ;/sf/L jlsn rfN;{ af]l/·n] To; d'2fsf]
pTkfbg x'g] vfgfn] x§fs§f z/L/ lgdf{0f ug{                                                            ;DaGw ‘st}af6 klg’ zfsfxf/;“u g/x]sf]
;Sb} g .                                            csf]{ kIf                                         dnfO{ :ki6 kf/]sf 5g\ . KnfGs / lzKn]
      KnfGsn] c6nfG6fsf] Pp6f o:tf] zfsfxf/L        lkmnf8] l Nkmofsf] Pp6f afn c:ktfnsL                   }
                                                                                                      b'jhgf cfkm"x¿ rfN;{sf] o; egfO;Fu cjut
bDktLsf] pbfx/0f lbPsL lyOg\, h;dfly cfkm\g}        kf]if0flj1 /]rn ln;]gsf cg';f/ KnfGssf] n]v       /x]sf] atfpF5g\ . ‘xfdLnfO{ of] klg yfxf lyof]
8]9 dlxgfsf] 5f]/fsf] xTofsf] cf/f]k nfu]sf]        ‘cToGt} e8sfp tyf unt tYon] el/k"0f{’             ls bf]ifL bDktLn] af/Daf/ cfkm"x¿n] aRrfnfO{
lyof] . pgLx¿n] cfkm\gf] 5f]/fnfO{ e6df;sf]         lyof] . pgL / pgsf ;xsdL{ a|]G8f jfa]/n]          zfsfxf/L agfpg] p2]Zon] To;f] u/]sf] atfPsf
b"w / :ofpsf] h'; dfq Vjfpg] u/]sf lyP              dnfO{ vfB tyf kf] i f0flj1x¿sf] b] z sf]          lyP’, lzKn] eG5g\ .
h;sf sf/0f 8]9 dlxgfsf] eO;Sbf klg                  ;a} e Gbf 7" n f] ;+ : yf cd] l /sg 8fol6s               t/, GofofwLzx¿n] qmfpgsf cfdfafa'sf]
afnssf] jhg s]jn #=% kfp08 -8]9 lsnf]sf]            P;f]l;P;g -P=8L=P=_ sf] ;g\ @))# sf]              egfOdfly ljZjf; u/]sf lyPgg\ . of] kf6f]
xf/fxf/L_ lyof] . ;f] n]vn] tTsfn y'k}| k|ltlqmof   k|ltj]bg b]vfP . uxg j}1flgs ljZn]if0fkl5         pNn]v gul/Psfn] KnfGssf] k"/} n]vsf] w/ftn
lgDTofPsf] lyof], h'g xfn;Dd klg hf/L 5 .           Sofgf8fsf vfBljb\x¿;“u} P=8L=P=n] To;df           sdhf]/ x'gk'u]sf] 5 .
k|ltlqmof k7fpg]df k|foM zfsfxf/L lyP               s] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 eg], æof]hgfa4 Pj+ ;Gt'lnt          ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7 ax;sf nflu
h;dWo] cg]sf}n] t KnfGssf] egfOsf] k|ltjfb
                +                                   ¿kdf lnOg] zfsfxf/L ef] h g ue{ j tL,             x'G5g\, t/ ltgdf PstkmL{ n]v dfq 5fKg] xf]
ub}{ cfkm\gf] zfsfxf/L :j:y aRrfsf] kmf]6f]         afnaflnsf, lszf]/, o'jfnufot hLjgsf ;a}           eg] Tof] ax; x'“b}g, g t To;f] ug'{ ;xL g}
;d]t k7fPsf lyP . s]xLn] eg] cfk"mnfO{              cj:yfsf nflu pko'Qm /x]sf] 5 .Æ                   x' G 5 .
;fyLefO tyf gft]bf/x¿n] KnfGssf] n]v b]vfO{–              KnfGsn] cfkm" P=8L=P= sf] o; 3f]if0ff;“u
b]vfO{ ‘ltdLx¿sf] vfgf vt/gfs 5’ eg]/               cjut /x]sf] t/ To;nfO{ cfkm"n] ‘/fhgLlts                Snfs{ xf]P6 ‘b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;’ df klAns Pl86/
lv;L u/]sf] ;d]t atfPsf lyP .                       ¿kdf ;lqmo zfsfxf/L ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u             sf] ¿kdf sfo{/t 5g\ . klAns Pl86/sf] sfd eg]sf]
      KnfGsn] zfsfxf/L aGg' xflgsf/s x'“b}g         k'¥ofpg]’ jStJosf ¿kdf lnPsf] atfOg\ .            klqsfdf kqsfl/tfsf] d"NodfGotf / g}ltstf nfu" ePsf]
eGg] ts{nfO{ cfkm\gf] n]vdf s'g} :yfg g}                  Pstk{m KnfGssf] cfkm\gf] ts{ 5 eg]          5 5}g, ;+j]bgzLn q'l6 b]vf k/]sf 5g\ jf cfjZos
lbOgg\ . /f];]Gyn / lzKn]sf] ljrf/df, o;f]          P=8L=P=n] @%) j6feGbf a9L cg';GwfgnfO{            tYo 5'6k'6 ePsf 5g\ ls eg]/ x]g'{ / o; ;DaGwdf
ug'{ pgsf] n]vsLo clwsf/leqs} s'/f xf] .            pb\w[t ub}{ pQm k|ltj]bg tof/ kf/]sf] 5 . d       cfd kf7s;“u ‘;Dks{’ :yfkgf ug'{ xf] . of] sfd pgLx¿n]
            {
t/, dWok"jsf] dfldnfdf ;a} vfnsf ljrf/nfO{          o;;DaGwL ljjfbdf k|j]z ug{ rfxGg“ . d]/f]                                                     ]
                                                                                                      k|foM klqsfsf] lgoldt :tDedfk{mt -n]v n]v/_ ub{5g\ .
:yfg lbPh:tf] zfsfxf/sf] ljifodf eg] ul/Psf]        egfO slt dfq xf] eg], 6fOD; n] s'g} ljifodf       cd]l/sfdf k|foM ;a} k|d'v klqsfdf klAns Pl86/ x'g]
5}g . zfsfxf/sf] kIfdf 6fOD; n] ljut !^             Pp6f kIfsf] ljrf/ ;DkfbsLo k[i7df 5fK5            ub{5g\ .


24                                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
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                                                                                                                           ef/tLo k|;


cfTdlg/LIf0f
   {
ug'kg]{ ;do
   ;f]dgfy r6hL{                                    {                                                    ]|
                            ef/tn] :jtGqtf k|fKt ug'eGbf cl3 kqklqsfx¿ b'O{ k|sf/sf lyP . Ps ;d"x cª\uhL pklgj]zL zlQmsf]
                            kIfdf lyof], v'Nnf geP klg leqL ¿kdf p;sf] b'gf] ;f]em\ofOlbg] sfd uYof]{ . csf]{ ;d"xsf kqklqsf
                                                              {
                            hgtfsf OR5f / cfsfª\Iffsf s'/f uy], cGofo / bdgsf] lj/f]w uy]{ . o:tf klqsfnfO{ bdg ug{ s8f sfg"gL

Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . o:tf klqsf z'? ug]{, rnfpg],        k'Uof] . ef/t :jtGq x'g'eGbf cl3 o;sf] sNkgf klg
k|sflzt ug]{ / ;Dkfbg ug]{ JolQmx¿ :jfwLgtfsf]             ug{ ;lsGg lyof] .
cfGbf]ng;Fu s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf ;DalGwt lyP . To;a]nf               kqsfl/tfsf s]xL If]qdf clxn] cfP/ ;DkfbsLo eGbf
kqklqsfsf] ;ª\Vof ;Lldt lyof]Ù k|zf;lgs s8fO t             Jofkf/ zfvfnfO{ a9L dxŒj lbg yflnPsf] 5 . slt
5“b}lyof], k|ljlw klg ljsl;t eO;s]sf] lyPg . t/ klg        klqsfdf t ahf/df s] rN5 / klqsfdfkm{t Tof] sfd
5flkPsf] cIf/sf] ;fx|} 7"nf] k|efj lyof] / o;n] hgdfg;df   s;/L ug]{ eg]/ dfs{]l6ª zfvfn] lg0f{o lng yfn]sf] 5 .
pT;fx eg]{ sfd ub{Yof] .                                   To;}n] cfhef]ln gfd rn]sf sltko klqsfsf] klxnf]
        ef/tsf] :jtGqtf;“u,} s]xL jif{leq} ;+ljwfg cfof]                                                            '
                                                           k[i7df dgf]/~hg If]qdf gfd rn]sf] s'g} JolQmsf] vfg]s/fsf]
h;n] jfs\:jtGqtf / k|]; :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"lt u¥of] .       ?lrsf ljifodf jf s'g} dgf]/~hgfTds k|ltof]lutf s;n]
To;kl5 k|;df nfUb} cfPsf] aGwg klg 6'6of], ;+ljwfgsf]
             ]                               \             lhTof] eGg] ljifodf ;dfrf/ k9\g'k5{ . b]zsf] dxŒjk"0f{
wf/f !( -@_ df plNnlvt s]xL ‘ts{;ut k|ltaGwx¿’
                                           +               ljifosf] ;dfrf/ rflx“ leqLk[i7sf] s'gfdf km\of“lsPsf]
afx]s .                                                    x' G 5 .
        :jtGq ePsf] s]xL jif{;Dd ef/tLo k|];n] ;To /             t/ klqsfdf h] eO/x]sf] 5 To;nfO{ 6]lnlehgn]
kf/blz{tfdf cfkm\gf] k|lta4tf b]vfof] . To;}tfs Pp6f       5fof“df kfl/lbPsf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] 5q5fof“df rn]sf] >Jo–
gofF k|jl[ Q b]vf k¥of]M s]xL kqklqsfsf] :jfldTj k|sfzs    b[Zosf] Pp6f dfWodaf6 lghL If]qsf] ;+nUgtfdf ;~rflnt
/ ;Dkfbsaf6 Jofkfl/s ;+:yfx¿df ;¥of] . s]xL jif{;Dd,       zlQmzfnL ;~rf/dfWod;Ddsf] cj:yf;Dd cfOk'Ubf
klqsfsf dflnsx¿ cfkm\gf] Wofg klqsfaf6 x'g]                6]lnlehgsf] 7"nf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . If]qLo efiffx¿df
cfDbfgLdf s]lGb|t ul//x]sf lyP eg] klqsfsf ;Dkfbsx¿        ePsf] o;sf] ljsf; klg pNn]vgLo 5 . t/, o;sf
k"0f{ ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtf pkef]u ul//x]sf lyP . Tof]          ;fy;fy}, 6]lnlehgsf sfo{qmd / o;sf] ;dfrf/ h;/L
o:tf] ;do lyof] h'ga]nf klqsfx¿df ;zQm / dxfg\             cl3 al9/x]sf] 5 Tof] 7Ls lbzfdf uO/x]sf] 5 ls 5}g
;Dkfbsx¿ lyP, h;n] :jtGqtf / lgikIftfnfO{                  eGg] ljifodf ;a}n] ;f]Rg'kg]{ a]nf cfPsf] 5 .
kqsfl/tfsf] cleGg c+usf] ¿kdf ljsf; u/] .                        lghL Rofgnx¿ s]jn ;dfrf/d'vL dfq 5}gg\ .
        lj:tf/} cGo sf/sx¿ ;an aGb} cfP . tLdWo]           pgLx¿n] cfkm" lj1fkgdf cfwfl/t 5f}+ eGg] s'/fnfO{ uf]Ko
;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ sf/s eg]sf] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; lyof] .      /fv]sf klg 5}gg\ . ptf, lj1fkgbftfx¿n] s'g sfo{qmd
gofF k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] nfvf}+ k|lt klqsf Ps} k6s           slt bz{sx¿n] x]g{ ?rfp“5g\ eGg] cfwf/df lj1fkg
5fKg ;lsg] eof], sDKo'6/df k]h agfpg ;lsg] eof] .          k|jflxt ul//fv]sf 5g\ . o;sf b'O6f v/fa c;/ b]vf
o;n] klqsfsf] 5kfOnfO{ b'tt/ ult dfq lbPg vr{
                                |                          k/]sf 5g\ . klxnf], lj1fkg kfpg] cToGt s8f k|lt:kwf{n]
klg sd nfUg] eof] . To;kl5 :of6nfO6sf] ljsf;n]             ubf{ sltko Rofgnx¿n] ;TotYodf ;d]t ;Demf}tf ug{
klqsfsf kfgfx¿ Ps7fp“df tof/ u/]/ csf]{ 7fpFaf6            yfn]sf 5g\ . bf];|f], y'k|}n] ‘;]G;];gflnHd’sf] af6f] /f]h]sf
5fKg ;lsg] eof], h;n] ubf{ /fli6«o ;+:s/0fsf ;fy}          5g\ / To;sf nflu pko'Qm x'g;Sg] s'g} klg syfnfO{
:yfgLo ;+:s/0fx¿ klg Ps} k6s 5fKg yflnof] . lj1fkg         ;dfrf/sf] ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ .
ahf/sf] csNkgLo j[l4 csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ sf/ssf] ¿kdf                        {
                                                                 o;df b'Odt 5}g ls xfd|f sltko 6LeL Rofgnx¿n]
b]vf k¥of] . lj1fkg pBf]un] 7"n} /sd kqklqsfdf             ;dfrf/sf] dxŒj / o;sf] ;Totf;“u s'g} ;Demf}tf u/]sf
vGofof] . o;af6 sltko klqsfx¿ t u|fxsnfO{ l;Q}df      “    5}gg\, h;n] ubf{ pgLx¿sf] ljZj;gLotf / bz{s ;ª\Vofdf
af“8g ;Sg] cj:yfdf k'u] lsgeg] ltgsf] d'Vo cfDbfgL],
      \                                                    klg a9f]Q/L ePsf] 5 . t/, of] ;ª\Vof Hofb} Go"g 5 .
b}lgs s/f]8f}+ ?k}of“, lj1fkgaf6} x'g yfNof] . klqsfsf]          :jtGqtfk|flKtkZrft ef/tLo ldl8ofsf] ;a}eGbf
laqmLaf6 x'g] cfDbfgL rflx“ gu0o jf cg'Nn]vgLo aGg         pNn]vgLo s'/f eg]sf] o;sf] :jfldTjsf] k|sl[ tdf cfPsf]

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                            25
               ]                                    '}
             k|; :jtGqtf eg]sf] lhDd]jf/L /lxt x“bg . klqsfsf ;DkfbsLo gLltx¿ ldl8of ;d|f6 -d'un_ jf
                                                       {     ' '“ }                     “
              ldl8of zlQmx¿ -Aof/f]g_ af6 slxNo} lgb]lzt x'gxbg . d'gfkmfd'vL x'g' cfkm}df unt xf]Og t/
                                             ' “' }
             d'gfkmf Pp6} dfq p2]Zo rflx“ x'gxbg . clxn] h'g k|sf/sf / h'g dfqfdf ;dfrf/x¿ On]S6«flgs]
                              / 5fkf dfWoddf cfO/x]sf 5g\ To;n] lrGtf hGdfPsf] 5 .
kl/jt{g xf] . s'g} klg klqsf jf RofgnnfO{                                                     ' “' }
                                                  xf]Og t/ d'gfkmf Pp6} dfq p2]Zo rflx“ x'gxbg,        x'G5 clg ;+;b / ;f+;b eGg' g} gsf/fTds /
clxn] ;a}eGbf Jofkfl/s ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf x]l/G5,      ljz]iftM b]zsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ 36gf jf                cem ckdfgsf] ljifo h:tf] x'g yfN5 .
h'g k|yf lj1fkgdf cfl>t cGo b]zx¿sf               ;dfrf/x¿sf ljifodf . clxn] h'g k|sf/sf                        ;~rf/dfWodn] cfkm" n fO{ hgtfsf]
klqsf / Rofgnx¿df klg 5 . t/ lj1fkgdf             / h'g dfqfdf ;dfrf/x¿ On]S6«fl] gs / 5fkf            cfjfhsf] ?kdf pEofpg ;Sg' Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{
cfl>t x'g' / klqsf jf Rofgnsf] ;fv sfod           dfWodx¿df cfO/x]sf 5g\ To;n] lrGtf                   ofqf lyof] . ef/t :jtGq x'g'eGbf klxn]
ug'{ oL b'O{ s'/f Pscsf{sf] ljk/Lt x'g'k5{        hGdfPsf] 5 .                                         ;~rf/dfWod hgtfsf k|ltlglw lyP / clxn]
eGg] s]xL 5}g . sltko klqsfsf dflnsx¿                     cfkm"n] u/]sf] sfo{n] b"/ufdL ¿kdf           klg s]xL ;~rf/dfWodn] cfkm\gf] dof{bf sfod
cfkm\ g f] klqsfn] kqsfl/tfsf] d" N o /           ;dfhnfO{ s;/L k|efljt kfb{5 eGg] s'/fsf]             /fv]sf 5g\ . t/ ;dfhsf ljleGg If]qn] s]
dfGotfnfO{ sfod /fvf];\ eGg] ljifodf ;w}“         ljifodf ldl8of cfkm}“ rgfvf] x'g'kb{5 . /fli6«o      eGg yfn]sf 5g\ eg] ldl8ofsf] Jofkf/Ls/0fn]
;r]t x'G5g\ . t/ o:tf dflnsx¿sf] ;ª\Vof                          [
                                                  cv08tf ;'b9 kfg',{ ax'njfb / wd{lg/k]IftfnfO{        ubf{ ;~rf/dfWodsf] ljZj;gLotf / dof{bfdf
;fx|} yf]/} 5 / ;dfrf/nfO{ /fd|f] Kofs]lh+u       a9fjf lbg', cfh o;cl3eGbf emg\ a9L                   clxn] 7"nf] wSsf nfu]sf] 5, h;sf] c;/
u/]/ a]Rg'k5{ / w]/} k};f sdfpg'k5{ eGg]sf]       cfjZos / dxŒjk"0f{ ePsf] 5 . xfd|f] b'ef{Uo          kqsfl/tfk|lt ;dlk{t / cfkm\gf] OdfGbf/Ldf
;ª\Vof a9\bf] 5 .                                 xf], cfhef]ln s]xL ldl8ofx¿ ;dfrf/ ;Dk|if0f     ]    s'g} ;Demf}tf gug]{ klqsf / Rofgnx¿df klg
       Pp6f ljifo oxfF pNn]v ug{ ;fGble{s         ug]{ gfddf tYo / j:t'lgi7tfnfO{ kG5fP/ Ps            k/]sf] 5 .
x'G5 . Tof] s] eg], ahf/sf] rfxgf s] xf] eGg]     kIfsf] ;dfrf/ lbO/x]sf 5g\ . ldl8ofsf] OHht                   d"ntM xfdL ;~rf/dfWodsf] :jtGqtfsf]
;f]raf6 a9L u|:t ePsf sf/0f b]z rnfpg]            eg]sf] ltgn] slt tYok"0f{ / j:t'k/s ;dfrf/           k"0f{ ;dy{g ub{5f}+ . t/, o;sf ;fy;fy} ca
d'Vo tLg c+ux¿ sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsf /           lbG5g\ eGg] s'/fdf cfwfl/t x'G5 . t/                 klqsf, 6]lnlehg, OG6/g]6 ;dfrf/ cflbdf
Joj:yflksfnfO{ hlt dxŒj lbg'kg]{ xf] jf klxn]               {
                                                  b'Mvk"js eGg'k5{, sltko ldl8ofx¿ cfkm\gf]            ;+nUg ;a}n] oL dfWodx¿nfO{ kf/blz{tf /
hlt lbOGYof] cfhef]ln Tolt lbOPsf] 5}g .          d" n st{ J oaf6 ljd' v ePsf 5g\ . s] x L             ;To ;dfrf/sf] ;+jfxssf] ¿kdf ;an agfpg
vfnL oL c+ux¿df s'g} ‘;]G;];gn’ s'/f eof]         OHhtbf/ ckjfb afx]s cfhef]ln klqsf /                 lg/Gt/ cfTdlg/LIf0f ug]{ kl/kf6L a;fpg]
eg] dfq To;nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] rng rn]sf]         ;dfrf/ Rofgnx¿sf] /fhgLlts cfu|x /                   s'/fdf Wofg lbg' clt h?/L ePsf] 5 . xfdL
5 .                                                       |                                 |
                                                  k"jf{ux k|:6 b]lvG5 . o;n] ;f“rf] / k"jf{ux/lxt      xfd|f ;~rf/dfWodaf6 of] s'/fsf] cfzf ub{5f}+
       of] rng hlt b'ef{Uok"0f{ 5 Tolts} unt      ;dfrf/ / ljrf/ k|;f/0f, k|sfzgdf k|lts'n             / rfxG5f}+ ls ljutdf h:t} cfkm\gf ;~rf/–
klg . of] eg]sf] ;~rf/dfWodsf] zlQmsf] unt        c;/ kfb{5 .                                          dfWoddfly ;w}“ uf}/j ug{ ;sf}+ .
k|of]u xf], Tof] klg ljz]iftM 6]lnlehgsf], h;n]           :jtGq k|];ljgf nf]stGqsf] sNkgf klg                   of] r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{nfO{ ;kmn agfpg ef/tLo
hgtfdf 7"nf] k|efj kf5{ . o;n] hgtfdf b]z         ug{ ;lsGg eg] o;sf] ;kmntf klg k|];n]                  ]
                                                                                                       k|; sfplG;nsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . of]
rnfpg] c+ux¿sf af/]df gsf/fTds k|efj              ;+;b / hgtfsf aLrdf s:tf] k|sf/sf] s8Lsf]            ;+:yf;“u qm"/tfk"0f{ clwsf/ geP tfklg, h'g
dfq kl//x]sf] 5}g unt ;Gb]z klg lbO/x]sf]         sfd u5{ eGg] s'/fdf lglxt x'G5 . k|hftGqsf]          jf:tjdf x'g' klg x'Gg, o;n] ;a} ;~rf/–
5 .                                               d'6' eg]sf] ;+;b xf] . To;}n] o;k|lt ;a} rgfvf]      dfWodaf6 OHht / k|lti7f cfh{g ug'kb{5 /       {
       cfhef]ln kqklqsf tyf lghL Rofgnx¿n]        x' g ' k 5{ , rfx] hgtf x' g \ , sfo{ k flnsf,              “
                                                                                                       ;a};u a;]/ of] p2]Zo s;/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5
z]o/ ahf/sf] ljifodf cTolws cf;lQm b]vfp“b}       Gofokflnsf, gful/s ;dfh jf ldl8of . ;+;b                                                     {
                                                                                                       eGg] ljifodf ljrf/–ljdz{ ug'kb{5 . xfdLn]
;fgf]eGbf ;fgf] ;dfrf/ lbO/x]sf 5g\ . t/          g} To:tf] 7fp“ xf] hxf“ hgtf;“u ;DalGwt              ;w}F b]vs} 5f}+, h'g p2]Zo sfg"gn] k"/f ug{
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ltg} ;~rf/dfWod ;+;bdf dxŒjk"0f{ ljifodf          dxŒjk" 0 f{ lg0f{ o x¿ lnOG5 / ;/sf/sf]              ;Sb}g Tof] ;a}sf] ;xdltn] ug{ ;Sb5 . cfkm"nfO{
ePsf jfbljjfb / ;Daf]wgx¿nfO{ eg] jf:t}           hjfkmb]xL vf]lhG5 . ;+;bdf 5nkmn eO/x]sf             ;+;f/sf cGo ;a}yf]s eGbf ;TotYodf ;dlk{t
ub} { g g\ . o:tf s' / fx¿sf] ;dfrf/ aGg}         jf ;+;bsf] cwLgdf /x]sf dxŒjk"0f{ ljifox¿af/]            ]{
                                                                                                       ug]x¿ ;a}n] of] ljifodf uDeL/ Wofg lbg'kg]]{
5fl8;s]sf] 5 .                                    hgtfnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg] lhDd]jf/ lgsfo eg]sf           ;do cfPsf] 5 .
         ]                                 “}
       k|; :jtGqtf eg]sf] lhDd]jf/L /lxt x'bg .   ;~rf/dfWod g} x'g\ . ;/sf/ / g]tfsf e|i6
ldl8ofn] ;w}“ aª\UofOPsf / agfOPsf s'g}           lqmofsnfkx¿ hgtf;fd' pbf·f] kfg]{ k|];n]                  ef/tLo k|]; sfplG;nåf/f /fli6«o k|]; lbj;sf]
vf; ljifonfO{ dfq h?/t eGbf a];L dxŒj             pgLx¿n] u/]sf /fd|f sfdsf] ;/fxgf klg                cj;/df !^ gf] e ] D a/ @))& df cfof] l ht
lbg] ;dfrf/ k|sfzg, k|;f/0f ug{ cfkm}nfO{   +     ug'{kb{5 . vfln ;+;bsf] ult/f]w, u8a8 /              æ;~rf/dfWodsf] e" l dsf tyf hgtfsf cfjfh–
b'?T;fxg ug'{kb{5 . klqsfsf ;DkfbsLo              ;+;b cj?4 ePsf ;dfrf/ dfq k|sfzg,                    :jtGqtf klxn] / kl5Æ gfds ;+jfb sfo{qmddf ef/tLo
gLltx¿ ldl8of ;d|f6 -d'un_ jf ldl8of              k|;f/0f ugf{n] xfd|f lgjf{lrt ;f+;bx¿sf]             nf]s;efsf ;efd'v r6hL{åf/f ul/Psf] ;Daf]wg .
zlQmx¿ -Jof/f] g _ af6 slxNo} lgb] { l zt         rl/qsf] unt lrq0f dfq x'g] geO{ nf]stGq              ef/tLo cª\u|]hL b}lgs b lxGb" sf] @@ gf]e]Da/, @))&
x'g'x'“b}g . d'gfkmfd'vL x'g' cfkm}“df unt sfo{   Pj+ ;+;bk|lt g} unt efjgf km}nfpg] sfd               df 5flkPsf] n]vsf] cg'jfb .

26                                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                     ljZn]if0f


;ª\qmd0fsfn /
;~rf/ If]q
  k|f= s[i0f vgfn           s'g} klg 7"nf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5 gof“ Joj:yfsf] ljlwjt :yfkgf gx'Gh]nsf] cjlwnfO{ xfdL ;ª\qmd0fsfn
                                                                                     '                       }
                            eGb5f}+ . cfGbf]ngsf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{' / To;nfO{ d'nssf] /fhgLlts Pj+ ;+jwflgs Joj:yfdf ¿kfGt/0f
                                                                                                     [
                            ug'{ of] cjlwsf] ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ sfd xf] . cfGbf]ngsf] tfstdf o;sf] g]tTj ug]{ zlQmx¿n] g} ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]

Joj:yfkg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L kfPsf x'G5g\ . o;sf ljlw /                      }                   '
                                                          @)$& sf] ;+jwflgs Joj:yfsf k|dv cfwf/ / d"Nox¿
Joj:yfx¿ c:yfoL cyf{t\ cGtl/d x'G5g\ . gofF ;+ljwfg       — ;+j}wflgs /fhtGq, ax'bnLo nf]stGq / ;+;bLo
agfP/ ljlwjt\ lgjf{lrt k|ltlglwx¿sf] xftdf ;'Dkg'                                                             {
                                                          zf;gk|0ffnLnfO{ k"0f{ ¿kdf ;dfKt u/]sf] lyof] . csf]tkm{
;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] k|d'v nIo xf] .                            g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] @)%@ ;fnb]lv ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf]
       @)^@÷)^# df ;DkGg ePsf] a[ x b\                               ]
                                                          ;z:q ljb|fxnfO{ /fhgLlts lgsf; lbg] eg]/ dfcf]jfbL
hgcfGbf]ngkl5 g]kfn uDeL/ /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfndf          / zfxL ;/sf/aLr ePsf] jftf{sf] gf6s klg ;dfKt
k|j]z u/]sf] 5 . o;n] /fhfsf] k|ToIf zf;gnfO{ dfq         ePsf] lyof] . o; k[i7e"lddf zfxL lg/ª\s'ztfsf] lj?4
km\of“s]sf] xf]Og, g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$&          cfGbf]ng/t ;ftbn ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf nflu /
cg';f/sf] /fHoJoj:yfnfO{ klg cGTo u/]sf] 5 . t/           dfcf]jfbL ax'bnLo nf]stGqsf nflu ;xdt ePkl5
csf]{ Joj:yfsf] :yfkgf eO;s]sf] 5}g . clxn] /fHo          ;+o'Qm cfGbf]ngsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ePsf] lyof] . afx|a'“b]
;~rfng;DaGwL ;a} Joj:yf / sfd sf/afxLx¿                   ;dembf/Ldf ;ft bnn] eg]sf] k|ltlglw;efsf] af6f]af6
cGtl/d cyf{t\ csf]{ Joj:yf geP;Ddsf nflu c:yfoL           jf dfcf]jfbLn] eg]sf] uf]nd]r ;Dd]ngaf6 zflGtjftf{,
k|s[ltsf x'g\ . To;}n] clxn]sf] ;+ljwfgnfO{ cGtl/d        dfcf]jfbL;d]tsf] ;xeflutfdf cGtl/d ;/sf/sf] u7g
;+ljwfg elgPsf] xf] . o;cGtu{t ag]sf] Joj:yflksf–         / ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg u/L d'n'sdf ;z:q
;+;b, ;/sf/ nufot w]/} s'/fx¿ cGtl/d 5g\ .                åGåsf] cGTo Pj+ k"0f{ nf]stGqsf] :yfkgf ug{sf nflu
;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] Joj:yfkg kl/jt{gsf jfxs cfGbf]nsf/L        ;ft bn / dfcf]jfbLn] cf–cfk\mgf] 7fp“af6 cfGbf]ng
zlQmx¿n] ub{5g\ . tyflk kl/jt{gnfO{ Pp6f jf s]xL          ug]{ s'/fdf ;xdlt ePsf] lyof] . afxa'“b] ;dembf/L /
bnljz] i fsf] cu| ; /tfdf ;Lldt ul/g' x ' G g .           cfGbf]ngsf qmddf Jofks ¿kn] cleJoQm hgefjgf
;ª\qmd0fsfnnfO{ ck]lIft nIodf k'¥ofpg /fhgLlts            ;d]tnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf nIox¿
bnx¿ nufot cfGbf]ngdf of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] ;dfhsf             lgDgfg';f/ lyP eGg ;lsG5M—
;a} kIfx¿sf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . To;dfly
;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsf cem dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . o; ;DaGwdf           /fh;+:yfsf] pGd"ng / nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf]
                                {
;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsfsf] rrf{ ug'eGbf klxn] g]kfnsf]            :yfkgf,
jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsf] uGtJo, k|s[lt /                                       ]
                                                              dfcf]jfbL ;z:q ljb|fx cyf{t\ hgo'4sf] cGTo Pj+
r'gf}tLx¿sf af/]df k|:6 x'g' h?/L 5 .                         lbuf] zflGt axfn, /
                                                              ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj tyf g]kfnL hgtfsf] ljljwtf
jt{dfg ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] uGtJo                                   ;d]l6g] u/L /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf .
/fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsf] uGtAo cfGbf]ngsf] nIo /
p2]Zo;“u hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . o; ;DaGwdf ;j{k|yd                     o; cy{df jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]
hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf nIo / p2]Zox¿ s] lyP eg]/              d' V o /fhgLlts uGtJo eg] s f] oyf;So l56f]
a'e\mg' h?/L 5 . g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf] bz jif{ nfdf]         ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg u/L pko'{Qm /fhgLlts
;z:q ljb| f ] x / zfxL lg/ª\ s ' z tfsf] k[ i 7e" l ddf   Pj+ ;+j}wflgs nIo xfl;n ug'{ xf] . ;+ljwfg;efsf]
hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf] lgdf{0f ePsf] xf] . Psflt/ b/af/      r'gfjkl5 of] ;ª\qmd0f cfGbf]ngsf] hgfb]zaf6 nf]slk|o
xTofsf08kl5 tLa| ultdf k|ltlglw;efsf] lj36g, !*           r'gfjL hgfb]zdf k|j]z ug]{5 . o;n] cfGbf]ngaf6
                  “               '
c;f]h / !( df3 x'b} zfxL lg/ª\sztfsf] k'g?Tyfgn]          :yflkt ;QfnfO{ hgcg'df]lbt j}wflgs ;Qfdf ¿kfGtl/t

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                       27
                       ug]{5 . To;kl5 xfdL gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] r/0fdf         ;do;Ldfsf] pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] . t/ h]7 d;fGtleq
                       k|j]z ug]{5f}+ .                                           ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj x'g ;s]g . To;kl5 dª\l;/sf]
                                                                                  ldlt tf]lsO{ cGtl/d ;+ljwfg tbg'?k ;+zf]wg ul/of] .
                                             [
                       jt{dfg ;ª\qmd0fsf] k|slt                                   t/ r'gfjsf] d'vdf g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] @@ ;"qLo dfu
                       s'g} klg cfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfkl5 ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]              /fvL dª\l;/ ^ ut] s'g} xfntdf r'gfj x'g g;Sg] eGb}
                       Joj:yfkg ;f“lRrs} r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfd xf] . To;dfly klg       ;/sf/af6 ;d]t alxu{dg u/]kl5 ;f] ldltdf klg
                       cfGbf]ngsf/L bnx¿sf] ljljw j}rfl/s k[i7e"ld /              r' g fj ePg . To;kl5 k' g M @)^$ ;fnleq
                       /fhgLlts k|fyldstf, !) jif{ nfdf] ;z:q åGå, hgtfn]         ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ul/;Sg] ;xdlt sfod u/L
                       /fhfnfO{ k6Ss} grfx]sf] t/ pm gx6]sf] cj:yf, nfdf]         tbg'?k cGtl/d ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L,
                       ;dob] l v sfod /x] s f] s] G b| L s[ t Pj+ PsfTds          Pskl5 csf]{ axfgfdf r'gfj ;fb}{ hfg] xf] eg] @))&
                       /fHo;+/rgfsf] ;+3Los/0f cflb s'/fx¿sf ;Gbe{df              ;fnkl5sf] /fhgLltsf] k'g/fj[lQ gxf]nf eGg ;lsGg .
                       ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] Joj:yfkg a9L hl6n x'g' / ;do nfUg'          t/ dfcf]jfbLsf] pk]Iff u/]/ r'gfj ug{ vf]Hg' plrt
                       s'g} c:jfefljs xf]Og . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg           gx'g] dfq xf]Og k|To'Tkfbs klg x'g ;S5 . cfGbf]ngkl5
                       ePkl5 clxn]sf] ;ª\qmd0fsfn Pp6f gofF r/0fdf k|jz       ]   oxfF;Ddsf] /fhgLlts ljsf;df dfcf]jfbLsf] klg plQs}
                       ug]{5 . tyflk ;ª\qmd0fsfn ;ls“+b}g . ;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0f    dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg 5 . t;y{ p;sf hfoh egfO /
                       / To;cg';f/ :yflkt /fHo;+/rgfn] ljlwjt\ sfd ug{            u'gf;f]x¿sf] ljj]sk"0f{ ;'g'jfO{ x'g' cfjZos 5 .
                       yfn]kl5 dfq of]] ;ª\qmd0f k"/f ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 .          r'gfjsf] ltlyeGbf klg ef]ln aGg] ;+ljwfgsf] l;4fGt,
      ;+j]bgzLn        To;sf/0f clxn]sf ;ft /fhgLlts bnx¿sf] ;xdlt /              cfwf/e" t /fHo ;+ / rgf / hgtfsf df} l ns
                       ;dembf/L gofF ;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0f / To;cg';f/               xs÷dfgjclwsf/ Pj+ ;fdflhs Gofosf ljifox¿df
  ljifox¿df s]jn       Joj:yflksf / sfo{kflnsf nufot /fHo;+rfngsf                 ;ft bnsf aLr ;xdlt / Pstf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f xf] .
  zLif{ssf lx;fan]     lgsfox¿ u7g geP;Dd sfod /fVg' cfjZos 5 .                                                            “'
                                                                                           @)^@ dª\l;/df ePsf] afx|ab] ;dembf/Lb]lv
 xf]Og, ;"rgfd"ns             g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf of] klxnf] ;ª\qmd0fsfn xf]Og .   @)^# ;fn sflQs @@ ;Dddf ;ftbn / g]skf
hfgsf/L / ljifout      o;eGbf cufl8 klg cfGbf]ngx¿ ePsf lyP . @))&                dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf /fhgLlts ;xdlt, ;dembf/L /
                       / @)$^ ;fnsf] cfGbf]ngkl5 g]kfnn] /fhgLlts                 lg0f{ox¿ tyf % dª\l;/df g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf
     Pj+ lj1tfdf       ;ª\qmd0fsfn Joxf]/]sf] lyof] . @))& ;fndf g]kfnL           dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf plNnlvt
cfwfl/t ljZn]if0fsf]   sfª\u|];n] d'lQm ;]gf u7g u/]/ ;z:q cfGbf]ng u/]sf]        s'/fx¿ tyf cGtl/d ;+l+ jwfgn] u/]sf s]xL Joj:yfx¿n]
 a9L vf“rf] kb{5 .     eP klg To;n] dfcf]jfbLsf] h:tf] ;+u7g, ;+/rgf /            efjL ;+ljwfg / /fHoJoj:yfsf sltko l;4fGt / ;+/rgf,
  o; cy{df g]kfnL      Jofkstf kfPsf] lyPg . t;y{ d'lQm ;]gf / p;sf] xltof/       /fhgLlts k|0ffnL, dfgj tyf /fhgLlts clwsf/nfO{
                       Joj:yfkg vf;} ;d:ofsf] ljifo lyPg . /fhf;“u k|ToIf         :yflkt / lglb{i6 u/]sf] 5 . sflQs @@ df ;ft bn /
  ldl8of sG6]G6df      åGå gePsf sf/0fn] To;a]nf u0ftGqsf] ;jfn p7]s}             dfcf]jfbLsf zLif{ g]tfx¿sf] a}7sn] u/]sf] lg0f{onfO{
    sdhf]/ ePsf]       lyPg . @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng lgb{nLotfsf] gfddf           x] b f{ pgLx¿ ;xdlt ePsf s' / fx¿sf] ljk/Lt
kfOG5 . s]xL :tDe      /fhfsf] /fhgLltdf ;lqmo ;+nUgtfnfO{ ;dfKt ug]{ /           ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjdf k|:t't x'g :jtGq 5}gg\ . pQm
   /fv]/ jf a9fP/      ax'bnLo nf]stGqnfO{ ;+ljwfgtM ;+:yfut ug]{ s'/fdf          lg0f{osf] kf“rf}“ efusf] t];f] a'bfdf elgPsf] 5, æclxn]
                                                                                                              | “
                       d'Vo ¿kn] s]lGb|t lyof] . cfGbf]ngsf qmddf s]xL            ;femf ;xdlt sfod x'g g;s]sf ljifox¿df /fhgLlts
dfq k'Ub}g . sltko
                       gf/fx¿ /fhfsf] lj/f]wdf nfu]sf eP tfklg To;a]nf            kf6L{x¿ ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] qmddf cf–cfk\mgf
 :tDex¿df dgf]ut       u0ftGqsf] d' 2 f ;LdfGtdf g} lyof] . To;a] n fsf]          gLlt / dt cg';f/ k|:t't x'g :jtGq x'g]5g\ .Æ o;n]
     dfGotf a9L,       ;ª\qmd0fsf] d'Vo bfloTj / nIo eg]sf] /fhf, sfª\u; / ]|     :ki6 ub{5 ls ef]ln aGg] ;+ljwfgdf xfn;Dd ;xdlt
  ljifout 1fg sd          '                                             }
                       ;+oQm jfddf]rf{sf] ;xdltdf ax'bnLo nf]stGq, ;+jwflgs       ePsf s'/fx¿sf] ;Ddfg / k|Tofe"lt ug{ ;ft bn /
 ePsf w]/} b[i6fGt     /fhtGq / ;+;bLo zf;g k|0ffnL ;lxtsf] ;+ljwfg agfpg'        /fHo afWo 5g\ . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj;Dd k'Ubf /fHo,
                       lyof] . t/ o;k6ssf] ;ª\qmd0f klxn]sf] eGbf Jofks           /fhgLlts bn / ;/f]sf/jfnf ;d"xx¿sf aLr c¿
      kfOG5g\ .        / hl6n k|s[ltsf] 5 . ;]gf / xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg,            klg ;Demf}tf / ;xdlt x'g ;S5g\ . o;aLr /fHon]
                       u0ftGq, /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf h:tf ljifox¿ @))& /             cflbjf;L÷hghflt / dw];L ;d'bfo;Fu 5'§f5'§} ;Demf}tf
                       @)$^ ;fndf lyPgg\ . nf]stGq g} klg olt Jofks /             u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 efjL ;+ljwfg ljd'v x'g ldNb}g .
                       ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf] ljifo ag]sf] lyPg .                              ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj lgs6 cfO;Sbf klg
                                                                                       '
                                                                                  d'nsdf r'gfjsf] /fhgLlts dfxf}n ag]sf] 5}g eGg]
                       ;+ljwfg;ef r'gfj / gof“ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf r'gf}tL          l6Kk0fL ;a}lt/af6 cfO/fv]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf o;sf]
                       @@ sflQs @)^# df ;ft bn / g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf                                                            '
                                                                                  d'Vo sf/0f efjL ;+ljwfgn] lg¿k0f ug{kg]{ ljifox¿df
                       aLr ;DkGg ;dembf/L cg';f/ @)^$ ;fnsf] h]7                  cem} klg k|To]s bnsf] cf–cfk\mgf txdf / cGt/bnLo
                       d;fGtleq ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ug]{ ;xdlt ePsf]              ;xdlt gaGg' klg xf] . g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] klg ;ftbn
                       lyof] . ;f]xL adf]lhd cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf klg of]             / /fHo;Fu u/]sf] k|lta4tf / ;Demf}tf cg'?k cfk\mgf]


28                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
b[li6sf]0f Pj+ Jojxf/df tfnd]n ldnfpg ;ls/fv]sf]          agfp“b}df ;+ej x'Gg . cfk\mgf] k]zf Pj+ hgtfk|ltsf]
5}g . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf nflu ck]lIft /fhgLlts         pQ/bfloTjaf]w / tbg's"n cfr/0f tyf Jojxf/af6 g}
dfxf}n agfpg bnx¿sf aLr efjL ;+ljwfgsf] l;4fGt,           o;nfO{ :yflkt ug]{ xf] .
d"No / ;+/rgfsf af/]df Go"gtd ;xdlt lgdf{0f, tbg'¿k               ;ª\qmd0fsf] cj:yfdf dfq xf]Og, cl3kl5 klg
cfr/0f / Jojxf/ x'g' h¿/L 5 . ;fy} r'gfjsf]               ;~rf/ If]q 36gfd'vL 5 . of] :jfefljs xf] . 36gfsf]
;j{:jLsfo{tf :yflkt ug{ ;ft bn afx]ssf cGo bnn]           l/kf]l6{ªdf dfq ;Lldt x'g' ;~rf/ If]qsf] sfd xf]Og .
cf–cfk\mgf] dt / b[li6sf]0f;lxt :jtGq ¿kn] r'gfjdf        ;/sf/ / dfcf]jfbLaLr zflGt ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 .
hfg ;Sg] l:ylt agfpg klg ;ft bn / ;/sf/                   ;]gf / xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg eO/x]sf] 5 . o;sf]
OdfGbf/Lsf ;fy nfUg' h¿/L 5 .                             ;kmntfdf g} ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] uGtJo lge{/ ub{5 .
                                                          o;}u/L ;+3Lo nufot g]kfnL /fHosf] ;du| ;+/rgfsf]
;~rf/ If]qsf] e"ldsf                                      af/]df 7"nf] ax; rn]sf] 5 . efjL ;+ljwfgn] o;sf]
d}n] dfly klg pNn]v ul/;s]sf] 5' ls g]kfnsf] of]          Joj:yf ug'{kg]{5 . oL sltko ljifox¿ dgf]efjgfut
P]ltxfl;s /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfnnfO{ nlIft uGtJodf          / ;+j]bgzLn klg 5g\ . ;~rf/dfWodaf6 ;+k|]lift x'g]
k'¥ofpg ;~rf/nufot gful/s ;dfhsf ;a} If]qsf]              ;"rgf / hfgsf/Ln] o;sf kIfdf ;sf/fTds /
e"ldsf cToGt dxTjk"0f{ 5 . tyflk oxfF ;~rf/If]qnfO{       gsf/fTds b'j} k|efj kfb{5 . t;y{ o:tf ljifox¿df
s]lGb|t u/]/ s]xL rrf{ ug{ rfxG5' .                       s]jn zLif{ssf lx;fan] xf]Og, ;"rgfd"ns hfgsf/L /
        g]kfnL ;~rf/hutsf] ;+/rgfnfO{ x]bf{ Pkm=Pd=       ljifout Pj+ lj1tfdf cfwfl/t ljZn]if0fsf] a9L vf“rf]
/]l8of] / 5fkf dfWodsf] kx'“r clt Jofks kfOG5 .           kb{5 . o; cy{df g]kfnL ldl8of sG6]G6df sdhf]/             nf]stflGqs /fHon]
clxn] Pkm=Pd= /]l8of]sf] se/]h b]zel/ k'Ug nfu]sf]        ePsf] kfOG5 . s]xL :tDe /fv]/ jf a9fP/ dfq k'Ub}g .       ;~rf/sf] lgoGq0f
5 . t/ s]xL j}rfl/s cledt / ljZn]if0fafx]s                sltko :tDex¿df dgf]ut dfGotf a9L, ljifout
/fhgLlts ;" r gf / hfgsf/L ;Dk| ] i f0fsf nflu            1fg sd ePsf w]/} b[i6fGtx¿ kfOG5g\ .
                                                                                                                     ub}{g . To;dfly
5fkfdfWodsf va/nfO{ g} k|fyldstf lbO“b} cfPsf]                    cGTodf, g]kfndf ;~rf/dfWodsf] kx'“r /              ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg
5 . o;sf cltl/Qm clxn] OG6/g]6 cgnfOg, ;L=8L=,            k|r/tfsf] dfqf a9\bf] 5 . t/ o;sf] ;sf/fTds of]ubfg,
                                                              '                                                          /fhgLltdf
JolQmut Anusf] k|of]u ;d]t w]/} a9]sf] 5 . ;a}df          vf; u/]/ d'ns / d'2fsf] ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Pj+ t/n
                                                                         '                                             ;~rf/If]qsf]
Go"h a|]s ug]{ xf]8 klg a9]sf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf        cj:yfdf, ;' l glZrt ug' { r' g f} t Lk" 0 f{ sfd xf] .       e"ldsf oxL g}
a]nf ;L=8L= sf] k|of]un] ;fDk|bflos pQ]hgf a9fPsf]        nf]stflGqs /fHon] ;~rf/sf] lgoGq0f ub}{g . lgodg               '
                                                                                                                      x'gk5{ eGg] s'g}
s'/f clxn] ;a}n] :jLsf/ ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . t;y{             klg xflb{s dflgb}g / ;Dej klg 5}g . To;dfly               dfkb08 klg 5}g .
;~rf/sf cgf}krfl/s dfWodx¿ klg clxn]sf] ;Gbe{df           ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg /fhgLltdf ;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsf oxL            ;~rf/ pBdL÷
;+j]bgzLn Pj+ dxTjk"0f{ 5g\ .                             g} x'g'k5{ eGg] s'g} dfkb08 klg 5}g . ;~rf/
        /fhgLltdf clwsf+z s'/fx¿ k|rf/afhLnfO{ nIo        pBdL÷Joj;foL / ;~rf/sdL{x¿sf] :jlgodg /
                                                                                                                         Joj;foL /
u/]/ k|:t't ul/Psf x'G5g\ . ;f/ ljifoj:t'x¿ sd}           pQ/bfloTjaf]w o;sf] Pp6f dfkb08 xf] . ;r]t                 ;~rf/sdL{x¿sf]
x'G5g\ . t/ ltg} ljifon] d'n'ssf] /fhgLltnfO{ xf“s]sf     >f]tf÷kf7s / ltgn] lgwf{/0f ug]{ ;+k/LIf0f csf]{ dfkb08       :jlgodg /
x'G5g\ . of] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L /fVg] / ljZn]if0f ug]x¿sf]
                                                  {       xf] . o;sf nflu lgb] { z gd' v L xf] O g, cWoog÷            pQ/bfloTjaf]w
;ª\Vof s'g} klg ;dfhdf yf]/} g} x'G5 . cGt/;+jfb,         cg';Gwfgd"ns cg'udgsf] cfjZostf k5{ .                         o;sf] Pp6f
ljrf/–:tDe, ;DkfbsLo, ;dfrf/ ljZn]if0f cflbn]                     g]kfndf ldl8of sG6]G6 cg';Gwfgsf] kl/kf6L         dfkb08 xf] . ;r]t
;"rgfnfO{ k|rf/afhLaf6 cnUofP/ /fhgLltsf] ;f/             ljsf; ePsf] kfOGg . s]xL ldl8of xfp;n] cfGtl/s               >f]tf÷kf7s /
Pj+ r'/f]df k'¥ofpg d2t u5{ . xfdLsxfF kf7s jf            k|of]hgsf nflu To:tf Psfw cg';Gwfg u/]sf xf]nfg\ .        ltgn] lgwf{/0f ug]{
>f]tfx¿df ;fdfGotM ;dfrf/sf] ;Totfdf k|Zg p7fpg]          t/ Tof] kof{Kt 5}g . t/fO{sf 36gfx¿nfO{ x]bf{ cfpg]
k|rng 5}g . cem} klg /]l8of]df h] elgof] / 5fkfdf         lbgx¿df g]kfndf b+ufd'vL / lx+;fTds /fhgLlt a9\g]
                                                                                                                      ;+k/LIf0f csf]{
h] n]lvof] ToxL ;To xf] eGg] dfgl;stf Hofbf 5 .           ;+efjgfnfO{ kG5fpg ;lsGg . o; cj:yfdf sG6]G6                 dfkb08 xf] .
g]kfndf dfq xf]Og ;+;f/sf k|foM ;a} 7fp“df cfd            l/;r{n] efjL gLlt / /0fgLltnfO{ dfu{bz{g ug{ ;S5 .
hgtfsf nflu klxnf] / clGtd hfgsf/L jf ;"rgfsf]            pbfx/0fsf nflu x[lts /f]zg sf08 jf O/fsdf g]kfnLsf]
   ]
;|ft eg]sf] /]l8of], 6]lnlehg, kqklqsf h:tf cfd           xTofn] l;h{gf u/]sf] 36gfdf g]kfnL ;~rf/If]qsf] s]
;~rf/sf dfWod g} x'g\ . k|rf/jfhL cyf{t\ k|fkf]u08fsf]
                                              ]           s:tf] e"ldsf / k|efj /x\of], s'g} cg';Gwfg x'g;s]sf]
;:tf] ahf/af6 Jofj;flos ;~rf/ hut\ s;/L d'Qm              5}g . t/fO{df ePsf] lx+;f / cfGbf]ngx¿sf ;Gbe{df
x'g] eGg] u+eL/ ;jfn ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg t/n /fhgLltsf          ;~rf/sf] kx'“r / k|:t'ltn] s] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 To;sf]
;Gbe{df g]kfnL ;~rf/ If]qn] v]Ng] e"ldsfsf] Pp6f          klg cWoog eO/fv]sf] 5}g . o:tf] cWoog / cg';Gwfg
dxTjk"0f{ kIf x'g ;S5 . of] s'/f s'g} lgod sfg"g          ldl8of dlg6l/ª ug]{ lgsfox¿sf] klg bfloTj xf] .




df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        29
cWoog
                                                                                         ef]6flx6Lsf] d'vdf ;f“´kv y/Ly/Lsf
                                                                               dfG5]sf] cf]xf]/bf]xf]/ 7]nd7]n g} lyof] . xs/sf]
                                                                               xftsf] cvaf/sf] rfª eg] cfwf 306f
     ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf]                                                       s/fO;Sbf klg 36]sf] b]lvPg . o:t}df xs/sf]
                                                                               glhs} Pshgf dlxnf b]lvOg\ . lkmSsf /ftf]
                                                                               ;f/L / Anfph nufPsL sl;nf] hLp8fnsL
                                                                               ux'“uf]/L tL dlxnfn] cvaf/ lslgg\ . /fd|/L



          kqsfl/tf
                                                                               k6\ofOg\ . xft] Aofusf] r]g vf]lng\ . Aofudf
                                                                               cvaf/ /fVg'cl3 bfof“afof“ x]l/g\ . ckl/lrt
                                                                               eP klg o; k+lQmsf/l;t d':sfp“b} elgg\–
                                                                               ‘ca=== nfO{ klg ;dfKt kfg'{k5{ .’ ulx/f]
                                                                               ljZjf; lnP/ pgL af6f] nflug\ . nfUYof]–
                                                                               cvaf/df ;a}eGbf klxn] pgn] ToxL zLif{s
                                                                               vf]Hg]l5g\, h'g xfjfdf nuftf/ pl8/x]sf]
                            xl/snf clwsf/L                                     lyof] . t/ ‘ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt’ eGg]
                                                                               cfjfhsf] k|ltlglw cIf/ Tof] cvaf/df 5flkPs}
                                                                               lyPg .
                                                                                         lj=;+= @)^# r}tsf] t];|f] ;ftfsf]
 ‘ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt=== ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt’ ef]6flx6L–/Tgkfs{ cfsf;]       clGtd lbgsf] ;f] 36gfn] g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLg
 k'nlg/sf] df]6/;fOsn la;f}gLdf Pp6f xs/ Ps rfª cvaf/ lnP/ nuftf/              cvaf/sf] ;a}eGbf sdhf]/ kf6f] p3fl/lbPsf]
                                                                               5 . Tof] xf]– ljZj;gLotfsf] cefj .
 lrRofO/x]sf] lyof] . k|wfgdGqL lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;f]xL lbg gof“lbNnLaf6
               + ''
 sf7df8f}+ kms{b} x'gxGYof] . pxf“n] cl3Nnf] lbg gof“lbNnLdf g} ‘cab]lv /fhf   g]kfndf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/
 geGg"’ eGb} u/]sf] b[Zo 6]lnlehgåf/f ;fj{hlgs ePsf] lyof] .                   ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] Oltxf; a]nfotdf !@!
                                                                               jif{ nfdf] eP klg g]kfndf $% jif{eGbf k'/fgf]
                                                                               5}g . lj=;+= @)!( sflQs @ ut]b]lv @)@@
                                                                               ;fn c;f]h @@ ut];Dd ‘uf]/vfkq’ ;f“´df
                                                                               klg k|sflzt ePsf] b]lvG5 . csf]{ hfgsf/L
                                                                               k|fKt gx'“bf;Dd ‘uf]/vfkq’ b}lgssf] oxL
                                                                               ;fo+ s fnLg ;+ : s/0fnfO{ ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/sf] k|f/DelaGb' dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 .
                                                                                         lj=;+ = @)$% d+ l ;/ @( ut]
                                                                               /fhwfgLdf g] k fn efiffdf ‘ljZje" l d’
                                                                               ;fo+sfnLg b}lgssf] k|sfzg k|f/De ePsf]
                                                                               lyof] . g]kfnL efiffsf lghL If]qsf ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/n] eg] k|hftGqsf] k'gj{xfnLkZrft\
                                                                               g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& nfu" ePkl5
                                                                               dfq} sf7df8f}+sf ahf/df k|j]z u/] . o;/L
                                                                               k|j]z ug]{x¿dWo] ;a}eGbf cufl8 ‘dxfgu/’
                                                                               b]vf kb{5 .
                                                                                         clxn] /fhwfgLaf6 dfq !^ j6f
                                                                               ;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/ lgl:s/x]sf]
                                                                               hfgsf/L b}lgs klqsf /fli6«o ;~hfnn] lbPsf]
                                                                               5 . k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg
                                                                               @)^# df Ps bh{ g hlt ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/x¿ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 k|sflzt
                                                                               b]lvG5g\ . sf7df8f}+ aflx/sf b'O{j6fdWo]
                                                                               ‘kf]v/f’ ;GWofsfnLg xfn aGb 5 eg]
                                                                               ‘;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cfsf+Iff’ wg'iffaf6
                                                                               k|sflzt b]lvG5 . sfplG;nsf] k|ltj]bg
                                                                               cg';f/ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 k|sflzt
                                                                               eO/x]sf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df pkTosf
                                                                               ;GWofsfnLg, qmfOd l/kf]6{/ ;GWofsfnLg,

30                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
vf]htnf;, dxfgu/, ;GWofsfnLg, ;GWof tflnsf !
6fOD;, ;f“´sf] >Lsdf08/, ;f“´sf] l;6L
6fOD;, l;6L kf] i 6 cflb kb{ 5 g\ . k| ] ; cWoog ul/Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/, ltgsf] pd]/ / ;d]l6Psf c°x¿
sfplG;nsf] k|ltj]bgdf b}lgs cvaf/sf] cvaf/                                     pd]/                            cWoog ul/Psf c°x¿
;"rLdf pNn]v geP klg ;GWofsfnLg eg]/
                                               dxfgu/                            !% jif{                        !)$ b]lv !)(
5flkPsf cvaf/x¿ ;d]t sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf
ahf/df e]l6G5g\ .                              vf]htnf;                          !) jif{                        !&) b]lv !&^
                                               >Lsdf08/                          ( jif{                         !#@ b]lv !#&
cWoog ljlw / ;Ldf                              l;6L 6fOD;                        # jif{                         @$( b]lv @%$
sf7df8f}+sf ahf/df pknAw ;GWofsfnLg            l;6L kf]i6                        # jif{                         !^% b]lv !&!
b}lgsx¿sf] ;;{tL{ cjnf]sg;lxt ltgsf] ;/n
/ ;xh k|flKtnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ o; cWoogsf       l6Kk0fLM l;6L 6fOD;sf] c° @%# / l;6L kf]i6sf] c° !&) k|sflzt gePsf]
nflu kf“rj6fnfO{ 5flgPsf] lyof] . ;fy}, cNk–
;dofjlwsf] cWoog ePsf sf/0f jif{sf] klxnf]
;ft lbg ‘@)^$ j}zfv ! b]lv & ut];Dd’ tflnsf @
k|sflzt ltgsf c+snfO{ o;df ;d]l6Psf] cWoogdf ;d]l6Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ / ltgdf k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;ª\Vof
            {'
lyof] . -x]gxf];\ tflnsf !÷@_ ltgdf k|sflzt
;fdu|Lsf] cWoog Pjd\ ljZn]if0fsf cltl/Qm
;DalGwt ;Dkfbs, k|sfzs / ;/f]sf/jfnf–         cvaf/          j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv                           j}zfv hDdf
l;tsf] s'/fsfgLaf6 yk hfgsf/L k|fKt ul/Psf]      ut]            !        @         #           $          %        ^         &
lyof] .                                      dxfgu/            s         @)        @)          @)         @#       @)        @)   !@#
         cvaf/sf ;fdu| L x¿sf] ljZn] i f0f
kqsfl/tfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGt / k|of]hgk/s vf]htnf;               %v        (         !@          !$         !!       *         !)   ^(
eflifs sf]0faf6 ul/Psf] 5 eg] ;dfrf/, >Lsdf08/                 s         *         (           !)         !$       !!        !$   ^^
ljrf/, lj1fkg, 5kfO, ahf/ cflbnfO{ klg l;6L 6fOD; s                      (         !#          !!         !#       u         !&   ^#
Vofn ul/Psf] 5 .                             l;6L kf]i6        *v        *         &           !)         !#       u         !)   %^
         ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] s'n ;+VofdWo] hDdf                !#        %$        ^!          ^%         &$       #(        &!   #&&
Psrf}yfO{ hlt dfq ;d]l6g' / b'O{ xKtfdf ;ft
                                             s= zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] .
lbgleq k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;fdu|Lsf] ;°ngb]lv
                                             v= zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg j}zfv ! ut] gof“ jiff{/De zlgaf/ k/]sf]n] k|sflzt .
cWoog ljZn]if0f ul/;Sg' o;sf] ;Ldf xf] .
                                               u= lah'nL gcfPsf] sf/0f k|sflzt gePsf] .
;fdu|L ljZn]if0f                              lnPsf] b]lvG5 . To;kl5sf] :yfg ck/fw÷xTof,    sltko ;dfrf/nfO{ ljifosf
ljifout ljljwtf / ;ª\VofTds ljt/0f                                                cfwf/df ;n{Ss 5'6\ofpg ;ls“b}g . g]tfsf]
                                              lx+;f / cfqmd0f÷lj/f]w k|bz{g h:tf ljifon]
ljifosf cfwf/df ;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/df      lnPsf] kfOG5 . lzIff÷:jf:Yo÷ lj1fg /gfd hf]l8Psf u}//fhgLlts 36gf, cfqmd0fsf]
k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;fdu|LnfO{ s]nfp“bf ;a}eGbf                                        k|of]hg gePsf] a]jfl/;] adaf6 b'3{6gf klg
                                              ;~rf/÷;"rgf k|ljlw ;DaGwL ;dfrf/ ;a}eGbf
a9L :yfg /fhgLlts / s"6gLlts ;dfrf/n]         sd kfOPsf] 5 . -x]g'{xf];\ tflnsf #_x'g gkfPsf] l:ylt cflbdf ag]sf ;dfrf/sf]
                                                                                  peod' v L k| s [ l tnfO{ ljrf/ u/] / To:tf
tflnsf #       cvaf/df ;d]l6Psf d'Vo         ljifo jf If]q / ;dfrf/ ;fdu|L ;ª\Vof ;dfrf/nfO{ ljljw cGtu{t /flvPsf] 5 . o:t},
   d'Vo ljifo jf If]q             dxfgu/        vf]htnf; >Lsdf08/    l;6L 6fOD; l;6L kf]i6      hDdf            k|ltzt
    /fhgLlt÷s"6gLlt                @$            @)         !^            @#      !#            (^              @%=$^
    ck/fw÷xTof–lx+;f               !#            !%         $             *       !^            %^              !$=*%
    cfqmd0f÷lj/f]w k|bz{g          !!            !!         !#            *       &             %)              !#=@^
    v]ns'b÷dgf]/~hg                @(            –          *             %       !             $#              !!=$!
       {
    b'36gf÷k|fs[lts k|sf]k         (             &          !             !)      !)            #&              (=*!
    ;flxTo÷;+uLt÷snf÷;+:s[lt       !!            @          !             #       –             !&              $=%!
    cy{÷>d÷ko{6g                   @             –          !@            –       –             !$              #=&!
    lzIff÷:jf:Yo÷lj1fg             ^             –          %             !       –             !@              #=!*
    ;~rf/÷;"rgfk|ljlw              #             %          !             !       @             !@              #=!*
    ljljw                          !%            (          %             $       &             $)              !)=^!
    hDdf                          !@#           ^(          ^^            ^#      %^            #&&             !))
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                      31
v] n s' b df ljjfb gxf] n f t/ dgf] / ~hg                 ‘laxfg p7\of] . 6]lnkmf]g                             sf7df8f}+ . cf7 bnn] c;f/ ^ ut]
ljjfb/lxt 5}g . Pp6fn] dgf]/~hg u/]sf]                                                                ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg ug{sf nflu ldlt
ljifo csf] { n fO{ lrQ b' V g] vfnsf] klg                  u¥of] . cl3Nnf] lbgsf]                     l;kmfl/; u/]klg lgjf{rg cfof]un] c;f/
x'g;S5 . oxfF eg] dgf]/~hg :tDe cGtu{t                   36gfsf] hfgsf/L lnof] .                      dlxgfdf ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj x'g g;Sg] /
/flvPsf ;fdu|LnfO{ ‘dgf]/~hg’ gfdd} u0fgf                                                             r'gfjsf] nflu !!) lbg ;do rflxg] kq
ul/Psf] 5 . h] x f] ; \ , peod' v L k| s [ l tsf             xr'jfsf e/df va/                         ;/sf/nfO{ lbPkl5 ;/sf/ / cf7 bnaLr
;dfrf/;lxt k|d, ;Ddfg, ljlgdf{0f, n}l·stf
                ]                                        agfof] . cG6;G6 zLif{s                       7"nf] e'O“rfnf] uPsf] lyof] .
h:tf ljljw ljifon] ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df                      /fVof] / xtf/–xtf/df                                -l;6L 6fOD; ;GWofsfnLg, j}zfv %_
!)=^! k|ltzt :yfg kfPsf] b]lvG5 .
          ljifout ljljwtf b] l vP klg                      5kfP/ laxfg} cvaf/                                 k[i7e"ldaf6 z'? u/]/ cfVofg z}nLdf
;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df /fhgLlt, ck/fw,                                                                        \
                                                                                                      6'ªUofOPsf] o:tf] ‘ln8’nfO{ ;dfrf/ n]vgsf]
                                                           ahf/df k'¥ofof] . o:tf]                    k|rlnt l;4fGtn] :jLsf/ ub}{g . ;dfrf/sf]
cfqmd0f, lj/f]w k|bz{g h:tf ;d;fdlos /
36gfk|wfg ljifon] a9L 7fpF lnPsf 5g\ .                   eO/fÚ5 . clwsf+zn] oxL                       :j?k / z}nLsf] cfwf/e"t dfGotf g} k"/f gu/L
k|ltztsf lx;fan] v]ns'b÷dgf]/~hg rf}yf]                          ul//fÚ5g\ .’                         tof/ ul/Psf] of] ;fdu|LnfO{ o;sf] k|sfzg
:yfgdf b]lvP klg v]ns'b;DaGwL ;dfrf/sf]                                                                                   ]
                                                                                                      :yfg / zLif{s x]// dfq} ;dfrf/ elgPsf]
ljt/0f ;a} cvaf/df ;dfg'kflts e]l6Fb}g .                                                              xf] . o:tf] k|j[lQ ;GWofsfnLgx¿df a9L g}
v]ns'b / dgf]/~hg;DaGwL s'n $# j6f                                                                    b]lvPsf] 5 .
;dfrf/ ;fdu| L dWo] ‘dxfgu/’ b} l gsdf                               -l;6L kf]i6, @)^$ j}zfv @_               36gfk|wfg ;dfrf/af6 k|lqmofk|wfg
dfq @( j6f 5g\ eg] vf]htnf; b}lgsdf                                                                   ;dfrf/lt/ df]l8g] qmddf /fhgLlt dfq xf]Og
z"Go 5 .                                                      of] ‘Aofg/ x]8nfOg’ sf] d'lg bfof“kl§   cGo ljifosf] ;dfrf/df klg peos/0f ePsf]
          ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ;ª\Vofsf] lx;fan]          aS;df ‘;z:q k|x/Lsf] u0f Wj:t’ zLif{ssf]           5 . ‘afa'åf/f 5f]/L ue{jtL’ zLif{s ;dfrf/sf]
‘dxfgu/’ ;a}eGbf cufl8 b]lvPsf] 5 .                ;dfrf/ ;d]t /flvPsf] 5 .                           klxnf] jfSo o:tf] 5–
‘dxfgu/’n] cf};t b}lgs @)=% j6f ;dfrf/                        plNnlvt zLif{sx¿n] lbg] ;Gb]z xf]–              of}gn] dflg;nfO{ o:tf] cGwf] agfp“5,
5fk]sf] b]lvG5 eg] ‘l;6L kf]i6’ n] cf};t b}lgs     dfcf]jfbLx¿ Joj:yflksf ;+;b / ;/sf/df              h;;“ u ;DalGwt ck/fwx¿ sNkg} ug{
(=## j6f .                                         cfO;s]kl5 klg s]xL jif{ klxn] jftf{ 5f8]/          g;lsg] x'g] u/]sf] xfdL kfp“5f}+ .
                                                   h·n k;]h:t} km]l/ h·n} k;]5g\ . ;z:q k|x/L                                -l;6L kf]i6, j}zfv $_
d'Vo ;dfrf/ zLif{s M cfwfeGbf a9L Aofg/            u0fnfO{ klg pgLx¿n] cfqmd0f u/]/ Wj:t
                                                   kf/]5g\ . t/, oyfy{df g k|r08n] To:tf] 3f]if0ff             of] ;fdu|Ldf ‘xfdL kfp“5f}’+ jfSof+z
l;4fGttM s'g} dxTjk"0f{ 36gf x'Fbf cvaf/df                                                            cg'ko'Qm 5 . ‘xfdL’ zAb ;DkfbsLodf dfq}
‘Aofg/ x] 8 nfOg’ lbOG5 . t/ g] k fnL              u/]sf lyP, g dfcf]jfbL h+un k;]sf lyP g t
                                                   k|x/L u0fdf pgLx¿n] cfqmd0f g} u/]sf lyP .         k|of]u ug{ kfpF5 kqsf/n] . ;dfrf/sf 7fpFdf
;GWofsfnLg b}lgsx¿n] o:tf] k|of]unfO{                                                                 kqsf/n] ljrf/ lbg yfNof] eg] cvaf/ s]sf
;fdfGo¿kdf lnPsf] b] l vG5 . cWoog                 ;dfrf/sf] k]6af]nLdf To:tf] s'g} s'/f lyPg .
                                                              zLif{snfO{ ;DkfbsLos/0f u/]sf] klg      nflu / s;sf nflu eGg] k|Zg p7\5 .
cjlwdf k|sflzt cvaf/dWo] %) k|ltzteGbf                                                                         ;dfrf/df ljrf/ / ljrf/df ;dfrf/
a9Ldf Aofg/ k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 .                     kfOG5 . j}zfv ^ ut] >Lsdf08/df 5flkPsf]
                                                   Pp6f ;dfrf/sf] zLif{s 5– ‘Pdfn]sf] k|wfgdGqL       x'G5, gx'g] xf]Og . n]vg jf k|:t'ltsf] z}nLn]
         ax';ª\Vosn] ;dfrf/sf] ulx/fO /                                                               oL b'O{ ljwfnfO{ cnu agfp+5g\ . l/kf]6{/ jf
dxŒjnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ eGbf klg cfd                 df]x’ o;/L ;dfrf/sf] zLif{sdf ;DkfbsLos/0f
                                                   x'g'x'“b}g eG5 kqsfl/tfsf] l;4fGtn] .              kqsf/n] s;}nfO{ p4/0fdf gNofOsg, 36gfsf]
kf7snfO{ tTsfnsf nflu cfslif{t ug]{ b[li6n]                                                           alnof] cfwf/ g;dfOsg, cfwf/e"t k|Zgsf]
dfq zLif{ssf] k|sf/sf] rog / 8]ssf] k|of]u                                                            ;dfwfg ug]{ hfgsf/LnfO{ l;nl;nfa4 u/]/
ug]{ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . o; qmddf sltko                peok|sl[ tsf ;dfrf/
                                                                                                      ;xL 7fpF glbOsg cfkm}F h] dg nfUof] ToxL
cvaf/n] ;dfrf/nfO{ lgs} a9fOr9fO{ u/]sf]           ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df 5flkg] clwsf+z                s' / f hf] 8 ] / ‘;dfrf/’ agfpg kfpFb} g .
b]lvG5 . cvaf/df ;dfrf/sf] d"No / dfqf             ;dfrf/ peo k|sl[ tsf x'G5g\ . ltgdf ljrf/n]        cWoogdf ;d]l6Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf
                  ]
cg'¿k dxTj a'´/ cIf/ ugL–ugL, zAb lagL–            ;dfrf/nfO{ cltqmd0f u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;a}eGbf         ;dfrf/ ;fdu|LdWo] cfwfeGbf a9Lsf] :j¿k
lagL / 7fpF 5fgL–5fgL zLif{s nufP/ ;dfrf/          klxn] ;dfrf/ lbg;Sg] / 36gfk|wfg ;dfrf/            eg] o:t} 5 . sltko ‘;dfrf/’ sf] t ;'?cft
5fKg'kg{] xf] t/ Totflt/ Wofg lbPsf] b]lv+b}g .    lbP k'Ug] cj:yfdf ;'? ul/Psf ;GWofsfnLgx¿          g} pvfgaf6 ul/Psf] kfOG5 . h:tf]–
         ;GWofsfnLgdWo] sltkosf] zLif{s            clxn] sl7g ;+qmd0fdf 5g\ . nf]stflGqs                          æsf7df8f}+ . ‘h'g hf]uL cfP klg
pQ]hgf km}nfpg] dfq p2]Zon] /flvPsf] /             cfGbf]ngsf] ljho / lg/+s'z /fhtGqsf]               sfg} lr/]sf’ pvfg rl/tfy{ ePkl5 dfcf]jfbL
unt ;Gb]z ;Dk|]if0f ug]{ vfnsf] kfOG5 .            cf}krfl/s lgliqmotf kZrft\ PkmPdx¿n]               cWoIf k|r08n] cfÇg}f dGqLx¿nfO{ c6]/ ug]{
sltko l:yltdf Aofg/ zLif{sd'lg aS;df               tTsfn} ;dfrf/ æa| ] s Æ ug{ yfn] k l5              / c;xof]u ug]{nfO{ x:tIf]k ub}{ dGqfnosf
lbOPsf c;DalGwt ;dfrf/n] kf7snfO{ ;xL              ;GWofsfnLgx¿ cfkm\gf] kl/rosf] vf]hLdf             sfd tdfd ug{ lgb]{zg lbPsf 5g\ .Æ
              ]     {
;"rgf ;Dk|if0f ug'sf] ;§f e|ddf kfg]{ sfd          b]lvG5g\ .                                                  -vf]htnf;, j}zfv %_
u/]sf] b]lvG5 . Pp6f cvaf/sf] ‘Aofg/                        o;}qmddf w}/}h;f] ;GWofsfnLgx¿n]
x]8nfOg’ o:tf] 5M                                  ;dfrf/nfO{ n]v / ;dfrf/sf] lvr8Lsf ¿kdf      ;dfrf/df ljrf/ ld;fP/ u/] s f]
   k|r08åf/f ;D´f}tf e+u ePsf] 3f]if0ff            k:sg yfn]sf 5g\ . Pp6f k|d'v ;dfrf/sf] ;dfrf/ ;Dk|if0fsf] csf]{ gd'gf o;k|sf/ 5M
                                                                                                     ]
dfcf]jfbL ;]gf lzlj/ aflx/, /Qmkftsf] ;+st   ]     klxnf] jfSo o:tf] 5M                           æsf7df8f}+ . g]kfnL ;dfhdf ;fnL

32                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
/ e]gf;DaGwL b'O{ pvfg k|rlnt 5g\, Ps :tDex¿n] of] cj:yf :ki6 kf5{g\ .                           tflnsf $
u'Gb|'s ksfpg'kb}{g, ;fnL kmsfpg'kb}{g / csf]{             of}glzIff cGtu{t aRrf hGdfpg]                cvaf/, :tDe / k[i7
;fnL s;sf] e]gfsf] . === === ===Æ                tl/sf, Ct'rqm h:tf ljifosf] cfwf/e"t

                                                                                                        dxfgu/
                         -l;6L kf]i6, j}zfv &_ j}1flgs hfgsf/L cfjZos 5 . :tg 7"nf]
                                                 kfg]{ pkfo, of]lgkfg, d'vd}y'g h:tf s'/fn]
         Ps t of] Pp6} cg'R5]b !@@ zAbsf] eg] /fd| f ] ;Gb] z lbF b } g g\ . ;' k fRo klg
                                                                                                               ,
5 . To;dfly cfTdxTof;“u ;DalGwt o; 7xl/Fb}gg\ . t/ ;GwofsfnLgx¿df o;sf] s'g}                           kLknaf]6
;dfrf/sf] k|f/Dedf l5r/f] pvfgsf] hyfefjL 5\ofgAofg ePsf] kfOFb}g . Psflt/ o:tf] l:ylt                 r'6\lsn f
                                                                                                                          ';\
k|of]un] ljifoj:t'k|ltsf] c;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ 5 eg] csf]l{ t/ Pp6f cvaf/sf leqL k[i7x¿                              v'6\ofpg
                                                                                                        u|x–bzf
68\sf/f] kf/]sf] 5 . o;n] l/kf]6{/÷kqsf/sf] ef]lnkN6 h:tfsf] t:t} 5flkPsf] ;d]t kfOPsf]                  ;Dkfbs
                                                                                                                 Lo
;Lk / ;d´ b' a } kIfdf ckl/kSjtf / 5 . ;f]xL cvaf/df Pp6f wf/fjflxsnfO{
                                                                                                         ljrf/
u}/lhDd]jf/L k|bz{g u/]sf] 5 .                   ;fdfGo km]/abn dfq} u/]/ t];|f] lbg km]l/
                                                 5flkPsf] klg e]l6Psf] 5 .
8]6nfOg / ;dfrf/sf] cGt/;DaGw                              o;af6 clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLgx¿n]
8]6nfOg / ;dfrf/aLr cGt;{DaGw /x]sf]
x'G5 . 8]6nfOg /fVg] s'/fdf >Lsdf08/afx]s
                                                 cvaf/sf] ;DkfbsLo / n]v/rgf k[i7tkm{ rf;f]
                                                 glbg] u/]sf] k'li6 x'G5 . o:tf] l:yltdf tL                 vfhtnf;
                                                                                                              ]
                                                 cvaf/df 5flkPsf j}rfl/s ;fdu|Lx¿ slQsf]                        Lo
rf/}j6f cvaf/sf] z}nL Pp6} 5– 7fpF dfq                                                                  ;Dkfbs
                                                 lhDd]jf/, ljZn]if0fd"ns / tfls{s xf]nfg\–;xh}                    f
n]Vg] . /, ToxL n]Vbf klg ;GWofsfnLgx¿                                                                  n]v/rg
                                                 cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 .                                               gLlt
uDeL/ g/x]sf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . cWoog                                                                 rf0fSo
                                                                                                                    g
ul/Psf clwsf+z cvaf/sf ;dfrf/df 36gf                                                                     dgf]/~h            f] efUo
                                                 cfTdfnf]rgf                                                     f] tkfO{+s
                           +
hxfFsf] eP klg sf7df8f}sf] 8]6nfOgdf lbg]                                                                 c fhs
u/]sf] kfOG5 . s]xLn] t ljb]zL Ph]G;Lx¿af6 ;GWofsfnLgsf ;d:of÷r' g f} t Lx¿k| l t                                      pkGof;
                                                                                                           wf/fjflxs
cg" l bt ;dfrf/nfO{ ;d] t sf7df8f} + s } ;Dkfbs÷k| s fzsx¿ cgle1 b] l v“ b } g g\ .
8]6nfOgdf ;|f]t ;d]t gv'nfO{ lbPsf] b]lvG5 . ;f“´sf] >Lsdf08/sf k|wfg ;Dkfbs o'ugfy
                                                            ]
                                                 zdf{ kf}8n eG5g\—æc¿ b}lgs cvaf/x¿                                 8/
;dfrf/ n]vs÷k|ifssf] cg'kl:ylt
                   ]                             h:t} ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ klg lhDd]jf/ x'gk5{ '                 >L sdf0
                                                 eGg] nfUof xf] t/ eO/x]sf 5}gg\ .Æ l;6L                            Lo
clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLgdf ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf 6fOD;sf k|wfg ;Dkfbs ;'hLj ah|frfo{sf]                                   ;Dkfbs /rgf_
k|:t't ul/Psf ;fdu|Lx¿df ;dfrf/ n]vs b[ l i6df ;GWofsfnLgx¿df ‘cZnLntf /                                    ljrf/ -n]v
                                                                                                                     -sljtf_
jf k|ifsaf/] s]xL pNn]v u/]sf] kfOFb}g . ^) 5f8fkg’ b]lvG5 eg] l;6L kf]i6sf ;Dkfbs
       ]                                                                                                     ;flxTo            g
                                                                                                                       dgf]/~h
k|ltzt cvaf/sf] ‘;dfrf/ ;fdu|L’ sf] l:ylt g]qk|;fb Gof}kfg] !^ dWo] tLgj6f ;GWofsfnLg                        hgdt–
                                                                                                                        tlqmof
o:t} 5 . o;nfO{ ;GWofsfnLgsf ax';ª\Vos cvaf/n] ;a} ;GWofsfnLgnfO{ ‘uGxfpg]’ /                                 kf7s k|l {÷jfl0fHo
                                                                                                                         y
;Dkfbsx¿n] ;fdfGo s'/fsf ¿kdf lng] u/]sf ‘kf7sn] y'Ss eGg]’ ;Ddsf] cj:yfdf k'¥ofPsf]                          lj1fg– c
5g\ . o:tf] k|of]un] cvaf/sf] ljZj;gLotf s'/f n'sfpg rfx“b}gg\ .                                               v]ns   'b
36fpF5 / ;DkfbsnfO{ cg'Q/bfoL b]vfpF5 .                    cr]n gofF ;dfrf/ yfxf kfpg cvaf/
n]v/rgf / :tDex¿
                                                 s'g'{kb{}g, PkmPdn] g} EofOlbG5g\ . tfhf
                                                 ;dfrf/ lbg gkfPkl5 ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                                                                L6 ;
                                                                                                             l;6sLo fOD
;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/dWo] w]/}n] leqL cvaf/x¿n] cfk"mnfO{ s;/L k|:t't ub}{5g\ t                            ;Dkfb
                                                                                                                       f
k[i7x¿df ljleGgvfnsf :tDe /fv]/ kf7snfO{ < ‘vf]htnf;’ sf sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs ofbj                               n]v/rg
cfslif{ t ug{ vf] h ] s f] b] l vG5 . ltgdf yklnof eG5g\—ælaxfg p7\of] . 6]lnkmf]g                           bz{g
                                                                                                                         1fg
;DkfbsLob]lv bz{g, lj1fg, r'6\lsnf, Jo+Uo, u¥of] . cl3Nnf] lbgsf] 36gfsf] hfgsf/L lnof] .                    ljrf/ lj 1fg
/flzkmn, ;fdfGo 1fg, sljtf, wf/fjflxs xr'jfsf e/df va/ agfof] . cG6;G6 zLif{s                                 :jf:Yo lj fjflxs
                                                                                                              xf“;f}+– wf/
;fdu|L, of}glzIff, dxTjk"0f{ 6]lnkmf]g, 6]lnlehg /fVof] / xtf/ xtf/df 5kfP/ laxfg} cvaf/                       of}glzIff fh
                 '
/ /]l8of]sf] a]nsLsf] sfo{qmd / ;'grfFbLsf] ahf/df k'¥ofof] . o:tf] eO/f’5 . clwsf+zn]                         tkfO{+sf]
                                                                                                                           c
efp;Dd lbg] u/] s f] kfOG5 . cWoogdf oxL ul//f’5g\ .Æ
;d]l6Psf cvaf/x¿df k|sflzt x'g] u/]sf                      ahf/sf] c:j:y k|lt:kwf{sf sf/0f
:tDex¿sf] ;"rL tflnsf $ df lbOPsf] 5 . ;GWofsfnLgx¿ ;f“ e mdf lg:sg' s f] ;§f
         o;/L, ljljwtfsf gfddf cvaf/sf] dWofGxdf ;l/;s]sf] atfpFb} kf}8]n eG5g\—                                 l;6L kfi6
                                                                                                                        ]
k[i7 / cfsf/eGbf a9L ;fdu|L ;d]6g vf]h] æo;sf] df]8fln6L abNg'k¥of] eGg] cg'ej
                                           \                                                                  ;Dkfbs
                                                                                                                      Lo          f_
klg w]/}n] cfÇgf] nlIft ju{ ;d]t 7Dofpg ul/Psf] 5 .Æ ah| f rfo{ s f] egfO 5—                                                -nv/rg
                                                                                                                              ]
                                                                                                              ;d –;fdlos
                                ]
;s]sf] kfOFb}g . l;sf?n] n]vsf] lr7\7L ‘dgsf æ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/n] klxn] h:tf] 36gfk|wfg                                   fg
s'/f’ b]lv of}g / of]lgkfg dfq xf]Og gLlt, dfq xf]Og ljrf/k|wfg÷ ljZn]if0fk|wfg ;dfrf/                         ;fdfGo1
                                                                                                                         efUo
bz{g, lj1fg;Ddsf ;fdu|L c6fOPsf cwsNrf lbg'k5{ .Æ                                                              tkfO{+sf]
                                                                                                                         s
                                                                                                                wf/fjflx
                                                                                                                ljljw
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                           33
          æ;GWofsfnLgx¿nfO{ ;+:yfut¿kdf,      ‘;~hfn’ u7g u/]/ bafj l;h{gf u/L 3 ju{df        tLg ?k}ofF 5 t/ xs/÷laqm]tfn] b'O{ ?k}ofF
;+oldt, ;Gt'lnt, Jojl:yt eP/ rnfpg            /flvPsf ;GWofsfnLgx¿nfO{ u ju{df ;fg]{ -        &) k};f;Dd lng] / ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzsn] #)
        {
;Sg'kg]Æ ljrf/ b}lgs klqsf /fli6«o ;~hfnsf    h;af6 ;/sf/n] lbg] ;'ljwf s]xL a9L kfpg         k};f dfq kfpg] oyfy{ klg 5 . lj1fkgsf] b/
cWoIf s]zj b]jsf]6fsf] 5 . ;fy}, ;/sf/n]      ;lsof];\_ k|of; klg rln/x]sf] kfOG5 .           /]6 klg lglZrt 5}g .Æ
klg ;a} ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/nfO{ Pp6} ju{df       o;af6 ;GWofsfnLgx¿n] cfkm\gf] ;xL af6f] /                              ]
                                                                                                       æcvaf/ a]r/ cfPsf] k};fn] sfuh
/fv] / Jojxf/ ug{ gx' g ] wf/0ff /fV5g\ ,     :jLsfo{ 9f“rf klxNofpg c´}+ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\      lsGg / 5kfO vr{ dfq} k'U5 . af“sL vr{
;~hfnsf pkfWoIf tyf ahf/ cg' u dg             eGg] klg k'li6 x'G5 .                           lj1fkgaf6 h'6fpg'k5{Æ ;'hLj ah|frfo{sf]
;ldltsf ;+of]hs g]qk|;fb Gof}kfg] . ‘l;6L                                                     egfO{ 5 . pgL cvaf/sf] laqmLaf6 tLg efusf]
kf]i6’ ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzs ;d]t /x]sf Gof}kfg]sf]   lj1fkgsf] e/                                                               \
                                                                                              Ps efu /sd cfk"mn] g5f]8g] -laqm]tf÷xs/nfO{
egfOdf æsltko ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿ t            ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df s' n k| s fzg              d"Nosf] b'O–ltxfO{ dfq sldzg lbg]_ atfp“5g\ .
                                                                                                         {
3/ n}hfg} g;lsg] vfnsf klg 5g\ .Æ o:tf]       :yfgsf] @^=# k|ltztb]lv $)=* k|ltzt;Dd                   ;fdfGotM ;dfrf/÷ljrf/sf nflu ^)
x'g glbg ;~hfnn] cfrf/;+l+ xtf agfpg] tof/L   lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] kfOG5 eg] ;dfrf/ /           / lj1fkgsf nflu $) k|ltzt :yfg lbg'
ul//x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .                        ljrf/n] %(=@ b]lv &#=& k|ltzt;Dd :yfg           cvaf/sf] :jf:Yosf nflu ;Gt'lnt dflgG5 .
          ;+If]kdf eGbf, ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/                         {'
                                              kfPsf] b]lvG5 . -x]gxf];\ tflnsf %_             t/ ;GWofsfnLgx¿n] Tolt ‘w]/}’ lj1fkg
rnfpg]x¿n] cl:tTjsf] ;+s6 cg'ej ub}{                  lj1fkgaf6 k| f Kt x' g ] /sd g}         kfpFb}gg\ . cWoogsf] ;do gofF jiff{/Dedf
hLjg/Iffsf] pkfo vf]Hg yfn]sf] b]lvG5 . o;    ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] d'Vo cfDbfgL xf] .          k/]sfn] dfq oL cvaf/df olt;Dd lj1fkg
qmddf Psflt/ k|sfzg ;do cufl8 ;f/]/           c:j:y k|lt:kwf{n] laqmL / lj1fkgsf] cfo         b]lvPsf] xf] . ;fy}, lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfgsf]
dWofGxd} NofOPsf] kfOG5 eg] csf{ l t/         v:sfPsf] 5 . ;~hfnsf cWoIf b]jsf]6f             u0fgf ubf{ ;DalGwt k|sfzgsf] lj1fkgnfO{
ljrf/k|wfg agfpg] gfddf ;dfrf/nfO{ g}         eG5g\— æclwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf]             klg ;d]l6Psf] 5 . o:tf lj1fkgaf6 k|sfzg
peos/0f u/]sf] klg k|z:t e]l6G5 . To:t},      cfly{s l:ylt gfh's 5 . d"No k|lt klqsf          ;+:yfnfO{ cfo cfh{g gx'g] :jtMl;4 5 . o:t},

     tflnsf %                           ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df ;dfrf/÷ljrf/ / lj1fkgsf] :yfg

           dxfgu/                                      vf]htnf;                                         >L sdf08/
     6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $              6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $                 6\ofAnf]O8                   k[i7 $

     ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                    ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg
      !@%!(=*      ju{ ;]=ld                       !#&&&=)      ju{ ;]=ld                           !#*@!=@      ju{ ;]=ld
      &)=* %                                       ^)=& %                                           ^!=* %

        lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                      lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                          lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg
      %!%#=@ ju{     ;]=ld                         *()#=)       ju{ ;]=ld                            *%@*=* ju{ ;]=ld
      @(=@ %                                       #(=# %                                            #*=@ %

                                                                                           l6Kk0fLM
                                                                                           != dxfgu/sf] 5 lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
            l;6L 6fOD;                                   l;6L kf]i6                            k|sflzt gx'g] .
      6\ofAnf]O8               k[i7 $              6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $        @= vf] h tnf;sf] ;ft lbgsf] c° ;d] l 6Psf] ,
                                                                                               zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg ! ut] -
     ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                zlgaf/_ gof“ jif{ ePsf]n] k|sflzt .
                                                                                           #= >Lsdf08/sf] ^ lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
      !!$&*=)      ju{ ;]=ld                       !)&^#=*       ju{ ;]=ld                     k|sflzt gx'g] .
      &#=& %                                       %(=@ %                                  $= l;6L 6fOD; kf“r lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
                                                                                               glg:sg] / j}zfv ^ ut] laxLaf/ lah'nL
                                                                                               gcfPsf]n] k|sfzg gePsf] .
        lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                      lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg               %= l;6L kf]i6 5 lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
      $)()=* ju{ ;]=ld                              &$@*=@ ju{ ;]=ld                           k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg ! ut] -zlgaf/_ gofF
      @^=# %                                        $)=* %                                     jif{ ePsfn] k|sflzt ePsf], j}zfv ^ ut]
                                                                                               laxLaf/ lah'nL gcfPsfn] k|sflzt gePsf] .

34                                                                                                                            df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                         dLg ah|frfo{
logsf lj1fkgbftfx¿df ljljwtf b]lvFb } g .        æclwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] cfly{s l:ylt gfh's 5 . d"No
s]xL lglZrt lj1fkgx¿ g} lgoldt¿kdf jf
lglZrt cGt/fndf 5flkPsf kfOG5g\ .                k|lt klqsf tLg ?k}of“ 5 t/ xs/÷laqm]tfn] b'O{ ?k}of“ &) k};f;Dd
         ;GWofsfnLgx¿sf] 3f]lift gLlt zlgaf/
cvaf/ k|sflzt gug]{ eP klg lj1fkg                 lng] / ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzsn] #) k};f dfq kfpg] oyfy{ klg 5 .Æ
k|flKtsf] ;Defjgfs} sf/0f j}zfv ! ut]
zlgaf/ k/] s f] eP klg $) k| l tzt             ;xL pkrf/sf] h¿/t                               uDeL/ ljifoj:t' n fO{ xNsfk' m Nsf /
;GWofsfnLgn] To; lbgdf ;d]t cvaf/                                                              ;To36gfnfO{ klg xr'jfh:tf] agfOlbg]
k|sflzt u/]sf] kfOof] . Ps jfSodf eGbf,        d'n's clxn] ;ª\qmd0fsf] qmddf 5 . Psflt/,
                                               lxhf];Dd åGå/t kIfx¿ ;D´f}tfa4x'b} ljrf/sf
                                                                                 “             efiffz}nL k|of]u gug]{ .
;du|df clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿                                                                                            {
                                                                                               zLif{s rog, ;dfrf/ n]vg÷k'gn]vg, ;"rgf
lj1fkgsf] b[li6n] s'kf]lift 5g\ . lj1fkgsf]    dfWodaf6 cf–cfÇgf nIotkm{ cl3 a9\g
                                               vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ . csf{lt/, gofF lsl;dsf åGå,     jf ;fdu|Lsf] ;Tofkg, ;fh;Hhf cflb;DaGwL
s'kf]if0fn] klg ;dfrf/÷ljrf/ ;fdu|Lsf]                                                         cfwf/e"t ;DkfbsLo ;Lkdf uDeL/tfk"j{s
:jf:YonfO{ kIff3ftsf] l:yltdf k'¥ofPsf]        ;ª\3if{ / cfjfhx¿ b]vf kl//x]sf 5g\ . o:tf]
                                               a]nf ;"rgfsf] v]tL ug]{x¿sf] e"ldsf klg         Wofg lbg'kg]{ .
x'g;S5 .                                                                                       ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ jf:tjdf g}
                                               ablnG5 . ablng' k 5{ . ;GWofsfnLg
laqmL l:ylt                                    cvaf/x¿ To;sf] ckjfb x'g ;Sb}gg\ .              ;GWofsfnLg x'g'kg]{ . cl3Nnf] lbgsf]
                                                        g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLgx¿ c´} afd] ;g]{      ;dfrf/nfO{ k:s]/, k|ftMsfnLg cvaf/x¿df
ljZjsf 7"nf Ps ;o cvaf/x¿sf] ;"rLdf                                                                                             "
                                                                                               k|sflzt ;dfrf/x¿nfO{ cfÇgf] cg'sn 9fn]/
PSsfO;f}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] ofª\;] Oelgª kf]i6     cj:yfdf g} 5g\ . kf7ssf] ljZjf; cfh{g
                                               ug{ logn] c´} lgs} s;/t ug{ af“sL g} 5 .        ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ lgsfNg] k|j[lQnfO{
-rLgaf6 k|sflzt_ sf] !& nfv !% xhf/ k|lt                                                       xtf]T;flxt ug]{ .
laqmLsf] t'ngfdf g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLgsf] l:ylt    oL cvaf/x¿n] tTsfn} Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fnfO{
gu0o 5 . ;Dks{df cfPsf k|sfzs÷ ;Dkfbs–         o;/L ;"rLa4 ug{ ;lsG5M
                                                                                                  ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿n] cfÇgf]
x¿n] 36Ldf b'O{ xhf/b]lv a9Ldf tL; xhf/;Dd                                                cl:tTjnfO{ hf]ufO/fVg] xf] eg] ljlzi6tf
laqmL ljt/0f x'g] u/]sf] bfaL u/]sf 5g\ .          ;dfrf/nfO{ b'?:t agfpg] . n]v/rgf /
;~hfnsf cWoIfsf] egfOdf eg] ;a}eGbf a9L            :tDex¿ k"0f{, :t/Lo, ;d;fdlos / ;'kfRo b]vfpg}k5{ . xs/÷laqm]tfx¿sf] rsf]{ cfjfhn]
                                                   x'g'kg]{ . ljZj;gLotfnfO{ dxŒj lbg] .  dfq cvaf/ l6sfpg ;ls“b}g .
                    { ]
laSg] cvaf/sf] ‘;s'n;g’ kfFr xhf/;Dd 5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                      35
     sfg"g


>dhLjL kqsf/ P]g
sfof{Gjogsf] k|Zg
      ;'/z cfrfo{ Joj:yflksf ;+;bn] >dhLjL kqsf/ P]g ;+zf]wg;lxt kfl/t u/]kl5 cfd kqsf/df >dhLjL kqsf/sf]
         ]
                     clwsf/ ;'/lIft aGb}5 eGg] cfzf knfPsf] 5 . klxn] sltko cfd ;~rf/sdL{ cfkm}+ cGof]ndf lyP .
                     pgLx¿nfO{ nfUYof], >dhLjL kqsf/sf] clwsf/ ;'/lIft ug]{ sfd of] b]zdf ;Dej 5}g . Joj:yfksx¿

                   7fGy], P]g sfof{Gjog x'g' eg]sf] cfkm" cyf{t\ Joj:yfkg            ;/sf/n] P]gdf Joj:yf ePsf] ‘kfl/>lds tyf
                   sdhf]/ x'g' xf] . pgLx¿ o;nfO{ sfof{Gjog gu/L                Ifltk"lt{ lgwf{/0f ;ldlt’ u7g gu/]sf] xf]Og . t/ Tof]
                   ;~rf/dfWod rnfpg rfxGy] . clxn] ;+zf]lwt P]g                 slxNo} k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]g . kqsf/ dxf;+3n] o;sf]
                   Jofjxfl/s agfpg vf]lhPsf] cfef; ePsf] 5 / nfu"               cWoIf k|sfzsdWo]af6 5fGg lbPsf] ;'emfj cg';f/
                   xf]nf eGg] cfzf klg a9]sf] 5 .                               ;/sf/n] klxnf] cWoIf lxdfno 6fOD; b}lgssf pHHjn
                                                                                zdf{nfO{ agfof] hf] P]gnfO{ cf+lzs ¿kdf ;d]t nfu"
                   lsg nfu" ePg P]g <                                           ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf 5}gg\ eGg] ;a}n] a'em]sf lyP . t}klg
                          g]kfndf >dhLjL kqsf/n] slxn] ;/sf/L dfGotf            pgsf] sfo{sfndf tTsfnLg ;/sf/L tnasf cfwf/df
                   kfof], Tolt k|:6 5}g . hgdt ;ª\u|xkl5 k~rfotL                Go"gtd kfl/>ldssf] 9f“rf tof/ u/]/ l;kmfl/; ul/Psf]
                   zf;gdf k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] u7g ubf{ >dhLjL                 lyof] . t/ To;} jif{ ;/sf/n] e|i6frf/ lgd"{n ug]{ eGb}
                   kqsf/dWo]af6 klxnf] k6s k|ltlglwTj u/fOPsf] lyof] .          sd{rf/Lsf] tna em08} bf]Aa/ agfPkl5 ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/;
                   @)#( ;fn df3 !@ ut] u7g ePsf] sfplG;ndf                      c;fGble{s ag]/ s'gfdf ylGsof] .
                   ab|Lk|;fb u'Ktf >dhLjL kqsf/sf] klxnf] k|ltlglw lyP .             bf];|f] cWoIf lgo'Qm ul/Psf g]kfn ;dfrf/kq
                          @)%! ;fndf >dhLjL kqsf/;DaGwL P]gdf /fhfn]            b}lgssf k|sfzs k'is/nfn >]i7n] kb g} :jLsf/ u/]gg\ .
                   nfndf]x/ nufP . Tolta]nf d'n'sdf Pdfn]sf] cNkdtsf]           oBlk >dhLjL kqsf/ ;DaGwL P]g sfof{Gjogsf nflu
                   ;/sf/ lyof] . P]gsf] d:of}bf p;n] u/]sf] lyPg, h;            lgodfjnL agfpg] ;ldltdf of] n]vs;“u} pgL klg ;b:o
                   lng] a]nfdf dfq pm cfOk'u]sf] lyof] . P]g aGg'k5{ eGg]       lyP . cfkm";d]t nfu]/ agfPsf] lgodfjnL sfof{Gjogsf]
                   s'/fdf klxn] s;}sf] ljdlt lyPg t/ P]g ag]kl5                 lhDd]jf/L kfp“bf pgL efUg'kg]{ sf/0f lyPg . t];|f] cWoIf
                   kqsf/x¿ ljeflht eP . Pdfn]n] NofPsf] P]g nfu" x'“bf          agfOPsf dx]Gb| z]/rg /fhwfgL b}lgssf k|sfzs x'g\ .
                   ;a} kqsf/ Pdfn] aGnfg\ eGg] dgf]u|GyLsf sf/0f,                                  [                    '
                                                                                pgL ;ldltsf] g]tTjdf cfpgf;fy d'nsdf /fhgLlts
                   sfª\u|];n] agfPsf] k|]; o'lgog P]gsf] 3f]/ lj/f]wL aGof] .   k|ltudg rn]sfn] ;ldltdf /x]sf kqsf/af6} pgn]
                   /d]z t'kmfg o'lgogsf cWoIf lyP . /f;;df cem} pgsf]           ;xof]u kfpg ;s]gg\ . pgL cfkm}+ P]gsf] sfof{Gjogdf
                   hflu/ 5 . tTsfnLg g]kfn kqsf/ ;+3 -clxn]sf]                                                                       }
                                                                                slt OdfGbf/ /x] eGg] k|Zg cfkm\gf] 7fp“df hLljt 5“b5 .
                   dxf;+3_ l;4fGttM P]gsf] ;dy{gdf lyof], t/ nfu" ul/xfNg            n]vs dxf;+3sf] ;efklt ePsf a]nf o;sf]
                   rflx“ o;sf] g]tTj cfkm}df tof/ lyPg . P]gn] kqsf/nfO{
                                   [       +                                                                              {
                                                                                sfof{Gjogsf ljifodf Joj:yfksx¿;“u b'Ok6s 5nkmn
                   ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L u/]/ b'O{ efudf ljefhg u/]sf]             ePsf] lyof] . s;}af6 o;sf] sfof{Gjogdf c;lhnf] x'g]
                   lyof] . kqsf/ ;+3df ;/sf/L kqsf/n] ev{/} dfq k|j]z           atfOPg . a¿ /fHon] lj1fkg lbg'kg]{ gLlt agfpg
                   kfPsf] To; cj:yfdf ;+3sf] g]t[Tj of] ljjfb km]l/ z'?         ;xof]u ug{ cfu|x ul/of] . t/ kl5 eg] sfg"g g}
                   ug{ rfx“b}gYof] . ;f] P]g lghL If]qdf dfq nfu" x'g]          Jofjxfl/s gePsf] eGg] l6Kk0fL u/]sf] ;'lgof] . sfg"gsf]
                   k|sl[ tsf] ePsfn] ;/sf/n] To;sf] sfof{Gjogdf rf;f]           s'g bkmfn] Joj:yfksnfO{ s] s:tf] ;+s6 kf¥of] eg]/
                   b]vfPg . P]gsf] kfngf gu/]df bl08t x'g'kg{] sfg'gL           rflx“ s;}n] pNn]v u/]g . ;"rgf ljefun] k|]; kf;
                   k|fjwfg g} g/flvPsf sf/0f Joj:yfksx¿n] To;nfO{               hf/L ubf{ l;kmfl/;kqsf] ;f6f] lgo'lQmkq dfUg] ;xdlt
                   ;xh} a]jf:tf u/] . ;a}lt/af6 pk]lIft ;f] P]g cGttM           dxf;+3n] ljefu;“u u¥of] . t/ To;sf] k|efjsf/L
                   af“b/sf] k'R5/sf ¿kdf ;Lldt x'g k'Uof] .                     sfof{Gjog ePg . k|]; /lhi6«f/sf] lhDd]jf/L kfPsf

36                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
ljefusf dxflgb]zsnfO{ s'g} klg ;~rf/dfWoddf sfd ;+:yfx¿n] c¿ s'g} ;'ljwf glbO{ >dhLjLnfO{ sfd
                    {
ug]{ >dhLjLsf af/]df hfgsf/L dfUg] sfg"gL clwsf/ nufPsf 5g\ .
5 . t/ ltgn] ‘Joj:yfksx¿ lrl9g]’ o; sfddf xft                     k]zfut xslxtsf nflu cfjfh p7fpg'kg]{ ;+:yf
xfNg rfx]gg\ .                                           g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3 xf] . xfdLsxf“ >dhLjL kqsf/sf
                                                         nflu dfq} eg]/ n8\g] ;+:yfsf] ljsf; x'g;s]sf] 5}g .
sfg"gL l5b| / cJofjxfl/s k|fjwfg                         P]gsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu u7g x'g] ;ldltdf dxf;+3sf]
      P]gsf] bkmf % df s/f/df >dhLjL kqsf/ lgo'Qm        k|ltlglwTj clgjfo{ /xG5 . o; ;Gbe{df dxf;+3n] P]gsf]
ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . >dhLjL kqsf/x¿sf] kfngf u/fpg Ifdtf k|bz{g ug{ g;s]sf] :jLsf/
zf]if0f ug{ afgL k/]sf Joj:yfksx¿n] o;} bkmfnfO{ ug'{k5{ .
zf]if0fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] xltof/sf] ¿kdf k|of]u u/] .
s/f/df /flvPsfx¿nfO{ To;df pNn]v eP afx]s s'g} ;+zf]wgkl5sf] gof“ Joj:yf
;'ljwf lbg' gkg{] / s/f/ gylklbg] qf;sf] t/af/                    ;+zf]lwt P]gn] ‘;~rf/ k|lti7fg’ nfO{ k'gM kl/eflift
6fpsf]dfly e'm08\ofP/ ;w}“ lg/Lx Pj+ /IffTds cj:yfdf     u/L ;~rf/;DaGwL s'g} Joj;fo jf ;]jf ;~rfng ug]{                   >dhLjL kqsf/
/fVg ;lsg] ePsfn] Joj:yfksx¿sf nflu of] ‘/fdaf0f’ p2]Zon] tLg hgf jf ;f]eGbf a9L >dhLjL kqsf/,                              P]gsf] kl5Nnf]
7xl/of] . P]gnfO{ To;sf] efjgfcg'¿k sfof{Gjog u/fpg sd{rf/L jf sfdbf/ sfo{/t /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs jf lghL                      ;+zf]wgn] To;nfO{
;/sf/n] klg bfloTj lnPg / kqsf/ cfkm}+ klg sfg"gsf ;~rf/dfWod jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ ;Demg'k5{ eg]sf]                           lgs} xb;Dd
cfwf/df :yfoL÷c:yfoL lgo'lQmkq / ;]jf, ;'ljwfx¿sf] 5 . o;cl3 klqsf k|sfzg ug]{ ;+:yf dfq ;~rf/dfWod                      Jofjxfl/s agfPsf]
dfu ug{ cl3 ;/]gg\ . Joj:yfkgn] lbPsf] df}lvs eg]/ kl/eflift lyof] . t/ o; k6ssf] kl/efiffn] sfo{qmd
cfZjf;gdf g} w]/}h;f] e/ k/] / zf]lift eO/x] . pTkfbg dfq} ug]{ ;+:yfnfO{ ;d]t ;d]6]sf] 5 . of] sfg"g                   5 . t/, ;/sf/ /
Joj:yfkg;“u clwsf/sf] n8fO“ n8\g] cf“6 u/]gg\ . kfngf ug{ k|;f/0f jf k|sfzg ug}{ kg]{ h¿/L 5}g .                         kqsfl/tfhut :jo+
ev{/} elgP em}+, sfg"gsf] plrt sfof{Gjog gubf{ ;fy} ckjfbsf ¿kdf g]kfn ;/sf/n]] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f                        o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf
Joj:yfkg bl08t x'gkg{] s'g} k|fjwfg gePsf] a¿ >dhLjL ;ldltsf] k/fdz{df g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg
                      '                                                                                                 nflu ;lqmo gx'g] xf]
kqsf/nfO{ g} b08 ;hfo ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf /x]sfn] u/L kqklqsfsf] laqmL ;ª\Vof, /]l8of] oGqsf] Ifdtf,                         eg] P]g >dhLjL
                                                             '
pQm P]g kqsf/x¿sf nflu sfunfO{ a]n kfs]eGbf vf;} s]an 6]lnlehgsf] u|fxs ;ª\Vof, cgnfOg klqsf k|of]u
a9L x'g ;s]g .                                           ;ª\Vof, sfo{qmd pTkfbg ;ª\Vof, ;dfrf/ ljt/0f                   kqsf/sf nflu km]l/
      kqsf/nfO{ ;/sf/L sd{rf/L;/x labf lbg'kg{] ;ª\VofnfO{ ljrf/ u/L s'g} ;~rf/ k|lti7fgdf of] P]g                        klg sfunfO{ a]n
lgodfjnLsf] k|fjwfg rflx“ cfkm}+df cJofjxfl/s lyof] . nfu" gx'g] ug{ ;Sg] k|fjwfg klg ;+zf]wgn] ;d]6]sf] 5 .            kfs];/x x'g k'Ug]5 .
lgodfjnLn] e}k/L cfpg] / kj{ labf ^–^ lbgsf b/n]                  ;+:yfdf sfd ug]{sf] kbsf] juL{s/0f o;cl3 ;+:yf
!@ lbg, 3/ labf #) lbg / la/fdL labf !@ lbg u/L                +}
                                                         cfkm+n] ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf /x]sf]df clxn] ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f
jif{df %$ lbg lgoldt labfsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . u/]adf]lhd ug'{kg]{ ul/Psf] 5 . tL kbsf] nflu rflxg]
o;afx]s ^) lbg ;'Ts]/L labf, !% lbg lsl/of labf / of]Uotf, cg'ej, sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tyf pQ/bfloTj
kf“r jif{ sfd ug]nfO{ Ps jif{;Ddsf] a]tnjL labf lbg'kg]{ eg] ;DalGwt Joj:yfkssf] lhDdfdf 5fl8Psf] 5 . ;fy}
                  {
k|fjwfg 5 . cfjZostf kbf{ !* 306f;Dd sfd ub{} / o;k6s P]gn] lgo'lQmkq glbO{ s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ sfddf
nufO“b} cfPsf]df Ps lbgdf * 306feGbf a9L sfddf nufpg gx'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
nufpg gkfOg] / yk sfdsf] nflu yk /sd lbg'kg]{                     cl3Nnf] sfg'gdf slt hgf;DdnfO{ s/f/df lgo'lQm
Joj:yf ;~rf/dfWodsf nflu cgf}7f] lyof] . o;sf ug{ ;lsg] eGg] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] lyPg . o;k6s
;fy}, lgodfjnLn] Joj:yf u/]sf] jflif{s tna j[l4, eg] s'g} JolQmsf] ljz]if1 ;]jf lng'kg]{ ePdf Joj:yfksn]
                                                           ]
sNof0fsf/L sf]ifsf] :yfkgf, ;~rosf]if, pkrf/ vr{, k|; /lhi6«f/sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ lglZrt ;dofjlw tf]sL
pkbfg, bz}+ vr{ / aLdfsf] k|fjwfgnfO{ klg Joj:yfkg       kGw| k|ltzt;Dd dfq >dhLjL kqsf/ /fVg kfpg]
kIfn] yk e'Qmdfgsf ¿kdf lnof] . s]xL ;Lldt ;+:yfn] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy}, s/f/df lgo'Qm ePsf] JolQmsf]
b'3{6gf aLdf ul/lbg' afx]s clxn];Dd klg ;~rf/ ;d]t kfl/>lds, ;~ro sf]if tyf c¿ ;'ljwf ;~rf/

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                             37
                       k|lti7fgsf] ;dfg kb jf txdf sfo{/t >dhLjL kqsf/n]          / ;/sf/sf k|ltlglw /xg]5g\ . af“sL rf/ hgfdWo]
                       kfpg]eGbf sd ug{ kfO“b}g . sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf s'g}           kqsfl/tf If]qdf ljlzi6 of]ubfg u/]sf] JolQm cWoIf
                       >dhLjL kqsf/nfO{ rf]6k6s nfu]df, lghsf] c+ue+u             /xg]5 eg] g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf] ;efklt, ;~rf/
                       ePdf, d[To' ePdf jf lghsf] JolQmut ;DklQ gi6               ;+:yfdf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/L / >d tyf cy{ ljz]if1
                       ePdf pkrf/ vr{ jf Ifltk"lt{sf] /sd ;DalGwt ;~rf/           ;b:o /xg] 5 g\ . ;ldltsf] of] ;+ / rgfn] lqkIfLo
                       k|lti7fgn] g} Joxf]g'{kg]{ Joj:yf klg sfg"gn] u/]sf] 5 .   ;Gt'ngnfO{ sfod u/]sf] 5 .
                            Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug{ aGg] ;ldltsf]                  s'g} klg ;~rf/ ;+:yfdf ztk|ltzt kqsf/ s/f/df
                       ;+/rgfdf Jofks x]/km]/ ePsf] 5 . ca ;/sf/af6               /fVg ;lsg] 9f]sf aGb u/]/ !% k|ltzteGbf a9L /fVg
                       ;x;lrj:t/sf JolQmn] k|ltlglwTj ug{]5g\ eg] g]kfn           gkfpg] ul/Psf] 5 . of] k|fjwfg Hofb} dxŒjk"0f{ 5 t/
                       kqsf/ dxf;+3sf ;efklt kb]g ;b:o /xg]5g\ .                  o;nfO{ nfu" u/fpg ;/sf/n] 7"n} s;/t ug'{kg]{
                       Joj:yfkssf] plrt k| l tlglwTj x' g ] 5 / ;~rf/             x'g;S5 . JolQmut ¿kdf s/f/d} sfd ug{ rfxg]
      s'g} klg ;~rf/ k|lti7fgdf sfd ug]{ sfdbf/ jf sd{rf/Laf6 klg k|ltlglw        JolQmx¿sf sf/0fn] of] k|ltzt gf£of] eg] s] ug]{ < of]
   ;+:yfdf ztk|ltzt    /xg]5g\ . sy+sbflrt\ ;ldltn] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug{         afWofTds k|fjwfgaf6 pDsg ;+:yfut ¿kdf s'g} clen]v
 kqsf/ s/f/df /fVg ;s]g eg] ;/sf/ cfkm}+n] Go"gtd kfl/>lds tf]Sg ;Sg]             g} g/fvL -df}lvs ;xdltsf] dfq cfwf/df_ >dhLjL
 ;lsg] 9f]sf aGb u/]/ j}slNks Joj:yfnfO{ ljwfosx¿n] /fd|f] dfg]/ ;dfj]z           kqsf/ lgo'Qm ug]{ vt/f o;n] a9fPsf] 5 . s/f/sf]
  !% k|ltzteGbf a9L u/]sf 5g\ .                                                   bfo/fnfO{ cln v'snf] ul/lbPsf] eP To:tf] vt/f sd
                                                                                                       '
                            s'g} Joj:yfksn] of] P]g ljk/Lt sfd u/]df kRrL;        x'g]lyof] .
 /fVg gkfpg] ul/Psf] xhf/ ?k}of“;Dd hl/jfgf ug{ ;lsg] / ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn]                ;+zf]wgsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ kIf sfg"gsf] kfngf gug]{
 5 . of] k|fjwfg Hofb} To;f] u/]df ;/sf/n] lbg] ;'ljwfdf /f]s nufpg ;lsg]         ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ /fHon] ug]{ juL{s/0fdf g/fVg] / /fHon]
dxŒjk"0f{ 5 t/ o;nfO{ Joj:yf P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . ;'ljwf /f]s nufpg] ;Gbe{df          lbg] c¿ ;'ljwf klg /f]]Sg ;Sg] k|fjwfg xf] . cvaf/sf
 nfu" u/fpg ;/sf/n] ;/sf/n] kqklqsfnfO{ juL{s/0fdf ;dfj]z gug{, cg'bfg            xsdf juL{s/0fdf g/x]kl5 /fHo s'g} ;'ljwf lbg afWo
                  {
   7"n} s;/t ug'kg]{   jf lj1fkgdf /f]s nufpg jf s6f}tL ug{, ;~rf/ ;fdu|L           “}
                                                                                  x'bg . juL{s/0f cfjZos eP klg /]l8of] / 6]lnlehgnfO{
                               “
                       Pj+ ;f];u ;DalGwt sRrf kbfy{sf] cfoftdf /f]s nufpg         juL{s/0f ug]{ k|fjwfg 5}g .
  x'g;S5 . JolQmut / ;/sf/L e|d0f bndf ;xefuL gu/fpg ;S5 .                              xfd|f ;Gbe{df /fHon] lbg] ;'ljwf pNn]vgLo gePsf]
¿kdf s/f/d} sfd ug{         ;+zf]lwt P]gn] >dhLjL kqsf/x¿nfO{ o; cl3              of] Joj:yf ;f]r] hlt k|efjsf/L gx'g] vt/f 5 . sfg'g
   rfxg] JolQmx¿sf     Joj:yf gePsf] 6«]8 o'lgog u7g ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/              kfngf gubf{ ul/g] b08 hl/jfgf lgs} sd 5 . g}lts
  sf/0fn] of] k|ltzt   lbPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn] >dhLjL               bfloTj af]w ug]{ ;+:yfsf nflu Go"gtd hl/jfgf klg
  gf£of] eg] s] ug]{ < kqsf/sf] Jofj;flos bIftf, Ifdtf / ;Lk ljsf;sf]             7"nf] ;hfo xf] . t/ cl3Nnf] k6s !@ jif{;Dd sfg'gsf]
                                                               ' {
                       nflu cWoog tyf tflndsf] Joj:yf ug{kg]5 . o;lglDt           a]jf:tf ug{ glxlRsrfPsf ;+:yfx¿ / ;+:yfut x'g
                       ;/sf/n] ;~rf/ k|lti7fgnfO{ cfly{s tyf k|fljlws             g;ls/x]sf] xfd|f] kqsfl/tf–;+:sf/sf sf/0f @% xhf/
                       ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg ;Sg]5 eg] ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn]              ?k}of“sf] b08 hl/jfgf klg sfg"g kfngfsf ;Gbe{df
                       klg cfkm\gf] jflif{s s'n cfosf] Ps k|ltzt /sd              vf;} cy{k"0f{ gxf]nf eGg] 8/ 5 .
                       5'6\ofpg'kg]{5 .                                                 >dhLjL kqsf/ P]g klxn] sfg"gL l5b|, cJofjxfl/s
                                                                                  k|fjwfg / rf}tkmL{ pk]Iffsf sf/0f a]jfl/;] x'g k'usf]]
                            ca sfof{Gjog xf]nf P]g <                              xf] . kl5Nnf] ;+zf]wgn] To:tf l5b| x6fP/ o;nfO{ lgs}
                                 sfg"g ;+zf]wgdf s]xL cfwf/e"t kl/jt{g ePsf       xb;Dd Jofjxfl/s agfPsf] 5 . t/, ;/sf/ /
                            5g\ . klxnf] t cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gsf] dfGotfcg'¿k    kqsfl/tfhut :jo+ o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;lqmo
                            kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ;ldltdf ;/sf/, Joj:yfkg /           gx'g] xf] eg] ‘;~rf/ k|lti7fg’ sf] Joj:yfkgn] k'gM
                            >dhLjLsf] ;dfg k|ltlglwTjsf] k|of; ePsf] 5 . !#       k'/fg} /j}of ckgfpg] / P]g >dhLjL kqsf/sf nflu
                            ;b:oLo ;ldltdf #—# hgf Joj:yfks, >dhLjL kqsf/         km]l/ klg sfunfO{ a]n kfs];/x x'g k'Ug]5 .



  38                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                    b[li6sf]0f



dlxnf d'2f /
cfhsf] cfjZostf
        1fg" kf08] g]kfndf /f0ffsfnLg cGwsf/ o'un] ult lnO/x]s} ;doaLr lj=;+= !(%* df ‘uf]vf{kq’ sf] k|sfzg z'? ePsf]
                     xf] . o;sf] ;“u;“u} g]kfndf kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; z'? ePsf] dflgG5 . Tof] Oltxf;df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]
                     ;Gbe{ eg] krf; jif{kl5 lj=;+=@))* ;fnb]lv dfq uf“l;Psf] xf] . oBlk sltkon] g]kfndf dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf]


                                        Oltxf; lj=;+= !(*) af6} yflnPsf] xf] eg]sf]        ;~rf/If] q df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]
                                        klg kfOG5 t/ g]kfnleq} /x]/ g]kfnL dlxnfn]         ultlj:tf/
                                        kqsfl/tf ug{ z'? u/]sf] ;do eg]sf] @))*            g]kfndf 5fkf tyf ljB'tLo b'j} ;~rf/dfWoddf
                                        ;fn g} xf] . ;fwgf k|wfg / sfdfIffb]jLsf]                                              }
                                                                                           dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] ult ;“u;“uh;f] cufl8
                                        ;+oQm ;DkfbsTjdf @))* ;fn h]7df ‘dlxnf’
                                            '                                              a9]sf] kfOG5 . ‘dlxnf’ dfl;saf6 cf/De ePsf]
                                        dfl;s k|sflzt ePkl5 g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfdf            5fkfdfWoddf dlxnf ;xeflutfnfO{ Tolta]nf
                                        dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] Oltxf; cf/De ePsf]               lk|oDabf zdf{, s'GtLb]jL, /dfb]jL, /Ltf, sNkgf,
                                        xf] . oBlk dlxnf ljifodf dfq s]lGb|t ePsf]         rGbf, ljhonIdL dNn, nIdLb]jL lrqsf/,
                                        pQm klqsf g]kfn dlxnf ;+3sf] d'vkq lyof]           ;/f]lhgL dfgGw/, nIdL /l~htsf/nufotsf
                                         / To;a]nf s]jn Psjif{ dfq lg:s]/ Tof] aGb         dlxnfx¿n] cufl8 a9fpg] sfd u/]sf] a'lemG5 .
                                                 ePsf] lyof] . t/ klg dlxnf                oL dlxnfx¿n] cfkm" ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs
                                                   kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; lgdf{0fdf To;n]      agL k| e f -@))*_, hgljsf; -@)!)_,
                                                   k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] pRr d"Nof+sg       hg;flxTo -@)!!_, ef]/ -@)!!_ , /+ud~r -
                                                   gul//xg ;lsGg .                         @)!!_, 1fgljsf; -@)!%_ h:tf dfl;s tyf
                                                             Toltv] / pQm klqsfdf          å}dfl;s klqsf cufl8 NofPsf lyP . logLx¿s}
                                                    ;x;Dkfbssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{         ;"rLdf c¿ tLg dlxnfsf] gfd klg cfp“5 .
                                                    zLnaGbL, dw's/L, k|ldnfnufotsf                \                  ]
                                                                                           tL x'gM zlzsnf zdf{, k|ds'df/L kGt / cfzf
                                                    dlxnfx¿sf] gfd klg oxf“lg/ :d/0fLo     l;+x zfx . zlzsnf zdf{sf] ;DkfbsTjdf
                                                   x'g cfp“5 . g]kfnh:tf] dlxnf hfltk|lt   @)!% ;fnaf6 k|sflzt x'g z'? ePsf]
                                                   cToGt ;+sl' rt ;f]r kfNg] ;fdflhs       ‘:jf:gLdfG5]’ -z'?df q}dfl;s kl5 å}dfl;s_
                                                kl/j]z ePsf] d'nsdf -Tof] klg cfhsf]
                                                                   '                       lgs} kl5;Dd klg lgl:s/x]sf] lyof] . kqsfl/tf
                                              s'/f xf]Og_ Tof] hdfgfdf dlxnfx¿n]           ljifodf ljb]zaf6 pRr lzIff xfl;n u/L o;
                                                kqsfl/tfdf xft xfNg' eg]sf] ;fdfGo s'/f              ]
                                                                                           If]qdf k|jz ug]{ k|yd g]kfnL dlxnf cfzf l;+xn]
                                                     xf]Og . tL dlxnfx¿n] Toltv]/ To:tf]   @)#@ ;fnb] l v cfkm\ g } ;DkfbsTj Pj+
                                                          cu|;/tf gb]vfOlbPsf eP eGg       k|sfzsTjdf lgsfNg z'? u/]sf] ‘l;ld|s’
                                                             ;lsGgYof], cem} slt nfdf]     -;fKtflxs_ n] klg lgs} kl5;Dd g} lg/Gt/tf
                                                             ;do xfdLn] s'gkYof]{ xf]nf
                                                                             {'                          ]
                                                                                           kfO/x\of] . k|ds'df/L kGtsf] kqsfl/tfsf] ofqf
                                                             g]kfndf dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf]     @)@# af6 z'? ePsf] xf] . z'?df ‘bL ljSnL
                                                             Oltxf; z'? ePsf] x]g{ .       ld//’ af6 cufl8 cfPsL pgL kl5 uP/ ‘bk{0f’,


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                          39
                                                                                                  @)$^ ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5
                                                                                        t kqsfl/tfdf dlxnf cfsif{0f pNn]vgLo 9+un]
                                                                                        g} a9\b} uPsf] kfOG5 . jf:tjdf b]zdf l;+u}
                                                                                        kqsfl/tfhut g} km:6fp“b} hfg', lghL ¿kdf
                                                                                                                                “
                                                                                        -klg_ gof“–gof“ ;+rf/ ;+:yfx¿ v8f x'b} hfg',
                                                                                        Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ gof“gof“ b}lgs cvaf/x¿
                                                                                        wdfwd lg:sg z'? x'g,' lghL:t/df 6]lnlehgsf
                                                                                        Rofgnx¿ klg Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ ylk“b} hfg',
                                                                                        cem Pkm=Pd :6];gsf] :yfkgfdf t emg\ af9L g}
                                                                                        cfpg' cflb sf/0fn] ubf{ klg x'g;S5 5ofnL;
                                                                                        ;fnkl5sf jif{x¿df dlxnfx¿df kqsfl/tfnfO{
                                                                                        g} d'Vo k]zf agfP/ cufl8 a9\g] xf]8 lgs} a9]/
                                                                                                                              “ “
                                                                                        uPsf] b]lvG5 . t/ d'Vo s'/f, Tolt x'bfx'b} klg
                                                                                        dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] ;ª\Vof k'?if ;xeflutfsf]
                                                                                        t'ngfdf cem} klg cToGt Go"g /x]sf] 5 .
                                                                                                  g]kfnsf ;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfx¿sf] cu'jf
                                                                                        ;+:yf cl:dtfn] kl5Nnf]kN6 lj=;+=@)%( ;fndf
                                                                                                    {
                                                                                        u/]sf] ;j]If0fn] ;+rf/df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]]
                                                                                        ;+Vof !(=#* k|ltzt b]vfPsf] 5 . ;f]xL ;+:yfaf6
                                     ‘g] ; gn :6f/’, ‘8] n L ld//’ h:tf c¿                                       {
                                                                                        klxnf] kN6 @)$( df ;j]If0f ul/+bf Tof] k|ltzt
                                     klqsfx¿sf] ;Dkfbg tyf k|sfzgdf klg ;lqmo                                       {
                                                                                        !@=#@ dfq lyof] . pQm ;j]If0fn] b]vfPcg';f/
                                     /lxg\ . ‘b ljSnL ld//’df z'?df pgL ;Dkfbg          bz jif{sf] cjlwdf ;~rf/If]qdf dlxnf
                                     ;xof]uLsf ¿kdf ;+nUg ePsL lyOg\ t/ s]xL            ;xeflutfsf] cj:yfdf h'g ultn] clej[l4 ePsf]
                                     jif{kl5 To;sf] ;Dkfbg tyf k|sfzgsf] k"/f           kfOof] Tof] lgZro g} sd dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f xf]Og .
                                     cleef/f PSn}n] af]sL lgs} kl5;Dd To;               t/ klg o; cjlwdf b]zsf]] l;+uf] ;+rf/hutn]
       @)$^ ;fnsf] /fhgLlts          klqsfnfO{ pgn] lg/Gt/tf lbO/lxg\ . pgL             h'g 9+udf ljsf;sf] km8\sf] df/]sf] 5 To;sf]
                                     cem};Dd kqsfl/tfdf ;lqmo g} 5g\ .                  t'ngfdf dlxnf ;xeflutf clej[l4sf] Tof] ult
      kl/jt{gkl5 b]zdf ;a}eGbf                otf ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWoddf dlxnf            ;Gtf]ifk|b s'/f xf]Og . dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
       a9L km:6fPsf] If]q eg]sf]                                '
                                     ;xeflutfsf] ;Gbe{ z'? x'gdf /]l8of] g]kfnsf]       ;DaGwdf jl/i7 kqsf/ xl/x/ lj/xLn] tLg jif{
     kqsfl/tf g} xf] . t/ klg s'g}   :yfkgf dxŒjk"0f{ dfWod ag]sf]] b]lvG5 . dbfn;f                                   {
                                                                                        cl3 Ps ;Gbe{df JoQm ug'ePsf] egfO oxf“
      ljb]zLn] ‘ltd|f] b]zdf clxn]   l;+x, zfGtf >]i7, /lZd /fHonIdL /f0ff, k|ef        pNn]v ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g] b]V5' . dlxnf
      dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf] ;ª\Vof        a:g]t, /~hgf zdf{, ld7"bjL, uf}/L s]=;L=, s[i0ff
                                                             ]                                                              \
                                                                                        kqsf/x¿sf] cj:yfaf/] s'/f sf]6ofp“bf of]
                                                                          '
                                     tfd|fsf/, jLgf u'?ª, /fgL u'?ª, g'k/ e§frfo{,      k+lQmsf/l;t pxf“n] eGg'ePsf] lyof], æ@)$^
     slt 5 <’ eg]/ k|Zg u¥of]] eg]                { '
                                     wg nfdf, ;"osdf/L kGt, sNof0fL l/dfn, ;l/tf        ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5 b]zdf ;a}eGbf
        nfhn] lz/ lgx'/fpg'kg]{      e§, ef/tL l;njfnnufotsf dlxnfx¿sf] gfd             a9L km:6fPsf] If]q eg]sf] kqsfl/tf g} xf] . t/
           cj:yf 5 xfd|f] .          g]kfnsf] ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWodsf cu|h dlxnf           klg s'g} ljb]zLn] ‘ltd|f] b]zdf clxn] dlxnf
                                     kqsf/x¿sf] ;"rLdf kb{5 . oLdWo] s]xL               kqsf/x¿sf] ;ª\Vof slt 5 <’ eg]/ k|Zg
                                     cem};Dd klg /]l8of] g]kfndf ;lqmo ¿kdf             u¥of]] eg] nfhn] lz/ lgx'/fpg'kg]{ cj:yf 5
                                     sfo{/t 5g\ . ljB'tLo ;~rf/dWoddf dlxnf             xfd|f] .Æ
                                     ;xeflutf clej[l4 u/fpg g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf]
                                     :yfkgfsf] klg p:t} dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x\of] .       ;~rf/df dlxnf d'2f
                                     vf;df eGg] xf] eg] g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf] :yfkgf        dlxnf d'2f dlxnfsf] dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf]Og,
                                     -:yfkgf @)$!, lgoldt k|;f/0f @)$@_ b]lv            Tof] l;+uf] ;dfhs} ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] eGg] s'/f
                                     g} g]kfndf ;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfx¿sf] ;+Vofdf            g]kfnL ;~rf/If]qn] cem};Dd klg /fd|/L a'em\g
                                     clej[l4 x'g z'? ePsf] xf] / ;~rf/sdL{              g;s] em}+ k|tLt x'G5 . lsgls xfdLsxf“ z'?b]lv
                                     dlxnfx¿k|lt cfd ;dfhsf] rf;f] klg a9]/             g} dlxnf d'2fnfO{ dlxnfsf] dfq rf;f]sf] ljifo
                                     hfg yfn]sf] xf] .                                  xf] h:tf] Jojxf/ ul/“b} cfPsf]] kfOG5 . sltko

40                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
cj:yfdf t :jo+ dlxnfx¿ g} klg o; k|sf/sf]
;f] r n] u| : t ePsf] e] l 6G5 . dlxnf
;~rf/sdL{sf] cj:yf ljifosf] cg';Gwfgsf]
qmddf ;lqmo kqsfl/tf ul//x]sf clwsf+z
dlxnfx¿n] eg] s f lyP– ‘w] / } h ;f]
;~rf/dfWodx¿df dlxnf kqsf/nfO{ dlxnf,
                             \
afnaflnsf, :jf:Yo, z[ªuf/, ;fh;Hhfh:tf
ljifoafx]s cGo ljifodf ltgn] rfx] klg sfd
                   }
ug{ lhDdf lbO“bg . 7f8} elgG5– /fhgLlt,
cy{, k//fi6« jf pBf]uJofkf/h:tf ljifo hl6n
x'g,\ dlxnf kqsf/n] oL ljifonfO{ kf/ ug{
;Sb}gg\ .’ cg';Gwfgsf] l;nl;nfdf ul/Psf]
5nkmn sfo{ q mddf :tDen] v gdf ;lqmo
dlxnfx¿sf] klg s'/f ;'Gg] cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] .
tLdWo] s] x Lsf] egfO lyof] – ‘dlxnf
:tDesf/x¿n] hlxn] klg dlxnfs} ljifodf dfq
n]lvlbof];\ eGg] rfxG5g\ ;Dkfbsx¿ .’ sltko
:tDesf/x¿n] eg] cfkm" :jo+ g} dlxnfsf]
ljifodf s]lGb|t x'g ?rfPsf] atfPsf lyP .
          oxf“ oL ;Gbe{x¿ p7fP/ dlxnf
kqsf/n] dlxnf d'2f p7fpg'nfO{ a]7Ls eGg
     ]
vf]hsf] lsdfy{ xf]Og . rfx] cx|fP/ xf];\ of :j]R5fn]
dlxnfn] dlxnfsf] d'2fdf snd rnfpg' jf
                                       {
sfo{qmdx¿ lgdf{0f ug',{ k|:t't ug'nfO{ cGoyf
cy{df a'em\g ldNb}g . t/ d'Vo s'/f s] eg]
dlxnf d'2f s]jn dlxnfs} dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo
xf] eGg]h:tf] Jojxf/ ug'{ rflx“ ;xL xf]Og . kqsf/
k|tLs k|wfg dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf] k|jl[ Qaf/] s'/f         cfhsf] cfjZostf
p7]sf] a]nf k|foM eGg] u5{g,\ ‘dlxnfn] dlxnfs}         jf:tjdf ;~rf/dfWodsf] sfd ;dfhdf ;"rgf
ljifodf -dfq_ n]vg\ jf n]Vg'k5{ eG7fGg' ;xL
                     '                                 ;Dk|i] f0f ug'{ dfq xf]Og, ;dfhnfO{ lzlIft ug'{
xf]Og .’ t/ oyfy{ nueu To:t} To:t} dfq b]Vg'kbf{       klg xf] . kqsfl/tfsf] ;fdflhs bfloTjk|lt
pgL x}/fg x'G5g\ . /, eG5g\– ‘dlxnf kqsfl/tfdf         cgle1tfsf] Jojxf/ ug'{ ;DalGwt s;}nfO{ klg          kqsfl/tf k]zfdf /xg /x/ dfq ug'{
plxn]bl] v g} b]lv“b} cfPsf]] of] k/Dk/fsf] ca         ;'xfpg] s'/f x'Gg . cfkm\gf] of] bfloTjk|lt st}
cGTo x'gk5{ / dlxnfn] dlxnf d'2fafx]s c¿
           '                                           g]kfnL ;~rf/hut cfjZos dfqfdf ;hu x'g                  kof{Kt x'Gg, cfOkg]{ ofjt r'gf}tLsf]
d'2fdf klg lg/Gt/ snd rnfpg'k5{ .’ k|wfgsf]            r'ls/x]sf] t 5}g < o;af/] d'nssf] ;~rf/If]qsf
                                                                                     '                                                 {
                                                                                                         ;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; tyf w}osf] klg plQs}
of] egfOk|lt ;dy{g hgfpg lxlRsrfpg'kg]{ s'g}           xtf{stf{x¿n] uDeL/ eP/ ;f]Rg'kg]{ vf“rf]                vf“rf] 5 . hxf“;Dd sfo{If]qdf
               }
sf/0f b]lv“bg . t/ d'Vo s'/f, dlxnf d'2f               68\sfl/Psf] 5 . ;dfhdf dlxnfsf] cj:yfdf
                                                                                                                                            {
                                                                                                         n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'kg]{ s'/f
dlxnfsf] dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] eGg] ;f]r            kl/jt{g gcfp~h]n b]z ljsf;sf] ;kgf sbflk
xfd|f] ;~rf/If]qdf plxNo}bl] v cfh;Dd klg xfjL         k"/f x'g;Sb}g eGg] tYo 5n{· eO;s]sf] cfhsf]            5 To;sf nflu klg dlxnfnfO{ x]g{ ]
5, ;a}eGbf klxnf t To;}df kl/jt{g cfpg'                ;dodf ;~rf/dfWodsf xtf{ s tf{ x ¿af6                k'?ifsf] k'/ftg ;f]rdf kl/jt{g cfP/
h?/L 5 . ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm" dftxtsf k'?if                ;dfhnfO{ k|lzlIft ug{ kxn ug'{ t stf xf] stf      dfq k'Ub}g, k'?ifnfO{ x]g{ ] dlxnfsf] ;f]rdf
kqsf/nfO{ klg dlxnf d'2fdf snd rnfpg jf                pN6f] cfkm\g} If]qleq sfo{/t dlxnfx¿k|lt ;d]t
sfo{qmd lgdf{0f ug{ k|fT;flxt ug'{ h?/L 5 .
                          ]                            lje]bk"0f{ Jojxf/ ul/G5 eg] Tof]eGbf nfhdbf]{     klg kl/jt{g cfpg' plQs} vf“rf] 5 eGg]
gq eg] dlxnf d'2f dlxnf kqsf/ jf dlxnf                 s'/f c¿ s] x'g;Snf < kqsfl/tf ug{] /x/ lnP/                      a'em\g' h?/L 5 .
:tDesf/x¿n] p7fpg sd ubf{ cvaf/df jf                                                   ]
                                                       o; If]qdf kfOnf 6]Sg cfOk'usf dlxnfx¿df
/]l8of] 6]lnlehgx¿df Tof] ljifo emg\ 7\ofDd}           kqsfl/tf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ / ;~rf/df dlxnf
gcfOlbg] kf] xf] ls ! s]xL eGg ;lsGg .                 ;xeflutfsf] ;ª\Vof ;do ;'xfp“bf] 9+udf a9fP/

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                      41
nUgsf nflu ;a}eGbf klxnf o; If]qdf JofKt
n+l} us cGwtfsf] cj:yfsf] cGTo x'g' cfjZos
5 / sfof{noleqsf] ef}lts ;+/rgf, Joj:yfkg
                                                                           dlxnf kqsf/sf ;d:of
kIf tyf lg0ff{os txb]lv ;xsdL{sf] tx;Dd               xfdLsxf“ kqsfl/tf If]qdf dlxnfsf xsdf plxn]bl] v cfh;Dd klg Pp6f k|jl[ Q 68\sf/f]
                               '
;j{q n}l+ usd}qL ;f]r xfjL x'gkg]{ vf“rf] 5 .                                                                                    ]
                                                      ¿kdf b]lv“b} cfPsf] 5– dlxnfx¿ o; If]qdf z'?df v"a pT;flxt eP/ k|jz u5{g\ t/
xfdLsxf“ ;+rf/If]qdf gLltlgdf{0ftxdf dlxnf            ToxL pT;fxsf ;fy nfdf] ;do;Dd l6ls/xg eg] ;Sb}gg\ . lsg xf]nf < ;~rf/If]qdf
pkl:yltsf] cefj cem};Dd klg v6\ls/x]sf]               dlxnf ;xeflutf a9f];\ eGg] ;f“Rr} rfxgf xf] eg]] o; If]qsf xtf{stf{ ;a}n] ;a}eGbf
      ]
kl/k|Io 5 . lg0ff{os txdf dlxnfsf] plrt               klxnf o;sf] sf/0f klxNofpg hf“u/ b]vfpg' cfjZos 5 . dlxnf kqsf/x¿n] ef]Ug
;xeflutf geP;Dd ;~rf/dfWoddf                          kl//x]sf] b]lvg]–gb]lvg] tdfd ;d:ofx¿sf] klxrfg gu/L / tL ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu
dlxnfx¿sf] :jljj]sLo df}lns Ifdtfsf] k|efj            pkfox¿ cjnDag ug{ tbf?stf gb]vfO{ s]jn dlxnfx¿d} dfq ;w}“ sdhf]/L b]Vg' jf
emNsg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f a'emL To;df ;'wf/               b]vfpg' lsdfy{ Gofo;+ut s'/f x'Gg . x'g
Nofpg ;DalGwt ;a} If]qaf6 kxn x'g h?/L                t kqsfl/tf eg]sf] cToGt r'gf}tLk"0f{ k]zf
5 . ;~rf/dfWodsf sfof{nox¿ leqsf] dfq                 xf] . of] efu vf]h]/ cfpg] If]q x'“b} xf]Og .
s'/f xf]Og, ;~rf/If]qdf n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0f          Ifdtfjfg\ geO{ s' g } klg JolQmn]                     ;~rf/dfWodsf
l;h{gf u/fpg / ;~rf/dfWodx¿df dlxnf                   -rfx] dlxnf xf];\ of k'?if_ of] k]zfnfO{               sfof{nox¿leq
;xeflutf clej[l4 u/fpg /fHon] klg                     lg/Gt/tf lbg ;Sb}g . t/ klg a'em\g'kg]{             +
                                                                                                        n}lusd}qL jftfj/0fsf]
/0fgLlts 9+un] kxn ug'kg]{ vf“rf] 5 . h:tf]
                         {                            s'/f s] xf] eg] JolQmdf Ifdtf 5 g} eg] klg
                                                      olb sfo{If]qdf c;xof]uL lsl;dsf] jftfj/0f          cefj ePsf] sf/0f
ls s'g} klg k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0f ;+:yfnfO{
Ohfht lbg] a]nfdf /fHon] rfx]df ltgsf cufl8           xfjL x'G5 eg] To;n] p;sf] Ifdtfdf g}               dlxnfx¿ o; k]zfdf
zt{ /fVg ;S5– ltgn] kqsf/ egf{ ug]{ a]nfdf            k|lts"n k|efj k'¥ofpg ;S5 cyjf p;sf]               nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sg
lglZrt k|ltzt :yfgdf cfwf/e"t of]Uotf                 pT;fxdf 7]; nufpg ;S5 . /, cGttM pm                     g;s]sf x'g\ .
ePsf dlxnf pDd]bjf/x¿aLr dfq k|lt:kwf{                cgfof; k]zfaf6} knfog x'g afWo x'gk'U5 .
u/fpg'k5{ eg]/ . /fHon] c¿ klg o:tf sltko                                           “
                                                      dlxnfsf xsdf k|foM o:t} x'b} cfPsf] ljleGg
                                                      cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 .
/0fgLltx¿ clVtof/ ug{ ;S5 .
                                                                ;~rfl/sf ;d"xsf] tTjfjwfgdf @)^) ;fndf ePsf] ‘;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfsf]
/, cGTodf                                             cj:yf’ zLif{ssf] cg';GwfgfTds -Ps jif{sf]_ cWoogsf] l;nl;nfdf k|dv cg';Gwftfsf]
                                                                                                                              '
clt dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f s] eg] kqsfl/tf If]qdf                                        '
                                                      ¿kdf of] k+lQmsf/nfO{ d'nssf kf“r} ljsf; If]qdf 5l/P/ /x]sf ;lqmo dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
dlxnf ;xeflutf clej[l4sf nflu cGoqaf6                 glhs k'u]/ ltgn] ef]Ug' kl//x]sf y'k|} ;d:ofx¿ af/] hfGg]–;'Gg] cj;/ k|fKt ePsf] lyof]
kxn ul/g'kg]{ vf“rf] t cfkm\gf] 7fp“df 5“b5       }   / ;fy;fy} d'n'ssf] ;~rf/If]qdf gb]lvg] u/L u8]/ a;]sf sltko ;d:of tyf q'l6x¿
                                                      klg glhsaf6 lgofNg] cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] . cg';Gwfgsf] bf}/fgdf sltko dfdnfdf
To;sf cltl/Qm o; If]qdf nflu/x]sf dlxnfx¿
                                                      :jo+ dlxnf kqsf/x¿d} klg q'l6 sdhf]/L /x]5 eGg] tYo klg kQf gnfu]sf] xf]Og, t/
     “
cfkm}n] klg k];fsf] bfloTj lgjf{xdf cfkm"nfO{
                                                      w]/} xb;Dd rflx“ ltgLx¿k|lt ;~rf/dfWodsf xtf{stf{ k'?ifx¿sf] b[li6sf]0f g} k"jf{uxL |
v/f] ptfg{ k|of; u/L pbfx/0fLo ag]/ cufl8
                                                      ePsf] e]l6Psf] xf] . hfgL–hfgL eGbf klg w]/}h;f] cj:yfdf cGhfgdf g} ;~rf/dfWodsf
                     {
cfpg k|of; ug'kg]{ vf“rf] 5 . kqsfl/tfdf              sfof{noleq dlxnfx¿k|lt k'?if xflsd tyf k'?if ;xsdL{x¿af6 q'l6k"0f{ Jojxf/ x'g]
dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] s'/f ubf{ ;ª\Vof dfq a9\gnfO{ '     u/]sf] a'lemPsf] lyof] . xfd|f] ;dfhdf htftt} JofKt ;+/rgfut q'l6sf] k|efj ;~rf/If]qdf
kof{Kt dfGg ;lsGg, u'0ffTdstfdf klg clej[l4           klg xfjL /x]sf] / ;~rf/dfWodsf sfof{nox¿leq n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0fsf] cefj ePsf]
x'gkg]{ cfhsf] cfjZostf xf] eGg] s'/f x/xd];f
   '                                                  sf/0f dlxnfx¿ o; k]zfdf nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sg g;s]sf x'g\ eGg] tYo cg';Gwfgaf6
x]Ssf /fVg' h?/L 5 . kqsfl/tf k]zfdf /xg              v'nf;f ePsf] lyof] .
/x/ dfq ug'{ kof{Kt x'Gg, cfOkg]{ ofjt\ r'gf}tLsf]              kqsf/ 6+s kGtn] ‘kqsfl/tfdf dlxnf’ zLif{ssf] cfkm\gf] n]vdf pNn]v u/]sf]
                                {
;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; tyf w}osf] klg plQs} vf“rf]           s'/f oxf“ p4[t ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g] b]V5' . pgn] eg]sf 5g\– ‘xfd|f] ;dfhdf k'?if /
5 eGg] s'/f a'em]sf dlxnf kqsf/x¿n] ga'em]sf          dlxnfaLrsf] lje]b ;fdflhs / /fhgLlts Joj:yfaf6 pTkGg ePsf] xf] . g]kfnL
dlxnf kqsf/x¿nfO{ a'emfpg–l;sfpg sbflk                kqsfl/tfhut klg ToxL Joj:yfleq g} af“r]sf] 5 . /fHosf] rf}yf] c+u klg c¿ tLgj6f
          {'
kl5 kg'xGg . hxf“;Dd sfo{If]qdf n}l+ usd}qL           c+u h;/L g} ;dfhdf xfjL /x]sf] zlQm k|0ffnL / xf]8afhLsf] v]nleq k|foM ;Dk"0f{ ¿kdf
                         {
jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'kg]{ s'/f 5 To;sf nflu            s}bL 5’ -kqsfl/tf, j}zfv–h]7, @)^) M !*_ . lgZro g} of] cj:yfn] dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
klg dlxnfnfO{ x]g{ ] k'?ifsf] k'/ftg ;f]rdf kl/jt{g   pT;fxdf afwf k'lu/x]sf] 5 . dlxnfsf] ultzLntfsf] clwsf/k|lt cToGt cg'bf/ ljBdfg
cfP/ dfq k'Ub}g, k'?ifnfO{ x]g{ ] dlxnfsf] ;f]rdf     kfl/jfl/s–;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] v6gk6gl;t h'‰g dlxnf kqsf/x¿nfO{ p;} klg sd
klg kl/jt{g cfpg' plQs} vf“rf] 5 eGg] a'em\g'         ufx|f] kl//x]sf] 5}g . Toltn] gk'u]/ km]l/ sfo{If]qleq klg p:t} lsl;dsf] lje]b JofKt
h?/L 5 eGg] nfU5 .                                    ePsf] b]Vg–ef]Ug kg'{ slt b'MvnfUbf] s'/f xf] dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf nflu !


42                                                                                                                               df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                   ;/sf/L ;'ljwf


nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg
lxhf] / cfh
    '
 d'sGbk|;fb cfrfo{           @))& ;fncl3 g]kfndf ;dfrf/kqsf] ¿kdf uf]/vfkq dfq k|sflzt x'GYof] . k"0f{ ;/sf/L k|sfzgsf]
                             ¿kdf . c¿ klqsfx¿ lzIff, pBf]u, ;flxTo ljifosf dfq x'Gy] . ;ft ;fnkl5 lghL If]qaf6, /fhwfgL
                                                                                                             ]
                             sf7df8f}+ tyf cGo lhNnfx¿af6 ;d]t ljleGg kqklqsfx¿ lg:sg yfn] . t/, e/kbf]{ ;|ftsf] cefjdf
                             tL klqsfx¿ yf]/} ;dod} x/fp“b} klg uP . @))& b]lv @)!& ;fn;Dd k|sflzt ;dfrf/kqx¿dWo]
                                                                                }
                             clwsf+ztM s'g} g s'g} /fhgLlts bn;“u cfa4 lyP . w]/h;f] ;fKtflxs klqsfx¿df clxn] klg ToxL
                             k|j[lQ b]lvG5 .


;/sf/L ;xof]u
@)!% ;fnsf] cfd lgjf{ r gkl5 :yflkt
;/sf/n] @)!^ dfu{ dlxgfb]lv g]kfndf
k| s flzt kqklqsfx¿nfO{ rf/ >] 0 fLdf
ljeflht u/L dfl;s ?=^)) b]lv ?=@))
;Ddsf] ;/sf/L lj1fkg tTsfnLg k|rf/ tyf
k|;f/ ljefuaf6 pknAw u/fpg] gLlt cjnDag
u/]sf] lyof] . of] g} ;/sf/L:t/af6 lgoldt
¿kdf kqklqsfnfO{ lj1fkgafkt egL /sd
pknAw u/fpg] k|lqmofsf] yfngL xf] . t/ o;
cGtu{t klqsfx¿sf] juL{s/0f ug]{ :ki6 cfwf/
eg] to ePsf] b] l vGg . ;fy} , of] gLlt
sfof{Gjog x'g yfn]sf] 5 dlxgf gk'Ub} ;/sf/L
gLltsf] cfnf]rgf ug]{ kqklqsfx¿nfO{ o:tf]
lj1fkg lbg aGb ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
          @)!& ;fnkl5sf] ;/sf/n] klg
lj1fkgafkt egL kqklqsfnfO{ x/]s dlxgf
lglZrt /sd pknAw u/fpg] k|lqmofnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbof] . o;qmddf k~rfotL ;/sf/n]
                                          '
cfkm\gf] kIfdf jsfnt ug]{ klqsfx¿nfO{ ‘6]an
d'lgaf6’ ;d]t /sd pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf]
lyof] .

klqsf juL{s/0fsf nflu
dfkb08 lgdf{0fsf] k|of;
k|]; sld;g, @)!%
        k|]; sld;gsf] k|ltj]bg @)!% df
;/sf/L lj1fkg lbgsf nflu lgDglnlvt
l;4fGtnfO{ cfwf/sf] ¿kdf lng l;kmfl/;
ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                         43
s_ klqsf k|sfzgsf] cjlwM b]zsf] kqsfl/tfsf]
ljsf;df s]xL b]g lbPsf klqsfx¿n] k|fT;fxg
kfpg\ eGg] p2]Zo /fvL sDtLdf Ps jif{
                                    ]                            ]
                                                               k|; sfplG;nåf/f kqklqsfsf] juL{s/0f
k|sfzg eO;s]sf] klqsfnfO{ lj1fkg lbg]                @)$@ ;fnb]lv k|]; sfplG;nsf] dftxtdf kqklqsf ljt/0f ;+k/LIf0fsf] sfo{ z'? ePsf] xf] .
cfwf/ agfpg l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 .                     To;a]nf kqklqsfx¿df cvaf/L sfuhsf] vkt / lj1fkg;DaGwL sfdsf] dfq cWoog ug]{
v_ ;fwgsf] cefj M k|ltj]bg lb“bfsf avt !             ul/GYof] . ;fy} sfplG;nn] u/]sf l;kmfl/;nfO{ ;/sf/n] x]/km]/ ug]{ klg ub{Yof] .
jif{ e Gbf a9L k| s fzg cjlw k' u ] s f                       ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnon] @)%# r}t @% ut] ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sflzt u/L
kqklqsfx¿sf] ;ª\Vof $.% j6f dfq ePsf]                                            ]
                                                     @)%$ ;fn >fj0f ! ut]bl] v k|; sfplG;naf6 juL{s/0f ePsf kqklqsfx¿n] dfq ;x'lnotafkt
oyfy{ k|:t't ub}{ kqsfl/tf If]qdf b'O{ jif{bl] v     cvaf/L sfuh ;'ljwf k|fKt ug]{ / To;kl5 lgodfg';f/ juL{s[t gePsf kqklqsfx¿n] o:tf]
sfd ub}{ cfPsf JolQmåf/f ;+rflnt kqnfO{              ;'ljwf gkfpg] Joj:yf u¥of] .
klg ;/sf/L lj1fkgsf] ;x'lnot lbg'k5{ eGg]                       k|]; sfplG;n P]g, @)$* df kqklqsfsf] juL{s/0f;DaGwL sfo{nfO{ sfplG;nsf]
                                                     5ftfleq ;d]l6of] .
;'emfj lbOPsf] 5 .
                                                                xfn sfplG;nn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dfkb08cg';f/ g} g]kfne/af6 k|sflzt x'g] b}lgs,
u_ ljt/0f ;+Vof M ;/sf/n] lj1fkg lbg'sf]             ;fKtflxs, cw{;fKtflxs / dfl;s kqklqsfx¿sf] x/]s jif{ juL{s/0f ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf]
p2]Zo s'g} s'/f hgtfdf k'¥ofpg rfx]sf] x'Fbf         juL{s/0fdf ;dfrf/ kq÷klqsfsf cltl/Qm ;flxlTos Pj+ cGo ljwfsf kqklqsfx¿nfO{ klg
dfly -s_ / -v_ a'bfdf plNnlvt zt{ k"/f
                   “                                 ;dfj]z ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 .
gug]{ t/ lgoldt u|fxs ePsf cvaf/nfO{
lj1fkgsf] l;kmfl/;sf] cfwf/ dfGg'kg]{ tyf          klg 5}g . t;y{ lj1fkgafktsf] of] cg'bfgsf]         /sddf cEo:t kqklqsfx¿nfO{ of] /sd
-s_ / -v_ a'Fbfsf zt{ k"/f u/]s} eP klg            /sd k|bfg ug]{ k|yfnfO{ ;dfKt ug'{k5{ eGg]         glb+bf pTkGg x'g] gof“ l:yltdf hfg ;lhnf]
lj1fkg lb+bf u|fxs ;+VofnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]sf]         cfof]usf] /fo 5 . o;cg';f/ ca eljiodf              xf];\ eGgfvflt/ oL kqklqsfx¿nfO{ b'O{ jif{sf]
v08df dfq gfddfqsf ljt/0f ePsf kqn]                btf{ eO{ k|sflzt x'g] kqklqsfx¿nfO{ of]            cjlwsf nflu dfq of] cg'bfgsf] /sd k|bfg
;fFlRrs} hglk|o kqsf] a/fa/L bfFhf]df ;x'lnot      cg'bfgsf] /sd k|bfg gug]{ Joj:yf x'g'kb{5 .        ug'{kb{5 eGg] cfof]usf] /fo 5’ egL pNn]v
kfpg] g/fd|f] cj;/ /f]Sg ;lsg]5 eGg] ;'emfj        w]/} sfnb]lv c6'6 ¿kdf kfOcfPsf] cg'bfgsf]         u/]sf] 5 .
lbOPsf] 5 .
        o;sf cltl/Qm k| ] ; sld;gn]                ;/sf/åf/f lj1fkgafkt dfl;s ¿kdf pknAw u/fO“b} cfPsf] /sdsf] ljj/0f
kqklqsfsf] ljsf;sf nflu b]zleq ‘k|; va/’
                                   ]               o; k|sf/ 5M
cfbfgk|bfg ubf{ b"/;~rf/ ;x'lnot k|bfg ug{,         @)@$ df3b]lv
5fKg] sfuh ljleGg ;fOhdf ;'ne b/df
lgoldt ¿kdf pknAw x'g] Joj:yf ug{ /                  klqsfsf] lsl;d                                          /sd
kqsfl/tf lzIffsf] Joj:yf ug{ klg l;kmfl/;             b}lgs                                                 !))).–
u/]sf] 5 .
                                                      cw{–;fKtflxs                                          &%).–
       ]
zfxL k|; cfof]u, @)#*                                 ;fKtflxs                                              &)).–
         o;}u/L zfxL k|]; cfof]u @)#* n]              kflIfs                                                $%).–
cfkm\gf] k|ltj]bgdf ‘xfn ;"rgf ljefun] b}lgs,
;fKtflxs / kflIfs ;dfrf/ kqklqsfnfO{
k|To]s dlxgf lj1fkg pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf]
                                                                        ]
                                                   @)$& kmfu'gb]lv g]=6«=ln=af6 b]xfosf] /sd a/fa/sf] cvaf/L sfuh -Go"hlk|G6_
k|rng cg';f/ jflif{s ?=^,)$,(%) cf=j=
                                                   ;"rgf ljefusf] l;kmfl/;df pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf yflnof] M
@)#^÷#& df vr{ ePsf] b] l vG5 . o;
k|sf/sf] k|rngn] g t lj1fkgsf] p2]Zo k"/f             klqsfsf] lsl;d          s                   v                     u                3
u/]sf] 5, g kqklqsfx¿nfO{ g} s'g} ;fy{s
cfly{s 6]jf g} k|bfg ug{ ;s]sf] 5’ egL pNn]v        b}lgs                    #))).–              @@)).–             !%)).–           –
u/]sf] 5 .                                          cw{–;fKtflxs             !*)).–              !%)).–             –                –
         cfof]un] ‘;Lldt ;fwgnfO{ o;/L ;fgf–        ;fKtflxs                 $))).–              #))).–             @))).–           !))).–
;fgf /sddf ljeflht u/L kqklqsfx¿nfO{
ljt/0f ug]{ jt{dfg cg'bfgsf] k|yf k|efjk"0f{

44                                                                                                                                  df3–r}t @)^$
@)%# r}tb]lv pQm /sddf j[l4 u/L b]xfo cg';f/ k'¥ofOof]] M

   klqsfsf] lsl;d             s                    v                   u                  3

 b}lgs                    &))).–              %%)).–                  $%)).–             #))).–
 cw{–;fKtflxs             $))).–              #))).–                  @))).–             !))).–
 ;fKtflxs                 ^))).–              $%)).–                  #))).–             !%)).–
 kflIfs                   @))).–              !%)).–                  !))).–             %)).–
 dfl;s                    $))).–              #))).–                  @))).–             !))).–


         kqklqsfnfO{ Go" h lk| G 6 pknAw               b] l v Go" h lk| G 6sf] ;§f nf] s sNof0fsf/L
u/fpFbf x/]s cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo÷gof“ cf=j=            lj1fkgafkt egL k|lt dlxgf gub} ¿kdf
sf] z'?lt/ g]zgn 6«l] 8ª lnld6]8n] Go"hlk|G6sf]        /sd pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfof] . o;sf
efp j[l4 ug{] tyf sltko kqklqsfx¿n] o;/L               nflu juL{s/0fdf k/]sf kqklqsfn] ;"rgf
;'ljwfafkt ;x'lnot b/df vl/b u/]sf]                    ljefuaf6 pknAw u/fOPsf] lj1fkg tf]lsPsf]
Go"hlk|G6 aflx/ ahf/df laqmL ug{] u/]sf] u'gf;f]       ;ª\Vofdf dfl;s ¿kdf 5fKg'kg{] Joj:yf
cfpg yfn]kl5 ;/sf/n] cf=j= @)%&÷%*                     ul/of] .                                       sltko kqklqsfx¿n] ;'ljwf
@)^! sflQsb]lv lgDg cg';f/ /sd pknAw u/fpg yflnof] M                                                   afkt ;x'lnot b/df vl/b
                                                                                                          u/]sf] Go"hlk|G6 aflx/
   klqsfsf] lsl;d             s                    v                   u                  3
                                                                                                         ahf/df laqmL ug{] u/]sf]
  b}lgs                   !$))).–                  !!))).–             ())).–          ^))).–             u'gf;f] cfpg yfn]kl5
  cw{;fKtflxs             *))).–                   ^))).–              $))).–          @))).–          ;/sf/n] cf=j= @)%&÷%*
  ;fKtflxs                !@))).–                  ())).–              ^))).–          #))).–             b]lv Go"hlk|G6sf] ;§f
  kflIfs                  $))).–                   #))).–              @))).–          !))).–         nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgafkt
  dfl;s                   *))).–                   ^))).–              $))).–          @))).–         egL k|lt dlxgf gub} pknAw
                                                                                                        u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfof] .
@)^@ sflQsb]lv cw{–;fKtflxsnfO{ klg ;fKtflxsn] kfP;/x / kflIfsnfO{ klg dfl;sn]
kfP;/x ;'ljwf pknAw u/fO“b} cfPsf] 5 .

@)%&÷%* b]lv @)^#÷^$ ;Dd nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgafkt ul/Psf] e'QmfgL
o;k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 M

    cf=j=                         e'QmfgL /sd                         s}lkmot

  @)%&÷%*                         ^%))))).–                       )%& ;fn kmfu'gb]lv gub e'QmfgL
  @)%*÷%(                         ^@&@%)).–
  @)%(÷^)                         ^^&)))).–
  @)^)÷^!                         !)^&)))).–
  @)^!÷^@                         @%#@&%)).–                      cl3Nnf] ;fnsf] gk'u ;d]t
  @)^@÷^#                         !%)($%)).–
  @)^#÷^$                         $@(&^))).–                      cl3Nnf] ;fnsf] gk'u ;d]t
  s'n                             !!##!)%)).–



df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        45
        lj8Dagf s] eg], ahf/df
         slxNo} b]vf gkg]{ t/ k|;
                               ]                        pRr:t/Lo ldl8of cfof]usf] ;'emfj
         sfplG;nsf] juL{s/0fdf                    b]zdf nf]stGqsf] 3f]if0ffkl5 ag]sf] ;/sf/n] u7g u/]sf] pRr:t/Lo ldl8of ;'emfj
      lgoldt ¿kdf dflyNn} txdf                    cfof]un] cfkm\gf] k|ltj]bg, @)^# df ‘lj1fkg gLlt’ sf ;DaGwdf klg pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .
               juL{s/0f e}                        ;/sf/n] lj1fkg;DaGwL efjL gLlt tyf ;+oGq lgdf{0f ubf{ To;nfO{ Vofn /fVg'
                                                  pko'Qm x'g]5 . cfof]usf] ;'emfj lgDg cg';f/ /x]sf] 5M
        nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg
       afktsf] ;/sf/L ;'ljwfsf]                         – lj1fkgsf] k|sl[ t, lj1fkgsf] p2]Zo / To;sf] c;/÷k|efjsf cfwf/df lj1fkgnfO{
                                                  ‘nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg’, ‘;fj{hlgs ;"rgf;DaGwL lj1fkg’ / ‘Jofkfl/s lj1fkg’ egL
         pkef]u ug]{ kqklqsfsf]                   juL{s/0f ug{'kb{5 . ;dfhsf] ;jf{·L0f lxt / sNof0fsf] b[li6n] ul/g] lj1fkgnfO{ nf]s
       ;ª\Vof pNn]Vo /x]sf] 5 .                   sNof0fsf/L lj1fkg, ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/ / rf;f];“u ;DaGwL ;"rgfd"ns lj1fkgnfO{
                                                  ‘;fj{hlgs ;"rgf;DaGwL lj1fkg’ / j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] nufgL / laqmL k|j4{gsf] p2]Zo
                                                  af]s]sf lj1fkgnfO{ ‘Jofkfl/s lj1fkg’ egL juL{s/0f ug{' jf~5gLo b]lvG5 . o;dWo]
                                                  nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg / ;/sf/L lgsfosf ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf;DaGwL lj1fkg /fHon]
                                                  ;dfg'kflts lsl;daf6 ljt/0f ug]{ Joj:yf ug{'kb{5 .
pk;+xf/                                                 – lj1fkg Joj;fonfO{ Pp6f :jtGq pBdsf ¿kdf k|j4{g ug'{ cfjZos 5 . t/
cfh xfdL nf]stflGqs kl/j]ztkm{ pGd'v eO/x]sf      ;fdflhs d"No–dfGotf, ;f+:s[lts cfbz{, ;fj{hlgs lxt, :jf:Yo, ;'/Iff, afnaflnsf /
                                                  pkef]Qmfsf] tfTsflns Pjd\ bL3{sflns lxt k|lts"n x'g] lsl;dn] lj1fkg ug{ gkfOg]
5f}+ . nf]stGqsf d'Vo cfwf/x¿df kf/blz{tf,
                                                  Joj:yf ul/g'kb{5 . :j:y ¿kdf lj1fkg Joj;fo k|j4{g ug{ ljZjJofkL dfGotfcg'¿ksf]
OdfGbf/L / cfTdfg'zf;g klg x'g\ . /fHon] pknAw    ‘lj1fkg cfrf/;+lxtf’ th'{df u/L k|efjsf/L cg'udgsf] Joj:yf ul/g'kb{5 .
u/fpg] ;a} k|sf/sf ;]jf÷;'ljwfdf ;a}sf]
;dfg'kflts kx'r Pj+ ltgsf] Gofof]lrt pknAwtf
               F                                        – /fHon] xfn;Dd 5fkf ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ lbFb} cfPsf] nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgsf]
nf]stGqsf] d]?b08 xf] .                           cg'bfg /sd j[l4 ub}{ n}hfg'kb{5 . of] /sd g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] :jLsf/ u/]sf] d'b|f:kmLlt
                                                  b/cg';f/ a;]{lg j[l4 x'g'kb{5 . of] lj1fkg cfh;Dd 5fkf dfWoddf dfq ;Lldt /x]sf]df
          lj8Dagf s] eg], ahf/df slxNo} b]vf
                                                  ca sDtLdf df]km;nsf PkmPd /]l8of]x¿nfO{ ;d]t juL{s/0fsf] cfwf/df pknAw
gkg]{ t/ k|]; sfplG;nsf] juL{s/0fdf lgoldt        u/fOg'kb{5 .
¿kdf dflyNn} txdf juL{s/0f eO{ nf]ssNof0fsf/L
lj1fkgafktsf] ;/sf/L ;'ljwfsf] pkef]u ug]{                – xfn;Dd ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefuaf6 kqklqsfx¿nfO{ ljt/0f
kqklqsfsf] ;ª\Vof pNn]Vo /x]sf] 5 . o;n]          x'Fb} cfPsf] nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg cfOGbf PkmPd /]l8of]x¿nfO{ ;d]t lbg] / To:tf]
                                                  lj1fkgsf] ljt/0f lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltx¿dfk{mt ug]{ . o;sf lglDt nf]ssNof0fsf/L
g]kfndf :j:y / :jR5 kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;sf           lj1fkgsf nflu ljlgof]lht ah]6af6 lglZrt /sd -pbfx/0ffy{– k|To]s lh=lj=;=nfO{ ?=@
nflu e/y]u ug]{ ;/sf/L k|of;sf] k|efjsfl/tfnfO{   nfv_ x/]s lhlj;nfO{ ;dfg ¿kdf pknAw u/fpg] / afFsL /sd lhNnfsf] hg;+Vofsf]
sdhf]/ t'NofPsf] 5 . o:tf] k|jl[ Qdf nufd nufpg   cg'kftdf lhlj;x¿aLr g} afF8kmfF8 ug]{ . o:tf] /sd ah]6 k'l:tsfdf g} pNn]v u/L cy{
;/sf/ / kqsfl/tf If]q b'j}sf] k|of; cfjZos        dGqfnoaf6 ;Lw} lhlj;x¿df hfg] Joj:yf ug]{ .
5 . ;fy}, nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkgsf gfpFdf
                                                         – lk5l8Psf If]q, ;d'bfo, ju{sf] lxtsf lglDt nlIft tyf g]kfnL afx]s g]kfnsf
;/sf/n] lgoldt ¿kdf pknAw u/fpg] pNn]Vo           cGo efiffx¿df k|sflzt jf k|;fl/t x'g] ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg lb“bf
wg/flznfO{ ;dy{ / c;dy{ ;a}sf nflu Psgf;n]        k|fyldstf / yk ;'ljwf lbg] .
                  {
slgsf 5/] em}+ ug'eGbf kf/bzL{ dfkb08 ckgfP/
vf;u/L u|fdL0f tyf lk5l8Psf If]q, ;d'bfo /              – s'g} klg ;~rf/dfWodaf6 k|sflzt / k|;fl/t x'g] ;fdu|Lx¿df $) k|ltzteGbf
                                                  a9L lj1fkgsf] efu x'g gx'g] . ;fd'bflos / ;fj{hlgs /]l8of], 6LeLdf k|;f/0f ;dosf]
ju{sf nflu o;sf] pkof]u ug{ ;s]df a9L /fd|f]
                                                  !% k|ltzteGbf a9L lj1fkgsf] efu x'g gx'g] .
x'g] b]lvG5 .
                                                        – :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«o:t/sf lj1fkg :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«o:t/sf kqklqsf
;Gbe{ ;fdu|L                                      Pjd\ /]l8of]nfO{ lbg'kg]{ .
!_     g] k fndf 5fkfvfgf / kqklqsfsf]                                             [
                                                       – ;+k/LIf0f ;ldltaf6 juL{st ePsf tyf kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf kfngf u/]sf
       Oltxf;M u|Lidaxfb'/ b]jsf]6f               kqklqsf Pjd\ /]l8of]n] dfq lj1fkg k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf ug]{ .
@_                          ]
       k|sfzgsf] lbUbz{g M k|; sfplG;n g]kfn
#_     pRr:t/Lo ldl8of ;'emfj cfof]usf]                   – k|sflzt tyf k|;fl/t lj1fkgx¿ lj1fkg–cfrf/;+lxtf cg'?k 5g\–5}gg\ eGg]
       k|ltj]bg, @)^#                             s'/fsf] cg'udg / tT;DaGwL ph'/L–u'gf;f] ;'Gg] sfo{ k|]; sfplG;nn] ug]{ Joj:yf
                                                  ug] { .
-;"rgf ljefusf dxflgb]{zs cfrfo{, of] cfn]v               o;/L cfof]un] cfkm\gf] ;'emfjdf lj1fkgsf] ljt/0f / lgodgsf nflu 5'§} lgsfosf]
tof/ u/] s f] s] x L ;dokl5, ut dª\ l ;/df        u7gsf nflu ;'emfj glbO{ eO/x]sf s]Gb|Lo tyf :yfgLo:t/sf lgsfox¿nfO{ g} of] lhDd]jf/L
;]jflgj[Q x'g'ePsf] 5 ._                          k|bfg ug]{ ;'emfj lbPsf] 5 .

46                                                                                                                           df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                     k':ts ;dLIff


eflifs ;'wf/sf lglDt
dfu{bz{s
                                                                                                                      ]
    ;f]dgfy l3ld/] xfd|f] efiff – g]kfnL xfd|f] /fi6«efiff xf] . xfdL xfd|f] cfkm\g} efiff– cfkm"n] ;'Gg]–af]Ng], k9\g–n]Vg] efiff klg
                                                                                                                               ]
                           z'4 / k|:6;“u k|of]u ug{ ;Qm}gf}+ eg] xfd|f nflu Tof] nfhdbf]{ s'/f xf] . t/ xfdLx¿ o;k|lt k6Ss} ;+jbgzLn
                           5}gf}+ . To;}n] g]kfnL efiffsf] k|of]udf cg]s k|sltsf ljs[lt / q'l6sf] k|r/tf a9\b} uPsf]] 5 / g]kfnL efiff
                                                                            [                           '
                                  +
                           j0f{;s/ aGb} uPsf] 5 . o:tf ljs[lt tyf ;d:ofx¿sf] lg/fs/0f ug{ / g]kfnL efiffsf] df}lns :j?k

                                             hf]ufpg ‘xfd|f] efiff’ dfu{bz{s u|Gysf ¿kdf                                                  {
                                                                                                efiffn] q'l6 / ljs[ltsf] 7"nf] ef/jxg ug'k/]sf]
                                             cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . Jofjxfl/s / Jofj;flos             5 . au|]NtL v'n]sf Pkm Pd /]l8of] / ;8s
                                             b'j} If]qdf efiffz}nLsf] k|efjsfl/tf a]hf]8 /xg]   ;8sdf laR5\ofOPsf 5fkfx¿sf] dfq s] s'/f
                                             ub{5 . olb af]nfO–n]vfOdf z'4tf, ;/ntf /           ug]{, /fli6«o k|;f/0f / /fli6«o k|sfzgsf] ku/L
                                             :ki6tf /x]g eg] efj ;Dk|]if0f gx'g], cy{sf]            ]
                                                                                                u'tsf ;~rf/dfWodx¿df ;d]t dfgs efiffsf]
                                             cgy{ nfUg] / ;Dk|]if0fLotf z"Go x'g] cj:yf         k|of]u x'g;s]sf] b]lv“b}g . Psflt/ o:tf] l:ylt
                                             l;lh{t x'G5 . efiffsf] k|of]udf b]lvg] cg]s        5 eg] csf{lt/ g]kfnL efiffz}nLsf] Jofjxfl/s
                                             k|sl[ tsf uNtL, sdhf]/L x6fpg ;s] dfq z'4tf        cWoog ug{ rfxg] / z'4, ;/n / :t/Lo efiff
                                             / :t/Lotf sfod ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf lglDt              k| o f] u sf nflu nfnflot x' g ] x ¿sf nflu
                                             eflifs ;r]ttf ckl/xfo{ 5 . k|:t't k':ts            dfu{bz{s kf7\o;fdu|Lsf] cefj klg plQs}
                                             o:t} pRr ;r]ttfsf] pkh xf] . o;n] cfkm\gf          v8\lsO/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . of] l:yltdf z'4,
                                             k|To]s kf7sdf Tof] ;r]ttf ;~rfl/t ug{]             ;/n, ;xh / af]wuDo z}nLdf n]vgsnfsf]
                                             ;fdYo{ /fV5 . cfkm\gf] efiff ;'wfg{, 5l/tf]–       ljsf; ug]{ cfwf/lznf tof/ ug{ j:tLn] ljz]if
                                             /f] r s / :t/Lo agfpg, cleJolQmnfO{                k|of; ug'{ePsf] 5 . uxlsnf] lgb]{lzsfsf
                                             ;Dk|if0fLo Pjd\ k|efjsf/L t'Nofpg rfxg]sf
                                                   ]                                            ¿kdf ‘xfd|f] efiff’ k|:t't u/]/ pxfFn] l;sf¿
                                             nflu of] ;a}eGbf pTs[i6 pkxf/ xf] .                n] v sx¿sf nflu dfq ge} Jofj;flos
                                                       c9fO{ bzseGbf nfdf] ;dob] l v            ;+rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ ;d]t eflifs bIftf xfl;n
                                             kqsfl/tf– n] v g, ;Dkfbg, k| l zIf0f /             ug{ af6f] b] v fpg' e Psf] 5 . k| l zIffyL{
                                             k|fWofkg–df ;+nUg /xFb} cfPsf l;4x:t kqsf/         kqsf/x¿nfO{ efiff / z}nLsf] ;"Id 1fg lbg]
                                             z/RrGb| j:tLsf] k|of]ul;4 cg'ejsf] k|r'/           qmddf hlGdPsf] eP klg of] s[ltn] h'g;'s}
                                             k|of]u o;df ePsf] 5 . z'4 / ;/n z}nLdf             k]zf, Joj;fodf ;+nUg /x]sf h'g;'s} tx, If]q
                                             g]kfnL n]vgsnfsf] ljsf;sf nflu of] s[lt            / cj:yfsf lh1f;'–1fglkkf;'x¿nfO{ af6f]
                                             pTk|]/s dfq geO{ dfu{lgwf{/s g} ag]sf] 5 .         b]vfpg] cflwsfl/s x}l;ot /fVb5 .
                                             /fi6«efiffk|lt ;r]t / ;+jbgzLnx¿sf nflu
                                                                           ]                               g]kfnL efiffdf Jofs/0fsf y'k}| k':ts
                                             of] s[lt >Lv08 xf] eg] eflifs z'4tf, ;/ntf         k|sflzt 5g\ . st} st} z}nL k':tssf] klg
                                             / lzi6tfk|lt cr]t / c;+jbgzLnx¿sf nflu
                                                                             ]                  k| s fzg ePsf] e] l 6G5 . t/, ;fj{ { h lgs
                                             sf7 dfq klg x'g ;S5 . s[ltsf/s} zAbdf              k|of]usf pbfx/0fx¿ lbP/ n]vg / sygdf
                                             eGg] xf] eg]– æg]kfnL klg l;Sg'k5{ / < d h]        e]l6g] u/]sf q'l6, lj;+ult / ljs[ltx¿ 5n{ª\u
                                             n]V5' ToxL g]kfnL xf]Æ, eg]/ cfÇgf] eflifs         x'g] u/L s]nfpg] / z'4, ;/n n]vgsf nflu
                                             cIfdtfnfO{ g} cledfgsf] ljifo agfpg]x¿             af6f] b]vfpg] o:tf] s[lt eg] o;cl3 k|sfzgdf
                                             klg g]kfnL ;dfhdf 5\ofK5\ofKtL e]l6G5g\ .          cfPsf] 5}g . efiff;DaGwL k':ts eP klg
                                             j0f{ljGof;, zAblgdf{0f, jfSou7g / cg'R5]b          cToGt /f]rs / k9"“ k9"“ nfUg] x'g' o;sf]
                                             n]vgaf/] ;fdfGo 1fg klg g/fVg] t/ cfkm"nfO{        cgf}7f] ljz]iftf xf] . g]kfnL efiffsf] k|of]udf
                                             cAan >]0fLsf] jQmf / n]vsdf bh{ u/fpg              /fli6«o:t/sf / /fi6«JofkL ljt/0fdf /x]sf rlr{t
                                             vf]Hg] d"9fu|xLx¿sf] ln+8d;f]df k/]/ g]kfnL
                                                                          ] ]                   kqklqsfx¿df ;d]t b]lv+b}cfPsf] ljljw

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                              47
k| s [ l tsf] q' l 6 tyf c/fhstf / :yflkt          hg;fwf/0fsf nflu ;d]t ;Dk|if0fLo x'gkb{5
                                                                                    ]         '               ;Eotf < ;Eotf eGbf dnfO{ >f4–
n]vsx¿sf n]vgdf ;d]t JofKt x'Fb}cfPsf]             eGg] dfGotf /fv]/ g} u|Gysf/ j:tLn] eflifs         tk{0f u/]sf] ;Demgf cfp“5=== ;Eo cfrdg,
cz'l4 Pjd\ lj;+ult cf}+NofpFb} z'4, ;/n /          q'l6 / lj;+ultsf] clen]v /fvL ltgsf] pbfx/0f       c;Eo cfrdg . a;\, otfsf] hg} ptf .
;xh af]wuDo z}nLdf n]vgsnfsf] ljsf; ug]{           lb+ b } rrf{ ug' { e Psf] b] l vG5 . s[ l tleq                                    ]
                                                                                                             –‘tf/fk'~h–cGwfsf] a|n’ lgaGwdf
cfwf/lznf tof/ ug{ s[ltsf/n] u/]sf] k|of;          ;d]l6Psf] klxnf] pbfx/0f g} x]/f}– ækqsf/
                                                                                        +                       z+s/ nfld5fg] .
;/fxgLo /x]sf] 5 . rlr{t kqklqsf / :yflkt          eg]sf] af}l4s k]zf xf] .Æ jf:tjd} o:tf jfSosf]             cfrdg ;Eo÷c;Eo x' F b } g ,
n]vsx¿df b]lvPsf eflifs q'l6x¿sf] ;+slnt           k|of]u 7fp“7fp“df e]l6G5 . t/ kqsf/ JolQm          ;Jo÷ck;Jo x' G 5 . hg} b] a | ] sfF w df
sl6ªnfO{ k|lzIffyL{x¿sf cufl8 k|:t't u/]/          xf], k]zf xf]Og . kqsfl/tf dfq k]zf xf] .          /flvPsf]nfO{ ‘;Jo’ / bflxg] sf“wdf /flvPsf]nfO{
jf:tljs l:yltaf]w u/fPsf] pNn]v s[ltsf/n]          k]zj/x¿d} cfkm\gf] k]zfaf/] o:tf] ;fdfGo 1fg
                                                          ]                                           ‘ck;Jo’ elgG5 .
k|fSsygdf ug'{ePsf] 5 . tL ;fdu|Lsf] ljj/0f        klg gx'g] u/]sf cg]s pbfx/0f e]l6G5g\ .
                   "
s[ltleq} cg';rLsf ¿kdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] eP            n]vsn] cf}NofPem}+ ‘j]wzfnf’nfO{ ‘j]bzfnf’ n]Vg]              s[ltsf/n] cn+sf/ / bf]ifx¿sf] klg
n]vsn] cjZo klg pgLx¿sf] pkxf; u/]sf]              / tL b' O { zAbaLrsf] cGt/ klg gb] V g]            zf:qLo rrf{ u/]/ k|of]udf b]lvg] lj;+ultsf
cleof]u v]Kg'kg]{ x'g ;SYof] tfklg To;af6          ;+rf/sdL{ klg 5g\ . ck]Iff / pk]IffaLrsf]          y'k|} pbfx/0f lbg'ePsf] 5 . ;'Gb}df sfg
oyfy{ pb\3fl6t x'g]lyof] / w]/}sf cf“vf            cy{e]b klg ga'em\g] / Pp6f cy{ lbgsf nflu          66\ofpg], cg'lrt cy{ nfUg], hah{:tL cy{
v'Ng]lyP . n]vsn] kl5Nnf ;+:s/0fx¿df Tof]          csf]{ ljk/Ltfy{s zAb k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf            tGsfpg'kg]{, jfl~5t cy{ glbg], pN6f] cy{
;fx; ug'{x'g] of] k+lQmsf/sf] ck]Iff 5 . g]kfnL    pbfx/0f klg kqklqsf, /]l8of], 6]lnlehg h:tf        lbg], rflxg]eGbf a9L zAb yf]kg],{ cy{ bf]xf]l/g],
               ]
efiffsf] ;Dk|if0fLotfnfO{ rxlsnf] / k|efjzfnL      ;+rf/dfWoddf lbgx'“h;f] e]l6G5g\ . hLljtsf]        cfjZos zAbsf] cefj x'g], jfSodf k|wfg
kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] olt uxg pkof]uL k':ts           hGdf]T;j / d[tssf] hGdhoGtLsf] e]b ga'em]/         j:t' ck|wfg aGg k'Ug], egfOdf qmd gldNg],
clxn];Dd c¿ gePsfn] gfd} ls6]/ q'l6 /              hLljts} hGdhoGtL dgfPsf] va/ n]lvg] /              sf/0fxLgtf, Pp6f jfSodf csf]{ jfSosf] k|jz,    ]
lj;+ult Ol·t ug{ klg s[ltsf/ lxlRsrfpg'            5flkg] u/]sf] ;d]t kfOG5 . o:t}, ‘s[lifhGo’sf]     zAb 7Ls 7fpFdf g/xg] / cy{ u8a8 x'g],
x'“b}g .                                           k|of]unfO{ ‘s'v'/fhGo’ ;Dd lj:tf/ ug]{ k|j[lQ      7Ls 7fp“df s'/f g;lsg], ckl/is[t zAbsf]
           g]kfnL efiff g]kfndf g]kfnLx¿aLrsf]     ;+ r f/hutdf JofKt 5 . s' v ' / f;DaGwL            k|of]u x'g], cZnLn zAb, cy{ / cfzo emNsg],
dfq af]nLrfnL / n]Vo efiffsf] ?kdf ;Lldt                             '
                                                   Joj;fonfO{ ‘s'v/fhGo’ Joj;fo eGg ldNb}g .          cn+sf/df klg rfdTsfl/s d"ntTj g} gi6
5} g . o;n] cGt/f{ l i6« o kl/j] z ;d] t           t/ o:tf] k|of]u x'g] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . gfd           x'g], ;/n / ;'af]wuDo z}nLsf] ;§f z}nLs}
cf]ul6;s]sf] 5 . /fli6«o–cGt/f{li6«o ;~rf/–        zAbnfO{ ljz]if0fsf ¿kdf k|of]u ug]{ / ljz]if0f                                           {
                                                                                                      sf/0f cy{sf] cgy{ nfUg] / emg} b'af]wtf emNsg]
dfWodx¿df o;sf] k|of]u x'G5 . ljZjsf               zAbnfO{ gfdsf ¿kdf k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf w]/}         h:tf cg]s kIfdf Wofg k'¥ofP/ n]vsn]
ljleGg efuaf6 ;+;f/e/ k'Ug] u/L g]kfnL             pbfx/0f e]l6G5g\ . To:t} csf]{ pbfx/0f– æ!)        s];f| s];f| s]nfpg'ePsf] 5 . cleJolQm lzNknfO{
efiffdf ;"rgf, ljrf/ / cleJolQmx¿ ;Dk|l] ift       jif{cl3sf] t'ngfdf clxn] jL/u+hdf s's/sf]    '     k|v/ kfg{ rfxg] h'g;'s} k]zf, Joj;fo / txsf
/ cfbfgk|bfg x'g yfn]sf 5g\ . b]zleq 5fkf          hg;+Vof lgs} a9]sf] 5 .Æ p4[t jfSodf               JolQmnfO{ klg of] k|of]uk/s rrf{n] j:t'ut
                     +                ]
dfWodx¿ xhf/f}sf] ;ª\Vofdf k'usf 5g\ eg]           dflg;df dfq k|of]u x'g] hg;+Vof zAbsf] k|of]u      1fg lbg ;S5 . efiff–z}nLsf ofjt kIfdf b[li6
PkmPd /]l8of] / 6]lnlehgsf] ;+Vof / kx'r       “   s's'/df klg ul/Psf] 5 . ‘s's'/sf] ;+Vof            k'¥ofP/ Pp6} s[ltdf olt w]/} ljj]rgLo kIf
Ps bzsotf ce"tk"j{ tj/n] j[l4 ePsf] 5 .            a9]sf]’ eGg'kg]{df s's'/sf] hg;+Vof a9]sf]                \
                                                                                                      ;d]6g ;Sg' n]vssf] 7"nf] v'aL xf] .
Psflt/ o:tf] pT;fxk"0f{ l:ylt 5 eg] csf{lt/        n]lvPsf] 5 . k':tsdf n]vsn] o:tf em08}                        k|:t'ltdf /x]sf] ;/ntf, /f]rstf,
g]kfnL kqsfl/tf If]qdf eflifs k|of]usf] l:ylt      kf“r ;o gd"gf k|:t't ug'{ePsf] 5 .                 k|of]uk/stf / ljifoj:t'sf] uxgtf Pjd\
c;fdfGo q'l6x¿sf] ax'ntfn] el/Psf] 5 .                      g]kfnL efiff n]vgdf vf;u/L tLg            pkof]lutfsf sf/0f ‘xfd|f] efiff’ kqsfl/tfsf]
j0f{ , zAb / jfSosf] k| o f] u b] l v lnP/         k|sf/sf uNtLx¿ a9L e]l6G5g\ . klxnf] uNtL          tflnddf dfq xf]Og, ljBfno :t/b]lv lnP/
ljifoj:t'sf] k|:t'ltdf ;d]t kof{Kt q'l6x¿ e]l6g]   Jofs/0f / zAb–zAbfy{l;t ;DalGwt /x]sf]             pRrlzIffsf] txdf ;d]t kf7\o;fdu|Lsf ¿kdf
/ ;Dk|]if0f g} k|efjxLg x'g] cj:yf slt k|r'/                           |
                                                   b]lvG5 eg] bf];f] uNtL jfSo / cy{nfO{ g}           ;dfj]z ug'{kg]{ vfnsf] 5 . n]vs :jo+n]
5 eGg] s'/f s[ltsf/n] pbfx/0f;lxt k|:6             k|b"lift ug]{ vfnsf] x'G5 . cy{sf] cgy{ nfUg]                          “}
                                                                                                      n]vgdf k"0f{tf x'bg / q'l6/lxttf klg gx'g;S5
kf/]/ ;+rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ ;fjwfg / ;r]t                / pN6f] cy{ lbg] vfnsf jfSo o;leq kb{5g\ .         eg] tfklg k|ltkfB ljifoj:t'sf] ;LldttfnfO{
kfg'{ePsf] 5 . n]vsn] g]kfnL efiffsf k]z]j/             |
                                                   t];f] uNtL cfzo, hf]8, Wjlg / ;du| k|efjdf                                                 ]
                                                                                                      x]bf{ ‘xfd|f] efiff’ k"0f{tfsf] glhs k'usf] :t/Lo
k|of]ustf{x¿df cIfdtf slt 5, hyfefjL k|of]u        cf3ft k'¥ofpg] vfnsf] b]vf kb{5 . z'4, ;/n         k':ts ;flat x'G5 . Pp6} jfSodf cg]s q'l6
ug]{ k/Dk/fn] slt h/f] uf8]sf] 5 / cfd g]kfnLn]    / :ki6 cleJolQmsf lglDt o:tf uNtLx¿                / c:ki6tf e]l6g] hl6n ;d:ofn] u|:t g]kfnL
dft[efiff / dfWod efiffsf] ¿kdf Jofks k|of]u       x6fpg' clgjfo{ 5 . s[ltsf/n] g]kfnL efiff          n]vg / kqsfl/tf If]q ‘xfd|f] efiff’af6 lglZrt
ul//x“bfsf] l:yltdf klg slt c;fjwfgL,              n]vgdf b]lvg] u/]sf o:tf q'l6x¿sf] /f]rs           ¿kdf nfeflGjt x'g;S5 . o:tf] uxg s[lt
nx8afhL / pk]Iffefj JofKt 5 eGg]lt/ klg            lr/kmf/ ug'{ePsf] 5 . kqsf/ / cvaf/L               tof/ ug]{ v'aL k|bz{g ug'{ n]vssf] ljlzi6tf
plQs} rf;f] /fv]/ q'l6, sdL–sdhf]/L /              n]vsn] dfq xf]Og gfdL ;flxTosf/x¿n] klg            xf] . g]kfnL efiffefifL ;a}sf nflu pkof]uL
lj;+ultx¿ s]nfpFb} z'4 / ;xL 9·sf] k|of]usf        s'/} ga'emL lj1tf 5fF6\g] u/]sf] / pN6f]kfN6f]     x'g] uxg s[lt tof/ u/]/ /fi6«efiffsf] ;d[l4df
                         {
lglDt dfu{lgwf{/0f ug'ePsf] 5 .                    s'/f p¢[t÷k|:t't ug{] u/]sf] pNn]v ub{} To:tf      z/RrGb| j:tLn] pNn]Vo of]ubfg k'¥ofpg'ePsf]
           g]kfnL efiff z'4 n]lvg'kb{5, z}nL ;/n   lj;+ u ltx¿tkm{ ;d] t pxfF n ] Wofgfsif{ 0 f       :jLsf/ ug{ s'g} s~h':ofO“ ug'{kb}{g .
x'g'kb{5, eGg vf]h]sf] s'/f k|:6 x'g'kb{5 /        u/fpg'ePsf] 5 . Ps gd'gfM


48                                                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                          k':ts ;dLIff


cg'ejn]
;f/ule{t / pkof]uL
       z/RrGb| j:tL g]kfnL kqsfl/tf bf];f| ] ztfAbLsf] ofqfdf /x] klg g]kfnLdf n]lvPsf kqsfl/tf ;DaGwL sfdnfUbf k':ts
                                          +                     }
                                xftsf] cf}nfdf uGg ;lsG5g\ . k|f9tfn] vfl/Psf, ;'bL3{ cg'ejsf] cfkm\g} hudf plePsf, kqsf/x¿nfO{
                                dfu{bz{g ug{ ;Sg] / p¢[t ug{ ;lsg] k':tsx¿sf] t nueu csfn g} 5 . s]xL jif{ otf xf]8afhLs} ¿kdf


kqsfl/tfaf/] y'k|} k':ts lg:s]sf 5g\ h;nfO{           eg]sf] c¿n] gkfPsf] ljlzi6 ;dfrf/ xf] eGg]
b'O{ ju{df af“8\g ;lsG5 . klxnf] ju{df To:tf          l;sfOPsf] x'G5 . ltgdf sxL“ ‘ljb]zdf ag]sf
k':ts kb{5g\ hf] n]vsn] ljb]zdf kqsfl/tf              d]l;g klg xfd|f kqklqsfn] k|fKt ug{ ;s]sf
;DaGwL s'g} tflnd ln“bf kfPsf x\of08cfp6 /            5}gg\’ elgPsf] x'G5 t sxL+ ‘oxf“ kqsfl/tf ;DaGwL
l6lkPsf gf]6nfO{ tfgt'g kf/]/, k9\g'k/]sf             k|lzIf0f lbg] pko'Qm Joj:yf 5}g’
lstfax¿sf cwsNrf k|;· / p4/0f ;s];Dd                  n]lvPsf] x'G5 . o:tf
a9L vf“b/ pTkfbg ul/Psf x'G5g\ . g]kfnL ;Gbe{
         ]                                            k':tsx¿sf] uDeL/
/ cg'ejsf] uGwaf6 c;Dk[St o:tf k':tsdf                kof{ j nf] s g u/L
kg{ k'u]sf sltko s'/fsf] dd{af/] n]vs :jod\           ‘kqsfl/tfsf ljBfyL{n]
cgle1 /x]sf] tYo ltg} k':tssf kfgfn] k|s6             kmnfgf]–kmnfgf] k':ts
ul//x]sf x'G5g\ .                                     gk9\ g " ’ eg] / ljZj–
           bf];|f] ju{df tL k':tsnfO{ ;dfj]z ug{      ljBfnox¿sf kqsfl/tf
;lsG5 h;sf n]vssf] kqsfl/tf ;DaGwL 1fg,               ljefun] ;+o'Qm ;fj{hlgs
cWoog / cg'ej eg]sf] obfsbf kqklqsf k9\gdf      '     ;"rgf hf/L gug{] xf] eg]
;Lldt x'G5 . kqsfl/tfsf] cf}krfl/s lzIff Kn;–         kqsfl/tf xf“;f] / r'6\lsnfsf]
6' / xfO{ :s"n txdf ;d]t le8fpg] dfq xf]Og,           ljifo aGg k'Ug] b]lvG5 .
;s]–kfPb]lv k|fylds sIffaf6} z'? u/fpg vf]Hg]                    >L/fdl;+ x a:g] t n]
xfd|f] cb\e];|f] pT;fxn] o:tf k':tssf] pTkfbgsf       n]v]sf] ‘kqsfl/tfsf cfofd’ eg]
nflu pj{/ e"ld tof/ kfl/lbPsf] 5 . kqsfl/tfsf]        To:tf k':tsdf k5{ h;n] pN6f] s'/f
1fg lbg] -eP kf] lbg] Û_ eGbf klg h;f]t;f] u/]/       k:sFb}gg\ / n]vsn] g} krfpg
cfkm\gf] k|efjIf]qsf÷lrg]hfg]sf :s"n–sn]hdf           g;s]sf] ljifoj:t' kf7s;fd' jdg
lasfpg] p2]Zon] n]lvPsf o:tf k':tsaf6                 ub{ } g g\ . c9fO{ bzsb] l v g] k fnL
kqsfl/tfsf] xf]Og, n]vsLo d"9tfsf] dfq 1fg            kqsfl/tfdf ;+ n Ug /x] / cWoog,
k|fKt x'G5 . ltgn] ‘nL8’ nfO{ ‘k|yd k[i7sf            cWofkg, tflnd, ;dfrf/ ;ª\sng,
dxTjk"0f{ ;dfrf/, h;nfO{ af]N8 k]m;df lbOG5’          ;Dkfbg h:tf o;sf ljljw kIfdf
eg]/ kl/eflift u5{g\ eg] ‘OG6«f’] eg]sf] ‘;dfrf/sf]   ;'of]Uotfk"j{s ;lqmo /xFb} cfPsf n]vssf]
z'?df ;dfrf/sf d'Vo / dxŒjk"0f{ kIfnfO{               1fg / cg'ejn] o;nfO{ uxlsnf] Pjd\
ck]Iffs[t df]6f cIf/ / af]N8 km]; lbOG5, Tof]         ;f/jfg\ agfOlbPsf 5g\ . ;}4flGts kIfnfO{
c+z g} OG6«f] xf]’ eg]/ cYof{p“5g\ . ‘kmf]6f]         ;/n–;xh ¿kdf k|:t't ug'{ / sfo{If]qsf ljljw
kqsf/x¿n] Pp6} 36gfsf j:t'x¿sf] kmf]6f] lvRg]         cg'ejx¿sf cfwf/df To;nfO{ :ki6 kfg'{ o;sf]
cg'dlt lbG5’ eg]/ kmf]6f] kqsf/sf] kl/efiff k|:t't    ‘df}lnstf’ xf] . n]vs :jod\n] k':tsnfO{ cfkm\gf]
u5{g\ . ltgdf ‘se/]h’ eg]sf] cfj/0fk[i7 xf],          cWoog, cGt/lqmof / cg'ejsf] ld>0f atfPsf
‘skL/fO6’ eg]sf] n]vs:j xf] / ‘PS;Sn'hg’              5g\ . Tof] t x'“b} xf], yk s] klg xf] eg] k':ts


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                               49
     kqsfl/tfaf/] pT;'stf /fVg]x¿, kqsfl/tfsf ljBfyL{–              b]lv ‘gf+uf]’ kqsfl/tf;Dd / ‘Anluª’ b]lv ‘Kof/f;'6’
     k|lzIffyL{x¿ / k|lzIfsx¿sf nflu ;d]t plQs} pkof]uL             kqsfl/tf;Ddsf] ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 . bf];f| df ;+rf/dfWod
                                                                                                                 ]
     5 . ahfl/of d?e"lddf P]/]u}/] k':tsn] d[ut[i0ffsf]             ;DaGwL ‘;fdfGo 1fg’ ;d]l6Psf] 5 . t];|f]df kqsfl/tfaf/]
     ;[li6 ul//x]sf] j]nf of] s[lt Pp6f hnfzo ag]/ k|s6             JoQm ul/Psf dxŒjk"0f{ egfO lbOPsf] 5 eg] clGtd cWofodf
     ePsf] 5 .                                                      kqsfl/tfsf k|fljlws zAbx¿sf] ;"rL k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .
               kqsfl/tfn] cfh cgluGtL cfofd ;d]l6;s]sf] 5                     ljifoj:t' k|:t't ug{] qmddf a:g]tn] oqtq wfl/nf]
                                             \            +
     t/ k':ts ‘;s];Dd a9L cfofd ;d]6g’] WofpGgdf ef}tfl/Psf]        efiffdf ;6Ls s'/f u/]sf 5g\ hf] g]kfnL kqsf/x¿n] cf–
     5}g . a:g]t cfkm"n] hfg]sf], a'em]sf], krfPsf] / cflwsfl/stf   cfkm\gf] sfo{sIfsf leQfdf 6f“:g'kg{] vfnsf 5g\ . pgL
     cfh{g u/]sf] cfofddf dfq k|j]z u5{g\ . h;df k|j]z              sxL+ ‘6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df b]lvgsf nflu dfq’ kqsf/
     u5{g\ To;af/] lgå{Gå eP/, cfTdljZjf;sf ;fy ljifoj:t'           ;Dd]ngdf k|Zg ;f]lw6f]kNg] k|j[lQ -k[i7 !*$_ lj?4 cf}+nf]
     k|:t't u5{g\ . ;/n efiff–z}nL / w/ftnLo ;Gbe{ Pjd\             78\ofp“5g\ t sxL+ ‘kqsf/ kl/rokq g t ;'/Iffsjr xf] g
     pbfx/0fx¿sf] ;xof]uaf6 s'/f] 5n{· kf5{g\ . cjZo klg,           htf;'s} a]/f]s6f]s cfjfudg ug{ kfOg] nfO;]G;’ -k[i7
     ljifoljz]ifdf s]lGb|t /xL To;sf] ;}4flGts–bfz{lgs JofVof       !&!_ eGb} cfkm"nfO{ ;dfhsf] ;fF9] ;Demg] kqsf/–
     k|:t't ug{], ulxl/P/ ;fª\uf]kfª\u ljZn]if0f ug{] / To;af/]     dfgl;stfnfO{ e'O{+df y]rf5{g\ . pgL ‘;dfrf/nfO{ eGbf
     gofF b[li6 jf cjwf/0ff cl3 ;fg{] vfnsf], k|f9t/ kf7sk|lt
                                                     }              vfglkg / pkxf/nfO{ dxTj lbO{ t“5f8d5f8 ub{} hfg]’
     nlIft k':ts of] xf]Og . o;df t To:tf a]Unfa]Un} k':ts          -k[i7 !*%_ / ‘/flqef]hx¿df cTolws dlb/f ;]jg u/L
     aGg ;Sg] bh{geGbf a9L ljifo ;d]l6Psf 5g\ h;df n]vs                 +{
                                                                    e'Od} nDk;f/ kg{] jf emu8f ug{’] -k[i7 !#)_ kqsf/x¿nfO{
     Tolt dfq ulxl/Psf 5g\ hlt ‘cfjZos’ 5 . kqsfl/tf                cfkm\gf] cfr/0f ;'wfg{ ;ts{ u/fp“5g\ . slxn] ‘;dfrf/bftfn]
     k9fO x'g] g]kfnsf tLg 7"nf ljZjljBfnosf ljefuLo                n]v]/ a'emfPsf] ;dfrf/df efiffut / Jofs/0fut z'4fz'l4
         '
     k|dvx¿sf] -dfq_ dGtJo ;d]l6Psfn] k':ts d"ntM Toxf“sf           dfq gx]/L tYout z'4tf / k"0f{tftkm{ klg Wofg lbg'
     ljBfyL{nfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ n]lvPsf] a'lemG5 . a9L ulx/fOn]       ;Dkfbsx¿sf] st{Jo xf]’ -k[i7 !%!_ eGb} cof]Uo÷u}/lhDd]bf/
     ltgnfO{ ps';d's'; x'g] / cTof; nfUg ;Sg] ePsfn]                ;Dkfbsx¿nfO{ g/d zAbdf s8f r8sg–Ro"/f rvfp“5g\
     To;tkm{ g8f]¥ofOPsf]df cGoyf dfGg' h¿/L klg 5}g .              t slxn] ;DkfbsLo eg]sf] xtktL ga'lemg] efiffd} n]lvg'k5{
               #!) k[i7 / !& cWofodf km}lnPsf] k':tssf] z'?sf       eGg] e|dsf] sf/fuf/df aGbL ag]sfx¿nfO{ ‘;DkfbsLo klg
     kf“r cWofo kqsfl/tfsf] kl/ro / o;sf] Oltxf;df s]lGb|t                            ]
                                                                    ;/n z}nLdf n]v/ ;j{;fwf/0fb]lv af}l4s ju{sf ;a} kf7ssf
     5g\ . ;j{k|yd cfd;~rf/sf] cjwf/0ff cYof{p“b} n]vs              nflu k7gLo agfpg' plrt xf]’ -k[i7 @@!_ eg]/ sf/fd'Qm
     kqsfl/tfsf] cy{, cfwf/, p2]Zo, dxŒj / e"ldsfaf/] :ki6          ug{ rfxG5g\ .
     kf5{g\ . To;kl5 ljZj kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; 5f]6s/Ldf                        Oltxf;k|ltsf] uf}/j / ;Ddfgefj k':tssf]
     k|:t't u5{g\ / g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] ljut Pjd\ jt{dfgnfO{         pNn]vgLo kIf xf] . qmflGtsf/L aGg Oltxf;nfO{ 3[0ff
     ljljw r/0fdf lj:tf/k"j{s lgofN5g\ . /f0ffzf;geGbf                     {                                \ '
                                                                    ug'k5{ / cfkm\g} Oltxf;;“u ;DaGw tf]8gk5{ eGg] cfTd3ftL
     klxn]sf] ;+rf/ k4ltb]lv dfcf]jfbL ljb|f]xn] lgDTofPsf] åGå     wf/0ff cfhef]ln Jofks aGb} uPsf] 5 . b]zdf o;cl3
     kqsfl/tf / To;kl5sf] l:ylt;Dd pgn] ;d]6]sf 5g\ .               slxNo} s]xL /fd|f] ePs} 5}g eGg' cu|ufldtfsf] kl/ro
     kf“rf}+ cWofodf uf]/vfkqsf] Oltxf; / of]ubfgsf] ljj]rgf        h:tf] x'g yfn]sf] 5 . t/ a:g]t Oltxf;k|lt s[t£g x'g
     ul/Psf] 5 . k':tssf] ;jf{lws pkof]uL v08sf ¿kdf                rfx“bf /x]g5g\ . To;}n] pgL k~rfotsfndf kqsfl/tfdf
     /x]sf To;kl5sf 5 cWofo kqsfl/tfsf] ;Lksf lgldQ                 ePsf dxŒjk"0f{ sfdsf] klg pNn]v u5{g\ clg uf]/vfkqsf]
     ;dlk{t 5g\ h;nfO{ n]vssf] nfdf] :ynut cg'ejn] hLjGt            dxŒj Pjd\ b]gsf] j0f{g ug{ l;+uf] cWofo ;dlk{t u5{g\ .
     t'NofPsf] 5 . k|ydtM ;dfrf/nfO{ ‘;du| kqsfl/tfsf] d'6’'        b]zsf] h]7f] cvaf/ blIf0f Pl;ofnL kqsfl/tf If]qd} b'ne /  {
     atfpFb} To;sf ljleGg kIfaf/] ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 . To;sf]      ;Ddflgt :yfg agfpg ;kmn ePsf] tYo :ki6Øfp“b} pgL
     nuQ} ;dfrf/bftf / ;dfrf/ ;+sngaf/] ljzb ljj]rgf                eG5g\— ‘uf]k g]kfnn] uj{ ug{ ;Sg] Ps k|d'v /fli6«o
     ul/Psf] cWofo 5 . o;df vf]h, ;+;bLo, k|sf]k, åGå, ljsf;        ;Dkbf aGg uPsf] 5’ -k[i7 (^_ . Oltxf;nfO{ lwSsf/]/
     / of}g kqsfl/tfaf/] ljz]if rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . o;kl5              uf}/jflGjt x'g rfxg]x¿sf] eL8df a:g]tn] hf]ufPsf]
     kqsf/ ;Dd]ng, ;Dkfbg, cGt/jftf{ / ljrf/ n]vg;DaGwL             j:t'lgi7tf k|z+;gLo 5 .
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     cWofo /x]sf 5g\ h;n] tTtt\ ljifonfO{ ;"Idtfk"js s]nfPsf                  g]kfnL n]vsx¿df cfkm\gf] efiffk|lt cgf}7f] xLgefjgf
     5g\ . To;kl5sf b'O{ cWofon] ;dfrf/ ;ldlt / cfd;~rf/            5 / cfTdljZjf;sf] cefj klg . pgLx¿ g]kfnLsf nflu
     Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;d]6]sf 5g\ . clGtdsf rf/ cWofo ljz]if            g]kfnLdf kf7Øk':ts n]V5g\ t/ kfl/eflifs zAb÷zAbfjnL,
     /f]rs / hfgsf/Ld"ns /x]sf 5g\ . klxnf]df ‘vfnL v'§f’           zLif{s÷pkzLif{snfO{ ;Lw} jf sf]i7sdf /fv]/ cª\u|]hLdf

50                                                                                                               df3–r}t @)^$
glbP;Dd ltgnfO{ lrQ a'em\b}g . ltgnfO{ dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f          7fp“ d f v' § f sf6\ g ] , h:t} gjLgtd\ -%_, b' M vb\
g]kfnLdf dfq n]Vbf To;n] kof{Kt cy{ lb+b}g eGg] nfUbf]         -!@*_, lgs6td\ -!@(_, Go"gtd\ -!#!_, dfkm{t\ -#÷!##_,
xf]nf cyjf ‘kf7sn] dnfO{ cof]Uo 7fGg]5g\’ eGg] eo x'“bf]       dgg\ -!&!÷@)$_ k|j[lQ afSn} b]lvG5 . ck"0f{gLo
xf]nf . ‘kqsfl/tfsf cfofd’ klg o:tf] k|j[lQsf] lzsf/           -!^@÷!&)_, tgdgtf -!#*_, lgk"0f{ -!#*_, lhWbL
x'gaf6 eg] aRg ;s]sf] 5}g . ‘;DkfbsLo’ elg;s]kl5               -!&!_, xfFl;n -!&%_, >]os/ -!#)_, OdfGbfl/tf -@^&_
km]l/ Editorial -k[i7 @@)_ lsg eGg'k/]sf] xf], cyjf ‘zLif{s’   h:tf zAbn] bfFtdf 9'·f nufpF5g\ . a:blyP, ;'GblyP
n]lv;s]kl5 km]l/ Headline -k[i7 !(*_ lsg n]Vg'k/]sf]           h:tf lqmofkb -!%#_, jfSosf aLrdf cfPsf cjfl~5t
xf], a'em\g ;ls“b}g . k':tssf clwst/ k[i7 o:t} h~hfndf         k|ZglrGx -!!÷!&%÷@^(_ / ck"/f jfSo -!%*_ n] lbUbf/L
h]lnPsf 5g\ . o;/L ‰jf§ x]b}{ lj¿k nfUg] efiff÷lnlksf]         a9fp“5g\ . Pp6} jfSodf lxHh];DaGwL rf/j6f;Dd uNtL
j0f{;+s/ 9f“rf v8f ug'{ s'g} klg b[li6n] pko'Qm xf]Og .        b]vf kg{' -!)!_ /fd|f] xf]Og . k|'kmsf uNtL klg Tolt
ljlzi6 kfl/eflifs zAb, zAbfjnL jf jfSo÷jfSof+znfO{             kftnf 5}gg\ .
cª\u|]hLdf ;d]t lb“bf lh1f;'sf nflu Hofbf pkof]uL x'G5                   ‘hGo’n] pTkGg x'g]÷ePsf] eGg] cy{ a'emfp“5 .
eGg] clek|fo eP ltgnfO{ k':tssf] k'5f/lt/ cg';"rLsf            ‘of}ghGo cfgGb’ eGg t ldN5 t/ of}ghGo snfs[lt
¿kdf 5'§} ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsG5 . xf]Og, oqtq cª\u|]hLdf            -!&(_, of}ghGo ljifo -!)_, of}ghGo kqsfl/tf -@^(_
                          ]
n]Vbf g} a9L :ki6, ;Dk|if0fLo / nlIft kf7ssf nflu Hofbf        eGg ldNb}g . tL of}g;DaGwL jf of}gdf cfwfl/t xf]nfg\,
;/n–;xh x'G5 eGg] nfU5 eg] t k"/} k':ts g]kfnLsf] ;§f          of}gaf6 pTkGg ePsf xf]Ogg\ . hgdfg; -hgtfsf] dg_
cª\u|]hLd} n]Vg]lt/ nfUg' g} a9L a'l4dfgL x'g]5 .                         “
                                                               pQ]lht x'bf] xf]nf t/ ‘hgdfg;nfO{ hfgsf/L’ -!*@_ lbg'kb{g, }
           o;}sf] csf{] kf6f]sf ¿kdf g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] /f]u   ‘hgtf’nfO{ lbP k'U5 . ‘zfGt / w}o{wf/0f u/]/’ -!&@_ df
/x]sf] 5— ;xL zAbsf] 5gf]6÷k|of]u ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf]            ‘zfGt’sf] 7fp“df ls ‘zflGt’ n]Vg' /fd|f] x'G5 gq ‘zfGt
cefj . To;sf s]xL pbfx/0f o; k':tsdf klg b]lvG5g\ .            /x]/ /’ eGg' plrt x'G5 . ‘dfgj;dfhdf ;a}eGbf k'/fgf]
h:t} ‘;TotYo’ k[i7 ^ df Accuracy nfO{ elgPsf]] 5 eg]           Joj;fo aGg] uf}/j kfPsf] j]Zofj[lQ’ -!&(_ df ‘uf}/j’sf]
k[i7 (* df Truthness nfO{ . t/, Accuracy eg]sf]                ;§f cs{} zAb vf]Hg' /fd|f] x'G5 . lsgeg], j]Zofj[lQ uf}/jsf]
tYo xf] eg] Truthness eg]sf] ;To . b'O{ km/s s'/fnfO{          ljifo xf]Og .
ld;df; u/]/ cw{gf/LZj/ v8f ug'{sf] s'g} nfe 5}g . o;}                                        {
                                                                         o;afx]s, df8L b'36gf:ynsf] tl:a/sf] SofK;gdf
d];f]df sxL+ ;dfrf/ ;+sngnfO{ -k[i7 !#%_ Reporting             ‘of] 36gfn] g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ sf cWoIf k|r08 :jo+nfO{
elgPsf] 5 t sxL+ ;dfrf/ ;Dk|]if0fnfO{ -k[i7 !$!_ . :ki6}                                                               “}
                                                               lrlGtt t'NofPsf] lyof]’ -!&#_ jfSosf] k|of]hg :ki6 x'bg .
                   ]                                  ]|
5, ;+sng / ;Dk|if0f cnu–cnu s'/f x'g\ . To:t}, c+uhLsf]        ;dfrf/ ;+sng -!@^_ s} ;Gbe{df lbg'kg{] ‘cfjZos ;fdu|L’sf]
Disaster nfO{ ‘k|sf]k’ eGg] ul/Psf]÷elgPsf] 5 -k[i7            ;"rL kqsf/ ;Dd]ng -!*#_ sf] ;Gbe{df dfq lbOPsf] cln
!^) / cGo_ . t/ Disaster sf] cy{ k|sf]k geP/ 3f]/              cgf}7f] nfU5 . ljz]if ;Gbe{df ;Lldt åGå kqsfl/tfsf]
ljklQ, b'3{6gf jf ;+s6 xf] . k|sf]kn] t sf]k -qmf]w_ sf]       kl/ro ‘;+;f/ åGådo 5’ h:tf jfSoaf6 -k[i7 !^(_ z'?
k|antf eGg] cy{ hgfp“5 h;nfO{ cª\u|]hLdf Wrath jf              ul/Psf] b]Vbf åGåfTds ef}ltsjfbLn] åGåsf] JofVof ug{
Fury eG5g\ . Stringer nfO{ ‘:yfgLo ;dfrf/bftf’ elgPsf]         yfn]h:tf] nfU5 .
-k[i7 !#$_ klg nueu To:t} xf] . Stringer sf] cy{ xf]—                    ‘kqsfl/tfsf cfofd’ o:tf sdL–sdhf]/Laf6 d'Qm
sltj6f -slt nfdf÷s:tf_ ;dfrf/ k|of]u eP, To;sf]                g/x] klg clnslt ;fjwfgL / ;r]i6tf ckgfpg] xf] eg] tL
cfwf/df kfl/>lds kfpg] -dfl;s tna gkfpg] _                     ;Rofpg g;lsg] vfnsf 5} g g\ . a:g] t sf] k] z fut
;dfrf/bftf . To:tf] ;dfrf/bftf ‘:yfgLo’ dfq xf]Og,             k|lta4tfnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ bf];|f] ;+:s/0fdf k':ts q'l6/lxt
‘j}b]lzs’ klg x'g ;S5 . ‘;/ntf Pj+ :ki6tf’sf] cª\u|]hL         / cem eml/nf] eP/ cfpg] cfzf ug{ ;lsG5 . ;dLIff
Simple and Clear -k[i7 !)#_ xf]Og, cª\u|]hLsf b'j}             n]Vg l;sfpFb} n]vsn] eg]sf 5g\– ‘olb ;dLIff ul//xg
ljz]if0fnfO{ efjjfrs gfd agfPkl5 dfq tfndfn ldN5 .             cfjZos gePsf] k':ts 5 eg] hah{:tL ;dLIff n]Vg'x'“b}g’
‘If a dog bits a man that is not a news’ df news               -@@&_ . t/, k}/jL a's xfp;n] 5fk]sf], !() ?k}of“ d"Nosf]
;“u cfPsf] a -k[i7 (&_ nfO{ d]l6lbg kfP slt hftL               of] k':ts ;dLIff ug{ dfq xf]Og, lsg]/ k9\g / ;fd"lxs
x'GYof] .                                                      5nkmn ug{ klg pko'Qm 5 . vf;u/L g]kfnL kqsfl/tf;“u
           g]kfnL efiff;“u dfq ;DalGwt ;fgf–7"nf ;d:of         ;DalGwt / o;k|lt rf;f] /fVg]x¿sf nflu of] ;'vb pkxf/
klg k':tsdf e]l6O/xG5g\ . x|:jnfO{ bL3{ agfpg], h:t}           g} xf] . olt dxŒjk"0f{ / pkof]uL k':tssf nflu >L/fdl;+x
WjgL -*÷!@^_, zf]sfs"n -!#!_, ;'k/Lj]If0f -!#@_, s"n           a:g]t awfO{sf kfq 5g\ . eljiodf pgsf] snd cem
-!#%_, q'6L -!^)_, cle?rL -!#(_, jL/n} -@&%_ / grflxg]         wfl/nf] / kl/kSj aGb} hfcf];\, z'esfdgf ¤

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                  51
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     dx]Gb| lji6                                                                     '
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cfrf/;+lxtfnfO{ kqsfl/tfsf] cEof;df slxNo}        o; cGtu{t kqsfl/tf;“u ;DalGwt s'g} klg              s] eO/x]sf] 5 < tfhf 36gf jf ljifodf
       '“ }
e'Ng'xbg / kqsfl/tf ;dfhk|lt lhDd]jf/ k]zf        kIf / ljifodf ljlzi6 JolQm -x¿_ sf] ljZn]if0f,      ldl8ofsf] pkl:ylt s:tf] /x\of], 7Ls ls
xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ Jojxf/df ptfg{ x/bd k|oTg       cledt / d"Nof+sg kqsf/x¿n] ;'G5g\ /                 a]7Ls < ca s] ug'{k5{ < o:tf cg]sg\ k|Zgsf]
ul//xg'k5{ eg]/ o; l;4fGtn] ;Demfp“5 .            pgLx¿;“u v'n]/ ;+jfb u5{g\ . sfplG;nsf              hjfkm vf]Hg of] d~r ;femf rf}tf/L xf];\ eg]/
nf]stflGqs k4ltsf] cEof;;“u} g]kfnL k|];n]        cWoIf /fh]Gb| bfxfnn] ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’ sf]            ;|ft JolQmnfO{ a9LeGbf a9L v'n/, cf}krfl/s
                                                                                                         ]                              ]
;fdflhs pQ/bfloTjk"0f{ kqsfl/tfsf] klg            z[ª\vnf k|f/De x'“bf -@)^# df3 !& ut]_              jf cgf}krfl/s h'g ¿kdf pgLx¿nfO{ ;xh
cEof; cf/De ug{}kb{5 . o;n] To:tf] rfxgf          eg]sf] :d/0f ug{] xf] eg] ‘of] ldl8ofsf] To:tf]     nfU5 ToxL ¿kdf ;+jfbsf] k|lqmof cl3 a9fpg]
/fv]sf] klg 5 . t/ ;|f]t / k|fksaLrsf] uxg        rf}tf/L xf], hxf“ kqsfl/tfsf] ljifoj:t'leq k;]/     ul/Psf] 5 . @)^# df3b]lv @)^$ h]7;Dd
cGt/lqmofsf] lglDt pko'Qm d~r v} <                lj1sf] d'vaf6 cEof;stf{n] ;Lwf k|ltlqmof                                 \
                                                                                                      kf“r dlxgfdf of] z[ªvnf cGtu{t ePsf kf“r
             ]
            k|; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’   kfpg ;Qm5 .’ g]kfnL k|];n] h] ul//x]sf] 5,          j6f ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’nfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] cfkm\gf]
ToxL l/Qmtf k"/f ug{] Pp6f cEof; xf] . k|]; /     Tof] k]zfut dof{bfsf] s;Ldf s:tf] 5 < uj{           p2]Zocg'¿k o;n] xfl;n u/]sf] pknlAw
k| f ksnfO{ hf] 8 \ g ] dfWod . of] ldl8ofn]      ug'{kg{] s'/f s] 5g\ < u'gf;f ;'Gg'kg{] 7fp“ sxf“   ;Gtf]ifhgs dfGg ;lsG5 .
hgtfaf6 ;xL k|ltlqmof k|fKt ug{] / ljZjf;sf]      5g\ < ldl8ofsf] ‘se/]h’ / k|fyldstf s:tf]                   klxnf] ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’sf] ljifo ‘/fhgLlt
dt lng] jf lng dfu{bz{g kfpg] cj;/ xf] .                                                       '
                                                  5 < ljifoj:t'sf] lgwf{/0f / k|:t'lt s:tf] x'gk5{,   / ldl8of’ lyof] h;df /fhgLlts ljZn]ifs

52                                                                                                                                    df3–r}t @)^$
                      '
k|f= s[i0f vgfnn] d'nssf] ;du| ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg            /fhgLlts bn / ;+;bnfO{ Tof] s'/f ;DemfOlbg         ;+;bdf uDeL/ ax; x'g] ljifonfO{ ldl8ofn]
/fhgLlts cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f ub{} eGg'ePsf]                                            '
                                                        ldl8of;“u cfu|x ;d]t ug{eof] . k|f= vgfn em}+      a'em\g ;Sg'k5{ / To;nfO{ phfu/ klg ug'{k5{
lyof]—‘o:tf] a]nf ldl8ofsf] e"ldsf cem ;zQm             pxf“n] klg ldl8ofn] s]jn ‘se/]h’ xf]Og,            eGg] ;'emfj lbg'eof] . ‘;+;bdf ax;, dte]b
x'g'k5{ .’ pxf“sf] ljrf/df ;ª\qmd0fsfndf ((             ljifoj:t'sf] uDeL/tf a'em]/ tbg'¿k To;df           :jfefljs xf] t/ ldl8ofdf ToxL dfq 5fp“5’,
k|ltzt ;"rgf ldl8ofaf6 g} k|fKt x'G5 .                        ]      {
                                                        k|jz ug'k5{ eGg]tkm{ Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg'eof] .      kGtsf] u'gf;f] lyof]—‘;xdltdf k'luG5 t/
g]kfndf ldl8ofsf ;a} ljwf 5fkf, /]l8of],                ‘c¿ lgjf{rg / ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgdf s]           Tof] s] s;/L eof], ldl8ofn] elglb“b}g .’
6]lnlehg / cgnfOg;d]tsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/                 km/s 5, o:tf] lgjf{rgdf cGoq s:tf] cEof;                    ;ft kf6L{sf] ‘xfOsdf08’ n] ;a} s'/fsf]
h'g /km\tf/df ePsf] 5, To;cg'¿k ltgn]                   ePsf] 5 ;dfg'kflts–ldl>t cflb k|0ffnLsf            lgwf{/0f ug{] ePsf]n] Joj:yflksf–;+;b gL/;
ljifoj:t' -sG6]G6_ df eg] ks8 sfod ug{                  kmfObf–a]kmfObf s] 5g\, bnx¿aLr o;df dt}So         / dxTjxLg ePsf] ;xefuL kqsf/x¿sf]
;s]sf 5}gg\ eGg] pxf“sf] ljZn]if0f lyof] .                  “
                                                        gx'bf s:tf] k|efj kb{5, pDd]bjf/sf of]Uotf–        l6Kk0fLdf ;f+;båo vf;} c;xdt /xg'ePg .
/fHosf] ¿kfGt/0f k|lqmofnfO{ s;/L cufl8                 cof]Uotf, ;Gt'ng, plrt k|ltlglwTj cflbsf]          pxf“x¿n] yKg'eof]— ‘t}klg o;sf] h'g ;fj{ef}d,
n}hfg] eGg] ljifodf g]kfnL ldl8of of]hgfa4              ;Daf] w g s;/L x' g ' k 5{ h:tf ljifodf            ;j{JofkL dxTj 5, To;nfO{ rflx“ gla;f}+{ .’
9+ u n] nfUg' k g{ ] ;' e mfj lb+ b } pxf“ n ] k| Z g                                          '
                                                        ;~rf/dfWodx¿n] af]lnlbg'k5{,’ k|dv cfo'Qm                   Gofofnosf] e|i6frf/sf] rrf{ / ;L8L
p7fpg'eof]— ‘PkmPdnufotsf dfWodx¿df                     kf]v/]nsf] cfu|x lyof] . pxf“n] yKg'eof], ‘s:tf]   k|s/0f ldl8ofdf 5/ki6 ePsf] a]nf @)^$
;d]t /fhgLlts JolQmx¿n] g} k|fyldstf                    lsl;dsf] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL xfdL rfxG5f},+ s:tf       j}zfv !^ ut] cfof]lht ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’ sf]
kfp“5g\, hgtfsf cfjfh cem} cf]em]nd} k/]                                                            '
                                                        pDd]bjf/ xfdL rfxG5f},+ s:tf] jftfj/0f x'gk5{,     rf}yf] sfo{qmddf ‘Gofofno / ldl8of’ ljifodf
ls <’ k|f= vgfnsf] egfO lyof]— dw]zsf]                  ;'/Iff Joj:yfkg s;/L ul/g'k5{, dtbftf lzIff        cGt/lqmof ;DkGg eof] . sfo{ q mdsf
u' g f;f] ldl8ofn] ;' G g' k 5{ , g] k fnu~hsf]         k'u]sf] 5 ls 5}g, 5}g eg] s:tf] /0fgLlt                ]
                                                                                                           ;|ftJolQmåo jl/i7 clwjQmf >Lxl/ cof{n /
36gfnfO{ k|ltufdL v]n dfq eg]/ kG5fpg]                                                       '
                                                        ckgfOg'k5{, cfrf/;+lxtf s:tf] x'gk5{ oL ;du|                                 ]
                                                                                                           clwjQmf e/t/fh pk|tLn] ldl8ofn] cfkm\gf]
                             ''
s'/fdf ldl8of ;+nUg x'gxGg . O/fsdf g]kfnL                             ]  ]
                                                        ljifodf k|; / k|;dfkm{t hgtfsf efjgf phfu/         ;Ldfsf] x]Ssf /fVg'kg{] t/ e|i6frf/sf ljifonfO{
dfl/+bfsf] 36gf -@)^! ebf} !^_ nfO{ lnP/                x'g'kb{5 .’                                        tYok/s eP/ aflx/ Nofpg rflx“ lxlRsrfpg
ldl8ofsf] cg';Gwfg x'g'kb{Yof] .                                                         |
                                                                    ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’sf] t];f] s8L ‘cGtl/d    gx'g] wf/0ff /fVg'eof] . ‘cbfnt jf GofofwLzsf
          ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’n] cfTd;dLIff ug{] /            ;+;b / ldl8of’ sf ;|f]t JolQm ;f+;båo              af/]df s'g} s'/f aflx/ Nofp“bf cbfntsf] dfgxflg
w]/} l/Qmtf d]6\g] ljZjf; ub{} k|f= vgfnn]              /fw]Zofd clwsf/L / /3'hL kGt x'g'x'GYof] .         kf] x'G5 ls eGg] xfpu'hL kqsf/x¿aLr
ldl8ofsf] ljZj;gLotf / k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg                @)^$ j} z fvdf ;DkGg pQm 5nkmndf                   b]lvG5,’ jl/i7 clwjQmf cof{nsf] egfO lyof]—
ljifoj:t'sf] ljZn]if0f, ;fdu|Ldf ljljwtf, n}l+ us       pxf“x¿sf] ;femf u'gf;f] lyof]— ldl8ofn] c¿         k|sflzt–k|;fl/t ;dfrf/n] d'2fsf] sf/afxLdf
;Gt'ng, ;fdflhs d'2fsf] ;xL k|ltlglwTj,                 If]qnfO{ h;/L k|fyldstf lbG5, ;+;bnfO{             k|ToIf c;/ kg{] :ki6 gb]lvP;Dd cbfntsf]
kf7skq h:tf gful/ssf cfjfh cfpg] :yfgsf]                lb“b}g . ;+;bsf ljjfbf:kb ljifo ldl8ofdf           cjx]ngf x'Gg, GofofwLz / cbfntsf] :jR5
j[l4, efiffut ljljwtf cflb kIfdf a9L Wofg               5fp“5g\ t/ uDeL/ ljifon] k|j]z g} kfp“b}gg\ .      cfnf]rgf ug{ kfOG5 .
lbg ;+rf/sdL{x¿nfO{ ;'emfj lbg'eof] .                                                      ]
                                                                    ;+;bdf ldl8ofnfO{ k|jz v'nf ul/Psf]               ]
                                                                                                                    k|;n] cbfntsf ljifox¿nfO{ klxn]eGbf
          ‘ldl8of–;+ j fb’sf] bf] ; | f ] s8L           Pj+ ;'/Iff–;+j]bgzLn ljifodf 5nkmn ePsf]           a9L :yfg lbPsf]df v'zL JoQm ub{} pxf“x¿
‘;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg / ldl8of’ ljifodf s]lGb|t        cj:yfdf afx]s ;ldltsf a}7sdf ;d]t kx'Fr            b'j}n] Gofofnosf] dfldnfdf k|]; cfkm}+ klg
                  ]
lyof] . o;df ;|ft JolQmsf ¿kdf lgDTofOPsf               lbOPsf]nfO{ plrt sfo{sf ¿kdf ln“b} ;f+;båon]       36gfd'vL / ckl/kSj /x]sf] u'gf;f] ug'{eof] .
    '
k|dv lgjf{rg cfo'Qm ef]h/fh kf]v/]nsf] hf]8             6]lnlehgnfO{ klg ;+;bsf] a}7sdf k|j]z                ]
                                                                                                           k|; :jtGqtf / cbfntsf] cjx]ngfsf ljifodf
klg gofF g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f s;/L ;+ej 5 eGg]              lbOg'kg{] wf/0ff JoQm ug'{eof] . ‘sd ;] sd         uxg 5nkmn u/f}+, Gofofno a9L ;+j]bgzLn
s'/fdf ldl8ofn] a9L snd rnfpg'k5{ eGg]d}                ;+;bsf] k|Zgf]Q/ ;donfO{ rflx“ k|ToIf k|;f/0f      / sltko cy{df k|fljlws ;d]t ePsf] sf/0f
lyof] . @)^# r}t #) ut] ;DkGg o; ;+jfbdf                ug' { k 5{ , ef/tdf klg o:tf] 5’, ;f+ ; b          cbfntL l/kf]l6{ªsf k|lzIf0f klg rnfcf}+,
kf]v/]nn] b'O{ dlxgf cyf{t\ h]7leq ;+ljwfg;efsf]        clwsf/Lsf] egfO lyof]—hgtf;“u ;/f]sf/ /fVg]        pxf“x¿sf] cfu|x lyof] .
lgjf{rg ug{ s] s:tf r'gf}tL 5g\ eGg] s'/fnfO{           ljifosf sfg"g lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf ldl8ofsf]                kqsf/af6} ldl8ofsf] ;dLIff u/fpg
3'dfO{–3'dfO{ k|:t't dfq ug'{ePg ;/sf/,                 a9L Wofg hfg'k5{ . csf{ ;f+;b /3'hL kGtn]          ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’ sf] kf“rf}+ sfo{qmddf ‘clxn]sf]


                     ]                    }                                      +
                  ‘k|; :jtGqtfsf nflu n8\gk5{, t/ n8\bf kf6L{sf] em08fd'lg ghfcf},
                                                           +                        +
            g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf] sfof{no / em08fd'lg hfcf}, ToxL+af6 P]Soa4tf hgfcf},
                                        Pp6} :j/ b]cf}+ .’
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                          53
g]kfnL kqsfl/tf’ zLif{scGtu{t @)^$ h]7              d}n] dflggF, p;sf] bafanfO{ 6]l/gF lsgls             ]
                                                                                                      ‘k|;dfly cem} r'gf}tL 5g\’, pxf“sf] d"Nof+sg
@% ut] jl/i7 kqsf/ o'j/fh l3ld/]nfO{ ;|ft       ]   d}n] ;]gfaf6 kqsfl/tf l;s]sf] xf]Og,’ cfkm"nfO{   lyof]— kqsfl/tf ug{] plrt jftfj/0f, kqsf/sf]
JolQmsf ¿kdf lgDTofOPsf] lyof] . pxf“n]             k|tLssf ¿kdf k|:t't ub{} pxf“n] To;j]nfsf]        k]zfut ;'/Iff / cfly{s dha'tL geP;Dd of]
             ]
g]kfnL k|;df y'k}| ljrng cfpg vf]h] klg                      ]
                                                    g]kfnL k|;sf] cj:yf / /fHosf] ;Ldfsf] ljj]rgf     k]zfdf /fd|f dfG5]x¿ nfUg ;Q}mgg\, /fd|f dfG5]
;du|df @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngkZrft\                 ug'{eof] . pxf“sf] ljrf/df g]kfnL k|];n] zfxL     gcfP;Dd of] k]zfn] r'gf}tL wfGg ;Qm}g .
g]kfnL kqsfl/tf Jofj;flostftkm{ pGd'v               sfndf c;Gt'lnt kqsfl/tfsf] cEof; klg                      oL sfo{qmdx¿sf] cfwf/df ‘ldl8of–
                       {       ]
/x]sf] ljZn]if0f ug'eof] . ‘k|fkf]u08f dRrfpg]      b]vfof] . ‘km]a|'c/L ! b]lv @! ;Dd sflGtk'/ /                                        ]
                                                                                                      ;+jfb’ sf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ g]kfnL k|; hlt Jofks
  ]
k|;n] zfxL sfndf clwgfosjfbsf] jsfnt                b sf7df8f}+ kf]i6n] To;a]nfsf] kl/l:yltaf/]df     / Jofj;flos aGb} uPsf] 7flgPsf] 5, o;n]
u/], k|hftGqsf] lj?4df klg nfu], ljrng /                                  ]
                                                    ;DkfbsLo;Dd n]vgg\’, pxf“sf] l6Kk0fL lyof]—       Tof] ¿ksf] kl/kSjtf xfl;n ug{ eg] lgSs} g}
sfnLbf; k|jl[ Q klg b]lvof], tL ;a unt              clk|n @( kl5 rflx“ ;Gt'ng u'dfP/ n]v,] Tof]                   {
                                                                                                      d]xgt ug'kg{] cfjZostf 68\sf/f] b]lvPsf]
x' g \ , ’ l3ld/] s f] cfTd;dLIff lyof] — ‘k| ] ;   7Ls xf]Og . ljZn]if0f ;du|df x'g'k5{ .            5 . Tof] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ ‘ldl8of–;+jfb’
                          }
:jtGqtfsf nflu n8\gk5{, t/ n8\bf kf6L{sf]                      sfg"gL zf;gsf] dfGotfnfO{ crfgf]df     sf] lg/Gt/tf sf];]9'+uf ;flat x'g ;Qm5 .
em08fd'lg ghfcf},+ g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf]            /fv]/ nf]stGq of u0ftGq sxL+ klg cfp“bg      }    o;sf] lg/Gt/tf rflx“ ldl8of pBf]usf x:tL
sfof{no / em08fd'lg hfcf},+ ToxL+af6 P]Soa4tf       eGb} l3ld/]n] k|]; sfplG;nh:tf ;+:yfn]            / ;DkfbsLo g] t [ T jsf] rfv Pj+ ;lqmo
hgfcf}+, Pp6} :j/ b]cf}+ .’                         cfrf/;+lxtfsf ljZjJofkL dfGotfnfO{ oxfF klg       ;xeflutfdf e/ kg{] s'/f xf] .
            ‘df3 !( kl5 ;]gfn] n]v—gn]v eg]sf]                                 { ]
                                                    nfu" u/fpg k|oTg ug'kg{df hf]8 lbg'eof] .


         :of6nfO6 nfOa|/Lsf] :yfkgf
                       ]                                                            lgjf{rg ;~rf/ cg'udg
                                                    ldl8of /                 @)^$ ;fn dª\l;/ ^ ut] x'g] to
                                                    kqsfl/tf;DaGwL           ul/Psf] ;+ljwfg;ef ;b:o lgjf{rgsf
                                                    cWoog–cg';Gwfg           ;Gbe{df 5fkfdfWodaf6 k|sfzg x'g]
                                                    ug]{ l;+ufk'/sf] ;+:yf   / ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWodaf6 k|;fl/t
                                                    ‘Plds’ (Asian            x'g] ;fdu|Lx¿ ‘;+ljwfg;ef ;b:o
                                                    Media Information        lgjf{rg cfrf/;+lxtf, @)^$’ cg'sn   "
                                                    and                      eP gePsf] cg'udg ug{ lgjf{rg
                                                    Communication            cfof]un] k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnnfO{
                                                    Centre-AMIC) sf          cfu|x u/]sf] lyof] . ;f]xL cfu|xnfO{
                                                k|sfzgx¿ g]kfnL              :jLsf/ u/L cfof]un] ;~rf/dfWodsf
                                                kf7sx¿sf] lglDt              nflu hf/L u/]sf] cfrf/;+lxtf nfu"
                                                k|]; sfplG;n                 ePkl5 lgjf{rg ;DkGg geP;Dd
                                                g]kfndf pknAw x'g            b]ze/sf ;a} ;~rf/dfWodx¿ -5fkf
 yfn]sf 5g\ . @% h]7 @)^$ df sfplG;nsf cWoIf /fh]Gb| bfxfn                   / ljB'tLo k|;f/0f_ sf] cg'udg ug{sf nflu sfplG;n / lgjf{rg
 / ‘Plds’ sf g]kfn k|ltlglw ljgf]b e§/fO{aLr ePsf] ;Demf}tf                  cfof]uaLr ;Demf}tf ;DkGg eof] . cfjZos hgzlQm /
 cg';f/ ‘Plds’ n] cfkm\gf k|sfzgx¿ l56f]5l/tf] dfWoddfkm{t                   pks/0fsf nflu sl/a ?= ! s/f]8 ^) nfv a/fa/sf] cfly{s
 sfplG;nnfO{ pknAw u/fpg]5 / sfplG;nn] OR5's                                 ;xof]u cd]l/sL ;/sf/ USAID/OTI n] lbg] lgwf] cg'?k
 cWo]tfx¿nfO{ tL k|sfzgsf] cWoog Pj+ cGo pkof]usf lglDt                      cfjZos ;dembf/L eof] . USAID/OTI af6 k|fKt pks/0fx¿
 cfjZos ;'ljwfsf] Joj:yf ug]{5 . ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ ug{                      sfplG;n ;lrjfnodf h8fg ul/Psf] / ;~rf/ cg'udgsf nflu
 cfof]lht ;df/f]xdf ldl8of / kqsfl/tf;DaGwL ljleGg $) yfg                    rflxg] !#) hgf hgzlQmsf] 5gf]6 u/L ltgLx¿nfO{ PsxKt] tflnd
 k':ts sfplG;nnfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] .                                 lbg] sfo{ ;DkGg ul/Psf] lyof] .
                                        ]
       ‘:of6nfO6 Plzog ldl8of nfOa|/L’ gfd lbOPsf] ‘Plds’sf]                       lgjf{rg cfof]un] ljleGg ;~rf/dfWodx¿åf/f lgjf{rgsf]
 o; k|sf/sf] of] bf];|f] k':tsfno xf] . klxnf] o:t} k':tsfno                 k|rf/k|;f/sf] l;nl;nfdf k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0f ePsf ;"rgfx¿sf]
 lkmlnlkG;df ;~rflnt 5 . PlzofnL d'n'sx¿sf] ;"rgf, ;~rf/                     lgoldt cg'udg u/L b]vf k/]sf] cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3gsf s'/fx¿
 / kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf; Pj+ Joj:yfkgdf ljut #^ jif{b]lv pNn]Vo                  ;Rofpg lgjf{rg cfof]un] ;DalGwt ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ lbg] /
 of]ubfg ub}{ cfPsf] ‘Plds’ n] xhf/f}+ cg';GwfgfTds sfo{kq /                 lgjf{rg cfof]un] lbPsf] lgb]{zg kfngf ug]{ st{Jo ;DalGwt
 #)) eGbf a9L k':tsx¿ k|sflzt ul/;s]sf] 5 . ‘Plds’ sf                        ;~rf/dfWodsf] x'g] tYonfO{ dWogh/ u/L cfof]un] ;~rf/
 tfhf / k'/fgf k|sfzgx¿sf] pknAwtfaf6 g]kfnL kqsf/ tyf                       cg'udg ug]{ lhDdf sfplG;nnfO{ lbPsf] xf] . t/ ;+ljwfg;efsf]
 ;"rgf—;~rf/ / kqsfl/tfsf ljBfyL{, lzIfs Pj+ cGj]ifsx¿                       lgjf{rg :ylut ePsf]n] ;~rf/ cg'udg;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ klg
 ljz]if ¿kdf nfeflGjt x'g] ljZjf; sfplG;nn] /fv]sf] 5 .                      :ylut ul/Psf] 5 .


54                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
  ]
k|; 8fo/L
  j}zfv, @)^$                                 k|wfg ;Dkfbsdf ljho rfln;]sf]            e/fpg] sf7df8f}+ lhNnf cbfntsf]
  ) g]kfn jfg 6]lnlehgsf sfdbf/x¿åf/f         lgo'lQm .                                km};nf -o:tf 36gfdf Ifltk"lt{ e/fpg]
     ljleGg dfu /fvL sf7df8f}l+ :yt         ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ o'lgogsf] bafasf         klxnf] cbfntL lg0f{o_ .
     sfof{nodf ^ ut] tfnfaGbL .               sf/0f !@ ut] g]kfn ;dfrf/kq            ) uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgcGtu{t ljleGg
     kqsf/x¿åf/f @) ut]bl] v @$ 306]          b}lgssf] k|sfzg aGb .                    lhNnfdf s/f/df sfo{/t $% hgf
     l/n] cgzg k|f/De, To;kl5               ) dfcf]jfbLåf/f ;~rflnt PkmPd              kqsf/ lgisfl;t . lgisfl;t ul/Psf]
     clglZrtsfnLg cgzg . dfu k"/f             /]l8of]x¿ ;fd'bflos /]l8of]sf ¿kdf       xf]Og, s/f/ cjlw gylkPsf] dfq xf]
     ug{ Joj:yfkg ;xdt ePkl5 @# ut]           ;~rf/ dGqfnodf btf{ x'g k|f/De .         eGg] ;~rf/dGqLsf] :ki6Ls/0f .
     cgzg ;dfKtÙ cfGbf]ng lkmtf{ .          ) hgcf:yf ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs;lxt          ) ‘;u/dfyf’ 6]lnlehgåf/f !$ ut] /
  ) cGt/f{li6«o k|]; :jtGqtf lbj;sf           tLg kqsf/dfly cbfntsf] cjx]ngfsf]        ‘PleGo'h’ 6]lnlehgåf/f #@ ut]
     cj;/df @) ut] b]ze/ k|eftkm]/Lsf         cf/f]kdf d'2f bfo/ .                     k|;f/0f k|f/De .
     ;fy} ljljw sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf .                                                ) s~rgk'/l:yt ‘cfhsf] ;dfrf/’
     ljleGg kqsf/x¿ ;Ddflgt .               c;f/                                       b}lgssf ;Dkfbs k|sfz 7s'/Lsf]
                                            ) /]l8of] ;u/dfyfnfO{ lg/Gt/ hgtfnfO{      c;f/ @! ut] dfcf]jfbLåf/f ckx/0f .
  h]7                                         ;';"lrt ub{} k|]; :jtGqtfsf nflu
  ) dw]zL kqsf/x¿åf/f ‘dw]z ljsf;             ;+3if{ u/]afkt a]nfotsf] ;+:yf ‘jg     ;fpg
      kqsf/ ;+3’sf] :yfkgf, ef/tLo /fhb"t     jN8{ a|f]8sfl:6ª 6«:6’ åf/f ‘jg jN8{   ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ ;+u7gsf] cj/f]wsf
      lzjz+s/ d'vhL{af6 pb\3f6g .             a|f]8sfl:6ª :k]zn cjf8{’ k|bfg .         sf/0f cGgk"0f{ kf]i6 / b lxdfnog
  ) ;fKtflxs÷kflIfs klqsf ;~hfnåf/f         ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ o'lgogsf] bafasf         6fOD; b}lgssf] ljt/0f % / ^ ut],
      ;DalGwt kqsf/–x¿nfO{ cfktlaktdf         sf/0f ;GWofsfnLg dxfgu/ b}lgssf]         tTkZrft\ @^ ut] k"/} 7KkÙ @&, @*,
      ;xof]u ug{ kqsf/ sNof0f sf]ifsf]        k|sfzg % ut]b]lv / g]kfn                 @( / #) ut] k|sfzg aGb . pQm
      :yfkgf .                                ;dfrf/kq b}lgssf] k|sfzg ^               klqsfx¿sf] ljt/0fdf afwf gk'¥ofpg
  ) /fli6«o kmf]6f] kqsf/ ;d"xåf/f ;fu/       ut]b]lv ( ut];Dd aGb .                   k'g/fj]bg cbfnt -nlntk'/_ åf/f ;f]
      >]i7n] lvr]sf] ‘;z:q k|x/Lx¿n]        ) ‘uf]vf{ d'lQm ;]gf ;dfh’ atfpg]          ;+u7gsf gfddf cfb]z hf/L .
                            ]
      Pshgf afnsnfO{ s'6sf]’ tl:a/ jif{       ;d"xåf/f ;nf{xLsf] af“s] vf]nfdf       ) cgnfOg ;]jfdf sfd ug{]
      @))^ sf] k|]; kmf]6f] 5gf]6 .           sflGtk'/ klAns]zG;sf] uf8Ldf             kqsf/x¿nfO{ klg k|]; kf; k|bfg ug{]
  ) e"6fgL z/0ffyL{sf] :jb]z lkmtL{           cfuhgL .                                 ;"rgf ljefusf] lg0f{o .
      cleofgsf] l/kf]l6{ª ul//x]sf kqsf/    ) kqsf/ 1fg]Gb| v8\sfdfly ef]hk'/df      ) ;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL ljw]os
      bof/fd bfxfnnfO{ ef/tLo k|x/Låf/f       ;'/IffsdL{x¿åf/f s'6kL6 .                Joj:yflksf–;+;båf/f ;j{;Ddltaf6
      d]rL k'naf6 lu/km\tf/L / oftgf .      ) ‘g];gn l/klAnsg cfdL{–g]kfn’ gfds        kfl/t . ;"rgf n'sfpg]nfO{ hl/jfgfsf]
  ) ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/dGqL s[i0faxfb'/           ;+u7gåf/f dx]Gb|gu/                      Joj:yf .
      dx/fåf/f ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/                -sGrgk'/_ df kqsf/ k|sfzl;+x           ) k"j{ ;lrj tyf sfg"gljb\ sfzL/fh
      dGqfnosf] efjL gLlt tyf sfo{qmd         7s'/Lsf] xTof .                          bfxfnsf] ;+of]hsTjdf ;/sf/åf/f
      ;DaGwL cjwf/0ff ;fj{hlgs . ;"rgf      ) g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf zfvf                ;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL lgod d:of}bf
      tyf ;~rf/ af]8{ u7g ul/g] / åGå         ;efkltx¿sf] lrtjgdf e]nf .               sfo{bn u7g .
      kLl8t ;~rf/sdL{ sNof0f sf]ifsf]         dxf;+3nfO{ ;dfj]zL agfpg] /            ) g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf] dxfk|aGwsdf
      :yfkgf ul/g] hfgsf/L .                  of]Uotfsf cfwf/df kqsf/x¿sf]             Clif/fh a/fn lgo'Qm .
  ) uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgsf] cWoIfaf6               juL{s/0f ug{] nufotsf lg0f{o .         ) ‘;+3Lo lnDa'jfg\ /fHokl/ifb\’ sf
      t]hk|sfz kl08t / g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf]    ) d"Nof+sg dfl;ssf k|wfg ;Dkfbs            sfo{stf{åf/f emfkfdf sflGtk'/
      cWoIfaf6 a]Gh' zdf{sf] /flhgfdf kl5     Zofd >]i7nfO{ ;+s6sfndf u}/sfg"gL        klAns]zG;sf] uf8L tf]8kmf]8 .
      pQm kbx¿df qmdzM cf]d zdf{ / 8f=        y'gfdf /fvL oftgf lbPafkt              ) dfcf]jfbL lgs6 u0ftflGqs
      Clif/fh a/fn lgo'Qm . uf]/vfkqsf]       ;/sf/åf/f !% xhf/ ?k}ofF Ifltk"lt{       /]l8of]sdL{



df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                            55
     d~rn] tfnfaGbL u/]kl5 lxdfnog              lgb{ ] z g .                            sflQs
        ]               ]]
     a|f8sfl:6ª skf{/;gåf/f ;~rflnt         )                              '
                                                /fli6«o ;"rgf cfof]usf] k|dv cfo'Qmdf   ) b]zel/sf kqsf/ dlxnfx¿sf]
     PraL;L PkmPdsf] k|;f/0f aGb .              ljgos'df/ s;h" / rnlrq ljsf;               /fhwfgLdf e]nf, kqsf/ dlxnfsf
     To;sf] s]xL lbgkl5 skf{]/];gsf                    {
                                                af]8sf] cWoIfdf O{Zj/rGb| 1jfnL            nflu ljz]if gLlt agfpg'kg{] lgisif{sf
     Joj:yfks jL/]Gb| bfxfn k|];dflysf]         lgo' Q m .                                 ;fy !! a“'b] 3f]if0ffkq ;fj{hlgs .
     x:tIf]ksf] lj/f]w ub{} cfd/0f          )   ;fpg @& ut] z'¿ ePsf] PraL;Lsf          ) kqsf/ jL/]Gb| zfxsf] l:ylt ;fj{hlgs
     cgzgdf .                                   Joj:yfks jL/]Gb| bfxfnsf] cfd/0f           ug{ kqsf/ dxf;+3åf/f b]zJofkL
 )   Joj:yflksf–;+;båf/f >dhLjL                 cgzg rf}wf}+ lbg cf7 /fhgLlts              sfo{qmdsf] 3f]if0ff, b]ze/ wgf{ Pj+
     kqsf/ ljw]os ;+zf]wg;fy kfl/t .            bnsf g]tfn] k|]; :jtGqtfsf] kIfdf          h'n'; k|bz{g, bh{gf}+ kqsf/ kqmfp .
     >dhLjL kqsf/nfO{ lgo'lQmkq ljgf            lnlvt k|lta4tf JoQm u/]kl5 ebf} (       ) dfcf]jfbL sfo{stf{n] kqsf/ jL/]Gb|
     sfddf nufpg gkfOg] tyf P]g nfu"            ut] ;dfKt .                                zfxsf] ckx/0fkl5 xTof u/]sf]
     gug{] ;~rf/ ;+:yfnfO{ /fHosf           )   ;fpg @@ df aGb ePsf] PraL;L                dfcf]jfbL cWoIf k|r08åf/f
     tkm{af6 lbOg] ;'ljwfdf /f]s nufpg          PkmPdsf] k|;f/0f ebf} ( ut] k'gM           :jLsf/ . zfxsf] kl/jf/nfO{ ;xof]u
     ;lsg] Joj:yf .                             k|f/De . !@ ut] ;f] ;+:yfåf/f ;Dk"0f{      :j¿k ?=!) nfv lbg] ;/sf/sf]
 )   k|]; sfplG;n kqsfl/tf k'/:sf/ /            kqsf/ / sd{rf/LnfO{ kl/rokq /2             3f]if0ff .
     k|]; sfplG;n :tDe n]vg k'/:sf/             u/L ;]jfaf6 lgisf;g . lgisfl;t
     @)^@ ;fnsf nflu qmdzM s'Gtf                kqsf/x¿åf/f cfGbf]ng k|f/De .           dª\l;/
     zdf{ / ;'nf]rgf dfgGw/nfO{ k|bfg       )   ‘gofF ;Qf’ b}lgssf ;+jfbbftf z+s/       ) kqsf/ dxf;+3åf/f c;'/lIft
     ul/g] 3f]if0ff . ;fy}, @)^# ;fnsf          kGyLsf] ;8s b'3{6gfdf d[To' . ;'gjn       kqsf/x¿sf] ef}lts, cfly{s tyf
     nflu pQm k'/:sf/x¿ qmdzM ul/df             glhs /fhdfu{df @( ut] IftljIft            sfg"gL pkrf/sf nflu sfg"gL 8]:ssf]
     dfl;s / 8f= t'n;Lk|;fb e§/fO{nfO{          nfz k|fKt .                               :yfkgf ug{] lg0f{o .
     k|bfg ug{] lg0f{o .                                                                ) kqsf/ dxf;+3, /f}tx6 zfvfsf !)
 )   g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf ;efklt            c;f]h                                         hgf kqsf/åf/f c;'/Iffsf] sf/0f
     lji0f' lgi7'/LnfO{ :jtGqtfsf kIfdf     ) dfcf]jfbL dhb'/ o'lgogåf/f sflGtk'/         hgfp“b} dxf;+3sf] ;fwf/0f ;b:oaf6
     u/]sf] of]ubfgsf nflu blIf0f             klAns]zG;sf] lj1fkg ;+sng /                 ;fd"lxs /flhgfdf .
     sf]l/ofsf] ‘dfGx] kmfpG8];g’ åf/f #)     k|sfzgdf /f]s nufPsf sf/0f sflGtk'/       ) kqsf/x¿sf] 6f]nL ;':tfsf] cjnf]sg
     xhf/ cd]l/sL 8n/ /flzsf] ‘dfGx]          / b sf7df8f}+ kf]i6 b}lgssf c;f]h !!        e|d0fdf, ef/tn] g]kfnsf] e"ld
     u|fG8 k'/:sf/’ k|bfg . pQm /sdsf]        ut]sf s]Gb|Lo ;+:s/0f aGb . k'g/fj]bg       cltqmd0f u/]sf] lgisif{ .
     cfwf c+z lgi7'/Låf/f ‘kqsf/ sNof0f       cbfnt -nlntk'/_ sf] cfb]zkl5 c;f]h        ) ;'g;/Ldf kqsf/ uf]ljGb l3ld/]nfO{
     sf]if’ nfO{ ;dk{0f .                     !@ ut]bl] v k|sfzgx¿ k'gM ahf/df .          ;z:q k|x/Låf/f k|x/L lj¿4 ;dfrf/
 )   kqsf/ dlxnfx¿sf] k|yd /fli6«o          ) kqsf/ eLd u'?ªdfly c;f]h @^ ut]             n]v]sf] eGb} lu/km\tf/L / s'6lk6 .
     ;Dd]ng kf]v/fdf ;DkGg . !% a'“b]         /flt w/df ;'lt/x]sf] j]nf a'6jn glhs
     3f]if0ffkq hf/L .                        s]/afgL uflj;df ;z:q ;d"xåf/f             k';
 )   kqsf/x¿sf] cfGbf]ngkl5 uf]/vfkq          uf]nL k|xf/ .                                   ]
                                                                                        ) k|; tyf cleJolQm :jtGqtf ;DaGwL
     ;+:yfgåf/f c;f/df lgisfl;t             ) kqsf/ ;~ho ;Gtf]ifL /fO{dfly c;f]h            cGt/f{li6«o ld;g g]kfn e|d0fdf .
     kqsf/x¿nfO{ k'ga{xfnL ug{]               @# ut] w/fg, a];SofDk glhs 5'/f           ) jL/u~haf6 k|sflzt x'g] xfOj]
     -s/f/sf] Dofb yKg]_ lg0f{o .             k| x f/ .                                     ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs k'is/nfn >]i7sf]
 )   s]an 6L=eL= ;~rfnsx¿åf/f               ) PleGo'h 6]lnlehg, g]kfn PkmPd / b[li6         hgtflGqs t/fO{ d'lQm df]rf{ -Hjfnfl;+x
     gjLs/0f z'Ns / /f]oN6L b:t'/             ;fKtflxssf ;+jfbbftf jL/]Gb| ;fxsf]           ;d"x_ åf/f uf]nL xfgL xTof .
     ;DaGwL dfu /fVb} cfGbf]ng . g]kfn        af/f lhNnf, lkk|f uflj;af6 c;f]h !*       ) l/kf]6{;{ ljbfp6 af]8{;{åf/f ;g\ @))&
     6]lnlehg / Pg6LeL–@ Rofgnx¿sf]           ut] dfcf]jfbLåf/f ckx/0f / xTof .             sf] k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs . To; jif{
     k|;f/0f ;fpg @^ ut]b]lv / cGo            dfcf]jfbLåf/f ;f] 36gfdf cfkm\gf]             ljZjel/ *& hgf kqsf/x¿sf] xTof
     g]kfnL Rofgnx¿sf] k|;f/0f ebf} !         ;+nUgtf c:jLsf/ .                             ePsf], **& hgf kqmfp k/]sf, !
     ut]b]lv @ ut];Dd aGb .                   kqsf/ dxf;+3, ;+;bLo ;ldlt /                  xhf/ %!! hgfdfly ef}lts cfqmd0f
                                              dfgjflwsf/jfbL ;+:yfx¿åf/f a]Unfa]Un}         ul/Psf] jf wDsL lbOPsf] tYof+s
 ebf}                                         5fglag kZrft\ ;fxsf] ckx/0f /                 k|sflzt . ;fy} rLgdf ## / So"jfdf
 ) b]ze/ Pp6} 6]lnkmf]g b/ lgwf{/0f ug{       xTofdf dfcf]jfbLsf] ;+nUgtf /x]sf]            @$ hgf / ljZje/df !#% hgf
   Joj:yflksf—;+;båf/f ;/sf/nfO{              k'li6 .                                       kqsf/ y'gfdf /x]sf] hfgsf/L .


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                {
st{Jo lgjf{x ug]5g\ M                                          x'g kfpg] xs–clwsf/sf] /Iff ug{ ;b}j lqmofzLn Pj+
                                                               ;dlk{t /xg'kb{5 .
-!_ k|]; :jtGqtfsf] ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{gM ljrf/ / cleJolQm     -$_ ;To tYo ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|i] f0fM kqsf/–;+rf/dfWodn] ;|ft    ]
    :jtGqtf gful/sx¿sf] cfwf/e"t clwsf/ ePsfn] o;sf]           / cfwf/ pNn]v u/L ;To—tYo, j:t'lgi7 Pj+ ;Gt'lnt
    ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{gsf lglDt ;b}j b[9, ;hu / ;ts{                                  {
                                                               ;"rgf ;Dk|i] f0f ug'kb{5 .
    /xg'kb{5 .                                             -%_ ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtf / pQ/bfloTjM ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtfsf]
-@_ dfgjLotf, dfgjclwsf/ / cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGwsf] ;DdfgM         ;j{dfGo l;4fGtadf]lhd ;+rf/dfWodaf6 pTkflbt–k|sflzt—
    dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o lnvtx¿n] k|Tofe"t u/]sf       k|;fl/t ;fdu|Lsf] pTkfbg tyf ;Dk|i] f0fsf] clGtd lhDd]jf/L
    xs, clwsf/, l;4fGt, dfGotf / k|rngsf] ;Ddfg ub}{           / clwsf/ ;Dkfbsdf lglxt /xg]5 . ;~rf/dfWodn]
    nf]stGq, Gofo, ;dfgtf, dfgjLotf, zflGt / cGt/f{li6«o                                                          '
                                                               cfkm\gf] dfWoddf ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"lt ug{kb{5 .
    ;dembf/Lsf] ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{g tyf ldq /fi6«x¿aLrsf]     -^_ uf]kgLotfsf] xssf] ;DdfgM ;fj{hlgs lxtdf k|lts"n
    efOrf/fnfO{ clej[l4 ug'kb{5 .
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                                                               uf]kgLotfsf] ;Ddfg ug'kb{5 .
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                         k|; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] q}dfl;s k|sfzg, df3–r}t @)^$ k|jzfÍ
                           ]

                                                                                                              leq
                         SAMHITA- A Quarterly Publication of Press Council Nepal Jan-Mar 2008



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cfrf/;+lxtf kl/kfngfdf k/]sf] c;/ cflb cfofdx¿ ;d]6g] k|sfzgaf/]      To;af6 lg;[t x'g] eo g} b]vfk5{ . sf/0f h] h:tf] eP klg, g]kfnL
  ]
k|; sfplG;n g]kfn, / cGo ;fGble{s ynf]x¿df s}of}+ k6s rrf{            k|; of ldl8ofsf] u'0fbf]ifsf] ;dLIffk|lt g]kfnsf] ;r]t, hfu¿s jf
                                                                        ]
ePsf] klg xf] . t/ 7f]; sfo{ st}af6 x'g ;ls/x]sf] lyPg . @)^#         af}l4s ju{sf] o; k|sf/sf] lg:k[xtf cem egf}+ pbf;LgtfnfO{ crDdnfUbf]
;fpgdf k'gu{7g ePsf] sfplG;nsf] k|f/lDes a}7sn] tTsfnnfO{             dfq geO{ lrGtfs} ljifo xf] eGg] lgisif{df xfdL k'u]sf 5f}+ .
q}dfl;s ¿kdf To:tf] k|sfzg cf/De ug{] cf}krfl/s lg0f{o u¥of] .                                         “
                                                                                hfu¿s / af}l4s ju{;u} ldl8ofsf cfd pkef]Qmfx¿ k|;–    ]
sfplG;nsf x/]s sfo{ kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ;]/f]km]/f]d} s]lGb|t x'g]                                                                '
                                                                      kqsfl/tfsf q'l6–sdhf]/L lj¿4 cfjfh p7fpg cfkm}+ ;lqmo gx“bf;Dd
dfGotfsf cfwf/df k|sfzgsf] gfd klg ‘;+lxtf’ /fVg] lgwf] ul/of] .      ;Gt'lnt / ;To–tYolgi7 kqsfl/tfsf] ;kgf cw'/f] g} /lx/xG5 .
;+lxtfsf] klxnf] c+s rf“8} k|sflzt ug{] nIo /fvL ;Dkfbg 6f]nL         xfdL sxf“ ldl8ofsf pkef]Qmf cyf{t\ klqsfsf kf7s, /]l8of]sf >f]tf
lqmofzLn klg eof] t/ ljleGg sf/0fn] k|yd c+ssf] ofqf cln nfd}         / 6]lnlehgsf bz{sn] cfkm"nfO{ dsf{ k/]sf] jf lrQ ga'em]sf]
eof] . k|yd c+ssf] nf]sfk{0f kZrft\ casf] ofqf ;'rf? x'g] s'/fdf          ]
                                                                      k|;÷kqsf/sf Jojxf/sf af/]df s;/L / sxf“ cfjfh p7fpg] eGg]
xfdL ljZj:t 5f}+ .                                                    k|Zg klg cfkm}+df sd hl6n 5}g . ‘;DkfbsnfO{ lr7L’ :tDedfkm{t
         ‘ldl8of OlyS; Og PlzofÆ k':tssf ;Dkfbs j]s6 P]/n]
                                                        + ]           cvaf/sf kf7snfO{ cfkm\gf] ljrf/ k|jfx ug{ lbg] k|rng 5fkf
kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf -ldl8of OlyS;_ sf af/]df ‘zxLb x'g] cf“6 jf         kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; hlQs} k'/fgf] xf] . klqsfsf kf7s / ;DkfbsaLr
PSnf] pNn' ;fljt x'g] hf]lvd jxg ug{ ;Sg] axfb'/n] dfq snd            bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb :yflkt ug{ tyf ;DkfbsLo q'l6–sdhf]/L ;Rofpg of]
rnfpg ;S5’ eGg] p4/0faf6 cfkm\gf] n]v z'? u/]sf 5g\ . ‘;+lxtf’        :tDesf] cxd\ e"ldsf x'g ;S5 . t/ ;a} ;Dkfbsx¿n] o;nfO{
sf] Ps jif{eGbf nfdf] cys\ ofqfdf xfdL klg nueu To:t} cg'ej           plQs} dxTj lbg] ub{}gg\ . g]kfnsf] tTsfnLg ;Gbe{df x]bf{ s]xL
ug{ k'Uof}+ . k|]; / kqsfl/tfsf ;an Pj+ sdhf]/ kIfdf ;Lwf snd         cvaf/sf ;Dkfbsn] ‘lr7L’ :tDenfO{ q'l6–sdhf]/L ;'wfg{] dfWodsf
rnfpg] hf“u/, /x/ / cf“6 yf]/}df dfq} e]l6of] . ;dfhsf c¿             cltl/Qm ;dfhdf p7]sf rlr{t d'2fsf af/]df clgolGqt 5nkmn
;b:osf af/]df lgw{Ss rrf{ ug{] rrf{sf/ / c¿sf] sfd / k|jl[ Qdfly      ug{] v'nf d~rsf ¿kdf ;d]t k|:t't u/]sf] b]lvG5 eg] sltko
lgeL{s l6Kk0fL ug{] l6Kk0fLsf/x¿ klg kqsf/sf af/]df rrf{ of           cvaf/df cl3Nnf] c+sdf k|sflzt ;fdu|L tyf ;f]xL cvaf/n]
l6Kk0fL ug{ eg] xlRsbf /x]5g\ . Joy{df ‘cnf]slk|o x'g]’ hf]lvd                                           +
                                                                      lnPsf] c8fgsf] kIfkf]if0f / k|z;f ul/Psf PskIfLo lr7Lx¿nfO{

                            ‘zxLb x'g] cf“6 jf PSnf] pNn' ;flat x'g] hf]lvd jxg ug{ ;Sg]
                                axfb'/n] dfq kqsf/sf af/]df snd rnfpg ;S5 .’

2                                                                                                                           df3–r}t @)^$
dfq :yfg lbg] u/]sf] klg kfOG5 . cfkm"n] jf cfkm\gf ;xsdL{n]         x'nfs 7]ufgf ;d]t lbg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . t/ s'g} sfo{qmdsf af/]df
                                     {
u/]sf] q'l6nfO{ ;xif{ jf ljgd|tfk"js :jLsf/ ug{] / dsf{ k/]sf kIf    slt >f]tf jf bz{sn] s] s:tf] 6Lsfl6Kk0fL u/], cfnf]rgf jf k|z;f   +
tyf cfkm\gf kf7s÷>f]tf÷bz{sx¿;“u Ifdfofrgf;lxt uNtL                  dfq} u/] ls ;'emfj klg lbP eGg] s'/f bz{s÷>f]tf;Dd k'¥ofpg] :ki6
gbf]xf]¥ofpg] k|0f ug{] pbf/lrQsf                                                                    / kf/bzL{ pkfo k|;f/0f dfWodx¿n]
;Dkfbsx¿ km]nf kfg{ ;dsfnLg                                                                          klxNofpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . vf; d'2f
g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfdf ;lhnf] 5}g .                                                                     / lglZrt vfsf -km/Dof6_ df ;Lldt
kf7sn] k7fPsf] ‘v08g’ eg]kl5                                                                         sltko sfo{qmdx¿df y'k}| bz{s /
x]b{} gx]/L /2Lsf] 6f]s/Ldf kmfNg                                                                    >f] t fx¿sf] ;xeflutf b] l vPs}
nufpg] u/]sf] Joxf]/f ;xif{ ;'gfpg]                                                                  cfwf/df s'g} k|;f/0f dfWod / p;sf
;Dkfbsx¿ e]6\g d'lZsn kb{}g .                                                                        pkef]QmfaLr bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb eO/x]sf]
s'g} klg ;dfrf/ jf n]vsf] ‘v08g’                                                                                       “}
                                                                                                     dfGg klg ;ls+bg, lsgeg] To:tf
g5fKg] cfkm\gf] ‘;DkfbsLo gLlt’ /x]sf]                                                               sfo{qmddf ljifoj:t' / ;DefJo
s'/f sfplG;nnfO{ cf}krfl/s ¿kd}                                                                      ;xefuLsf] 5gf}6b]lv k|Zgsf] lgdf{0f,
hfgsf/L u/fpg cK7\of/f] gdfGg]                                                                       k|:t'lt / lgisif{df ;d]t ;Da4 ldl8of
k|sfzgx¿ klg xfdLaLr hLjGt                                                                           jf kqsf/sf] Psnf}6L jr{:j /x]sf]
5g\ .                                                                                                x' G 5 .
         o;/L clwsf+z ;Dkfbs,                                                                                            ]
                                                                                                              :jtGq k|;sf] nfdf] cEof;
kqsf/ / k|sfzgx¿ g} bf]xf]/f]                                                                        / cg'ej ;“ufn]sf sltko klZrdL
;+jfbsf lglDt tof/ gePsf] l:yltdf                                                                    d'n'sdf k|];df cfPsf tYoxLg,
cvaf/sf kf7s, dsf{ kg{] kIf cyjf                                                                     c;fGble{s / ;g;gLk"0f{ ;dfrf/af6
                   ]                                 +
cfddflg;nfO{ k|;–kqsf/sf sdL–sdhf]/Laf/] cf}nf p7fpg cjZo                                                                  ]
                                                                     k|efljt JolQmx¿nfO{ /fxt lbg / d2t ug{ :jo+;jL ;+:yfx¿;d]t
;lhnf] 5}g . cem lemldSs cfP/ ldlnSs lanfpg] /]l8of] tyf             lqmofzLn kfOG5g\ . a]nfotsf] ldl8of jfOh 6«i6 -Pd 8An' 6L_ n]
6]lnlehgaf6 k|;fl/t ;fdu|LnfO{ lnP/ k|Zg p7fpg t k|df0fsf]             ]
                                                                     k|;sf] hfg–cghfg HofbtLaf6 kLl8t kIfx¿nfO{ lgMz'Ns ;Nnfx
cefjdf emg} sl7g x'G5 . kqklqsfsf] clen]v ;fj{hlgs                   / sfg"gL pkrf/df dfq} ;3fO/x]sf] 5}g, cgfxsdf lrof]rrf{ u/L
                                                         ]
k':tsfnox¿sf cltl/Qm ljleGg sfof{no, ;+ul7t ;+:yf, k|; sfplG;n                                                    ]
                                                                     JolQmsf] lghL hLjgdf vnn k}bf ug{] k|; / kqsf/dfly c+sz             '
g]kfn / sltko JolQmsf] lghL ;+sngaf6 ;d]t k|fKt ug{ ;Dej 5,          nufpg] s8f sfg"gsf] kIfdf ;+;bdf ‘nljª’ ;d]t ug{] u/]sf] 5 .
t/ k|;f/0f dfWodaf6 k|;fl/t ;fdu|Lsf] ;fj{hlgs clen]v                Toxf“sf kqsf/x¿sf] ;o jif{ k'/fgf] 5ftf ;+u7g g];gn o"lgog ckm
-/]s8{_ /fVg] sfo{sf] yfngL g} x'g;s]sf] 5}g .                       hgf{lni6;\ -Pg o" h]_ n] kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3g ug{] ;b:onfO{
         cfkm\gf >f]tf jf bz{s;“u bf]xf]/f] ;+jfb :yflkt ug{ k|foM   ;+u7gaf6} lgisf;g ug{] u5{ . t/, g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{ lgs} leGg 5 .
/]l8of] / 6]lnlehgn] kmf]g jf k|ToIf cGtjf{tf{sf] dfWodaf6 pgLx¿sf   cfwf/e"t k|hftGqs} lglDt cfwf ztfAbL;Dd ;+3if{ ug'{ k/]sf sf/0f
ljrf/nfO{ a9LeGbf a9L :yfg lbg] u/]sf 5g\ . ;dfrf/d"ns /                                 ]
                                                                     g]kfnsf] :jtGq k|;sf] Oltxf;, cEof; / cg'ej ;fk]IftM Psbd}
tfTsflns ljifo -s/]G6 ckm]o;{_ ;“u ;DalGwt x/]s h;f] sfo{qmdsf]      5f]6f] 5 . oxf“ ljleGg ‘Aofg/’ d'lg kqsf/x¿ ;+ul7t t ePsf 5g\
cGTodf >f]tf / bz{ssf] k|ltlqmof ck]Iff u/L kmf]g gDa/, O{dn / ]                                                             \
                                                                     t/ pgLx¿ cfkm\gf] k]zfut xs–clwsf/sf] n8fO“ 6'ªUofP/ gful/s

               Pp6f k|sfzgn] t s'g} klg ;dfrf/ jf n]vsf] ‘v08g’ g5fKg] cfkm\gf] ‘;DkfbsLo gLlt’
                 /x]sf] s'/f sfplG;nnfO{ cf}krfl/s ¿kd} hfgsf/L u/fpg klg cK7\of/f] dfg]g .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                            3
                         ]
/ ;dfhsf] tkm{af6 k|; / kqsfl/tfsf] e"ldsfsf af/]df ;f]Rg]           cfjZos x'G5 . g]kfndf kqsfl/tfsf] ;'?cft ePsf] Ps ;o jif{
txdf k'Ug af“sL g} b]lvG5 .                                          gfl3;s]sf] eP klg o;nfO{ ;f“rf] cy{df /fHosf] rf}yf] c+usf] ¿kdf
          g]kfnL kqsf/x¿;“u cfkm\gf k]zfut cg'ej / kqsfl/tfaf/]                                               {
                                                                     ljsf; ug{ cem} nfdf] ofqf to ug'kg{] oyfy{ ;a}sf ;fd' 68\sf/}
                                ]
nfu]sf s'/fx¿ ;f6f;f6 ug{] k|; Sna h:tf cgf}krfl/s d~rx¿             5 . o; ;Gbe{df g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfsf sdL–sdhf]/L / lj;+ultx¿
klg 5}gg\ . To:tf] :yfgsf] rrf{ rNbf b'O{–c9fO{ bzs cl3b]lv of]      36fp“b} o;nfO{ c¿ a9L :t/Lo, lhDd]jf/, ;fy{s / ;dfhf]kof]uL
                           +            +
k]zfdf /x]sf sf7df8f}sf kqsf/x¿ a}unf]/ skmL xfp; ;lDemg             t'Nofpg' h¿/L 5 eGg] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . t/ ‘s;/L’ eGg] k|Zgsf]
k'U5g\, hxf“ pgLx¿ Ps sk lrof / s]xL ksf}8fsf] e/df                  olsg hjfkm sfplG;n PSn}n] lbg ;Dej 5}g . To;} eP/ k|foM
ljZjljBfnosf k|fWofks / cjsfzk|fKt s"6gLlt1x¿, ;/sf/sf               k|sfzgsf] klxnf] c+snfO{ eljiosf] lglDt dfu{bz{s atfOg] k|rng
;lrj / dxfk|aGwsx¿ tyf y'k}| ;|i6f / ;r]t gful/sx¿;“u                ljk/Lt xfdL ‘;+lxtf’ sf] k|yd c+snfO{ dfu{bz{s 7flg/x]sf 5}gf}+ .
ljleGg ljifodf s'/f u/]/ 306f}+ latfpg] uy{] . To; qmddf Pp6f        g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf; / k|ult;“u} hgdfg;df o;k|ltsf] cf:yf
      {
l/kf]6/n] cl3Nnf] lbgsf] ;dfrf/df ePsf ;an / sdhf]/ kIf              / ljZjf; clej[l4df 6]jf k'¥ofpg sfplG;nsf] k|sfzg s:tf] x'gk5{    '
                             }
tyf q'l6 dfq} yfxf kfp“bgYof], csf{] lbgsf lglDt ;dfrf/sf]                              {            ]
                                                                     eGg] s'/fsf] lgSof]n ;d:t k|;hut / To;sf pkef]Qmf cyf{t\ kf7s,
ljifoj:t' / b[li6sf]0f klg ToxL+ km]nf kfg{ ;SYof] . o; lsl;dsf]     >f]tf / bz{sx¿sf] rfxgf / ;'emfjsf cfwf/df qmdzM lg:s“b}
;femf ynf]df ljgf cf}krfl/stf k|fKt x'g] ;'emfj / k|ltlqmof Pp6f     hfg]5 . of] k|yd cyjf k|f¿k c+s sfplG;n / o;sf] ;Dkfbg
;Rrf kqsf/sf] lglDt ljZjljBfnosf] lzIffeGbf sd pkof]uL               6f]nLs} ck]Iff / ;kgf cg'¿k klg ;fsf/ x'g;s]sf] 5}g, h;sf
x“bg . tyflk kqsfl/tfsf] cGtj{:t' Pj+ k|jl[ Q, kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf,
  '}                                                                 k5fl8 ljleGg sf/0f 5g\ .
          ]
;dfh–k|; ;DaGwsf ljljw cfofd tyf kqsf/sf lqmofsnfkaf/]                                                 ]
                                                                             k|f/lDes cjwf/0ff ‘k|;–hg{n’ sf] eP klg em08} Ps jif{sf]
;Lw} 6Lsf–l6Kk0fL, ljZn]if0f / 5nkmn ug{] ;fj{hlgs d~r jf            k6\of/nfUbf] k|oTg / cg'ej kl5, ‘;+lxtf’ nfO{ ljz'4 ‘hg{n’ cyf{t\
dfWodsf] vf“rf] eg] cfkm\gf] :yfgdf /xL g} /x]sf] 5 . ‘;+lxtf’ sf]   uxg, cg';Gwfgd"ns / k|fl1s k|sfzgsf ¿kdf cufl8 a9fpg
k|sfzgn] dfq Tof] vf“rf] jf l/Qmtf k"/f x'g;Sb}g eGg] oyfy{kl| t                                         ]
                                                                     g;lsg] / To;f] ug{ g]kfnsf] k|;, kqsf/ hut\, af}l4s ju{ / cfd
sfplG;n ;r]t 5 . tyflk, g]kfnL ldl8of÷k|];sf af/]df ul/g'kg{]        kl/j]z kl/kSj x'g af“sL g} /x]sf] xfdLnfO{ nfu]sf] 5 . tTsfnsf
cWoog–lrGtg–5nkmn / ax;sf] lglDt of] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ yfngL            lglDt ‘hg{n’, ‘Dofuflhg’ / ‘a'nl] 6g’ sf] ;lDdl>t :j¿k g} Jofjxfl/s
x'g;S5 eGg] ljZjf; lnOPsf] 5 . sfplG;nn] kqsfl/tfnfO{                x'g;Sg] 7flgPsf] 5 . o;} eP/ o; c+ssf] nflu z'?df ck]Iff ul/P
                                                        ]{
d"ntM :jtGqtf / kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 x]g÷ljZn]if0f     em}+ d"n ljifodf ;Lw} k|jz u/]sf n]v /rgfsf] kIfdf w]/} hf]8
                                                                                                   ]
ug{] x'bf ‘;+lxtf’ sf ljifoj:t'x¿ klg d"ntM To;s} ;]/f]km]/f]df
        “                                                            lbOPsf] 5}g . t/, o;sf] cfzo, ‘;+lxtf’ sf cfufdL c+s o:t}
/xg]5g\ .                                                                ]         '
                                                                     x'g5g\ jf x'gk5{ eGg] klg xf]Og . ljz]iftM kqsf/ tyf kqsfl/tfnfO{
          /fHosf tLg d'Vo c· sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsf /                ;fdflhs sf]0faf6 ;dLIffTds ¿kdf lgofNg] ;r]t kf7sx¿sf]
Joj:yflksfnfO{ ;Gt'lnt / hgtfk|lt hjfkmb]xL agfp“b} ;an              ;'emfj–k|ltlqmofn] g} ‘;+lxtf’ sf] efjL :j¿k / o;n] ;d]6g] ljifoj:t'sf]
                                                                                                                             \
/fi6«sf] lgdf{0f ug{ rf}yf] c· cyf{t\ kqsfl/tfsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{                           ]
                                                                     5gf}6nfO{ lgb{l] zt ug{5 . t;y{, ;a}af6 ;a}vfn] ;'emfj–k|ltlqmofx¿
cjZo x'G5 t/ To;sf nflu of] ‘c·’ :jo+df ;zQm / ;an x'g'              k|fy{gLo 5g\ .



                                                                  ]
            g]kfnL kqsf/x¿;“u cfkm\gf k]zfut cg'ej ;f6f;f6 ug{] k|; Sna h:tf cgf}krfl/s
           d~rx¿ klg 5}gg\ . o; lsl;dsf] ;femf ynf]df ljgf cf}krfl/stf k|fKt x'g] ;'emfj /
                                                                                      '}
           k|ltlqmof Pp6f ;Rrf kqsf/sf] lglDt ljZjljBfnosf] lzIffeGbf sd pkof]uL x“bg .

4                                                                                                                            df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                 ljZn]if0f


;dfrf/sf] ‰ofnaf6
6]lnlehg x]bf{
 /fds[i0f /]UdL              )                                      ]
                                  dfgj ;dfhsf nflu 6]lnlehg x]// /dfpg] ;fwg xf], ;lhnf] dgf]/~hgsf] dfWod xf] / o;nfO{ To;}
                                  ¿kdf ljsl;t ub{} nfg'k5{ .
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                                  xf]Og, of] ;"rgfsf] k|efjzfnL cfwf/ xf], ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;xh ¿kdf ;';lrt ug{] cfd;~rf/dfWod xf],
                                  o;nfO{ ToxL p2]Zo k|flKtsf lgldQ k|of]u ub{} hfg'k5{ .

k/:k/lj/f]wL h:tf b]lvg] dflysf cjwf/0ffn]
6] l nlehg ;+ r f/leq y/Ly/Lsf j} r fl/s
ljBfno g} vf]lnlbPsf 5g\ . s;} s;}n] o;nfO{
6]lnlehgleqsf] åGå eg]/ JofVof u/]sf] b]lvG5
t s;}s;}n] OGkmf]6]gd]06sf] klx/gdf b'j}nfO{
cs{} ljwfsf] ¿kdf k]z ug{] k|of; u/]sf]
kfOG5 .
           dWodfu{df a;]/ ;Gt'lnt 9·n] o;nfO{
b'j}–dgf]/~hg / ;"rgf–sf nflu k|of]u ug{]
k|j[lQ klg gePsf] xf]Og . pBf]u, Jofkf/,
lj1fkgsf] kmf“6df 6]lnlehgnfO{ u|fxs5]p k'Ug]
bl/nf] ;"q 7flgPsf] 5 . zlQmsf, ljz]if u/L
/fHozlQm jf /fhgLltsf v]nf8Lsf lgldQ of]
/0fgLlts cf}hf/ eg]/ lrlgG5 . ;fdflhs
¿kfGt/0fsf cu'jfx¿n] o;df kl/jt{g /
                       ]
ultzLntfsf] hfb" e]6sf 5g\ . 6]lnlehgleqsf
cg]s ;+efjgf / cj;/n] o;nfO{ Ps ;fwg–
cgluGtL pkof]usf] l:yltdf :yflkt u/]sf]
xf], Ps dfg]df ;~rf/–sfdw]g' 7flgPsf] xf] .
           :of6] n fO6 k| l jlwn] 1 6] l nlehgsf]
zlQmnfO{ HofldtLo lx;fan] a9fPsf] 5 . k|f/
Dedf vf; :yfg / kl/j] z df ;Lldt
6]lnlehgsf] kx'“r o;sf sf/0f ljZjJofkL
         ]
aGg k'usf] 5 . Ps cy{df clxn]sf] a]nf ;Dk"0f{
k[YjL 6]lnlehgsf] c“ufnf]df ;d]l6Psf] 5 .
306f 306fsf] ;dfrf/ -/f]lnª Go"h_ z[ªvnfn]     \
                                 '
o;nfO{ ljZj–dfgj;“u cb\et lsl;dn] uf“;sf]          ]
5 . cf]nlDks jf km"6ansf] ljZjsk ePsf]
a]nf jf vf; /f]u ljZje/ km}lnPsf] ;dodf
t[0fd"n txdf of] s'/fsf] cg'ej ul/G5 . df};d
                                              + +
;dfrf/ lbg]n] l;8\gL, 6f]lsof], a]Olhª cf}Nofp“b}
lbNnL, sf7df8f},+ s/f“rL, /f]d, aln{g, d:sf],
n08g b] v fp“ b } Go" o f] s { , Soflnkmf] l g{ o fsf]
xfjfkfgLsf] l:ylt atfp“bf klg w]/nfO{ o:t}}
nfUg] /x]5 . sltn] eGg] u/]sf 5g\ oxL

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        5
‘¿kjflxgL’ n] ubf{ ;+;f/sf] s'g} klg zx/         sxf“ 5 < 6]lnlehgdf s]sf] cWoog ug{] <               ;g\ !(^), ;]K6]Da/df ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf]
klt{/sf] 6f]n;/x ePsf] 5 . e"d08nLs/0fsf]        b[Zosf], efiffsf], af]nLsf], efjel·dfsf],            /fi6«ktLo r'gfjsf] l;nl;nfdf s]g]8L /
ljifonfO{ cy{ljb\ jf /fhgLlt1n] hlt Rofk]        ljifoj:t'sf], k|:tf]tfsf], oGqsf], kbf{sf],                                           ]
                                                                                                      lgS;gaLrsf] dxfjfbljjfb -u|6 l8a]6;_ nfO{    \
klg To;nfO{ oyfy{df knkn ;a}nfO{ cg'ej           36gfljz]ifsf], :jLrsf], tf/sf], :6];gsf],            Toxf“sf ;ft s/f]8 6]lnlehg bz{sn] x]bf{ o;
ug{ ;+ej t'Nofpg] ;fwg 6]lnlehg g} xf] .         Sofd]/fsf] jf Tof] rnfpg]sf] < cWoog s;/L            dfWoddflysf] kf/Dkl/s dfgl;stfdf tflTjs
o;n] ljZj cf“ugsf] kl/sNkgfnfO{ Jojxf/df         ug{] < s] ljlw ckgfpg] <                             cbnabn cfPsf] xf] . t/ klg nfdf] ;do;Dd
                                        '
cg'jfb ul/lbPsf] 5 . lqm; Kof6;{g n]Vg'xG5—                6] l nlehgsf] ;' ? cftdf o;k| l t          o;nfO{ pkGof;, lkmNd tyf gf6ssf] sfNklgs
Television could not exist in its                /flvPsf] b[ l i6sf] 0 fn] klg o;;DaGwL               ljifoj:t'sf] w/ftndf /fVg'kg{] / af}l4shutn]
contemporary form without Satellites.            cWoognfO{ k| e fljt t' N ofPsf] b] l vG5 .           o;sf] cWoog ug{' gkg{], zf]w ug{' gkg{], /
cyf{t\ :of6]nfO6ljgf 6]lnlehgsf] jt{dfg          k|f/Dedf ;+o'Qm clw/fHo / o'/f]ksf s]xL              o;df u+eL/tf;fy ;+nUg x'g' klg gkg{] k'/fgf]
cl:tTj ;+ej 5}g .                                d'n'sdf o;nfO{ hg;]jf -klAns ;le{;_ sf]              zf:qLo ljrf/ sfod g} /lx/x\of] . ;dfhsf
         g] k fnL 6] l nlehgnfO{ :of6] n fO6                                          '
                                                 b[li6sf]0fn] ckgfOPsf] lyof] eg] ;+oQm /fHo          nflu of] xflgsf/s ePsf] wf/0ff klg cfpg],
Rofgnsf] k|;f/0fsf] kl/j]zdf x]g{] xf] eg]       cd]l/sflt/ ahf/df cfwfl/t j:t'sf] ¿kdf               lanfpg] u/]sf] xf] . clxn] klg sltn] 6]lnlehg
cfd;+rf/sf If]qdf cg]s /dfOnf nx/x¿ km]nf        ljsl;t ul/Psf] lyof] . dfS;{jfbL, k|hftGqjfbL                                    ]
                                                                                                      ;dfrf/n] bf]xf]¥ofO{ t]x¥ofO{ lrq b]vfO{–b]vfO{
k5{g\ . ljz]if u/L oxf“sf ;dfrf/df ltgsf]                             ]
                                                 / cGo sltkon] k|;sf] ;j{dfGo l;4fGts}                ck/fwL / cft+sjfbLnfO{ k|l;4 u/fp“5 -
k|efjnfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] kqsf/sf nflu                                                                           Unf]l/kmfO{_ eGg] cf/f]k nflu/x]5 .
pkof]uL ;+s]tx¿ b]lvG5g\ . tL                                                                                    pHofnf] b] v fpg] 6] l nlehg w] / }
aLrsf] ax'cfofdLo ;DaGwnfO{                                                                                      jif{;Dd cWoogsf] b[li6n] Ps k|sf/n]
cg';Gwfgsf] k|m]ddf /fv]/ cWoog                                                                                  cGwsf/df /lx/x\of] .
ug{] cg]s ljifo x'g;S5g\, zf]w               klqsf eP k9]/, /]l8of] eP ;'g/ cWoog
                                                                               ]                                           6]lnlehgsf] k|efj ;dfhdf
pkfo / z}nL klg cgluGtL 5g\ .                                                                                     a9\b} hf“bf ;g\ !(&) df h]D;
k|:t't cfn]vn] ljb]zL :of6nfO6               ug{] j:t' kfpg ;lsGYof] t/ 6]lnlehgdf                                x\ofnf]/fgn] cfd;+rf/n] hgtfnfO{
Rofgnsf] af9L / g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf              s]sf] cWoog ug{] < b[Zosf], efiffsf],                              s] u5{ eg]/ g;f]wf}+, a? hgtfn]
;dfrf/df To;n] kf/]sf] c;/ df                  af]nLsf], efjel·dfsf], ljifoj:t'sf],                               o;nfO{ s] u5{g\ egL k|Zg u/f}3       +
s]lGb|t eP/ ljifoj:t'nfO{ lgofNg]                k|:tf]tfsf], oGqsf], kbf{sf], 36gf–                              egL k|:tfj /fv]kl5 af}l4s SnanfO{
hdsf{ ] u/] s f] 5 . o;df                                                                                          ;f]Rg afWo kf/]sf] a'lemG5 . ;g\
;fª\ l VosLo cfwf/df xf] O g                   ljz]ifsf], :jLrsf], tf/sf], :6];gsf],                               !(&$ df /] d f] 0 8 ljlnodn]
Sjfln6]l6e d]yf]8f]nf]hLn] lgb{l] zt          Sofd]/fsf] jf Tof] rnfpg]sf] < cWoog                                 6]lnlehg k|;f/0f cWoogdf clt
ug{] ;fdfGo cWoogsf cfwf/df                       s;/L ug{] < s] ljlw ckgfpg] <                                    dxŒjk"0f{ cfofd of]hgfa4 k|jfx
cjnf]sg ug{] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 .                                                                                     xf] egL cfkm\gf] k':tsdf4 jsfnt
                                                                                                                   ubf{ w] / } n fO{ nfUof] – 6] l nlehg
6]lnlehgnfO{ k9\g] kf] s;/L <                                                                                      cWoog ug{'kg{] uxg ljifo /x]5,
cfd;~rf/df 6]lnlehgnfO{ lng] ls glng],                                                                k9\g'kg{] zf:q /x]5 . hf]g Pln;n] cfkm\gf]
k|];cGtu{t o;nfO{ kfg{] ls gkfg{], o;sf] a]Un}                                                        lstfj lelhan lkmS;gdf l;g] d f /
cl:tTjnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{] ls gug{] eGg] ljifodf                                                          6]lnlehgnfO{ cnu cnu ljwf eg]/ 5'6\ofO{
klZrdL ljåfg\x¿aLr k|f/Dedf tLa| ljjfb                                                                ;fgf–;fgf ;]ud]06df 6]lnlehgnfO{ ;xh
ePsf] xf] . 6]lnlehgnfO{ s;/L k9\g], s'g                                                              ¿kdf cWoog ug{ ;lsg] cjwf/0ff k|:t't
ljwfcGtu{t cWoog ug{], s:tf] ljlwn] k9\g],                                                            u/]/ o;;DaGwL cWoogsf] dxQfnfO{ :yflkt
s] s'/fnfO{ lnP/ cWoog ug{] tyf o;sf]                                            {
                                                 cfwf/df o;nfO{ cWoog ug'kg{] s'/fdf hf]8             ug'{eof] .5
cWoogsf] cf}lrTo s] eGg]df pgLx¿df :ki6tf        lbOcfPsf] b]lvG5 . 6]lnlehgleqsf] dgf]/hg    +                ;f+:s[lts cWoogqmddf 6]lnlehgnfO{
lyPg . cg] s kl08tx¿ ;f] R g] ub{ y ] ,          ;+;f/sf lrGtsx¿ eg] km/s ljrf/ /fVb}                 c“ufNg] ;Gb]z :6'cf6{ xnn] !(&$ df cfkm\gf]
ljZjljBfno kl/;/ / cGo af}l4s k|lti7fglt/        eG5g\— o;nfO{ k|bz{g Joj;fo (Show Biz)               lgaGw Ogsf]l8ª P08 l8sf]l8ª Og 6]lnlehg
o;nfO{ ;dfhzf:q, /fhgLltzf:q, ;+rf/zf:q,         sf l;4fGtaf6 x]l/g'k5{ .2                            l8:sf] ; { d f lbg' e Psf] 5 . jld{ ª \ 3 d
gf6s, lkmNd, dfWod, efiff cWoog cflbdf                   ;g\ !(%@ df ;/ Oofg Hofsf]an]                ljZjljBfnon] ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf u/]sf]
;fgf] kl/R5]b lbP k'U5, Tof]eGbf a9L Wofg                           ]                 [
                                                 aLaL;Lsf] dxflgb{zssf] ¿kdf g]tTj ;DxfNbf            ;f+:s[lts cWoogdf 6]lnlehg / dgf]/~hg
lbg' plrt x'“b}g lsgeg] 6]lnlehg 6«fG;ld6/       log} s'/fn] pxf“nfO{ lk/f]n]sf] lyof] . /]l8of]sf]   cfofdsf] ljZn]if0f ;dflji6 x'g' / kl5 hf]g
-k|;f/s_ eGbf a9L s]xL xf]Og . 6]lnlehg          babaf ePsf] Tof] a]nf 6]lnlehgnfO{ :yflkt            lkm:ssf] o:t} k| o f; /xg' n ] 6] l nlehg
leqsf] rfl/lqs :jefjn] pgLx¿nfO{ cndndf          ug{ ;lhnf] lyPg . t/ To;} jif{ h'g dlxgfdf           cWoognfO{ cl3 a9fof] . 8]le8 df]nL{n] !(*)
kf/]Yof] . klqsf eP k9]/, /]l8of] eP ;'g]/       dxf/fgL Plnhfa]ysf] /fHofleif]ssf] 6]lnlehg          df bz{s cg';Gwfgdf To:t} k|of; u/]sf]
cWoog ug{ ] j:t' kfpg ;lsGYof] t/                k|;f/0f clt /fd|f] x'g uof] h;sf sf/0f a]nfotL       b]lvG5 . ToxL cjlwdf kqsfl/tf If]qdf
ljZn]if0fsf nflu 6]lnlehgdf s] l6Kg] < ljrf/     hgtfsf] 6]lnlehgk|ltsf] cjwf/0ffd} ;f/k"0f{          6]lnlehgaf/] n]v, l6Kk0fL, ;dLIff cflb
-sG;]K6_ sf nflu af}l4s w/ftn vf]O{ < bz{g       kl/jt{g x'g k'Uof] . cem To;sf] cf7 jif{kl5          k|sflzt x'g,] ;flxTodf / cfnf]rgfdf 6]lnlehg

6                                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
                             klZrddf 6]lnlehg cWoogsf] j}rfl/s ljsf; qmd

  slxn]            “
               sf];u ;Da4 <                       ePsf] s] <                          rf;f] lsg <                            ljz]if
  !(@#     Enflbld/ hf]l/lsg          rNg] lrq k|;f/0f ug{] 6\o"a ag]sf]     lrq k|;f/0fsf] ;Defjgf              6]lnlehgsf] cfljisf/

                                      6]lnlehg o'udf k|j]z u/]sf]                                                of] ;] j f bf] ; | f ] ljZjo' 4
  !(#^     aLaL;L                                                            6]lnlehg ;]jfsf] cEof;
                                                                                                                 -!(#(–!($%_ df /f]lsP/kl5
                                                                                                                 !($^ df k'gM k|f/De ul/of]

  !(#(     Go"of]s{ jN8{ km]o/        6]lnlehg                               k|bz{gsf] dfWodaf6 6]lnlehg          cf/ ;L P eGg] ;+:yfn] k|bz{g
                                                                             k|;f/0fnfO{ xf};nf                   u/]sf]
  !(&)     h]D; x\ofnf]/fg            hgtfn] cfd;+rf/dfWodnfO{ s]            bz{ssf] b[li6af6 6]lnlehgnfO{        bz{sk|wfg b[li6sf]0fsf] ;"qkft
                                      u5{g\ eg]/ ;f]wf}+ eg]sf]              x]g'{kg{] lrGtg k|:t't u/]sf]
  !(&$      :6'cf6{ xn                6]lnlehg k|:t'ltnfO{ cy{ lbg] /         cfd;~rf/sf] k|:t'ltaf6 ;+:s[ltsf] !(*) df 8]le8 df]nL{n] o;sf
                                      c“ufNg]tkm{ hf]8                        cWoog ug{] cfofdsf] k'li6         cfwf/df bz{s zf]w u/]sf

  !(&$      /]df]08 ljlnod            6]lnlehg k|:t'ltnfO{ cWoog ug{] /]l8of] / kqklqsf cWoogeGbf o;} cfwf/nfO{ hf]g Pln;n]
                                      cfwf/ of]hgfa4 k|jfx xf] eGg] ljrf/ km/s u/L 6]lnlehg cWoog ug{] ;]ud]06sf] ¿kdf ljsl;t u/L
                                      k]z ePsf]                           k|of;                        cWoogsf] cfwf/ l;kmfl/; u/]sf]

  !(*!       cfg sfKnfg               6] l nlehg k| : t' l tdf hgtfsf]       k| l tlglwTj gug{ ] cfd;~rf/        k|hftGqdf clt cfjZos ;f]r
                                      k|ltlglwTjsf] ;jfn p7fOPsf]            ;fdu|Lsf] s] cy{ eGg] ;f]rsf]
                                                                             ljsf;
  !(()       cg]s cfd;~rf/sdL{        6]lnlehg cWoog ug{] rf/ cfwf/           –     cy{ nufpg]                   6]lnlehg cWoog ax'cfoflds
   kl5                                                                        –     bz{ssf] b[li6                cfwf/df x'g] k|rng a9]sf]
                                                                              –     pTkfbg kl/j]z
                                                                              –     l6eL Oltxf;



;Gbe{ ;w}+ plq/xg], ;fdflhs zf:qsf] kmf“6df               ;g\ !(() sf] bzsdf / clxn] klg            :jtGqtf ;w}+ g} ljjfbsf] ljifo ePsf] 5 .
6]lnlehgn] ;fdflhs sfo{ ug{] u/]sf] eGg]         6]lnlehg cWoogsf rf/ wf/ b]lvG5g\ .                xfnsf jif{df dfq s]xL b]zdf o;nfO{ ahf/df
                                 ]
efsfdf cWoog eO/xg] s'/f rfnf{6 a|G;8gn]         Pp6fn] 6LeL 6]S:6nfO{ kl/efiff ug{] / cy{          hfg lbOPsf] xf] . sltdf :of6]nfO6 6LeL
                               {
6]lnlehg :6l8hdf pNn]v ug'ePsf] 5 . ToxL         nufpg'kg{] eG5, csf{]n] 6LeL s;n] x]5{ / s'g       k|;f/0fn] /fli6«o ;fj{ef}ldstfdf xdnf eof],
                             ]
qmd bzssf] pQ/f4{lt/ k'u/ k|ltlglwTjsf]          tl/sfn] x]l/G5 eGg]df cWoog x'g'kg{] 7fG5,         lj:tf/jfbsf] uGw cfof] eg]/ ;"rgf lgoGq0fsf
       ]
-/]lk|h06];g_ cfofdaf6 6]lnlehgnfO{ cWoog           |
                                                 t];f] ;fdu|L pTkfbgb]lv kbf{df k|;f/0f;Ddsf]       cg]s pkfo u/]sf] klg kfOG5 .
ug{] ljlwtkm{ pGd'v ePsf] b]lvG5 . cfg           cjlwdf x'g] k]lrnf sfo{sf] ljZn]if0fnfO{ ljz]if
sfKnfgsf] l/ufl8{ª 6]lnlehg k':tsdf ;+slnt       dfG5, / rf}yf]n] 6LeLsf] ult, ljsf;, j[l4 /        kl/j]z g]kfnsf], kbf{ 6]lnlehgsf]
!(*! ;Dd]ngsf] ;fdu|Ln] oxL k'li6 u5{ .          Oltxf;nfO{ dxŒjk"0f{ 7fG5 .                        g]kfn ljb]zL :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf] af9Ldf 5 .
o;} qmddf 6] l nlehgdf hgtfsf] slt                                       '
                                                          ljZjsf cGo d'nsdf 6]lnlehg ;+:s[lt        ltgaf6 jif{g] ;dfrf/sf], ;~rf/ k|j[lQsf]
                                         '
;xeflutf / k|ltlglwTj eGg]af/] cWoog x'gkg{]     klZrdaf6 ;/]sf]n] ToxL+sf] ljrf/ qmd Totflt/       rk]6fdf k/]/ oxf“sf] ;~rf/ ;+/rgf s:tf] x'“b}
s'/fdf hf]8 /x]sf] kfOG5 . ;g\ !(*& df           lj:tf/ ePsf] kfOG5 . Pl;ofnL, clk|msL /            hfg] xf], clxn] eljiojf0fL ug{ ;lsGg . c;/
Go"sDa / lx;{sn] ;f]r]sf] ‘Eo"Oª l:6«k’n]        blIf0f cd]l/sL b]zdf 6]lnlehgnfO{ ;/sf/sf]         cg]s If]qdf b]lvg yfn]sf] w]/} eof] . g]kfnL
6]lnlehgdf bz{snfO{ k|wfg cf;gdf /fv]/           lgoGq0fdf /fv]/ ljsl;t ug{] ljz]if k|jl[ Q         6]lnlehgsf ;dfrf/Lo Jojxf/, ljifoj:t', z}nL
cWoog ug'{kg{] s'/f cf}+NofPsf] xf] .            clxn] klg 5 . Toxf“ 6]lnlehgnfO{ ldNg] k|];        / k|:t'ltdf To;sf] cg'e"lt x'G5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       7
          ;"rgfk|ljlwsf] hfb" ;/xsf] j}1flgs      eP/ /xg'k5{ . gful/ssf] ;"rgfsf] xsnfO{          a]Un} cfofd /]vf+sg ePsf] 5 . b|i6fsf nflu
k|lqmof / pks/0fn] xfjfaf6 ;Gb]z l6Kg ;Sg]        hu]gf{ ug{] cxd\ cfwf/ klg oxL xf] . /fHo /      of] clt g} lk|o ljwf x'g uPsf] 5 . gful/ssf]
/ To;nfO{ k|;f/0f ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf sf/0f          gful/saLrsf] ;+jfbaf6 ;dfrf/ k|efljt             hghLjgdf, /fli6«o sfo{kl/;/df, /fhgLltdf,
g]kfndf ljb]zL :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf] laulauL          eO/x]sf] x'G5, lj1sf] 1fgnfO{, j}1flgssf]        ;d'bfodf, kl/jf/df 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n]
a9]sf] xf] . cfd;~rf/ljb\x¿sf] efiffdf o;nfO{     vf]hnfO{ ;j{;fwf/0fdf lkm+hfpg] / t[0fd"n        68\sf/f] cGt/ NofPsf] 5 . :of6]nfO6n]
;"rgfsf] pRr /fhdfu{ eg]/ ;Daf]wg ul/G5 .         txsf hgtfsf] sf]/f cg'ejnfO{ cGodf k'¥ofpg]      6]lnlehgsf] k|;f/0f IfdtfnfO{ a9fp“bf pld|Psf
of] af6f]n] ;do / :yfgdfly ljho xfl;n             ;fwg oxL xf] . of] ;/sf/L gLlt / of]hgf,         ljb]zL Rofgnsf ;dfrf/n] g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf
u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 k|frLg k"jL{o lrGtgdf            pbL{ / ;"rgfnfO{ b]ze/ km}nfpg] pkfo xf] .       ;dfrf/df cg]s k|efj kf/]sf 5g\ . s]xL
pNn]v ul/P em}+ dGq hKgf;fy -kf;j8{ k|:t't        pbf/ kl/efiffdf :jtGq k|];sf] kof{o:j¿k          ;sf/fTds 5g\, s]xL gsf/fTds 5g\ . s]xLn]
               \                ]
ugf{;fy_, r'6sLsf] e/df -;+st lbgf;fy_ jf         eP/ :yflkt ePsf] 5 ;dfrf/ . o;nfO{ /f]Sbf        ;dfrf/sf] ul/df a9fPsf 5g\ s]xLn] To;nfO{
l:jr bafpgf;fy vf]hsf] ;fdu|L km]nf k5{,
                         ]                        k|hftGq efl;G5, lg/+s'ztf emf+luG5 eGg]          36fPsf 5g\ .
;Da4 ljifo, 36gf, JolQmTj, ;+uLt, v]n jf          /fhgLltzf:qLsf] 7x/ 5 . rf} y f] c·sf]                      6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sf] ljsf;qmdnfO{
;+jfb JolQmsf ;fd' tTsfn cfOk'U5– zAbdf,          5ftfd'lGt/ o'usf] rngcg'¿k snd, 6]k/]s8{/        x]bf{ yfxf x'G5 – o;df vf; gd'gf jf pbfx/0f
lrqdf, cfjfhdf jf cGo s' g } ul0ftLo                                         ]
                                                  / Sofd]/f lnP/ kqsfl/tf ug{n] To;df :jLs[lt      jf vf; 9f“ r f agfP/ o:t} x' g ' k 5{ egL
;+s]tdf . o;s} sf/0f Ps cy{df cfsfzaf6–           hgfPsf 5g\ . ltgsf nflu ;dfrf/ Ps :tDe           ;dfrf/sIfn] k|;f/0f yfn]sf] xf]Og . ub{} hf“bf,
cGtl/Ifaf6 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sf] jiff{ ;+ej          xf] h;sf cfwf/df /fi6« c8]sf] x'G5 .             l;Sb} hf“bf, gLlt–lg0f{ostf{sf cfb]zdf, ;/sf/L
                 '
ePsf] xf] . s]an ;]jf lbg] ;+:yfn]                                                                               lgb{ ] z gdf, ;dfhsf cu' j fsf
o;nfO{ ;+ s ng u/] / g] k fnL                                                                                    k/fdz{df, b|i6fsf] k|ltlqmofsf
sf]7fdf vf; d"Nodf k'¥ofpg]                                                                                      cfwf/df ;dfrf/nfO{ kl/eflift u/L
Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 .                                                                                                ;+sng÷k|;f/0f ug{] lylt a;]sf]
          pbfx/0fsf nflu g]kfndf,                                                                                xf] . k| f /lDessfndf 5fkf
                    +
ljz]if u/L sf7df8f}df / To;aflx/                       cem} klg ;dfrf/sf l;nl;nfdf                               dfWodsf] 5fk 6]lnlehg k|;f/0fdf
cg]s 7fp“df k|rlnt s'g} klg                      o;nfO{ 5fkf / /]l8of]sf] 5fof“n] cK7]/f]                        k/]sf] :ki6 b]lvG5, kl5 /]l8of]sf]
s]an ;+hfnsf] ;]jfnfO{ lgofn]df
    '                                            kf/]sf] cg'ej s]xLsf] 5 . k|]; ;Dd]ng                           b[ Z o ;+ : s/0f t xf] lg eGg]
yfxf x'G5– o;af6 Go"gtd klg                                                                                       cjwf/0ffn] 6]lnlehgnfO{ lgs}
                                                   geg]/ ;dfrf/ ;Dd]ng elgof];\ eGg]                              lk/f]n]sf] kfOG5 . rrf{ / k|rf/df
^%–^^ j6f Rofgnsf] ;]jf k|fKt
                                                    o;sf] cfzo ;j{q k"lt{ ePsf] 5}g .                             hgtfaLr l56} lk|o eP klg 5'66}   \
x'G5 . oLdWo] s]xL x'g\– aLaL;L,
                                                  ‘k|; k;{G;’sf] ;§f ‘Go"h k;{G;’ pko'Qm
                                                     ]                                                            cfd;+rf/ dfWodsf] cl:tTjaf]w x'g
;LPgPg, :6f/ Go"h, cfhts,
                                                 x'G5 eGg] o;sf] egfOnfO{ ;w}“ ;'lg“b}g .                         o;nfO{ s]xL ;do nfu]sf] 5, cem}
8L8LGof;gn, hLGo" h , lx:6« L                                                                                     klg ;dfrf/sf l;nl;nfdf o;nfO{
Rofgn, :6f/ d'leh, km];g 6LeL,                                                                                    5fkf / /]l8of]sf] 5fof“n] cK7]/f]
aL$o" Do'lhs, ;f]gL, :6f/ Kn;,                                                                                    kf/]sf] cg'ej s]xLsf] 5 . k|];
6]g :kf]6\{;, hL6LeL, OP;kLPg,                                                                                    ;Dd]ng geg]/ ;dfrf/ ;Dd]ng
:6f/ jN8{, :6f/ jfg, 8L8L :kf]6{\;,                                                                elgof];\ eGg] o;sf] cfzo ;j{q k"lt{ ePsf]
                                      "
l8:se/L, cf:yf, l/ofln6L 6LeL, sf6{g g]6js{,                                                                ]
                                                                                                   5}g . k|; k;{G;sf] ;6\6f Go"h k;{G; pko'Qm
g];gn lhof]u|fkmL, Pd6LeL, jN8{ g]6 cflb .                                                         x'G5 eGg] o;sf] egfOnfO{ ;w}+ ;'lg“b } g .
logdf ;a} ;dfrf/k|wfg 5}gg\, t/ clwsf+z                                                            o;leqsf] Sofd]/f k|ljlw, k|;f/0f ;+oGq, :6'l8of]
Ps g Ps lsl;dn] ;dfrf/;“u cfa4 5g\ .                                                               ;+/rgfsf jf:tljs cfjZostf tyf afWotfn]
ltgn] Psflt/ g]kfnL 6]lnlehgsf ;dfrf/–                                                             klg o;sf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ k|efljt t'NofPsf]
b|i6fnfO{ x/ kn vf]l;/x]5g\ / csf{l] t/ ;dfrf/             dfgj ;Eotfsf] ;/;tL{ cWoogn]            5 . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df kyk|bz{s x'g] >]o
                                                  b]vfp“5— ;dfrf/nfO{ k|f/Dedf j}slNks             kfPsf aLaL;L / ;LPgPgsf] ufyf k9\bf /
ljwfdf oxf“ cg] s c;/ 5f] l 8/x] 5 g\ .
                                                  ;~rf/n] / kl5 ;g\ !$$) df u'6]gau{n]             clxn]sf] cEof; x]bf{ cg'ej x'G5– 6]lnlehg
b|i6fx/0fsf] ;d:of, k|lt:k4f{sf] df/ tyf ahf/       ]
                                                  k|; agfPkl5 cfd;~rf/sf] 5fkf dfWodn]             ;dfrf/df k|of]u rfn" 5, l;sfO hf/L 5 .
Pj+ ljQLo ;Lldttfsf dfem tL c;/n] g]kfnL          v]nfp“b} cfPsf] xf] . To;sf] em08} $%% jif{kl5                  |              '
                                                                                                              t];f] ljZjsf d'nsdf ltgsf] cg'ej
6]lnlehgnfO{ c“7\ofO/x]sf] cg'ej x'G5 .                                         ]
                                                  !*(% lt/ u'lUnPNdf] dfsf{gLsf] /]l8of] j]e       st} 6]lnlehg ‘uLtf’ ag]/ k'u]sf] 5 st}
k|efjsf] tLa| ks8 ;dfrf/sf] kmf“6df 5 .           cfljisf/sf sf/0f ;dfrf/nfO{ ckgfP/ /]l8of]n]     6]lnlehg ‘afOan’ ag]/ / st} 6]lnlehg
          ;dfrf/ eg]sf] kqsfl/tfdf o:tf] ljwf     a]Un} xfjfsf] zAb ;+;f/ :yfkgf u/]sf] xf] .      ‘s'/fg’ ag]/ . cg]s 7fp“df aLaL;L / ;LPgPg
xf] h;sf dfWodaf6 cfd;~rf/ ul/G5 . of]            af]nL ;dfrf/ z'? ePsf] sl/a @* jif{df            cgf}krfl/s 6]lnlehg ljZjljBfno aGg k'usf      ]
o:tf] ljlw xf] h;af6 ;j{;fwf/0f ;';l" rt x'g]     !(@# lt/ ;dfrf/sf] hfb"kfzdf 6]lnlehg            5g\ . /fli6«o cfjZostf / afWotfn] To;df
cj:yf k}bf x'G5 . of] o:tf] ljwfg xf] h'g         kg{ cfPsf] xf] . o;df /x]sf] >Job[Zo zlQmsf      yk36 eO/x]sf] 5, gSsn / cg]s vfnsf
lg/Gt/ ;To–tYok"0f{, ;Gt'lnt / ljZj;gLo           sf/0f ;dfrf/sf] cg'xf/, k|efj / ult ;a}df        cg';/0f tLa| ¿kdf rfn" 5g\ . xfnsf jif{df


8                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
:of6]nfO6 Rofgnsf] k|;f/0fn] To;df ljz]if                • ;dfrf/ zx/ / ;'ud If]qsf] dfq             5 . ljz] i fu/L ‘tkfO{ + ’ sf] k| o f] u ubf{ s f]
k| e fj kf/] s f] 5 . tL Rofgndf /x] s f]                      x'G5 eGg]df hf]8                              '
                                                                                                     6fpsf]bvfO / ‘ltdL’ eg]/ a9L cfw'lgs aGg]
6\ofAnf]O8 z}nLn] oxf“ ;g;gLk"0f{ k|;f/0f ug{            • cf} k rfl/s sfo{ q md ;dfrf/ xf] ,        /x/ pNn]vgLo 5 . slt ;Gbe{df bf]wf/
k|l] /t u/]sf] b]lvG5, d"ntM ck/fw, of}g tyf                   cgf}krfl/s sxf“ vf]Hg] eGg] ;f]r      b]lvG5, p:t} l:yltdf s;}nfO{ tkfO{+ / s;}nfO{
dgf]/~hgk|wfg ;dfrf/df of] k|j[lQ kfOG5 .                • ;dfrf/df klg k|f]6f]sn x'G5 eGg]          ltdL eg]sf] k|;·n] ;w}+ laemfp“5 . rf]/, 8fFsf,
cg]s :of6]nfO6 Rofgndf kfOg] ljZn]if0ffTds                     dfGotf                                anfTsf/LnfO{ s;/L tkfO“ eGg] k|Zgdf bd
;dfrf/, vf]hk"0f{ ;dfrf/, /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o           • ljb]zaf6 k|fKt ;a} ;dfrf/ /fd|f] x'G5                    +
                                                                                                     xf]nf, t/ tkfO{df k|ultzLntf n·8fp“5 eGg'
hLjgsf cg] s kIfsf ;dfrf/ / b} l gs                            eGg] wf/0ff                           t s;/L< ;dfrf/sIfdf ;fgf] :6fOna's
hLjgf]kof]uL ;fdu|Lsf ;dfrf/af6 eg] kf7                  • 306f 306fdf ;dfrf/ lbg] df]x              cEof; ubf{ 6'l·g] k|;·df Wofg gk'Ubf
l;Sg] k|j[lQ sd b]lvG5 .                                 • h] klg ;dfrf/ xf] eGg] cjwf/0ff           6]lnlehgn] bz{snfO{ lg/Gt/ luHofO/x]sf]
                                                         • h;n] klg ;dfrf/ pTkfbg ug{ ;S5            l:ylt 5 .
;dfrf/sf] vf; v]df                                             eGg] ljZjf;
g]kfnL 6]lnlehg– ;dfrf/sf] 5ftf 7"nf ljsl;t              • xfdLn] lbPkl5 Tof] ;dfrf/ x'G5 x'G5                           \
                                                                                                     x;\ xf] ls xj;\, 5'6g] a]nfdf ;w}+ ;s;
b]zsf] t'ngfdf Tolt a[xt\ 5}g . t/ of] lg/Gt/                  eGg] cf8Da/             >Job[Zo / cGo k|:t'ltdf 5'6\g] a]nfs]f jfSo,
lj:t[t x'g] qmddf 5 . g]kfn 6]lnlehg, d]6«f],            • ;Gb]z t s] xf] / egL ;dfrf/sf]
                                                                                       jfSof+z jf cleJolQmnfO{ kfl6{ª ;Gb]z eg]/
Rofgn g] k fn, Od] h Rofgn, sflGtk' /                          hLjGttfnfO{ r'gf}tL lbg] afgL
                                                                                       ljz]if dxŒj lbOG5 . ;dfrf/df o;sf] k|of]u
6]lnlehg, g]kfn jfgsf ;dfrf/n], ljz]if u/L               • k|lqmofsf] ;g;gL kf] cfjZos 5 eGg]
                                                                                       x'g' g/fd|f] xf]Og, t/ o; qmddf cg]s k|:tf]tfn]
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sfo{qmdn] o;nfO{ clxn] kl/eflift u/]sf 5g\ .             • c¿sf] gSsn ug{] /x/         5, Tof] slxn] x;\ eOlbG5 t slxn] xf];,\ clg
PleGo'h / ;u/dfyf 6]lnlehg Go"h Rofgnsf                  • 6\ofAnf]O8 z}nLsf] cfsif{0f slxn] xif . ljbf x'gsf nflu ;w}+ o;sf] k|of]u
¿kdf o;df ;lDdlnt eO;s] s f 5g\ .                        • lrqdo k|:t'lt g} 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/
                                                                                       x'g' slt a'l4dQf xf], slt pko'Qm xf] ¤ ljz]if
Go"hnfOg 6LeL, g];gn 6LeL, O06/g];gn                           xf] eGg] c8fg           u/L k"jL{ g]kfndf k|rngdf /x]s]f ‘xj;\’
ckln+s k|f=ln=, af]lwu|fd, P; s] 6LeL nufot                                            ljbfOsf] zAb xf] / <
                                                               o; k|sf/sf cjwf/0ffn] ;dfrf/sIf
w]/}n] k|;f/0fsf] cg'dlt lnPsf] a'lemG5 .        k|efljt ePsfn] g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ xn'sf     6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ :qmf]ndf /ge'Nn
ltgnfO{ cjnf]sg ubf{ 6LeLsf] v]tLk|lt                                                  5 . 6]lnlehg kbf{sf] k'5f/df k|jflxt x'g]
                                                 ePsf 5g\, ;dfrf/ k|:tf]tf ;xL cy{sf cf+s/
nufgLstf{ cfs[i6 ePsf] yfxf x'G5 . em08}                                               Ps nfOgsf] alu/x]sf] h:tf] b]lvg] x/km–:qmf]n–
                                                 geP/ 6]lnk|Dk6/df h] cfp“5 Tof] k9\g] ‘jfrs’
@% s/f]8sf] k"hL xftdf lnP/ gof“ l6eL ;]jf
                “                                            ]                         n] kqsfl/tf, ljz]if u/L ;dfrf/Lo w/ftndf
                                                 x'g k'usf 5g\, 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/–;do hglk|o
k|f/De ug{ vf]Hg' eg]sf] nufgL–;+;f/df rfgr'g]         '                               ljz]if :yfg lnO;s]sf] 5 . of] :yfgnfO{ cGoq
                                                 x'gsf] ;f6f] Rofgn abNg] a]nf ePsf] 5 .
s'/f xf]Og eGg] lj1x¿sf] ljrf/ 5 .                                                     em}+ oxf“ klg lj1fkgsf cltl/Qm ;dfrf/sf
                                                 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ sfo{qmddf Sofd]/f k|wfg
          jf:tjdf of] df]x klg ljZjdf b]vf       x'G5 g}, t/ To;sf ;fdu|LnfO{ bz{ssf lgldQ
                                                                                       lgldQ k|of]u ul/G5 . cGo sfo{qmd ;~rf/
k/]sf cg]s :of6]nfO6 Rofgnsf] k|efj xf] .                  "
                                                 cy{k0f{ kfg{sf nflu k"0f{ l/kf]l6{ª, ;xL cf+sl/ª
                                                                                       eO/x]sf] avt dxŒjk"0f{ ;dfrf/ lbg'k/]df
cGoq Toltsf l6eL rn]sf 5g\ eg] oxf“ lsg              '                      ]          {
                                                 x'gk5{, ;dfrf/nfO{ k|f8S;g ug'k5{ . ;dosf]
                                                                                       o;sf] pkof] u x' G 5 . t/ s:tf s:tf
rNb}g, / Tof] 6LeL To;/L rn]sf] 5 eg] of]                                              ;Gb]zd"ns ;fdu|LnfO{ :qmf]n ;dfrf/df /fVg]
                                                 cefjn] xf] ls, ;fwgsf] sdLn] xf] ls, l/kf]6/df{
6LeL klg lgZro g} rNg'k5{ eGg] cfwf/df           ;Lk ;DkGgtf geP/ xf] ls jf ;dfrf/nfO{ eGg] dfkb08 ljsl;t ePsf] b]lvGg, xr'jfsf]
of] k|j[lQ lj:tf/ eO/x]sf] xf] .                         "                             e/df o;sf] cEof; eO/x]sf] 5 . cg]skN6
                                                 ax'dNo pTkfbg agfcf}+ eGg] rfxgf geP/ xf]
          Jofj;flos cg';Gwfg k"/f u/]/ To;n]     g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df o:tf sdL b]vfk|:t'lt :ki6 gx'g], ;dfrf/ rogdf sdhf]/L
cf}+NofPsf ;+s]tnfO{ dgg u/]/ 6LeL k|f/+e                                              /xg] / efiff gldNg] l:ylt cfOk/]sf] s'/f w]/}
                                                 k5{g\ . o;df pko'Qm ;'wf/ x'g g;s] g]kfnL
ePsf] pbfx/0f oxf“ 5}g eGbf x'G5 . Pp6f          6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n] cfkm\gf ;Dk"0f{ bz{sbz{sn] cf}+NofPsf] kfOG5 . ;+lIfKt / ;fgf]
;"of]{bob]lv csf{] ;"of]{bo;Dd jif{}el/ lg/Gt/   O06/g] 6 df k| f Kt cgnfOgsf] k| l t:k4L{
                                                                                       eP/ klg o;sf] k[i7e"lddf /x]sf] cfd;+rf/
d'6'sf] w8\sg;“u k|lt:k4f{ ub{} ;~rflnt                                           ]
                                                 ;dfrf/lt/ cf]Ol/Psf] b]Vg'kg{5 . Toxf“ bz{snfO{
                                                                                       zlQm / dxŒjnfO{ gsfg{ ;lsGg . bz{s jf
6LeLdf k|;fl/t x'g] ;dfrf/ sfo{qmd dxŒjk"0f{     cfkm\gf] ;dodf, rfx]sf] a]nfdf, rfx]sf] hlt
                                                                                       u| f xssf] ;" r gfsf] clwsf/b] l v lnP/
x'G5 hf] :jo+ :of6]nfO6 k|efj xf] . logdf                                            }
                                                 ;dfrf/ x]g]{ ;+efjgf ;'/lIft 5“b5 . Ps ljb]zL
                                                                                       kqsfl/tfsf uDeL/ ;Lk h:tf s'/fsf] rf;f]
lgDg cjwf/0ff;Fu cfj4 k|jl[ Q ljBdfg /x]sf]                                            o;df 5 . o;af6 vf; sfo{qmd x]l//x]sf
                                                 k|;f/s kqsf/n] s'g} cGtjf{tf{df eg] em}+
b]lvG5 eGg] cfd;~rf/ zf]wstf{sf] egfO                                                  b|i6fsf] Wofg e· x'g hfg] s'/fdf xf]lzof/L
                                                 6]lnlehgsf] @$ 306] /f]lnª ;dfrf/df ;+/rgf
5 . zf]wsf] ¿kdf ljZj;gLo tj/n] logsf]           / cfsf/ km]nf kb{g .6   }             ckgfpg'k5{ . ;fy} ;"rgf–pkef]Qmfn] yk
;fª\ l VosLo cWoog ePsf] kfOGg t/                              o;sf] ;fy} c¿ k|;·df klg k|efj
                                                                                       ;Gt' l i6 kfpg] ljifodf klg hfu[ t x' g '
cgf}krfl/s tj/n] cfd;~rf/df ?lr /fVg]n]                                                          ]
                                                 gk/]sf] xf]Og . logsf] ;+lIfKt rrf{ pko'Qm x'g5 .
                                                                                       cfjZos 5 .
u/]sf] cWoogn] oL s'/fnfO{ cf}NofPsf] e]l6G5M
                               +                                                                 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/nfO{ ‘nfOe’ n]
                                                                      +
                                            ‘ltdL’;“u Kof/, ‘tkfO{’nfO{ afO{afO{       lglZrt ¿kdf hLjGt kf/]sf] 5 . o;sf sf/0f
    • /fhgLlt dfq ;dfrf/ xf], g]tfsf] af]nL g]kfnL 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df vf; JolQmnfO{ b|i6fx¿ vf; 36gf, JolQm / k|;·;“u k|ToIf
      dfq ;dfrf/ xf] eGg] e|d               s:tf] cfb/fyL{ zAb k|of]u ug{] eGg]df cndn ¿kdf cfa4 x'g k'u]sf] kfOG5 . t/ s'g

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                        9
s'/fnfO{ s;/L nfOe lbg] eGg] ljifodf :ki6        k|ltzt ljZn]if0fdf zf]wsf] lgod gnufpg]        ;/fxgLo 5, To;df xLgefjgf lng'kg{] l:ylt
   “
gx'bf nfOedf b|i6fx¿ x/fPsf] :ki6 b]lvG5,                   ]
                                                 ePkl5 ;e{af6 s] cy{ nufpg] < sd{sf08Lo         5“ b } 5 } g . t/ c¿ :of6nfO6 Rofgnsf]
cg]skN6 clt g} k6\of/df k/]sf] b]lvG5 .          ¿kdf o;nfO{ rnfO/xg] xf] eg] Ps s'/f xf],      gSsnsf] l;nl;nf a9\b} uPsf] s'/fsf] x]Ssf
ltgsf nflu 6]lnlehgn] cy{k"0f{ ;Gb]z lbg'kg{]    hgdtsf] ;xL lx;fan] ;+sng u/]/ b|i6fnfO{       /fVg' clgjfo{ eO;s]sf] 5 . c¿af6 t l;Sg]
dfGotf cf]em]ndf k/]sf] 5 . nfOe xfdL lbG5f},+   k"0f{ hfgsf/L u/fpg] xf] eg] o;df ;'wf/ x'g'   xf], l;s]sf] s'/fnfO{ cfkm\gf] kl/j]zdf /fv]/
;dfrf/ b|i6fx¿n] agfpg'xf]nf eg]/ 6]lnlehg       cfjZos 5 . pko'Qm Wofg glb+bf unt ;Gb]z        pko'Qm ePdf nfu" ug{], geP 5f]8\g] k|j[lQsf]
;dfrf/ pTkfbsn] eGg t lgZro g} gldNnf ¤          km}ng ;S5 .                                    ljsf; x'gk5{ . aflx/lt/ P]Zjof{ /fo / cleif]s
                                                                                                              '
@)^$ sf] d] lbj;df 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df                      ;dfrf/sf cg] s cjojdf Wofg            aRrgsf] lax]sf] To;/L ;dfrf/ lbOof] eg]/
>lds ljifos ljifoj:t'nfO{ cg]s jQmf              gk'Ubf 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ / b|i6faLrsf]           oxf“ s'g} ljjfxnfO{ ToxL dfqfsf] ;dfrf/Lo
g]tfhLx¿n] lg:t} vfOlbPsf] pbfx/0f 5, To;}       ;DaGwdf lzlyntf cfpg] :ki6 5 .                 dxŒj lbP/ k|rf/–k|;f/ ul/of] eg] s] g} /fd|f]
lbg j;Gtk'/df Ps g]tfhLnfO{ efif0fdf k/]sf]      cfd;+rf/sdL{x¿sf] ljrf/df Kof/f;f];n           xf]nf / ¤ v]nf8L 8]le8 a]sx\ofd / leS6f]l/ofsf]
vf; cK7]/f]nfO{ h:tfsf] t:t} b]vfpg ePsf]        ;DaGwsf sf/0f 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/;“u b|i6fx¿       k|;·nfO{ ljb]zdf To;/L ;dfrf/df 7fp“ lbOG5
cndn cfkm\g} 7fp“df 5 . aif{}e/ jfn'jf6f/sf]     ljz]if ¿kdf ufFl;Psf x'G5g\, of] u“;fO         egL oxf“ s'g} v]nf8L / p;sL cwf{l·gLsf af/]
9f]sfaflx/af6 g]tfhL cfPsf]–uPsf],                                                                              p;}u/L 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ lbOof]
uf8Lleqaf6 dg gnufO{                                                                                            eg] s] cy{ xf]nf / ¤ b]vfj6Lkg /
                   ]
gnufO{ w]/} af]nsf] / vf;df                                                                                     k|bz{gnfO{ ;dfrf/df ljj]sk"0f{
                 ]
s]xL klg gaf]nsf] b[Zo k|;f/0f                                                                                  lg0f{o ljgf cEof; ug'{ vt/gfs
g} nfOe ;dfrf/ xf] eg]/                                                                                         x' g ;S5 . o;n] ljifoj:t' s f]
kl/efiff ug'{ s;/L < /fodfemL                    ;ft bn, ltgsf g]tfhL / pxf“x¿sf]                               ulx/fOdf hfg] qmdnfO{ /f]S5 .
cfof]udf aofg lbg cfpg] /                        j/k/ 3'Dbf3'Db} ;dfrf/n] d"n s'/f]                                      g] k fnL      6] l nlehg
hfg] ;a}h;f]n] Pp6} kl/b[Zodf                       ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg 3f]lift                               ;dfrf/df p2]Zok|ltsf] lhDd]jf/L
                     '
;w}+ !$ dxLg] lg/+sz zf;gdf                                                                                     gePsf] xf]Og . t/ To;nfO{ k|fKt
cfÇgf] uNtL s]xL gePsf], cfkm"                    ;dodf x'g g;Sg] eGg] s'/f a]ndf }                             ug{] dfu{df ;do ;dodf c:j:y
rf]vf] /x]sf] bfaL u/]sf] s'/fnfO{                kQf nufpg ;s]g, hgcfGbf]ngn]                                  xf]8afhL / u}/lhDd]jf/L b]vf k5{ .
nfOe ;dfrf/sf] kof{o 7fGg'                       k}bf u/]sf] kl/jt{gn] ck]Iff /fv]sf]                           o;sf sf/0f ;dfrf/n] ;Dk"0f{
s;/L <                                              gof“ g]kfnsf] vfsf ;dfrf/df                                 g]kfnnfO{ ;d]6\g ;s]sf] 5}g,
                                                                                                                ;Dk"0f{ hfltsf nflu of] ltgsf]
cgdf]n :tDedf a]jf:tf                                        cfpg ;s]g .                                        af] n L aGg ;s] s f] b] l v“ b } g .
6]lnlehg ;dfrf/sIfsf zf]ef                                                                                      6] l nlehg ;dfrf/sf nflu
/ 6] l nlehg kqsfl/tfsf                                                                                         g]kfndf hDdf #% lhNnf 5g\ h:tf]
cgdf]n :tDe;/xsf xfOnfO6\;,                                                                                     b] l vG5 . tLafx] s sf :yfgsf
a|l] sª -tfQftf]_ Go"h, eS; kk, s/]06                                                           ;dfrf/ ;+sng ug'{ gkg{] xf] ls < ;d;fdlos
ckm]o;{ / ljZn]if0fnfO{ g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn]                                                       ljifo p7fpFbf jf O:o"nfO{ ;dfpFbf of] Jofks
;DxfNg g;s]sf] b]lvG5 . ltgsf] pko'Qmtf                                                         / ;dfj]zL x'g;s]sf] 5}g . kmntM @)^# sf]
klxNofO{ kqsfl/tf / Sofd]/f–;Lkn] ltgsf]                                                        kl/jt{gsf cg]s cfofdnfO{ g]kfnL 6]lnlehg
k|of]u ug{] ljj]s ljsl;t eO;s]sf] b]lvGg .                                                      ;dfrf/n] Gofo ug{ ;s]sf] b]lvGg . ;ft
;dfrf/ ;+u;+u} lnOg] cGtjf{tf{n] 6]lnlehg                                                       bn, ltgsf g]tfhL / pxfFx¿sf] j/k/ 3'Dbf3'Db}
;dfrf/sIfnfO{ lrof ukmdf kl/0ft u/]sf]                                                          ;dfrf/n] d"n s'/f] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg
b]lvG5 . ltgsf] jhgnfO{ /fd|/L dx;'; ug{         efjgfTds, ulx/f] / bL3{sfnLg klg ePsf]         3f]lift ;dodf x'g g;Sg] eGg] s'/f j]n}df
g;lsPsf] / To;af6 ;dfrf/sf] k|efjsfl/tf          kfOG5 . slt gful/sn] t 6]lnlehgn] ;dfrf/       kQf nufpg ;s]g, ;+ljwfg;ef s] xf], lgjf{rg
36]sf] :ki6 5 . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df ‘xfd|f’        lbPkl5 Tof] c;To xf] eGg] s'/f dfGg g;Sg]      s;/L x'g] xf], ldl>t lgjf{rgsf] cy{ s] x'G5,
;dfrf/bftf slxn] cfpg] xf] , csf{ ] s f          l:ylt x'G5 . elgG5, 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/df          ;+3Lo /fHo eg]sf] s] xf] / Tof] s] s:tf] cfwf/df
                                    “}
;dfrf/bftf slxn] hfg] xf] kQf] x'bg, b]z         cflwsfl/stf, ljZj;gLotf, / k|efjsfl/tf         lgdf{0f x'g ;S5 eGg] ;DaGwdf agfpg ;lsg]
ljb]zsf ;dfrf/df ;dfrf/ ;ldltsf] ;dfrf/          cGo ;~rf/dfWodsf] t'ngfdf a9L g} x'G5 .        cg]s k|;·sf ;dfrf/ ag]gg\ . To;}u/L
s'g xf] kQf nufpg ;+ej 5}g . ;dfrf/sIfsf]        o:tf] uxg s'/fdf g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn] Tolt        hgcfGbf]ngn] k}bf u/]sf] kl/jt{gn] ck]Iff
;fgf] u[xsfo{n] ;'wf/ cfpg] oL s'/fdf nfdf]      ;f/f] Wofg glbP h:tf] 5 .                      /fv]sf] gof“ g]kfnsf] vfsf ;dfrf/df cfpg
;do;Dd Wofg k'u]sf] b]lvGg .                             ;du| d f eGbf g] k fnL 6] l nlehg      ;s]g . g]kfnsf] /fli6«o ljsf;, ;+;fwgsf]
         P;\ P d\ P ;\ s f] dfWodaf6 hgdt        ;dfrf/sf] efiff, z}nL / k|:t'ltdf cfd;~rf/sf   k|of]u, /f]huf/L, k"jf{wf/sf] lj:tf/, pBf]u,
;+sngsf] nx/nfO{ klg :of6nfO6s} k|efj eGg        d"Nocg'¿ksf] ;'wf/ cfjZos 5 . 5l/tf]kgdf       Jofkf/, oftfoft, u|fdL0f ljsf; cflb leq
gldNg] xf]Og . 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ ;dodf             ljZj;gLotf / zL3|tfdf ljj]ssf] cEof; ug'{      ;dfrf/sf] kx'“r ePg . j}b]lzs ;DaGw /
o;nfO{ :yflkt ug{] t/ k|Zg, pQ/, ;+Vof,          pko'Qm b]lvG5 . ;dfrf/df lnOPsf] pT;fx         lzIffsf ljifodf klg gof“ g]kfnsf] rfxgf


10                                                                                                                                 df3–r}t @)^$
                            gof“ g]kfnsf] l;h{gfdf g]kfnL 6]lnlehgn] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ sIf ;a}sf]
                         k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu v'nf /fVg'k5{, Toxf“sf ;dfrf/sdL{ ;xL cy{sf] lgikIf
                                  åf/kfn aGg'k5{ . o;f] geP ;dfrf/ ‘;]jf’ aGg ;Snf / Û

d'vl/t ePsf] kfOPg . w]/} b]zdf /fhb"t kb                  rf/ jif{kl5 @)$^ df hgcfGbf]ngsf                   6]lnlehg If]qsf] cu'jfO{ ug{] lhDdf Psflt/
                            }
vfnL ePsf] s'/f bf]xf]¥ofp“bdf / ljZjljBfnodf     sf/0f #) jif{] k~rfotL Joj:yf ktg x'Fbf                     !@ jif{sf] ;z:q åGåsf] ;+rfns tyf cg'ejL
lgo'lQm gePsf] s'/fnfO{ af/Daf/ pNn]v ub{df  }    ax'bnLo ;+;bLo k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] efsf                / csf{ l t/ zflGtk" 0 f{ hgcfGbf] n gsf
;do lat]sf] 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/nfO{ ofb} ePg .        l6Kg] cj;/ o;n] kfPsf] b]lvG5 . To; a]nf                    ;xsdL{nfO{ ldn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L / lghL
ggO:o"nfO{ Wofg lb“bf ;dfrf/df d"n O:o"           o;sf ;dfrf/df ToxL /fu kfOG5 .                              6]lnlehgsf] ;dfrf/ casf lbgdf s;/L cl3
                                   '
x/fPsf cg]s pbfx/0f 5g\, p7\gkg{] cg'kftdf        sfnfGt/df of] ;ª\Vofdf / u'0f:t/df emfl·b}                  a9\g] xf] Tof] x]b{} hfg' 5 . hgcfGbf]ng b'O{sf]
gp7]sf O:o" klg y'k|} 5g\ . ul/aL, e|i6frf/,      uO{ ;/sf/L / lghL wf/df k|jflxt ePsf]                       dd{ljk/Lt Tof] hfg' x'Gg eGg] ;dfrf/ If]qsf]
dfgj laqmL, kof{j/0f x|f;, unt zx/Ls/0f,          5 . jt{dfg g]kfnL 6]lnlehg d"ntM lghL                       dfGotf xf] . o; cy{df g]kfnL 6]lnlehg
;+;fwgsf] b'?kof]u, s'zf;g, c;dfj]zL                                            '
                                                  If]qsf] pT;fxdf !$ dxLg] lg/+sztfsf] ;fdgf                                                 \ '
                                                                                                              ;dfrf/n] ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ ;d]6gkg{,] /fli6«otfsf]
b[li6sf]0f / bnut :jfy{sf cg]s ;d:ofdf                                                     {
                                                  ub{} hgtfsf] kIfdf pleg, hgcfGbf]ng b'OnfO{                 hu]gf{ ug'{kg{], cNkdt, cNk;+Vossf] cfjfh
;dfrf/sIfsf] Wofg gk'u]sf] :ki6 5 .               l/kf]6{ ug{ / pmhf{ lbg lgs} ;kmn ePsf]                     aGg'kg{], dfgjclwsf/, nf]stflGqs cEof;sf]
          kl/jt{ g sf s' / f ug{ , ;/sf/nfO{      b]lvG5 . s'g s'g lghL If]qsf 6]lnlehgn]                     ;Da4{g ug'{kg{], ljlwsf] zf;gdf hf]8 lbg'kg{],
va/bf/L ug{, nf]stGq :yfkgfkl5 klg hf/L                                                 ]
                                                  o; cjlwdf s:tf] s:tf] vf; 5fk 5f]8sf 5g\                    ljjfb / ;d:ofnfO{ se/ ubf{ k"0f{tM lgikIftf
/x]sf lj/f]w sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg /           To;sf] n] v fhf] v f ug{ ] sfd eljiosf                      ckgfpg'kg{], dfgj cle?lr / cfjZostfsf
@)^# j} z fvb] l v @)^$ j} z fv;Dd                zf] w stf{ s f] xf] . o;} ;dodf 6] l nlehg                  ;fdu|L k]z ubf{ lzi6tfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'kg{,]
g] t fhLx¿sf] /fhgLltleqsf] ;xdlt /               ;dfrf/n] g]kfndf ;/sf/L / lghL k|jl[ Qsf]                   of}g, ck/fw ;dfrf/ k|:t'ltdf ;+od lng'kg{]
c;xdltsf] k|lqmof / ljj/0f k]z ug{ eg]            vf; nIf0f b]vfPsf] :ki6 x'G5 . s'g} vf;                     / ;g;gLnfO{ /f]Sg'kg{,] e]befjnfO{ x6fpg'kg{]'
6]lnlehg ;dfrf/n] afhL df/]sf] eGg'k5{ .                      {
                                                  ;dodf b'Oj6f 6]lnlehg ;dfrf/ ;'Gbf b'O{                     h:tf a'“bfdf Wofg lbg' h¿/L 5 . ;+If]kdf
To;f] t cGtl/d ;+ljwfg nfu" ePkl5 t/fO{df         k/:k/lj/f]wL wf/sf ;"rgf k|jflxt eO/x]sf]                   eGg] xf] eg] gof“ g]kfnsf] l;h{gfdf g]kfnL
ePsf] lj/]fw / cGosf c;Gtf]ifsf] nx/nfO{          x'GYof]– Pp6f aGbsf] a]nfdf Pp6f 6]lnlehgn]                 6]lnlehgn] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ sIf ;a}sf]
l6Kg klg ;dfrf/ ;kmn ePsf] dfGg'k5{ .             g]kfn v'n]sf] b]vfpg' / csf{]n] ;Dk"0f{ b]z                 k|ltlglwTjsf] nflu v'nf /fVg'k5{, ToxfFsf
t/ /fi6« ljv08glt/ hfg] vt/fdf xf]lzof/           aGb ePsf] b]vfpg' ;fdfGo s'/f lyof] .                       ;dfrf/sdL{ ;xL cy{sf] lgikIf åf/kfn aGg'k5{ .
x'g,] /fli6«o Pstfdf cf“r cfpg] sfo{ gug{                  cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# nfu" ePkl5                     o;f] geP ;dfrf/ ‘;]jf’ aGg ;Snf / ¤
r]tgf hufpg], /fli6«o k|fyldstfsf] lgwf{/0f
     '
x'gkg{] s'/fdf bafa lbg] / ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg
               \
l:yltnfO{ 5f]6ofP/ gof“ g]kfnsf] /f]8Dofkdf
nfUg] ljifodf k|sfz kfg{ ;dfrf/ kl5 k/]sf]
                                           {
:ki6 x'G5 . o; b[li6df ;dfrf/df ;'wf/ ug'kg{]     l6kf]6
s'/f w]/} b]lvG5 .
                                                  1
                                                      ;g\ !(^@ df 6]ln:6f/ :of6]nfO6af6 ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfsf] gf;f ;+:yfn] lrq k|;f/ u/]kl5 6]lnlehg k|;f/0fdf
la;fpg'cl3                                            :of6]nfO6sf] a[xt\ e"ldsfsf] ;Defjgf b]vf k/]sf] xf] . k|of]u ub}{ hf“bf o;sf] ;xhtf, :ki6tf / km'6lk|06sf] -se/]h
                                                      Pl/of_ Jofkstfsf] klxrfg eof], ;g\ !(*) bzssf] dWolt/ bz{sdf k|ToIf k|;f/0f k'¥ofpg] Ifdtf ljsl;t eof] /
g]kfnL 6]lnlehg k/Dk/fsf] k[i7e"lddf o;sf             !(() sf] bzsdf l8lh6n dfWodaf6 k|;f/0f a9L k|efjsf/L x'g k'Uof] .
                                       '
;dfrf/df b]lvPsf bf]ifaf6 lg/fz x'gkg{] l:ylt     2
                                                      o;sf] ;+s]tsf nflu ;g\ !(*) sf] bzssf] dxŒjk"0f{ lkmNd / l6eL hf]g{n l:qmg cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 .
5}g . 6]lnlehg zAb ljZjdf k|yd kN6 k|of]u
ePsf] *^ jif{kl5, ljZjdf 6]lnlehg k|;f/0f         3
                                                      James Halloran observes: "We should ask not what the media does to people, but what
ePsf] cfwf ztfAbLkl5, :of6]nfO6 / 6]lnlehg            people do to media."
k|;f/0f uf“l;Psf] @$ jif{kl5, tTsfnLg /fhfsf]     4
                                                      Raymond William notes in 1974 book Television: Technology and Cultural Form"the
OR5f / k|ToIf lgb{]zgdf g]kfndf 6]lnlehg              defining feature of broadcasting is Planned Flow."
          ]
o'u p3|sf] xf] . æljb]zlt/ hf“bf pRrkb:ynfO{      5
                                                      John Ellis suggests "The key unit of the television text is the segment," which he defines
b]zdf 6]lnlehg 5}g eGg cK7]/f] dx;';                  as "small, sequential, unities of images and sounds whose maximum duration seems to
                                                      be about five minutes."
ePsf]nÆ7 NofOPsf] of] af]Ng] ef“8f] z'?df b]zdf
        ]
lgb{nLo /fhgLltsf] cEof;sf sf/0f v'n]/            6
                                                      Paul Mason ( BBC Correspondent Newsnight ) says " And the most common criticism
hg;]jfdf pqg ;s]g, ;dfrf/ vf; 7fp“ /                  of 24 – hour rolling news is its inability to tell a story coherently."
JolQmsf] lgb{]zgeGbf k/ hfg ;s]g .                7
                                                      of] sygsf] vf; k|df0f km]nf kb}{g, t/ tTsfnLg ;dfrf/sdL{x¿ o; s'/fdf ljZj:t b]lvG5g\ .


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                                        11
          ljZn]if0f
                           ]
   cfGbf]ngkl5sf] g]kfnL k|;

                      {
    cfkm\g} e"ldsf la;]kl5
        d~h'>L yfkf          s'/f o;} jif{sf] z'?lt/sf] xf] . lhtdfg a:g]tsf] lstfa c“Wof/f @%* lbg sf] ljdf]rg sfo{qmddf b08xLgtfsf
                             af/] 5nkmn rNof] . jlsn, dfgjclwsf/sdL{ / dfgjclwsf/sf] pNnª\3gaf6 kLl8tx¿n] el/Psf] To;
                             sfo{qmddf b08xLgtfsf] kIfdf s;}n] af]Ng] ;Defjgf g} lyPg . ljdf]lrt lstfasf] cfzo / sfo{qmdsf] ljifo
                             klg b08xLgtfsf] cGTo x'g'k5{ eGg] g} lyof] . To;}n] Toxf“ b08xLgtfsf] cGTosf] dfu ul/g' gf}nf] s'/f lyPg .
                                                                        '                                   {
                             t/ klg Pskl5 csf{ jQmfn] lgSs} efj's x“b} eGb} uP, ca b08xLgtfsf] cGTo ug}k5{ . s'/f] 7Ls xf] eGb} ;a}n]

                               6fpsf] xNnfp“b} uP . To;kl5 Pshgf jlsnn] d}gf              gls6L ck/fwLx¿sf] af/] s'/f ubf{ xfdL pgLx¿nfO{
                               ;'g'jf/sf] xTofsf] s'/f p7fP . pgn] eg]—To; s];df          ;fdflhs ;'/Iff / b08xLgtf ;d]t k|bfg u5f}{+ .
                               s]s] ePsf] lyof], bf]ifL sf]sf] lyP / Gofo lbnfpg s;–               jfs\:jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ kfP/ dfq k'Ub}g,
                               s;n] s:tf]–s:tf] cj/f]w k'¥ofPsf 5g\, xfdL ;a}nfO{         To;sf] k|of]u ug{ klg hfGg'k5{ eGg] lgisif{df d k'u]+
                               yfxf 5“b}5 . clg ltgn] /fodfemL cfof]usf] k|ltj]bgsf       To; sfo{qmddf . c“Wof/f @%* lbg sf n]vsn] eg]
                               s'/f p7fP . Toxf“ klg pgsf] egfO lyof]—k|ltj]bgdf          cfkm" / c¿x¿dfly ck/fw ug]{x¿sf af/] v'n:t
                               s]s] n]lvPsf] 5, To;n] s;–s;nfO{ bf]ifL 7x¥ofPsf] 5        n]v]sf 5g\ . pgLaf6 xfdLn] o;/L g} s'/fsfgL ug{
                               / To;sf] sfof{Gjogdf cj/f]w k'¥ofpg s;–s;n] s]s:tf         l;s] xfd|f] ;fj{hlgs ax;sf] :t/ cln p7\g] lyof]
                               rnv]n ul///x]sf 5g\, xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5“b5 . To;/L
                                                                             }            eGg] dnfO{ nfUof] . dnfO{ o:t}o:t} ;f]rljrf/ To;eGbf
                               g} g]kfnu~h / uf}/sf] s'/f klg ltgn] p7fP . Toxf“          cl3 kqklqsf k9\bf jf /]l8of] 6]lnlehgcl3 kbf{ klg
                               s]s:tf ck/fw eP, xfdL ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5“b5 eGg] ltgsf]
                                                                          }               cfO/xGYof] . 1fg] G b| zfx / ;] g faf6 vf] l ;Psf]
                               egfO lyof] .                                               jfs\:jtGqtfsf] clwsf/ nf]stGq ;“u;“u} kmls{of] .
                                        ltgsf] s'/f ;'g/ dnfO{ s] nfUof] eg] oL ;a
                                                         ]                                ldl8ofdfkm{t v'nf ax; rnfpg] :jtGqtf kmls{of] .
                               36gfsf] jf:tljstf d}n] dfq ghfg]sL /lx5', sfo{qmddf        ax; x'g'kg{] ljifo klg y'k|} lyP . Psflt/ zflGt
tLtf] ;Tosf] l/kf]l6ª ug]{     pkl:yt af“sL ;a}n] cjZo} hfg]sf xf]nfg\ . jQmf cfkm}nfO{
                                                                                   +      k|lqmofsf] sfd s'/f sf7df8f}+df eO/x]sf] lyof] eg]
                               t To;af/] ;fª\uf]kfª\u 1fg x'“b} xf]nf . b'Mv nfUof],      csf{lt/ u|fdL0f If]qsf cfzf cfsf+Iffx¿ ck"/} lyP .
                 {
cfkm\gf] wd{ la;]/ ldl8of
                               lsgeg] pgsf] af]nfOaf6 oL 36gfsf] jf:tljstfaf/]            gof“ g]kfnsf] lgdf{0fqmddf ;of}+ y/Lsf sfd ug{'lyof] .
  zflGtk|lqmofsf] kIfdf        d}n] s]xL yfxf kfpg ;lsg“ . pgn] gfd} ls6]/ ;kf6           ufpFufpFaf6 nv]l6Psf ;/sf/L lgsfox¿nfO{ kmsf{pg'
    slxn]sfxL+ ;"Id /          efiffdf d}gf ;'g'jf/sf] xTof s;n] u¥of], /fodfemL          lyof] . /fi6«ufgb]lv /fHo;+/rgf;Ddsf /fi6«–klxrfgsf
slxn]sfxL+ e2f k|fkf]uG8f
                   ]           cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg sfof{Gjog ug{ s;n] cj/f]w k'¥ofof]],    k|Zgx¿ cg'Ql/t lyP . dfcf]jfbL / ;/sf/af6 uPsf]
                               g]kfnu~h / uf}/df s;n] s;nfO{ s] u¥of] cflb                bzsdf ePsf ck/fwx¿sf dfldnfdf kLl8tnfO{ Gofo
ug]{ sfddf nfUof] . dfgf}+
                               atfOlbPsf] eP dh:tf cgle1x¿n] klg hfGg] df}sf              lbnfpg' lyof] . ;To / d]nldnfksf] sfd afFsL lyof] .
               }
  ldl8of cfkm+n] zflGt         kfpFy] eGg] nfUof] . To;kl5 clncln l/; klg p7\of] .        ;]gf / k|x/Ldf ;'wf/ Nofpg' lyof] . k|ltufdLsf
  ;Demf}tf tof/ u/]sf]         clg nfUof], pgsf] hlQsf] c:ki6 s'/f t d klg ug{            rnv]nlj?4 ;ts{ x'g' lyof] . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj
 lyof], cGtl/d ;+ljwfg         ;Sy]+ . d klg b08xLgtfsf] cGTo x'g'k5{ eGg] efj's          t u/fpg' g} lyof] cflb OToflb . htf x]¥of] pt} gof“
                               dfu Toxf“ /fVg ;Sy]+ . ax;sf] :t/ x]bf{ tL lj1 / d         g]kfn lgdf{0fsf r'gf}tLx¿ v8f lyP .
      ]
 n]vsf] lyof] / pm :jo+
                               cgle1df s'g} cGt/ b]lvGgYof] .                                      ldl8ofn] oL ;a ljifoaf/] ax; grnfPsf] xf]Og
 ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg                  efiffsf] k|of]un] xfd|f] d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 .    t/ ax;sf] :t/ eg] rflxPsf] h:tf] ;kf6 ePg .
     u/fpg nflu/x]sf]          s'g} 36gfaf/] xfdLn] c:ki6 / efjgfTds s'/f dfq             nf]stGq Nofpg ldl8ofsf] cfkm\g} klg 7"nf] b]g ePsf]
          lyof] .              u¥of}“ eg] hfgLghfgL To;sf] oyfy{ n'sfpg ;xof]u            x'gfn] xf] ls, jf ;ft bnk|lt d'Vod'Vo ldl8of3/x¿df
                               k'¥ofO/x]sf x'G5f}+ . ;kf6 efiffsf] k|of]u gubf{ xfdL      /fhgLlts k"jf{u|x eP/ xf], cyjf lbglbg} abln“bf] t/n
                               cfkm\gf] / c¿sf] c1fgtfnfO{ hf]ufpg d2t u5f}{+ . gfd       cj:yfdf kqsfl/tf ug{ ldl8ofsdL{x¿ cgEo:t eP/


   12                                                                                                                             df3–r}t @)^$
xf], z'?z'?df ldl8ofn] ;/sf/ / g]tfx¿sf] sfdu/fOaf/]        cj;/ ;/sf/n] u'dfof] eg] csf{lt/ o;f] ug{'sf
w]/} ;f]wk'5 / s]/sf/ u/]g .                                vt/fx¿sf] 9fs5f]k ldl8ofn] ul/lbof], h;sf] lj:kmf]6
         pbfx/0fsf nflu lnpm“, zflGt ;Demf}tfaf/] rn]sf]    dw]zdf eO{ g} xfNof] .
ldl8of ax; . ;Demf} t fsf] b:tfj] h df cfkm\ g f] /                  t];f| ] pbfx/0f, ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgaf/] rn]sf]
dfcf]jfbLsf] ;xL5fk nufpg ;ft bnsf] ;/sf/nfO{               ldl8of ax;nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . lgjf{rgsf] ldlt h'g
hlt xtf/ ePsf] lyof] ldl8ofnfO{ To;sf] ;dy{g ug{            lbg tf]lsof], To; lbgb]lv ldl8ofnfO{ lgjf{rg u/fOxfNg]
Tolt g} xtf/ ePsf] b]lvGYof] . ;Demf}tfdf 7"nf;fgf          lgSs} cft'/L ePsf] b]lvof] . ;dod} lgjf{rg x'g'k5{,
q'l6x¿ lyP ls < u[xo'4af6 pDs]sf cGo b]zsf                  geP zflGtk|lqmof g} e+u x'G5 eGg] cgluGtL g]tfsf
;Demf}tfx¿sf] bf“hf]df xfd|f] ;Demf}tf ck"0f{ ePsf] lyof]   l/Qf egfOx¿ kqklqsfdf 5flkP, cgluGtL a'l4hLjLsf
                              {
ls < xtf/df sfd u/]/ km';bdf k5'tfpg'sf] ;§f cln            efjgfTds n] v x¿ k| s flzt eP . b' M vsf] s' / f,
                                {
l9n} eP klg kSsf sfd ug'kg]{ lyof] ls < ldl8ofdf            ldl8ofnfO{ hlt ;/sf/nfO{ lgjf{rg u/fpg cft'/L ePsf]
o:tf k|Zg lj/n} p7] . a? ;Demf}tfdf ;xL5fk nfUgf;fy         b]lvPg . ufpFufpFdf g uflj; ejgx¿ kmls{P, g
                        +
P]ltxfl;s sbdsf] k|z;f ug{lt/ k|foM ;Dk"0f{ ldl8of          k|x/Lrf}sLx¿, g t s]Gb|sf g]tfx¿ g} . lhNnf:t/sf
Psf]xf]l/of] .                                              /fhgLlt1 / clwsf/Lx¿;“u s'/f ubf{ tf]lsPsf] ldltleq
         csf{] pbfx/0f, cGtl/d ;+ljwfgaf/] rn]sf]           lgjf{rg x'g ;Sb}g eGg] klxn]b]lv g} kSsf b]lvGYof] .
ldl8of ax; xf] . /fHo;+/rgfdf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] dfu            t/ of] s'/f ldl8ofdf cfp“b} cfPg eg] klg x'G5 . a?
dlxnf, hghflt, blnt / dw]zL ;d'bfoaf6 tLa|;u          “     s]Gb|df ;/sf/ / g]tfx¿n] /r]sf] gf}6+sLd} e'Ng rfx\of]
pl7/x]sf] a]nf ;ft bnsf] ;/sf/n] s;}sf] s'/f g;'gL          ldl8of . sxf“;Dd eg] lgjf{rgsf nflu cfjZos
xtf/xtf/ kf; u¥of] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg . c;Gt'i6                 jftfj/0f tof/ ePsf] 5}g eGg' g} lgjf{rg layf]Ng]
;d'bfox¿n] ldl8ofdfkm{t cfkm\gf s'/f /fVg t kfP t/          k|of; xf] eGg] cj:yf klg l;h{gf eof] . /, cflv/df
pgLx¿sf u'gf;fnfO{ a9L dxŒj lbP zflGtk|lqmof g}                                                         “
                                                            lgjf{rgsf] ldlt ;fl/g] eof] eGg] 3f]if0ff x'bf c¿ sf]xLeGbf
layf]lnG5 eGg] z+sfn] xf] jf ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] cEof;           ldl8of g} a9L rlst ePsf] b]lvof] .
:jo+ ldl8ofdf geP/ xf], oL ;d'bfox¿sf] dfunfO{                       oL pbfx/0f x]bf{ nfU5, dfgf}+ ldl8of cfkm+n]    }
ldl8ofn] kof{Kt 5nkmndf Nofpg ?rfPg . Psflt/                zflGt ;Demf}tf tof/ u/]sf] lyof], cGtl/d ;+ljwfg
/fHo;+/rgfdf ¿kfGt/0f Nofpg] Pp6f cGoGt /fd|f]              n]v]sf] lyof] / pm :jo+ ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg u/fpg
                                                            nflu/x]sf] lyof] . o;af6 Pp6f s] s'/f :ki6 x'G5 eg]
                                                            hgcfGbf]ngkl5 klg xfd|f] ldl8of cfGbf]lnt g} /x\of],
                                                            zflGtk|lqmofaf/] l/kf]l6{ª dfq ubf{ p;nfO{ ;Gtf]if ePg,
                                                            To;df k|ToIf xft xfNg vf]Hof] p;n] . zflGtk|lqmof




df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                              13
                              ;kmn xf];\ eGg] :jR5 cfsf+Iffn] g} eP klg tLtf] ;Tosf]          ldl8of efjgfdf w]/} alu/x]sf] 5 . ldl8ofsf] cfhsf]
                                                               {
                              l/kf]l6{ª ug]{ cfkm\gf] wd{ la;]/ ldl8of zflGtk|lqmofsf]        k|yd bfloTj cfkm\g} Joj;foLs/0fsf] ljsf; ug'{ xf] .
                              kIfdf slxn]sfxL“ ;"Id / slxn]sfxL“ e2f ‘k|fkf]uG8f’  ]          nf]stGqsf] /Iff ug]{ rfxgf ldl8ofdf 5 eg] To;sf]
                              ug]{ sfddf nfUof] .                                             ;aeGbf pTs[i6 pkfo oxL g} xf] . cgf}7f] nfU5, u[xo'4
                                        xfdLn] b]zsf] jf:tljstfnfO{ cgfu|xL 9+un]             rs{Fb} uPsf] a]nf s]Gb|sf gfd rn]sf ;Dkfbs /
                              lgofNg'kg]{ j]nf xf] of] . b|'t ultdf ¿kfGtl/t eO/x]sf]         kqsf/x¿n] ufp“ufp“ uP/ Toxf“sf] oyfy{af/] kf7snfO{
                              5 b]z . xfd|f] cfkm\gf] a'emfO klg l56l56f] ablnO/x]sf]         cjut u/fP . t/ nf]stGq cfPkl5 o:tf] hfFu/ yf]/}n]
                              5 . s]xL cl3;Dd dw]zL / t/fO{jf;LaLr s] leGgtf                  dfq b]vfP . y'k|} :yfgLo ;Qfx¿sf] ;Gt'ngdf afFRg'kg]{
                              5, xfdLdWo] clwsf+ z nfO{ yfxf lyPg . sltko                     df]km;nsf kqsf/x¿n] a? tLtf] ;To af]Ng] lxDdt t
                              aGbx¿kl5 dfq r'/]efj/ eg]sf] sxf“ xf] eg]/ w]/}n]               u5{g\ Û pgLx¿nfO{ s]Gb|n] an ylklbg'kg]{ xf], h'g sfd
                              ;f]Wg yfn]sf x'g\ . lnDa" / ls/f“t If]qdf s]s:tf] ax;                            }
                                                                                              w]/} ePsf] b]lvFbg . 36gfqmdx¿sf] l/kf]l6{ª klg kmf6km'6]
                              rln/x]sf] 5, Tof] s'/f aflx/ cfPs} 5}g . yf¿x¿sf] s]            tl/sfn] x'G5, To;df lg/Gt/tf x'Fb}g . k[i7e"ldsf]
                              ljrf/ 5 < clg g]jf, du/, td', s0ff{nLjf;Lx¿sf] <                cefjsf] ;d:of rsf]{ 5 . dfgjclwsf/ pNnª\3gsf]
                              cflv/ sf7df8f}+eGbf w]/} ljzfn 5 b]z . ef}uf]lns                    +
                                                                                              k|;u xf];\ of hghflt cfGbf]ngsf], ldl8ofsdL{x¿n]
                              agf]6n] of] v08v08df ljeflht 5 . g otfsf dflg;n]                36gfsf] l/kf]l6{ª t unf{g\, t/ ltgsf] k[i7e"ldaf/]
                              ptfsf dflg; lrG5g\, g ptfsf dflg;n] otfsf g} .                                                }
                                                                                              kf7snfO{ k|foM s]xL atfp“bgg\, h;n] ubf{ kf7sn] tL
                              xfdL ;a}n] Pscsf{nfO{ / cfkm"nfO{ klg lrGg] a]nf xf]            36gfsf] dxŒj a'em\b}gg\ . zfob, ldl8ofsdL{ cfkm}+n]
   efiffsf] k|of]un] xfd|f]   of] . b]zs} ;xL klxrfg 7Dofpg] a]nf xf] of] . cf–               klg sltko 36gfsf] k[i7e"ld a'em]sf gxf]nfg\, lsgeg]
 d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 .        cfkm\gf cfu|x, k"jf{u|xx¿df c8]/ a:g'eGbf xfdLn]                pgLx¿nfO{ lglZrt ‘la6’df sfd u/fpg] cEof; k|foM
   s'g} 36gfaf/] xfdLn]       b]z;“u;“u} cfkm\gf] a'emfOdf ¿kfGt/0f Nofpg'kg]{ a]nf           ldl8of3/df 5}g . kmntM cfkm\gf] ?lrsf] ljifodf
   c:ki6 / efjgfTds           xf] of] .                                                       kqsf/x¿n] ulxl/g] df}sf kfpFb}gg\ .
                                        of] ck"j{ df}sf gu'dfpg] xf] eg] xfdLn] kqsfl/tfsf]            lxhf] 1fg]Gb| zfx / ;]gfnfO{ x/fpg jL/tfsf
s'/f dfq u¥of}+ eg] hfgL      :t/ a9fpg}k5{ . ;+;f/el/s} ldl8ofdf ljifoj:t'sf]                ;fy n8\of] ldl8of . cfh nf]stGqsf zq'x¿ lrGg
   ghfgL To;sf] oyfy{         ulx/fOdf gk'uL ;txdf ax; ug]{ qmd hf/L 5 . xfdLsxf“             lxhf]eGbf w]/} ufx|f] ePsf] 5 . tL zq'x¿ vf]Hg ldl8ofn]
      n'sfpg ;xof]u           of] ;d:of ljz]if rsf]{ 5, h;n] ubf{ cfhsf] jf:tljstf            6f9f6f9f x]l//fVg'k5{ h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g . p;s}
                              s] xf] eg]/ kf7sx¿ 3l/3l/ cGof}ndf kl//xG5g\ .                  Joj;foLs/0fsf] cefjdf nf] s tGqsf zq' x ¿
k'¥ofO/x]sf x'G5f}+ . ;kf6    h:t}, g]kfnuGhdf s] eof], To;sf] /fd|f] l/kf]l6{ª g} gu/L       ;NanfO/x]sf 5g\ .
efiffsf] k|of]u gubf{ xfdL    ldl8ofdf To;nfO{ g]kfnu~h sf08 gfds/0f ul/of] /                          cGttM, km] l / klg, efiffsf] k| o f] u n] xfd| f ]
     cfkm\gf] / c¿sf]         To;sf] 3f]/ eT;{gf ul/of] . dw]zL hgflwsf/ kmf]/d               d"NodfGotf emNsfp“5 . o; n]vsf] ;'?cftdf plNnlvt
   c1fgtfnfO{ hf]ufpg                        '
                              PSsf;L p7\gk5fl8sf hfoh sf/0fsf] vf]h gu/L To;dfly              sfo{qmddf ax;sf] h'g :t/ lyof], To;af6 dfly p7\g
                              cfz+sf k|s6 ul/of] . uf}/df ePsf] dfcf]jfbLx¿sf] xTofsf]        cToGt h?/L eO;s]sf] 5 ca . oyfy{sf] vf]hL gug]{,
d2t u5f}{+ . gfd gls6L        l/kf]l6{ªdf dfgjclwsf/jfbL ;d]taf6 q'l6 ePsf] s'/f              efjgfTds s'/f a9L ug]{, ljifodf gulxl/g], :ki6 /
 ck/fwLx¿sf] af/] s'/f        dlxgf lbgkl5 dfq yfxf eof] . o;n] ubf{ dw]zL d"nsf              ;kf6 s'/f gug]{, c:ki6 s'/f u/]/} a9L ;do v]/ kmfNg]
   ubf{ xfdL pgLx¿nfO{        hgtf emg} lrl9P . cfh r'/]efj/ If]qdf s] eO/x]sf] 5             h:tf afgLx¿n] ubf{ xfdL cfkm\gf] / c¿sf] c1fgtfnfO{
                              eGg] s'/f :ki6;“u cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . o; cfGbf]ngsf               hf]ufpg] cj;/ dfq lbO/x]sf 5f}+ . g]kfnL efiffsf] k|of]ud}
    ;fdflhs ;'/Iff /          g]tfx¿ sf] x'g\ / pgLx¿sf dfud'2f s] x'g\ < ;dfg'kflts          klg xfdL ;/nLs/0ftkm{ nfUg'kg{] ePsf] 5 . lSni6,
   b08xLgtf ;d]t k|bfg        / ;+3Lo /fHok|0ffnLsf s'/f Pstfsf lgSs} p7], cfh tL             ;+:s[tlgi7 efiffsf] e'd/Laf6 kf7snfO{ d'lQm lbnfpg] xf]
          u5f}{+ .            sxf“ k'u] < blntsf, dlxnfsf / cfh;Dd p7\g g;s]sf                eg] xfdL h;/L af]N5f}+, To;/L g} n]Vg] k|yf a;fNg'kg]{
                              c¿ ;d' b fosf cfGbf] n g s] ef] l n p7\ n fg\ <                 5 . lnlvt g]kfnLnfO{ ;kf6 / hLjGt agfpg'kg]{5 .
                              ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] dfu ug]{ ;a} hgfn] zflGtk|lqmof layf]Ng}                  b] z ;“ u ;“ u } xfdL cfkm} + klg nf] s tflGqs
                                    ]
                              vf]hsf x'g\ t <                                                 ?kfGt/0fsf qmddf 5f}+ . dnfO{ nfU5, efiffsf] k|of]uaf6}
                                        vf]h kqsfl/tfdf hf]8 lbg'kg]{ a]nfdf xfd|f]           xfdLn] nf]stGqsf] cEof; z'? u/] x'G5 .


    14                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                         b[li6sf]0f


ljZj;gLotf g} ;DklQ
                                      ]
       s'Gb bLlIft nf]stGqdfly em}+ k|; :jtGqtfdflysf] vt/f klg g]kfndf ;w}+ pu| jfd / pu| blIf0fkGyaf6 g} d8fl/g] u/]sf]
                          5 . hxf“;Dd dWodfuL{ /fhgLlts kf6L{x¿sf] s'/f 5, g]kfnL ldl8of Psflt/ logLx¿sf] ;w}+ s8f cfnf]rs
                          /xg] u/]sf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ ;a}eGbf bx|f] ;xof]uL klg . vf;u/L ;j{;QfjfbL zlQmx¿sf lj¿4 of] pgLx¿sf]

;xof]uL /x“b} cfPsf] 5 . sf/0f :ki6 5M
clx+;fTds ;ª\3if{ b'j}sf] lgb{]zs l;4fGt xf] .
          dWodfuL{ /fhgLlts kf6L{ x ¿
k| l t:kwf{ T ds Pj+ zflGtk" 0 f{ /fhgLltsf
dfWodaf6 ;Qfdf k'U5g\, ltgsf] ljZjf;
      ]
a'n6df xf]Og Aofn]6df x'G5 . otf, kqsf/x¿
klg snd t/af/eGbf zlQmzfnL x'G5 eGg]
s'/fdf ljZjf; u5{g\ . of] ljZjf; gx'g] xf]
eg] tL kqsf/ g} x'g ;St}gg\ .
          t/, pu|jfbL ;d"xx¿, ?l9jfbL /
kmfl;:6 hTyfx¿ Hffgfhfg ;z:q ;ª\3if{sf]
af6f] /f]H5g\ / lx+;fnfO{ /fhgLltsf] xltof/sf
¿kdf k|of]u u5{g\ . lx+;fn] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg
ub{}g a¿ To;nfO{ emg\ hl6n t'Nofp“5 eGg]
kf7 ;dsfnLg ljZj Oltxf;n] l;sfPsf] 5 .
t/ To;nfO{ ltgLx¿ k6Ss} jf:tf ub{}gg\ .
          ;dfhdf ljBdfg åGåx¿ ;+jfb Pjd\
;fj{hlgs 5nkmnåf/f ;dfwfg ul/g'k5{ .
o;df ldl8ofsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 .
g]kfndf @)$^ ;fn otfsf b'O6f hg–
cfGbf]ngn] o;sf] k'li6 ul/;s]sf 5g\ .
          g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGqn] ;w}+
Pscsf{sf] :jtGqtfsf] /Iff ub{} cfPsf 5g\ .
  ]
k|; :jtGqtf / nf]stGq j:t'tM Pp6} 9Øfssf
ufO{ / lqz"n h:tf x'g\ . Pp6f geP csf{sf]
cl:tTj /xg ;Sb}g . /fhfsf] tfgfzfxL lj¿4
;ª\3if{/t ldl8ofn] hgcfGbf]ngM @)$^ df
h;/L cfkm\gf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u¥of], @)^# sf]
nf]stflGqs cfGbf]ngnfO{ klg To;}u/L sf“w
yfKof] .
          @)$^ kl5 cfPsf nf] s tflGqs
;/sf/x¿n] ;fd'bflos /]l8of] / lghL If]qsf]
k|;f/0fnfO{ kmlnkmfk x'g] cj;/ l;h{gf u/]sf
lyP . jfo'–t/+udflysf] lgoGq0f ;dfKt ePkl5       g]kfnsf /]l8of] :6]zgx¿ nf]stGqsf] kIfdf       :jtGqtfnfO{ logn] cfkm\gf] k|fljlws u'0f:t/
logn] klg ;"rgfnfO{ ljs]lGb|t ub{} hg–           pleP, h;n] lognfO{ hGd lbPsf] lyof] . To;sf]   / k|:t't ul/g] ljifoj:t'nfO{ ;'wf/ ug{ pkof]u
;fwf/0fnfO{ zlQm;DkGg t'NofP/ nf]stGqnfO{        nuQ} lgeL{s ;"rgf k|jfx / ;fj{hlgs ax;sf]      u/] . cfhef]ln g]kfndf pTkfbg x'g] d"nwf/sf
alnof] kfg{ ;3fp k'¥ofP . df3 !( kl5,            dfWodaf6 :jtGq /]l8of]x¿n] hgcfGbf]ng—         cvaf/ Pjd\ klqsfx¿sf] 5kfO t cGt/f{li6«o
/]l8of]sf] d'v aGb ug{ vf]Hg] zfxL zf;gsf]       @ sf] ;kmntfsf nflu jftfj/0f tof/ kfg{                   }
                                                                                                :t/sf] 5“b5, ltgsf] hLjGt ljifoj:t' s] s'/fsf]
k|of; lj¿4 v8f eP/ /]l8of]n] cfkm\gf]            klg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n] .                    klg k|df0f xf] eg] g]kfnL kqsf/ kl/kSj
hf]bfxfkg k|dfl0ft u¥of] . PkmPddf ;dfrf/                g]kfnL ldl8ofdf @)$^ otf gf6sLo        Pjd\ Jofj;flos eO;s]sf 5g\ / cfkm\gf]
k|;f/0f dfly nufOPsf] k|ltaGwsf] cj1f u/]/       kl/jt{ g cfO;s] s f] 5 . o;aLr k| f Kt         lhDd]bf/L elnef“tL a'em\b5g\ .
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                             l;4fGtsf] a]jf:tf ug{] ljZjJofkL k|jl[ QnfO{
                                                                                             k|ltlalDat ub{5g\ . ljsf; ;DaGwL g]kfnsf
                                                                                             cfjZostfx¿nfO{ gla;{g] xf] eg] oxfF To:tf]
                                                                                             6] l nlehg Rofgn h¿/L 5 hf] sf] / f
                                                                                             dgf]/~hgeGbf cl3 a9]/ /fHo / p;n]
                                                                                             hgtfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] ;]jf ;'ljwfsf
                                                                                             ljifodf ;fj{hlgs ax; rnfpg] / hgtfnfO{
                                                                                             lzIff lbg] dfWodsf] e"ldsf k"/f ug{ ;Sg]
                                                                                             xf]cf];\ .
                                                                                                       ;/sf/n] rnfPsf ldl8ofsf] ;d:of
                                                                                             eg] a]Un} 5 . @)$^ / @)^# df b'O{ k6s
                                                                                             k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgf eO;Sbf klg / ax'njfb
                                                                                             tyf k|]; :jtGqtfk|lt af/Daf/ k|lta4tf
                                                                                                                        ]
                                                                                             hgfO;Sbf klg ;Qfdf k'usf /fhgLlt1x¿n]
                                                                                             g]kfn 6]lnlehg, /]l8of] g]kfn / uf]/vfkqnfO{
                                                                                             ;/sf/L lgoGq0faf6 d'Qm ug{ rfx]gg\ . ;/sf/
                                                                                             k|]; :jtGqtfsf] vf]qmf] ukm dfq u5{ / nfh}
                                                                                             gdfgL ;/sf/L ldl8ofx¿nfO{ cfkm\gf] kIfsf]
                                                                                             k|rf/sf nflu k|of]u u5{ . o;n] nf]stGqnfO{
                                                                                             sdhf] / agfPsf] 5 . ljB' t Lo ;/sf/L
                                                                                             dfWodx¿ nf]ssNof0fsf d"No–dfGotfåf/f
                                                                                             lgb{]lzt x'g'k5{ / kqklqsf ;+rfng ug{] wGbf
                                                                                             rflx“ ;/sf/n] r6Ss} 5f]l8lbg'k5{ .
                                               cjZo klg, ;d:of gePsf xf]Ogg\ .                         Oltxf;sf] kl5Nnf] r/0fdf g]kfnL
                                       tflnd / cj;/sf] cefjb]lv ;/sf/L x:tIf]k                             ]
                                                                                             ldl8ofn] v]nsf] e"ldsfn] l;sfPsf] kf7 s] xf]
                                       / clt Jofkf/Ls/0f;Dd cg]s vfnsf ;d:of                 eg] k|]; :jtGqtf cfkm\gf] k|Tofe"lt ;“u} lnP/
          ldl8ofdf cfly{s nufgL        5g\ . c¿ t c¿, ;kmntfsf] pbfx/0f dflgg]               cfp“b}g, k|]; :jtGqtfsf] ;'/Iff t o;sf]
                                       g]kfnL PkmPd /]l8of]x¿ klg clxn] ‘bf];f| ] k':tf’sf   clwstd k| o f] u åf/f dfq ug{ ;lsG5 .
          ]
       ug{x¿n] tTsfnsf] kmfObfeGbf     ;d:ofx¿sf] ;fdgf ul//x]sf 5g\ .                       o;dfly tfgfzfxx¿ / ;j{;QfjfbLx¿af6 dfq
               ]
        k/ x]/sf] v08df dfq clg                /]l8of] :6];gx¿ ylk+b} hf“bf sfo{qmd                       } ]
                                                                                             vt/f cfp“bg, k|;nfO{ sf]/f Joj;fo dfq 7fGg]
     ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] kq÷klqsf      lgdf{tf, k|fljlws / ;+jfbbftfx¿sf nflu                o;sf dflnsx¿af6 klg cfp“5 clg To:tf
                                       tflnd cTofjZos x'G5 . cg'dltkq lbg]                   k|sfzsx¿af6 klg cfp“5 hf] kqklqsfnfO{
     jf /]l8of] :6]zgnfO{ /fhgLlts     k|lqmof a9L kf/bzL{ x'g'k5{, To;n] gfkmf              6]Anf]O8sf] af6f]df lx“8fpg rfxG5g\ lsgeg]
     d~r dfGg 5f]8sf] v08df dfq
                      ]                gsdfpg] / Jofkfl/s /]l8of]x¿aLr 5\ofgAofg             To;f] ug'{ ;:tf] dfq xf]Og uDeL/ / lhDd]bf/
         g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGq       ug{ ;Sg' k 5{ / To;sf] ;+ r fng :jtGq                 kqsfl/tf ug'{eGbf ;lhnf] klg x'G5 .
                                       cg'udgsf/L lgsfoaf6 x'g'k5{ . g]kfnsf]                          ldl8ofdf cfly{s nufgL ug{]x¿n]
          xft]dfnf] u/]/ cl3 a9\g      ldl8of :yfgLo hg;d'bfo / ltgsf pk]lIft                                             ]
                                                                                             tTsfnsf] kmfObfeGbf k/ x]/sf] v08df dfq
     ;S5g\ . ljZj;gLotf kqsf/sf]       efiffx¿nfO{ cfjfh lbg ;Sg] eO;s]sf] 5 .               clg ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] kq÷klqsf jf /]l8of]
                                       t/ sd{rf/L÷kqsf/ egf{ ubf{ hftLo Pjd\                 :6]zgnfO{ /fhgLlts d~r dfGg 5f]8]sf]
     ;a}eGbf d"Nojfg\ ;DklQ xf]Ù h'g   n}+lus ljljwtfsf] plrt ;Gt'ng sfod ug{                v08df dfq g]kfnL ldl8of / nf]stGq
      ldl8of ;a}eGbf kTof/nfUbf] 5     o;n] cem} nfdf] af6f] l5rf]Ng af“sL g} 5 .            xft]dfnf] u/]/ cl3 a9\g ;S5g\ . lat]sf !%
     ToxL ;a}eGbf nf]slk|o x'g ;S5             cfly{ s ¿kdf /] l 8of] :6] ; gx¿              jif{ d f xfdLn] kf7 l;ls;s] s f 5f} + —
                                       cfTdlge{/ x'g h¿/L 5 / ltgnfO{ ldl8of                 ljZj;gLotf kqsf/sf] ;a}eGbf d"Nojfg\
        / To;}sf/0f cfly{s b[li6n]     Joj:yfkgsf] ;Nnfx rflxPsf] 5 . ltgdf                  ;DklQ xf], h'g ldl8of ;a}eGbf kTof/nfUbf]
              cfTdlge{/ klg .          Psflt/ k|;f/0f–;do eg{ ;d"x–ljz]ifn] s]Gb|df          5 ToxL ;a}eGbf nf]slk|o x'g ;S5 / To;}sf/0f
                                       tof/ kf/]sf sfo{qmd ahfpg] rng km}nb} uPsf]“          cfly{s b[li6n] cfTdlge{/ klg .
                                       5 eg] csf{lt/ /fhgLlts bn / Jofj;flos
                                       ‘:jfy{’x¿åf/f /]l8of] :6];g g} ‘sAhf’ ug{] k|jl[ Q    g]kfnL 6fOD; ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs
                                       klg a9\b} uPsf] 5 .                                   bLlIft OG6/ k|]; ;le{; -cfO{kLP;\_ sf] Pl;of–k|zfGt
                                               6]lnlehgsf ;d:of rflx“ a]Un} vfnsf            If]qLo lgb{]zs tyf kfgf]; OlG:6Ro'6 blIf0f Pl;ofsf
                                       5g\ h;n] Jofkf/Ls/0f / ;fj{hlgs k|;f/0fsf             lgb{]zs /lx;Sg'ePsf] 5 .



16                                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                  l6Kk0fL


kqsf/ / cfrf/;+lxtf

  /3'hL kGt            @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng ;kmn eP/ ‘g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&’ hf/L ePkl5 g]kfnL k|;n] aNn     ]
                                      "                                       ]
                       :jtGqtfsf] cg'elt ug{ kfPsf] lyof] . To;kl5 g]kfnL k|;n] :jtGqtfsf] ;fy;fy} cfkm\gf] lhDd]jf/Ltkm{ klg
                                 {
                       uDeL/tfk"js Wofg lbg yfNof], cfkm\gf] bfloTj / dof{bfsf] af/]df klg ;f]Rg yfNof] . ToxL sf/0fn] ubf{ ‘g]kfn
                       clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$&’ hf/L ePsf] Ps–b'O{ jif{kl5 g} kqsf/x¿aLr cfrf/;+lxtfsf] ljifo Jofks ¿kdf

p7\ o f] . k| ] ; sfplG;nn] 5' § } kqsf/           sfd lyof] . kqsfl/tfsf] d"No–dof{bf jf             ug]{ k|j[lQdf sdL cfp“b} uPsf] 5 . of] /fd|f]
cfrf/;+lxtf agfP/ hf/L u¥of] eg] g]kfn             g}ltstf;“u ltgnfO{ dtna lyPg .                     pknlAw xf] / v'zLsf] s'/f klg . t/, of]
kqsf/ ;+3 -xfn dxf;+3_ n] cfkm}+n] cfkm\gf]                 k~rfot Joj:yfdf /fhf / b/afl/ofx¿         ljsf; ;“u;“u} 7"nf ;~rf/u[xx¿n] cfkm\gf
nflu cfrf/;+lxtf hf/L u¥of] . tTsfnLg k|];         s'g} klg k|wfgdGqLnfO{ nf]slk|o, alnof] /          cGo Jofkfl/s :jfy{x¿ k"/f ug{s} nflu ;~rf/
sfplG;nn] g]kfn kqsf/ ;+3;“u s'g} 5nkmn                                 }
                                                   ljjfb/lxt x'g lb“bg lyP . Psflt/ :jo+ /fhfsf       dfWodx¿sf] b'¿kof]u ug]{ vt/f;“u klg
gu/L cfrf/;+lxtf hf/L u/]sf]n] To;a]nf s]xL        ;lrjx¿n] cfkm\g} Ozf/fdf ljleGg cvaf/              rgfvf] x'g' h¿/L 5 .
ljjfb klg pTkGg ePsf] lyof] .                      rnfp“y] eg] csf{lt/ k~rfot ;dy{s cvaf/
                                                   b/af/ / k~r g]tfx¿sf ljleGg u'6;“u                 pNnª\3g hf/L 5
Joj:yfnfO{ xf]Og JolQmnfO{ ufnL                    ;DalGwt x'Gy] . Psn] csf]{ u'6sf dflg;sf]          clxn] klg sltko cvaf/x¿ k9\bf kqsf/
k~rfot Joj:yfdf e|i6 / d08n]x¿sf] af]njfnf         dfgdb{g ug{, ltgnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg hyfefjL          cfrf/;+lxtf pNnª\3g eO/x]sf] kfOG5 .
lyof] eg] kqsfl/tfdf klg d08n]tGq rsf]{            n]Vg] pgLx¿sf] d'Vo sfd x'GYof] . of] k|j[lQ       ahf/df gb]lvg] ‘cb[Zo’ klqsfx¿ dfq} xf]Og
¿kdf b]vf kg]{ uYof]{ . o;n] ubf{ of] If]q g}lts   cToGt emfl·b} uof] / eg]sf] hlt lj1fkg,            kf7sx¿aLr nf] s lk| o /x] s f sltko
¿kn] sdhf]/, cfly{s Pj+ cGo g}lts dfdnfdf          k};f jf vf]h]sf] ;'ljwf gkfp“bf sd{rf/L,           klqsfx¿dfly ;d] t a] n favt JolQmut
ljjfbf:kb / nf]stflGqs dfGotfdfly k|xf/ ug]{       Jofkf/L, /fhgLlts g]tf / cGo ljleGg If]qsf         rl/qxTof u/]sf], afu]l{ gª u/]/ k};f lng] u/]sf],
                     ]
;fwg;d]t aGg k'usf] lyof] . To;a]nf g]kfnL         JolQmx¿sf lj¿4 ;dfrf/sf gfddf dgk/L,               rl/qxTof ug]{ u/]sf] / wDSofpg] u/]sf] h:tf
kqsfl/tf Joj:yf lj/f]wL / Joj:yf ;dy{sx¿           rl/qxTof ug{] p2]Zosf skf]nslNkt s'/fx¿            cf/f]kx¿ nfUg] u/]sf 5g\ .
aLr ljeflht lyof] . k~rfotlj/f]wL ljrf/ /          n]Vg] sfd Jofks x'g yfNof] . k~r dGqLx¿                     s]xL klqsfx¿df 5flkPsf sltko
;dfrf/ lbg] klqsfx¿ t'ngfTds ¿kdf                  cfkm\gf] dGqfnosf lj1fkg / b]lvg] gb]lvg]          ;dfrf/nfO{ /fd|/L k9\g] / ljZn]if0f ug]{ xf]
nf]slk|o, dof{lbt / lhDd]jf/ lyP . o:tf            ;|f]taf6 k};f pknAw u/fP/ cfkm\gf] k|ltåGåL        eg] Pp6f ;r]t kf7sn] ;dfrf/df lglxt
klqsfsf clwsf+ z ;Dkfbs cfly{ s /                  g]tf jf dGqLnfO{ tNnf]:t/df ufnLunf}h              k/:k/lj/f]wL s'/fx¿sf cfwf/df ;dfrf/ em"7f]
g}lts¿kdf :jR5 lyP eg] k]zfsf] d"No–dof{bf         ul/Psf s'/f ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf n]Vg k|fT;flxt ]         /x]sf] :jtM kQf nufpg ;S5 . JolQmsf]
/ lhDd]jf/L /Iffsf nflu lrlGtt / cfkm\g}           uy]{ . k~r kqsf/x¿sf] Pp6f 7"nf] hTyf              rl/qxTof ug]{ k|jl[ Q cem}+ g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf
9+un] lqmofzLn lyP . pgLx¿n] kqsfl/tfnfO{          /fhf / Joj:yfsf] ;dy{g u/]jfkt cfkm"nfO{           68\sf/f] b]lvG5 . ‘kmnfgfn] 6]/]g, To;nfO{
nf]stGq :yfkgfsf] cleofgsf ¿kdf lnPsf              P]g–sfg"geGbf dfly 7fGYof] / unt 9+un]             7f]Sg} k¥of]’ eg]/ ;dfrf/ n]Vg] k|j[lQ ;dfKt
lyP / /fHoaf6 af/Daf/ d'2f / h]n ;hfo              cfly{s pkfh{g uYyf]{ . ltgsf nflu kqsfl/tf                                  ]
                                                                                                      ePsf] 5}g . cfkm"n] n]vsf] ;dfrf/nfO{ cToGt}
ef]Ug'kbf{ klg cfkm\gf] nIok|lt k|lta4 /xGy] .     ANofsd]lnªsf] dfWod / 7luvfg] ef“8f] lyof] .       xn'sf 9+un] lng] / To;k|lt pQ/bfloTjsf]
          k~rfot Joj:yf jf /fhfsf ;dy{s                     of] k|jl[ Qn] cfqmfGt g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf   af]w gug]{ u}/lhDd]jf/ k|j[lQn] ubf{ kqsfl/tf
dflgg] cvaf/x¿ k~rfotsfndf klg nf]slk|o            ax'bnLo Joj:yfsf] k'g:yf{kgfkl5 Jofks ;'wf/        k]zfdf /x]sf /fd|f dflg;x¿n] ;d]t a]nfavt
lyPgg\ . ckjfb:j¿k s]xL jl/i7 ;Dkfbs /             b]vf k/]sf] 5 . 7"nf] nufgLdf b}lgs klqsfx¿        nlHht x'g'kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
kqsf/x¿nfO{ 5f]l8lbg] xf] eg] k~rfot               k|sflzt x'g yfNg', PkmPd /]l8of]x¿ a9\b}                    sltko b}lgs / ;fKtflxs klqsfdf
;dy{s clwsf+z klqsf / ltgsf ;Dkfbsx¿               hfg' / lghL If]qn] klg 6]lnlehgx¿ ;~rfng           sfd ug]{ >dhLjLx¿n] cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds ;d]t
/fhf / Joj:yfsf] ho ufp“b} sdfp wGbfdf             ug{ yfNg'n] kqsfl/tfsf] If]q kof{Kt lj:tf/                                        “}
                                                                                                      lgoldt ¿kdf kfpg ;s]sf x'bgg\ t/ k|sfzs
nfu]sf lyP . ax'bnjfbL kf6L{ / ltgsf               ePsf] 5 . cfkm\gf] k]zf / dof{bfk|lt ;r]t          / dflns–;Dkfbssf] cfly{s x}l;ot a9\b} uPsf]
g]tfx¿nfO{ hyfefjL ufnL ug',{ /fhfsf] Psf]xf]/f]   o'jf kqsf/x¿sf] 7"nf] ;ª\Vof olta]nf g]kfnL        x'G5, 3/sf] tnf ylk+b} u/]sf] x'G5 . klqsfsf]
tfl/km ug'{ / k~rfot Joj:yfsf] lj/f]w              kqsfl/tfdf lg0ff{os ¿kdf b]vf kg{ yfn]sf]                                     “}
                                                                                                      lx;fa–lstfa kf/bzL{ x'bg . klqsfsf] laqmL /
ug]{x¿nfO{ ;Qf];/fk ug'{ g} ltgLx¿sf] d'Vo         5 . o;n] ubf{ kqsfl/tfnfO{ unt 9+un] k|of]u        lj1fkgsf] cfDbfgLsf] cg'dfg ubf{ klqsf 6f6

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       17
klN6;s]h:tf] nfU5 t/ k|sfzs jf dflns                     k~rfotsfndf P]ltxfl;s               ug{ gx'g,] 3[0ff / pQ]hgf km}lng] u/L aLeT;
;Dkfbsx¿ df]6fO/x]s} x'G5g\ .                                                                b[Zo / t:jL/ k|sfzg ug{ gx'g,] 36gf;“u
         k~rfotsfndf dxŒjk"0f{ P]ltxfl;s              e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf klqsfx¿            c;DalGwt JolQmsf] gfd pNn]v ug{ gx'g,]
e"ldsf v]nsf cfkm\gf] ;dosf sltko nf]slk|o
             ]                                        ax'bnsfndf cfly{s ;d:ofsf              tYoxLg ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ug{ gx'g,] lj1fkgnfO{
klqsfx¿ ax'bnsfndf cfly{s ;d:ofsf sf/0f                   sf/0f aGb eP . ltgsf                                                       ]
                                                                                             ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ gx'g] / ;|ft pb\wt       [
g} aGb eP . ltgsf ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf]                                                        gu/L ;dfrf/ pkof]u ug{ gx'g] h:tf ljifodf
klqsfnfO{ cfly{s ;d:of 6fg{sf nflu a]7Ls              ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm\gf] klqsfnfO{          ;+lIfKt cjwf/0ff cl3 ;f/]/ ltgnfO{ kqsf/
9+ u n] k| o f] u u/] / pHofnf] Oltxf;nfO{              cfly{s ;d:of 6fg{sf nflu             tyf ;~rf/dfWodx¿n] ug{ gx'g] sfo{sf ¿kdf
wldNofpg'eGbf klqsf aGb ug'{ plrt 7fg] .                                                                        ]
                                                                                             lng'kg]{ ljrf/ k|; sfplG;nn] cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 .
t/ ahf/df gb]lvg] / laqmL cToGt} sd x'g]              a]7Ls 9+un] k|of]u u/]/ pHofnf]                  ug{'kg{] / ug{ gx'g] dfly plNnlvt
k~rfotsfnb]lvs} s]xL klqsfx¿ eg] lg/Gt/                  Oltxf;nfO{ wldNofpg'eGbf            s'/fx¿nfO{ /fd|f];“u sfof{Gjog ug]{ xf] eg]
k|sflzt eO/x]sf 5g\ . o:tf sltko klqsfsf                                                     g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] k|efj, ;f/ / ljZj;gLotf
;Dkfbsx¿ Jofkf/Lx¿sxf“, eG;f/, /fh:j /                 klqsf aGb ug'{ plrt 7fg] .            clxn]sf] eGbf w]/} /fd|f] x'g]5 . o; sfo{df
>d ljefult/ km]/f] dfg{ hfg] u5{g\ . pgLx¿                                                   k|]; sfplG;n g]kfn cfkm}+n] klg w]/} sfd ug{
ljleGg dGqfnosf e|i6 sd{rf/Lx¿;“u ldn]/                                                      af“sL 5 . k|]; sfplG;nnfO{ Pp6f ;lqmo /
ltgsf] :jfy{sf nflu k|fof]lht ;dfrf/;d]t                                                     cfkm\gf] If]qsf] lqmofzLn cflwsfl/s / alnof]
n]Vg] u5{g\ eGg] u'gf;f] kLl8tx¿af6 af/Daf/:jtGqtf c;Lldt 5 . of] :jtGqtfnfO{ ;b'kof]u       ;+ : yfsf ¿kdf :yflkt gu/] ; Dd o;n]
;'Gg] ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf] k|j[lQ sfod /x];Dd ug] { sfd kqsf/x¿n] ug' { k b{ 5 . o;sf]          cfrf/;+lxtf kfngf u/fpg] sfddf pNn]Vo
kqsfl/tf k]zfnfO{ k"0f{¿kn] ;Ddflgt agfpg  b' ¿ kof] u x' g yfNof] eg] :jfefljs¿kdf          e"ldsf v]Ng ;Sb}g . To:t} kqsf/x¿ :jo+
                                           :jtGqtfdfly k| Z g p7fpg] x ¿n] df} s f
cK7\of/f] x'G5 . cfkm\gf] k]zfdf ljBdfg /x]sf                                                cfkm}+ cfkm\gf] cfrf/;+lxtfsf] kfngfdf uDeL/
pR5[ª\vntf / u}/–lhDd]jf/ k|j[lQnfO{ x6fpg kfpF5g\ . To;}n] kqsf/x¿ :jo+ kqsf/               ePgg\ eg] k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnn] rfx]/ dfq}
:jo+ kqsf/x¿ g} cl3 ;g'{ cfjZos 5 .        cfrf/;+lxtfk|lt ;r]t x'g'kb{5 . o; ljifodf        klg cfrf/;+lxtf /fd|f];“u nfu" x'g ;Sb}g .
         k~rfotsfndf d08n] kqsf/x¿         kqsf/x¿aLr /fi6« J ofkL 5nkmn, ax;                                     ]                          }
                                                                                                       g]kfnL k|;n] cfkm\gf] cfTd;dLIff cfkm+n]
‘xfdLx¿nfO{ h] ug]{ / h] n]Vg] klg 5'6 5,  rNg'kb{5, k6sk6s rln/xg'k5{ .                     uDeL/¿kdf ug{ cfjZos 5 . xfdLsxf“ hlt
/fhf / Joj:yf hf]ufpg] xfdL g} xf}+’ eGb}            g] k fn kqsf/ dxf;+ 3 ;d] t sf]         cvaf/ 5flkG5g\ tLdWo] y'k}| ahf/df k'Ub}gg\,
sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ysf{pg] uy]{ . pgLx¿n] eg]                    ]
                                           ;xeflutfdf k|; sfplG;n g]kfnn] kqsf/x¿n]                                  ]
                                                                                             t/ ;"rgf ljefu / k|; sfplG;nsf] clen]vdf
h:tf] ug{ gdfGg] / P]g–lgodcg'¿k rNg vf]Hg]    {
                                           ug'kg{] / ug{ gx'g] d"ne"t s'/fx¿sf] juL{s/0f     lgoldt ¿kdf k|sflzt b]lvG5g\ . o:tf
kqsf/x¿nfO{ ‘Joj:yflj/f]wL n]lvlbg]’ wDsL  u/L ‘kqsf/ cfrf/;+lxtf, @)^)’ hf/L u/]sf]         lj;+ u ltx¿nfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} ;/sf/n]
                                           5 . t'ngfTds ¿kn] cfrf/;+lxtfk|lt ;hu
lbP/ t;f{pFy] . of] k|jl[ Qn] clxn] klg a]nfavt                                              cvaf/;DaGwL gLltx¿sf] k'gd"{Nof+sg ug'{ /
km/s¿kdf 6fpsf] p7fpg] ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .     x'g] s'/fdf s]xL ;sf/fTds nIf0f b]lvP klg         ;dofg's"n gof“ gLltx¿ lgdf{0f ug'{ cfjZos
                                           o;k|lt g]kfnL kqsfl/tf If]q cem} /fd|/L rgfvf]
o:tf] k|jl[ QnfO{ lj:yflkt ug]{ sfd cem} /fd|/L                                              5 . k~rfotn] /fhf / Joj:yf hf]ufpg cfkm\gf
x'g;s]sf] 5}g . :jo+ /fd|f kqsf/x¿ cfkm\gf]                   ]
                                           x'g;s]sf] 5}g . k|; sfplG;nn] klxn]sf] t'ngfdf    ;dy{s klqsf / kqsf/x¿nfO{ kfNg] u/]sf]
k]zfleqsf ‘g/fd|f’ kqsf/x¿;“u h'‰g tof/    o; ;DaGwdf cfkm\gf] ultljlw a9fP klg Tof]                                            ]
                                                                                             lyof], ltgsf nflu /fHosf] ;|ft / ;fwgsf]
b]lv+b}gg\ . c¿x¿sf ;dfrf/ vf]Hg]x¿,       cem} ckof{Kt 5 .                                  b'¿kof]u ug]{ uYof]{ . t/ cfh cj:yf km]l/Psf]
c¿sf ljs[lt s]nfpg]x¿ cfkm\g} k]zfleqsf              cfrf/;+lxtf cGtu{t k|]; :jtGqtfsf]      5 . /fHon] cgfjZos e]befj ug]{ / ljz]if
v/fa k|j[lQx¿ b]Vof gb]v]em}+ u5{g\ .      ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{g, dfgjclwsf/ / cGt/f{li6«o                               { “' }
                                                                                             ;+/If0f lbg] sfd ug'xbg . ax'bnLo /fhgLlts
         s' g } gful/sdfly em" 7 f] nf~5gf ;DaGwsf] ;Ddfg, ;"rgfsf] xssf] /Iff /             k|0ffnL / v'nf ;dfh cg'¿ksf gLltx¿ cl3
nufpg', s;}sf] JolQmut rl/qdfly cfwf/xLg                                   ]
                                           k|rng, ;TotYo ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|if0f, ;DkfbsLo         ;fg{'k5{ . /fHosf] lgoGq0f sd kfb}{ nfg'kb{5
                                           :jtGqtf, uf]kgLotfsf] xssf] ;Ddfg, pRr
cf/f]k nufpg' / cfkm\gf] :jfy{k"lt{ gul/lbPs}                                                / klqsfx¿sf] nf]slk|otf / :t/cg'¿k
cfwf/df s;}sf] dfgdb{g ug{ vf]Hg' kqsfl/tf Jofj;flos cEof;, lzi6 Jojxf/, uNtL                lj1fkg jf cGo ;| f ] t df kf/bzL{ 9+ u n]
xf]Og, ck/fw xf] . JolQmsf] :jtGqtf /      ;Rofpg] tTk/tf, ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj, cfk;L          pgLx¿sf] kx'Fr k'Ug lbg'kb{5 .
;Ddfgsf] /Iff ug'{ :jo+ kqsfl/tf k]zfsf]   ;DaGwh:tf ljifodf ;+lIfKt cjwf/0ff cl3                      cfly{ s kmfObfsf nflu kqsf/
klg Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ bfloTj xf] . t/ of]     ;f/] / k| ] ; sfplG;nn] tL cjwf/0ffnfO{           cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNn+3g ug]{ k|j[lQ ;dfrf/
                                       }   kqsf/x¿sf st{Josf ¿kdf lgjf{x ug{ hf]8
bfloTjaf]w cem} /fd|/L x'g;s]sf] b]lv+bg . ;';l" rt                                          dfWodsf] nufgL;“u klg hf]l8Psf] x'G5 .
x'g] / hfgsf/L kfpg] hlt clwsf/ 5 Tolt g}  lbPsf] 5 .                                        ltgsf] gLlt / Jojxf/ /fhgLlts bnx¿;“u
JolQmsf] uf]kgLotf / ;Ddfgsf] klg clwsf/ /           To:t}, /fli6«o cv08tfdf k|lts"n k|efj   ltgsf] ;DaGwaf6 klg lgwf{l/t eO/x]sf] x'G5 .
dxŒj x'G5 . gful/ssf] ul/df / ;Ddfgsf]     kfg{ gx'g,] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf k|lts"n c;/          o:tf y'k|} kIf / ljifo 5g\ h;nfO{ 5nkmnsf]
sb/ ug{ ghfGg] kqsf/n] cfkm\gf] ;Ddfg Pj+                                    ]
                                           kfg{ gx'g,] ;dfrf/sf] uf]Ko ;|ft vf]Ng gx'g,]     3]/fleq Nofpg'kb{5 . cfrf/;+lxtf Pp6f
ul/dfsf] klg /Iff / sb/ ug{ ;Sb}g .        lghL :jfy{kl" t{sf nflu ;"rgf k|of]u ug{ gx'g,]   Jofks cjwf/0ff xf], h;n] kqsf/x¿sf ljrf/
                                           e]befj x'g] u/L ;"rgfsf] ;Dk|i] f0f ug{ gx'g,]                                  {
                                                                                             / Jojxf/nfO{ ;d]t lgb]z ub{5 . o;sf] kfngf
:jtGqtfsf] ;b'kof]u cfjZos                 kLl8tnfO{ yk kL8f k'Ug] u/L ;"rgf ;Dk|i] f0f      / 5nkmn 5'§} ljifo xf]Ogg\ a¿ Pscsf{;“u
g] k fndf clxn] s f] ;+ l jwfg / sfg" g n] ug{ gx'g,] kLl8t JolQmsf] gfd, 7]ufgf k|sfzg      cleGg ¿kn] uf“l;Psf 5g\ . To;}n] o;af/]
;~rf/dfWodnfO{ k"0f{ :jtGqtf lbPsf] 5 . ug{ gx'g,] lx+;f, cft+s / ck/fwnfO{ k|fT;fxg]        /fli6«o ax;sf] cfjZostf 5 .

18                                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                          ]
                                                                                                                        k|; / cg'zf;g


cfrf/;+lxtf
s:tf] 5 c¿lt/sf] cEof; <
                                                                 ] \
          k|tLs k|wfg kmf]6f]kqsf/ dfs{ xn]eL cd]l/sfsf] df;fRo';6;af6 lgSng] O{un–l6«Ao'g klqsfsf nflu Ps 6fk'df
                                                                                   |
                              ;fd'lb|s 5fnsf] kmf]6f] lvRg uPsf lyP . ;f] jif{ ;d'bdf ^) jif{sf] cjlws} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] 5fn cfpg]
                              atfOPsf] lyof] . ToxF“ pgn] Pp6L dlxnf b]v] hf] ;d'b|sf] lsgf/f glhs} a;]/ s]xL ub}{ lyOg\ . pgnfO{
                              kmf]6f]df ;d]6bf 5fnsf] cfsf/sf] cfsng ug{ d2t k'Ug] ePsfn] tL dlxnfnfO{ k|mddf /fv]/ dfs{ Ps kl5
                                            \                                                             ]

csf]{ tl:a/ lvRb}lyP . crfgs Pp6f 7"nf]          kfngf ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf klxn] c¿nfO{                af“sL kf7sx¿ ;f/} ?i6 b]lvP . Pshgf kf7sn]
5fn cfof] / tL dlxnfnfO{ ;f] x f] / ] /          arfpg] eGg] xf] . g]kfnsf] clxn]sf] cj:yfdf        t s];Dd eg] eg], ‘s] of] kmf]6f] 5fKg] ;+kfbs
nUof] .dlxnfn] cfkm\gf] k|f0f arfpgsf nflu       eGg] xf] eg] t Jofj;flos wd{sf] kfngf ug]{         clkm;df n'uf nufP/ cfp“5g\ <’ csf{sf] egfO
d2t dfUb} ubf{sf] kmf]6f] dfs{n] lvRg EofP .     sf]lzz ug'{k5{ eGg'knf{ lsgeg] g]kfnL              lyof], ‘pgLx¿n] kfl/jfl/s klqsfdf To:tf] kmf]6f]
kmf]6f] lvRbflvRb} dfs{n] klg d2tsf nflu         kqsfl/tf cem} To:tf] Jofj;flostfdf k'usf]   ]      5fk]/ d]/L gf} jifL{of 5f]/LNffO{ gUg dfG5] s:tf]
nfOkmuf8{x¿nfO{ u'xf/] . dlxnfnfO{ arfpg         5}g hxf“ kqsf/n] dfgjLo wd{nfO{ g} ltnf+hln        x'G5 eg]/ yfxf lbP, ca d Tof] klqsf slxNo}
s]xL JolQm cfP klg, t/ ltgsf] k|of; ;kmn         lbP/, dg{ nfu]sf] dfG5]nfO{ garfO{ cfkm\gf]        lslGbg“ .’ o:tf k|ltlqmof ;'g]kl5 klqsfsf
ePg . dlxnfnfO{ kfgLsf] e]nn] n'sfp“b}           Joj;fo u¿g\ . t/ Jofj;flos k|lt:kwf{ lgs}                      {
                                                                                                    k|aGw lgb]zs /g l:k/n] km]l/ To:t} vfnsf]
nUof] . tLg 3G6fkl5 csf]{ 7"nf] 5fnn] ltgsf]     rsf{] /x]sf] klZrdsf kqsf/nfO{ eg] dfgjLo          kmf]6f] cfof] eg] g5fKg] lg0f{o u/] .
lghL{j z/L/ lsgf/f nufOlbof] .                   x'g l;sfpg'kg]{ cj:yf 5 .
          Tof] kmf]6f] klqsfdf 5fKg 7Ls ls                 hxf“;Dd k]zfut dof{bf / ;+jbgzLntfsf]
                                                                                       ]            klZrddf cfrf/;+lxtf
a]7Ls eg]/ Go'h?ddf 7"n} ljjfb eof] .            k|Zg 5, kmf]6f]sf] k|of]udf xfd|f] kqsfl/tfn]      xfdL cem} cfrf/;+lxtfsf k|f/lDes s'/fx¿
hgtfn] ef] l n s] eG5g\ < lsg Tof]               cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNn+3g u/]sf 36gfx¿sf] nfd}         nfu" ug{d} clNem/x]sf 5f}+ . s'g} klg ;dfrf/
kmf]6f]kqsf/n] dlxnfnfO{ arfpg 5f8]/ clGtd       km]xl/:t tof/ x'G5 . hLp l5of–l5of ePsf            ;se/ ;|f]t pNn]v gu/L g5fKg", Pp6f ;|f]tn]
;do;Dd kmf]6f] lvlr/x\of] < s] xf] kqsf/sf]      nfzsf tl:a/, c·e· ePsf b[Zox¿ / kf7ssf]                        “}
                                                                                                    eg]/ dfq x'bg sDtLdf b'O{ jf ;f] eGbf a9L
wd{ < s]] dfgjLo wd{ Jofj;flos wd{eGbf           dg g} ljrlnt x'g] vfnsf lrqx¿ klg xfdL                ]     '
                                                                                                    ;|ft x'gkb{5, cflwsfl/tfsf] nflu sd;]sd
                                '       “}
7"nf] xf]Og < of] kmf]6f] 5fKg'xG5 ls x'bg <     ;lhn} 5flk/x]sf 5f}+ . gUgtf slt;Dd lbg] eGg]      Pp6f sfuhL k|df0f klg x'g'kb{5, Pp6f
          cGTodf ;Dkfbsx¿n] kmf]6f] 5fKg]        s'/fdf klg xfd|f ;Dkfbsx¿n] vf;} 5\ofgAofg         JolQmsf] ljifodf n]Vbf To;sf glhssf
lg0f{ o u/] lsgeg] pQm ;dodf Toxf“               u/]sf] b]lv“bg .
                                                               }                                    JolQmx¿sf] ab\gfd ug'{ x'Gg eGg] h:tf
kmf]6f]kqsf/ dfq lyPg . tL dlxnfnfO{ arfpg                 gUgtfsf] ;Gbe{df cd]l/sfsf] Pp6f csf]{   cfrf/;+lxtfsf clt ;fwf/0f s'/fx¿ klg
;Ifd cGo JolQmx¿ / nfOkmuf8{ ;d]t                /dfOnf] pbfx/0f 5 . b elh{lgof–kfOn6 tyf           xfdLn] nfu" ug{ ;s]sf 5}gf}+ . To;}n] hlxn]
kmf]6f]kqsf/eGbf pgsf] glhs} lyP . pQm           b n]h/–:6f/n] leqL k[i7df 7"n} cfsf/df o:tf]       klg gof“ ;/sf/ cfpg] lalQs} xfd|f ;fwf/0f
kmf]6f] w]/} glhsaf6 lvr]sf] h:tf] b]lvGYof] .   kmf]6f] 5fKof] h;df Pp6f gf+uf] dfG5] cfk\mgf]     uNtLx¿ cf} + N ofP/ ;/sf/sf tkm{ a f6
To;}n] ;Dkfbsx¿n] ;f] kmf]6f] 6]lnn]G; nufP/     cf“ugsf] 3f“; sfl6/x]sf] lyof] . Tof] kmf]6f]df    cfrf/;+lxtf nufpg] s'/f p7\g yfN5 .
sl/a %) lkm6 6f9faf6 lvlrPsf] xf] eg]/                                               ]
                                                 gUgtf :ki6 b]lvGYof] oBlk ;+jbgzLn c+u                      Jofj;flos kqsfl/tfsf] @)) jif{
;d]t :ki6 kf/] . t/ tL kmf]6f]kqsf/nfO{ eg]      b]lvPsf] lyPg . kmf]6f]n] cToGt} gsf/fTds          eGbf a9L cg'ej xfl;n ul/;s]sf klZrdf
;w}“ Pp6f s'/fn] lrdf]l6/x\of], lsg pgn] tL      k|ltlqmof lgDTofof] . ^) hgfeGbf a9L kf7sn]             '
                                                                                                    d'nsdf o:tf ljifox¿df ljjfb lgs} sd x'g
dlxnfnfO{ klxNo} Toxf“af6 x6\g eg]gg\ jf         Tof] kmf]6f]n] ;fdflhs dof{bf s'Nr]sf] atfp“b}     yfn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] pgLx¿nfO{ cfrf/;+lxtf
8'Ag nfUbf arfpg uPgg\ .                         ;Dkfbsk|lt /f]if k|s6 u/] . of] k|ltlqmof slt      nufpg] s'/f klg ub}{g / To:tf] ;f]Rg] w[i6tf
          of] 36gfsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] g}lts k|Zg   ;f“rf] xf] eGg] kQf nufpg ;f] klqsfn] $#^!         klg ub}{g . s'g} klg gfd rn]sf] ;+:yfn] hlxn]
eg]sf] ;dfrf/ ;+sng ug]{ qmddf kqsf/n]                                 {                 {
                                                 hgf kf7sx¿df ;j]If0f u¥of] . ;j]If0fdf ^%          klg k|]; sfplG;n, kqsf/ ;+3, ;Dkfbs ;+3
sf]/f Jofj;flos dfq x'g] ls dfgjLo wd{sf]        k|ltzt kf7sn] ;f] kmf]6f]nfO{ 7Ls} xf] eg] klg     jf To:t} cGo ;+:yfn] agfPsf] cfrf/;+lxtfeGbf

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                     19
   o'/f]ksf] clt ;d[4 b]z 8]gdfs{ klg s]xL cl3;Dd cfrf/;+lxtfdf xfn xfdLn] ef]lu/x]sf] kl/l:yltd}} ?dlNnO/x]sf]
    lyof] . t/ Toxf“sf] Ps b}lgsn] ;g\ !(*( df cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/]/ cfkm\gf kqsf/sf] e|d0fsf] vr{
     ;+:yfn] g} Aoxf]g]{ lgod agfof] . e|d0fdf n}hfg] ;+:yf;“u vr{sf] ljj/0f dfu u/]/ ;+:yfn] ;f] /sd ltl/lbg] /
                                                         +
                     ;+:yfn] ljj/0f gk7fP klqsf cfkm}n] vr{ cfsng u/]/ k7fOlbg] Joj:yf u¥of] .

Ps sbd cufl8 a9] / cfkm\ g f] ;+ : yfsf]
cfrf/;+lxtf :jod\ lgdf{0f ub{5 .
         pbfx/0fsf nflu, b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf]
cfrf/;+lxtfnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . ;+o'Qm /fHo
cd]l/sfdf k|];sf] cfrf/;+lxtfdf sfd ug]{
bh{gf}+ ;+:yfx¿ 5g\ . ;fy} cfO{ Pkm h], ;L
kL h] cflb cGt/f{li6«o kqsf/ ;+u7gx¿n]
klg cf–cfk\mg} lsl;dsf cfrf/;+lxtfx¿ nfu"
u/]sf 5g\ . t/ b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;n] s;}sf]
cfrf/;+lxtf dfGb}g . p;n] dfGg'kg]{ h?/t
klg 5}g lsgeg] p;sf] cfk\mg} ;+:yfsf]
cfrf/;+lxtf ;a}eGbf s8f 5 . @@ k]h nfdf]
pQm cfrf/;+ l xtfdf p;n] cfk\ m gf
sd{rf/Lx¿n] x/]s ljifodf s] s:tf] Jojxf/
ug'{k5{ eg]/ :ki6 n]v]sf] 5 . sl/a To:t}
cj:yf 5 la|6]gsf] k|Voft aLaL;L /]l8of] /
6LeLsf] . p;sf] cfrf/;+lxtf sl/a @))
k[i7sf] 5 h;nfO{ k|To]s sd{rf/Ln] Wofgk"j{s
k9]/ To;sf] kfngf ug'{kb{5 . kqsfl/tfdf
cGt/f{ l i6« o Voflt sdfPsf k| h ftflGqs
d'n'sx¿df ;a}lt/ o:t} cj:yf 5 .
         cfrf/;+lxtf / kqsfl/tfsf] s'/f ubf{
8]gdfs{sf] kqsfl/tfnfO{ klg Pp6f /fd|f]
pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . o'/f]ksf] of]
clt ;d[ 4 b] z Ps bzs cl3;Dd
cfrf/;+lxtfdf xfn xfdLn] ef]lu/x]sf] kl/l:ylt
/ 5nkmn ul//x]sf ljifod} ?dlNnO/x]sf]
lyof] . Toxf“ klg s'g} sDkgLn] k|mfG;df zfvf
vf]Nof] eg] To;sf] /fd|f] ;dfrf/ cfcf];\ eg]/
kqsf/nfO{ Kn]gdf /fv]/ n}hfg], s'g} 6«fen
Ph]G;Ln] gof“ ko{6sLo If]qsf] k|rf/k|;f/
ug'{k¥of] eg] kqsf/nfO{ l;Q}“df 3'dfpg], s'g}
df]6/ sDkgLn] cfk\mgf] df]6/sf] k|rf/ ug'{k¥of]
                      “
eg] kqsf/nfO{ l;Q}df 6]i6 8«fOedf n}hfg]
h:tf k|rng ;fdfGo lyP . t/ anL{·:s]
      ]
6fO{8G8] eGg] b}lgsn] ;g\ !(*( df cfk\mgf]
cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/]/ cfkm\gf kqsf/sf]
e|d0fsf] vr{ ;+:yfn] g} Aoxf]g{] lgod agfof] .
e|d0fdf n}hfg] ;+:yf;“u vr{sf] ljj/0f dfu
u/]/ ;+:yfn] ;f] /sd ltl/lbg] / ;+:yfn] ljj/0f


20                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
    kqsf/ / e|i6frf/
lkmlnlkG; ;]G6/ km/ OGe]l:6u]l6e hgf{lnHd
-kL;LcfOh]_ n] ‘ldl8of / e|i6frf/’
                                   {
ljifodf ;g\ !((* df u/]sf] Pp6f ;j]If0fn]
o:tf] kl/0ffd b]vfPsf] lyof] —
      {
   ;j]If0fdf ;d]l6Psf !)) hgf kqsf/dWo]
   &! hgfn] ;dfrf/ vf]Hg] qmddf ;dfrf/
                  ]                          ]
   jf ;"rgfsf] ;|ftn] cfkm"nfO{ k};f lbg vf]hsf]
   atfP . tLdWo] PsltxfO{n] k};f lnPsf]
   s'/f xfsfxfsL :jLsf/ u/] . To;/L k};f
   lng]dWo]sf !! hgfn] rflx“ Tof] k};f
   ;DkfbsnfO{ ;'lDkPsf] atfP eg] af“sLn]
   cfkm\g} vNtLdf /fv]sf] .
   æTo;/L k};f lng'x'G5 t <Æ k};f lng]x¿
                             {
   dWo]sf ax';ª\Vos l/kf]6/sf] hjfkm lyof]—
   æs'g} zt{ g/fvL / gdflusg lbPsf]
   x'gfn] lng cfklQ ePg .Æ yf]/}n] ælbPsf]
   k};f gln“bf ;|f]t l/;fpnf eg]/ lnPsf]Æ
   hjfkm lbP . ædnfO{ k};f rflxPsf] lyof]Æ,
   cyjf æc¿ ;a}n] lnG5g\, d lsg glng]
   eGg] nfu]/ lnPsf]Æ hjfkm lbg]x¿df cfkm"n]
   uNtL u/]sf] cfef; kfO“b}gYof] .                 vfPsf] sf/0f ;dfrf/sf] k|:t'ltdf s'g}     ‘Oge]nf]Kd]G6n’ -vfdaGbL_ kqsfl/tf /
   kTofpg cK7\of/f] nfu] klg ;|f]t;“u k};f         c;/ kg]{ gu/]sf]’ atfP .                  ‘c6\ofs–sn]S6–l8km]G8–sn]S6 -P;L8L;L_
   vfg] x/]s !) dWo] * hgf kqsf/n] ‘k};f           of] l/kf]6{ ;fj{hlgs ePsf] nuQ} ;Qf;Lg    cyf{t\ ‘uf]b–k};f n]pm, arfpm–k};f n]pm’
                                                   bnsf] tkm{af6 Ps l;g]6/n] kqsf/nfO{       kqsfl/tfsf] Jofkstf 5 .
                                                   s7f]/ cfrf/;+lxtfdf af“Wg' h?/L ePsf]     ;g\ !((* sf] /fi6«klt–r'gfjdf s]xL /]l8of]
                                                         “
                                                   ts{;u} lkmlnlkG;sf] ;+;bdf ljw]os btf{    :6]zgn] ‘;sf/fTds dfq} ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f
                                                   u/fP . To; ljw]ossf] Pp6f jfSo lyof]      ug{’ pDd]bjf/x¿;fd' @ s/f]8 k]zf]
                                                   –æ-kqsf/x¿_ ;~rf/dfWodsf] lgi7f           -sl/a ?=% s/f]8_ sf] Kofs]h k|:tfj cl3
                                                   cyjf ;/sf/L sfo{ – k| l qmofnfO{ e| i 6   ;f/]sf lyP .
                                                   t'Nofpg] vfnsf s'g} klg lqmofsnfkdf       s]xL nf]slk|o ‘6]ANjfO8’ sf ;Dkfbsx¿n]
                                                   ;+nUg x'g] 5}gg\ . Æ                                             ]
                                                                                             rflx“ pDd]bjf/sf] k|; jQmJo jf ;sf/fTds
                                                                                             ;dfrf/ 5fKg k|lt ;dfrf/sf] lx;fan]
                                                   kL;LcfO{h]s} Pp6f k|sfzg ‘Go"h km/ ;]n’   b/–/]6 g} tf]lslbPsf lyP .
                                                   df ldl8ofn] ug]{ y/Ly/Lsf e|i6frf/sf]     w] / } h ;f] ‘6] A NjfO8’ n] rflx“ ;Da4
                                                   pbfx/0f k]z ul/Psf] 5 . h:tf] M           pDd]b\jf/n] cfkm\gf] ;dfrf/ jf jQmJo
                                                                                             5flkPsf] c+s #),))) b]lv %),))) k|lt
                                                   lkmlnlkG;sf l/kf]6{/÷kqsf/nfO{ lbOg]      lsGg'kg]{ lgod a;fPsf lyP .
                                                   /sd -3";_ ;Lw} ltgsf] P6LPddf hDdf                         — ‘ldl8of OlyS; Pg Pl;of’
                                                   ul/lbOG5 .                                                             gfds k':tsaf6

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                       21
k|;+ujz

     !) jif{ a]nfotsf] k|wfgdGqL eP/ /flhgfdf lbPsf 6f]gL An]o/n] a]nfotsf klqsfx¿nfO{ ;Lwf ;dfrf/ l/kf]l6{ª
          gug]{ / Psbd gf6sLo 9·df ;dfrf/ kl:sg] dfWod eg]/ 7"nf] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ . ;dfrf/kqx¿
                      ;dfrf/k|wfg geP/ ljrf/k|wfg cyf{t\ ljrf/kq ePsf] klg pgsf] cf/f]k 5 .


gk7fP klqsf cfkm}+n] vr{ cfsng u/]/              /fhb"tsL >LdtL Eofn]? O{lnh Knfd] ;LcfO{PsL        Tof] Joª\UonfO{ cfrf/;+lxtfsf] pNnª\3gsf]
k7fOlbg] Joj:yf u¥of] .                          uf]Ko Ph]G6 ePsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ pgsf >Ldfg\n]       ¿kdf JofVof u/]sf 5g\ .
        of] ;+:yfn] lnPsf] lg0f{on] Toxf“sf]     O/fsn] /f;folgs xltof/ k|fKt u/]sf] 5 ls                      ;g\ @))& sf] h'nfO{ dlxgfdf, !) jif{
kqsfl/tfdf 7"n} kl/jt{g NofOlbof] . ;a}n]        5}g eGg] ljifosf] Ps ld;gdf hfg kfPsf]             a]nfotsf] k|wfgdGqL eP/ /flhgfdf lbPsf 6f]gL
qmdzM cf–cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf agfP / pQm         pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm ld;gsf] l/kf]6{df        An]o/n] a]nfotsf klqsfx¿nfO{ ;Lwf ;dfrf/
b}lgss} af6f]df nfu]/ kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;df        O/fs;“u /f;folgs xltof/ 5}g eGg] pNn]v             l/kf]l6{ª gug]{ / Psbd gf6sLo 9·df ;dfrf/
Pp6f gof“ cWofo yk] .                            ePsf] s'/f klg /f]a6{ gf]efsn] Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf]   kl:sg] dfWod eg]/ 7"nf] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ .
                                                 cfkm\gf] :tDedf n]v]sf lyP . o; ljifonfO{          ;dfrf/kqx¿ ;dfrf/k|wfg geP/ ljrf/k|wfg
/fli6«o ;'/Iff / cfrf/;+lxtf                     ;/sf/n] /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] d'2f agfP/ 6fOd /        cyf{t\ ljrf/kq ePsf] klg pgsf] cf/f]k 5 .
;dfhsf] kl/jt{gsf qmddf gof“ gof“ ljifo jf       Go'of]s{ 6fOD;sf kqsf/x¿nfO{ cbfnt k'¥ofof]        clxn] a]nfotsf] kqsfl/tfdf of] cf/f]kn] 7"nf]
k|jl[ Q b]vf kb{} hfG5g\ / ltgnfO{ kqsfl/tfn]          ]
                                                 / ;|ftsf] gfd geg]sf] cf/f]kdf h]n ;hfo            xnrn dRrfPsf] 5 . cfhsf] ljZjdf hxf“
s;/L x]g]{ / ;dfhnfO{ s] lbzf lbg] eGg]          ;d] t u¥of] . kl5 ;| f ] t x¿ cfkm} + n ] tL       On]S6«fl] gs dfWodx¿n] t'?Gt} ;dfrf/ ;Dk|i] f0f
ljifodf gof“ gof“ ljjfb cfp“b} hfG5g\ . h:tf]    kqsf/x¿nfO{ cfk\mgf] gfd eGg :jLs[lt lbPkl5        u5{g\ Toxf“ kqsfl/tfn] ljrf/df hfg x'g] ls
;g\ @))! ;]K6]Da/ !! sf lbg cd]l/sfdf            pgLx¿ h]nd'Qm ePsf lyP .                           gx'g] eGg] ljifodf ax; rNg yfn]sf] 5 .
lag nfb]gsf] cn–sfobf ;d"xn] u/]sf] cfqmd0f
kl5 kqsf/ / ;/sf/sf] ;DaGwsf ljifodf             ;dfh / cfrf/;+lxtf                                 ;a}n] ;w+} Wofg lbg] ljifo
7"nf] ljjfb pAHof] . /IffdGqL sf]G8flnhf         ;fdflhs cfrf/;+ l xtf / kqsf/sf]                   t/ s]xL To:tf ljifox¿ klg 5g\ h;df ;+;f/sf
/fO;n] kqsf/x¿nfO{ /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] k|Zg        cfrf/;+lxtfsf] w]/} glhssf] ;DaGw x'G5 .           ;a} kqsf/x¿n] ;w}+ ;hutf ckgfpg'kb{5 .
p7fp“b} lag nfb]gn] af]nsf s'/fx¿ ;Dk"0f{
                             ]                   h'g s'/fdf ;dfhdf rsf]{ ax; rn]sf] x'G5                             ]                     ]
                                                                                                    h:tf] unt ;|ft;“u aRg', cfk\mgf] ;|ftsf] unt
¿kdf 5fKg / k|;f/0f ug{ /f]s nufOg\ .            ;f] s'/fsf] kIf jf ljkIfdf snd rnfpg               dfu;“ u ;Demf} t f gug' { , ;lhn} pknAw
pgsf] egfO æcft°sf/Lx¿n] cfkm\ g f]              klZrdf kqsfl/tfdf klg lgs} cK7]/f] g} x'G5 .                                      ]
                                                                                                    ;dfrf/sf] nflu uf]Ko ;|ftsf] pkof]u gug',{
jQmJoleq}af6 cfk\mgf sfo{stf{nfO{ ;Gb]z lbg      h:tf] ue{ktg, hgfj/sf] clwsf/, d[To'b08sf]                       ]
                                                                                                    cfk\mgf] ;|ftnfO{ grflxFbf] tl/sfn] garfpg' cflb .
;S5g\Æ eGg] lyof] .                              ;hfo, kl/jf/ lgof]hgsf s[lqd ;fwgsf] k|of]u,       To:t}, s'g} k'ln;n] vf]lh/x]sf] ck/fwLsf] cGtjf{tf{
          kqsf/n] slt ;/sf/sf] s'/f ;'Gg] /      o'yfgl;of cyf{t\ bofk"0f{ xTof, dlxnfsf] of]lg     k'ln;nfO{ yfxf glbO{ 5fKg] jf g5fKg] < ;Dk"0f{
slt cfk\mgf] cfrf/;+lxtf dfGg] eGg] ljifosf]     5]bg, k'?ifsf] ln· 5]bg, ;fdflhs k|lti7f                       ]
                                                                                                    ¿kdf ;|ft gv'nfOPsf] ;dfrf/ af}l4s ;DklQsf]
ljjfb pQm 36gfkl5 z'? ePsf] eg] kSs}             hf]ufpg ul/g] xTof, ;dln·L ;DaGw / ljjfx,          rf]/L xf] ls xf]Og < hgtfn] >4f ug]{ JolQm -
xf]Og . zLto'4tfsf b jflz·6g kf]i6 klqsfn]       3/]n' gf]s/ / bf; k|yf, cfk\mgf] b]z n8fO“df       wfld{s g]tf, u'? cflb_ sf] JolQmut ljifodf
                  |
cd]l/sfn] ;d'bdf b"/;+rf/sf nflu la5\ofOg]       ePsf] a]nfsf] cj:yf cflbaf/] ;+;f/el/sf            slt ;dfrf/ 5fKg] < cfkm"n] s'g} ljifodf ljrf/
tf/df ¿;L kg8'AaLsf] cfjfh ;'Gg ;lsg] uf]Ko      kqsf/x¿ v'n]/ snd rnfpg ws dfGb5g\ .               n]lv;s]sf] 5 eg] ;f]xL ljifodf ;dfrf/ n]Vg]
oGq h8fg u/]sf] s'/f kQf nufPsf] lyof] .                 klZrdf ;dfhdf oL / o:tf                    ls gn]Vg] < s'g} ck/fwLsf gft]bf/x¿sf] gfd
p;n] ;f] ;dfrf/ /fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] sf/0fn]        ljifox¿af/] ;w}+ ljjfb rNb} cfO/x]sf] 5 t/         ;fj{hlgs ug{] ls gug{] < ;dfrf/sf] uf]Ko ;|ft   ]
5fk]g . t/ kl5 ?;n] ;f] s'/f kQf] kfof] /        wfld{s Pjd\ ;fdflhs dfGotf / /Lltl/jfhnfO{                            '             ]
                                                                                                    kqsf/n] vf]Ng'xGg, t/ ;f] ;|ftn] lbPsf] ;dfrf/
cd]l/sfsf] Ps k|sf/n] a]OHhtL eof] . kf]i6n]     r6Ss} la;]{/ hfg ;Sg] cj:yf pgLx¿sf] klg                                                    ]
                                                                                                    Psbd} em"7f] k|dfl0ft eof] eg] pQm ;|ftsf] gfd
kl5Nnf] ;dfrf/ 5fKg vf]Hbf klg /Iff dGqfnon]     5}g . ;g\ @))% ;]K6]Da/df 8]gdfs{sf] Pp6f          vf]Ng] ls gvf]Ng] <
/fli6«o ;'/Iffsf] sf/0f b]vfP/ /f]Sg vf]Hof] .   klqsfn] Ps d'l:nd Odfdsf] ku/LnfO{ adsf]                     o:tf w] / } ljifox¿ 5g\ h;af/]
æxfdLn] ;f] ;dfrf/ 5fKof+} / ef]lnkN6 s'g}       ¿kdf lrlqt ubf{ ;+;f/el/sf d'l:nd ;d'bfon]         uDeL/tf ;fy 5nkmn tyf dgg ug{ / To;sf]
k|no ePg, ;"o{ ;bfem}+ k"jaf6 pbfof],Æ kf]i6sf
                           {                     cg]s 7fpFdf lx+;|s k|bz{g u/] h;df bh{gf}+sf]      lgisif{ cfkm\gf dfWoddf sfof{Gjog ug{ xfd|f
tTsfnLg sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs a]g a|f8nLn] eg] .       Hofg uof] . of] 36gfn] kqsfl/tfsf] :jtGqtfdf       kqklqsf, kqsf/ / ;Dk"0f{ ;+rf/dfWodx¿
          /fi6«klt a'zsf] O/fs gLltsf] lj/f]w
                     '                           7"nf] k|ZglrGx nufOlbPsf] 5 . 8]gdfs{              ;w}+ tof/ /xg' kb{5 . cGoyf kqsf/ / km6fxf
ub} cd]l/sL klqsfx¿n] Ps ;g;gL vf]h              ;/sf/ / klqsfn] ;f] Joª\Uolrqsf nflu               s'/f km}nfP/ cfkm\gf] :jfy{ l;4 ug]{ ufpF3/sf]
;dfrf/ 5fk] . To;df Pshgf e"tk"j{ cd]l/sL        Ifdfofrgf gu/] klg w]/} kqsf/x¿n] :jo+             rDa' JolQmsf] aLrdf s]xL km/s /xg] 5}g .

22                                                                                                                                     df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                       ]
                                                                                                                             cd]l/sL k|;



PstkmL{ ax;sf]
vt/f
          SnFs{ xF]P6 b Go'of]s{ 6fOD; sf] ;DkfbsLo k[i7 O/fs o'4b]lv ue{ktg / ljZj tfkqmddf eO/x]sf] j[l4;Ddsf jt{dfg
                               ;dosf hNbfaNbf ljifodfly ax; x'g] b]zsf] ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ d~r xf] eg] x'G5 . ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/

                            ]
k[i7sf ;Dkfbs PG8«o' /f];Gyn eG5g\, æxfdL
;w}F To:tf ljrf/sf] vf]hLdf x'G5f}+ h;n]
dflg;nfO{ /GyGofOlbpmg\ . To:tf ljrf/, h;n]
      +             ]
tkfO{n] klxn] ;f]rsf s'/f Tolt /f]rs xf]Ogg\
eGg] :ki6 kf¿g\ .Æ
      t/, sltko ljrf/ a9L g} pQ]hs x'G5g\ .
ut ;ftf / uPsf] dlxgfsf b'O{ cltly n]vssf
ljrf/n] ;f] r ] e Gbf a9L kf7ssf] lj/f] w
lgDTofpg'sf ;fy} dxŒjk"0f{ k|Zg ;d]t p7fPsf
5g\ . s] s'g} ;d"x jf ljifo Tolt 3[0ff:kb
5g\ h;nfO{ ljrf/ k[i7df :yfg g} lbOg'xbg <“' }
olb 6fOD; n] s'g} ljifodf ljjfbf:kb ljrf/
k|sflzt u5{ eg] To;;DaGwL csf]{ kf6f]sf]
b[li6sf]0f;“u kf7snfO{ t'?Gt} cjut u/fpg'
o;sf] bfloTj xf] ls xf]Og < clg, ljrf/
k[ i 7sf n] v sx¿n] tYox¿;“ u v] n af8
ul//x] s f 5} g g\ eGg] ;' l glZrt ug{
;Dkfbsx¿sf] bfloTj s] xf] <
      ut ;ftf -!# h"g @))&_ 5flkPsf] n]v
                        [
Kofn]l:6gL ;/sf/sf] g]tTj ug{ lgjf{lrt ePsf]
/ Oh/fonsf] cl:tTj d]6fpg] p2]Zo af]s]sf]
xdf; kf6L{sf k|jQmf cxdb o';]kmsf] lyof] .
pgn] ‘xdf; s] rfxG5 <’ eGg] af/]df n]vsf       ]
lyP .
      To;k|lt y'k|} kf7sn] s8f /f]if JoQm u/] .                                      '
                                                         ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf k|dv OGrfh{            jftfj/0f agfpg] / cfk;L dte]bsf] cGTo
pgLx¿n] 6fOD; dfly cft+sjfbLnfO{ d~r                                    ]
                                                   8]le8 lzKn], hf] /f];Gynsf ;xfos klg x'g,\         ug]{’ pgn] atfPsf lyP . o';]kmn] pNn]v
k| b fg u/] s f] cf/f] k ;d] t nufP .              eG5g\, æxdf;n] ufhfdfly sAhf u/]sf] 36gf           gu/]sf] s'/f rflx“ s] dfq lyof] eg] ‘Kofn]l:6gsf]
Dof:ofRo';]6\;sf kf7s hf]g k]g;fssf] egfO          ;ftfsf k|dv ;dfrf/dWo] Ps lyof]=== / xdf;
                                                               '                                      k|To]s OGr hldgdf cNnfxsf] /fHo :yfkgf
lyof], 6fOD; n] o';]kmnfO{ :yfg lbg' eg]sf]        s] eG5 eGg] s'/f ;'Gg] of] -o';]kmsf] n]v_         ug]’{ p2]Zok|lt xdf; cf}krfl/s Pj+ 3f]lift
;Gt'lnt kqsfl/tf xf]Og a? k}/jL–kqsfl/tfsf]        /fd|f] cj;/ lyof] .Æ                               ¿kd} ;dlk{t 5, h;sf] cy{ x'G5 Oh/fonsf]
efjgfcg'¿k k|f]kf]uG8fnfO{ a9fjf lbg' xf] .              d}n] ;dfrf/af6 xdf;af/] h] a'em] sf] lyP“,   ;dflKt .
      æ7Ls xf], ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf] sfd         o';]kmn] k|:t't u/]sf] jf:tljstf To;eGbf                 ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7 vf;u/L ljjfbf:kb
g} ljleGg ljrf/nfO{ a9fjf lbg' xf],Æ /f];Gyn]      lgtfGt km/s eP klg, pgsf] ljrf/ cfpg'              ljrf/sf nflu ;w}“ v'nf x'g'kb{5 . o;f] ePdf
eG5g\, æxfdL ;dfrf/df h:tf] ;Gt'ng o;df            cfjZos lyof] eGg] s'/fdf d ;xdt 5' .               dfq v'nf ;dfhn] cfkm\gf nflu s] ;xL xf] /
lbg] g}lts afWotf dx;"; ub}{gf}+ lsgeg] of]        s'/f rsf{ eP klg pgsf] n]vfO g/d lyof] .           s] unt xf] eg]/ 5'6ofpg ;S5 . :j:y ax;sf]
                                                                                                                           \
ljrf/ k[i7 xf] .Æ                                  pbfx/0fsf nflu, xdf;n] Oh/fon;“u ‘zflGtsf]         kfl/nf] 3fddf ;xL ljrf/x¿ ljsl;t x'G5g\

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                       23
eg] unt ljrf/x¿ cf]OnfP/ em5{g\ . n'sfpg],                                                            eg] To;};DaGwL csf]{ kIfsf] ljrf/ klg ToxL
                                                            ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7                       k[i7df 5fKg'k5{M emf/f 6fg]{ lx;fan] rf/–kf“r
l5kfpg] xf] / v'nf r'gf}tL glbg] xf] eg] v/fa
ljrf/x¿ ljiffn' Rofp;/x a9\g] u5{g\ .                    vf;u/L ljjfbf:kb ljrf/sf                     j6f xNsfkm'Nsf ‘;DkfbsnfO{ lr7L’ 5fk]/ p;sf]
      /f];Gyn / lzKn] b'j} eG5g\, æxfdL ;do–
          ]                                             nflu ;w}“ v'nf x'g'kb{5 . o;f]                bfloTj k"/f x'“b}g .
;dodf cTolws dxŒjk"0f{ ljifox¿dfly ljljw                                                                     d KnfGsn] lbPsf] pbfx/0fsf af/]df klg
                             \
k|sf/sf b[li6sf]0fnfO{ ;d]6g] sf]lzz ub{5f}+ .             ePdf dfq v'nf ;dfhn]                       k|Zg p7fpg rfxG5' . pgn] s'kf]if0fu|:t lzz'
x'g klg, ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7sf lgoldt                    cfkm\gf nflu s] ;xL xf] / s]                 qmfpg zfs'/sf] d[To'sf] k|;+u cl3 ;f/]sL
kf7sx¿n] Oh/fon–Kofn]:6fOg åGåaf/] ljleGg               unt xf] eg]/ 5'6\ofpg ;S5 .                   l5g\ . 8]9 dlxgfsf qmfpg slt sdhf]/ lyP
vfnsf ljrf/ k9\g] / kof{Kt hfgsf/L xfl;n                                                              eg] pgsf] hLpsf ;f/f x8\8L / s/ª 5n{ªu      \
ug]{ df}sf kfPsf 5g\ . o;af6 o';]kmsf] ljrf/             :j:y ax;sf] kfl/nf] 3fddf                                                  ]
                                                                                                      b]Vg ;lsGYof] . KnfGsn] n]vsL 5g\, ‘qmfpgsf]
slt ;xL xf] eg]/ lg0f{o ug{ pgLx¿nfO{ ;xof]u             ;xL ljrf/x¿ ljsl;t x'G5g\                    d[To' c1fgsf sf/0f ePsf] x'g ;S5 t/ o;
k'u]sf] 5 .                                                                                           36gfkl5 kf]if0fsf] ;DaGwdf v'nf ax; z'?
      t/, @! d] @))& df k|sflzt vfB tyf
                                                         eg] unt ljrf/x¿ cf]OnfP/                     x'g'kb{5 .’ kf]if0f eGgfn] aRrfnfO{ s] vfg
kf]if0f;DaGwL n]lvsf lggf KnfGssf] n]vsf]                em5{g\ . n'sfpg], l5kfpg] xf]                lbg] / s] glbg] eGg] dfq KnfGssf] cfzo xf]
s'/f eg] cln leGg} lyof] . ‘zfsfxf/af6 d[To'’             / v'nf r'gf}tL glbg] xf] eg]                eg], pgsf] s'/f 7Ls} xf]nf .
-8]y afO{ e]uflghd_ h:tf] ;g;gLk"0f{ zLif{s                                                                  o; d'2fdf ;/sf/L jlsnn] qmfpgsf
/flvPsf] pgsf] n]vn] dflg;sf] ;f]rfOdf                      v/fa ljrf/x¿ ljiffn'                      dftflktfn] cfkm\gf] aRrfnfO{ hfgfhfg ef]s}
o';]kmsf] n]vn] eGbf a9L wSsf lbPsf] lyof] .               Rofp;/x a9\g] ub{5g\ .                     /fv]/ df/]sf] blnn k]z u/]sf lyP h;nfO{
cfkm\gf] n]vdf pgn] ;kf6 zAbdf c08f /                                                                 GofofwLzx¿n] klg kTofP . o; ;DaGwdf
b'Uw pTkfbg ;d]t g?rfpg] ljz'4 zfsfxf/L                                                               ;Dk|]if0f ePsf ;dfrf/n] klg ;DalGwt
JolQmn] cfkm\gf] dfq geO{ cfkm\gf afnaRrfsf]                                                          lrlsT;s, vfB ljz]if1 tyf cGo lj1sf]
:jf:YonfO{ ;d]t vt/fdf kfl//x]sf] 3f]if0ff g}                                                         xjfnf lb“b} qmfpgnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] -
ul/g\ . klxn] cfkm}“ zfsfxf/L /lx;s]sL                                                                zfsfxf/L xf];\ jf df+;fxf/L_ kof{Kt ef]hg
KnfGsn] elgg\, æue{jtL cj:yfdf df5f–df;'            jif{df ;DkfbsLo k[i7df Pp6f klg n]v jf            glbOPsf] g} lgSof]{n lgsfn]sf lyP .
gvfg' t emg} u}/lhDd]jf/ x'g' xf] .Æ pgsf]          ljrf/ k|sflzt u/]sf] 5}g . kf“r jif{otf                  ;f] d'2fdf ax; ug]{ km'N6g sfpG6Lsf
egfO lyof], s]an ;fu;AhL / af]6–la?jfaf6            o;af/] l56k'6 ;dfrf/ eg] 5flkPsf 5g\ .            ;/sf/L jlsn rfN;{ af]l/·n] To; d'2fsf]
pTkfbg x'g] vfgfn] x§fs§f z/L/ lgdf{0f ug{                                                            ;DaGw ‘st}af6 klg’ zfsfxf/;“u g/x]sf]
;Sb} g .                                            csf]{ kIf                                         dnfO{ :ki6 kf/]sf 5g\ . KnfGs / lzKn]
      KnfGsn] c6nfG6fsf] Pp6f o:tf] zfsfxf/L        lkmnf8] l Nkmofsf] Pp6f afn c:ktfnsL                   }
                                                                                                      b'jhgf cfkm"x¿ rfN;{sf] o; egfO;Fu cjut
bDktLsf] pbfx/0f lbPsL lyOg\, h;dfly cfkm\g}        kf]if0flj1 /]rn ln;]gsf cg';f/ KnfGssf] n]v       /x]sf] atfpF5g\ . ‘xfdLnfO{ of] klg yfxf lyof]
8]9 dlxgfsf] 5f]/fsf] xTofsf] cf/f]k nfu]sf]        ‘cToGt} e8sfp tyf unt tYon] el/k"0f{’             ls bf]ifL bDktLn] af/Daf/ cfkm"x¿n] aRrfnfO{
lyof] . pgLx¿n] cfkm\gf] 5f]/fnfO{ e6df;sf]         lyof] . pgL / pgsf ;xsdL{ a|]G8f jfa]/n]          zfsfxf/L agfpg] p2]Zon] To;f] u/]sf] atfPsf
b"w / :ofpsf] h'; dfq Vjfpg] u/]sf lyP              dnfO{ vfB tyf kf] i f0flj1x¿sf] b] z sf]          lyP’, lzKn] eG5g\ .
h;sf sf/0f 8]9 dlxgfsf] eO;Sbf klg                  ;a} e Gbf 7" n f] ;+ : yf cd] l /sg 8fol6s               t/, GofofwLzx¿n] qmfpgsf cfdfafa'sf]
afnssf] jhg s]jn #=% kfp08 -8]9 lsnf]sf]            P;f]l;P;g -P=8L=P=_ sf] ;g\ @))# sf]              egfOdfly ljZjf; u/]sf lyPgg\ . of] kf6f]
xf/fxf/L_ lyof] . ;f] n]vn] tTsfn y'k}| k|ltlqmof   k|ltj]bg b]vfP . uxg j}1flgs ljZn]if0fkl5         pNn]v gul/Psfn] KnfGssf] k"/} n]vsf] w/ftn
lgDTofPsf] lyof], h'g xfn;Dd klg hf/L 5 .           Sofgf8fsf vfBljb\x¿;“u} P=8L=P=n] To;df           sdhf]/ x'gk'u]sf] 5 .
k|ltlqmof k7fpg]df k|foM zfsfxf/L lyP               s] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 eg], æof]hgfa4 Pj+ ;Gt'lnt          ;DkfbsLo÷ljrf/ k[i7 ax;sf nflu
h;dWo] cg]sf}n] t KnfGssf] egfOsf] k|ltjfb
                +                                   ¿kdf lnOg] zfsfxf/L ef] h g ue{ j tL,             x'G5g\, t/ ltgdf PstkmL{ n]v dfq 5fKg] xf]
ub}{ cfkm\gf] zfsfxf/L :j:y aRrfsf] kmf]6f]         afnaflnsf, lszf]/, o'jfnufot hLjgsf ;a}           eg] Tof] ax; x'“b}g, g t To;f] ug'{ ;xL g}
;d]t k7fPsf lyP . s]xLn] eg] cfk"mnfO{              cj:yfsf nflu pko'Qm /x]sf] 5 .Æ                   x' G 5 .
;fyLefO tyf gft]bf/x¿n] KnfGssf] n]v b]vfO{–              KnfGsn] cfkm" P=8L=P= sf] o; 3f]if0ff;“u
b]vfO{ ‘ltdLx¿sf] vfgf vt/gfs 5’ eg]/               cjut /x]sf] t/ To;nfO{ cfkm"n] ‘/fhgLlts                Snfs{ xf]P6 ‘b Go'of]s{ 6fOD;’ df klAns Pl86/
lv;L u/]sf] ;d]t atfPsf lyP .                       ¿kdf ;lqmo zfsfxf/L ;d'bfonfO{ ;xof]u             sf] ¿kdf sfo{/t 5g\ . klAns Pl86/sf] sfd eg]sf]
      KnfGsn] zfsfxf/L aGg' xflgsf/s x'“b}g         k'¥ofpg]’ jStJosf ¿kdf lnPsf] atfOg\ .            klqsfdf kqsfl/tfsf] d"NodfGotf / g}ltstf nfu" ePsf]
eGg] ts{nfO{ cfkm\gf] n]vdf s'g} :yfg g}                  Pstk{m KnfGssf] cfkm\gf] ts{ 5 eg]          5 5}g, ;+j]bgzLn q'l6 b]vf k/]sf 5g\ jf cfjZos
lbOgg\ . /f];]Gyn / lzKn]sf] ljrf/df, o;f]          P=8L=P=n] @%) j6feGbf a9L cg';GwfgnfO{            tYo 5'6k'6 ePsf 5g\ ls eg]/ x]g'{ / o; ;DaGwdf
ug'{ pgsf] n]vsLo clwsf/leqs} s'/f xf] .            pb\w[t ub}{ pQm k|ltj]bg tof/ kf/]sf] 5 . d       cfd kf7s;“u ‘;Dks{’ :yfkgf ug'{ xf] . of] sfd pgLx¿n]
            {
t/, dWok"jsf] dfldnfdf ;a} vfnsf ljrf/nfO{          o;;DaGwL ljjfbdf k|j]z ug{ rfxGg“ . d]/f]                                                     ]
                                                                                                      k|foM klqsfsf] lgoldt :tDedfk{mt -n]v n]v/_ ub{5g\ .
:yfg lbPh:tf] zfsfxf/sf] ljifodf eg] ul/Psf]        egfO slt dfq xf] eg], 6fOD; n] s'g} ljifodf       cd]l/sfdf k|foM ;a} k|d'v klqsfdf klAns Pl86/ x'g]
5}g . zfsfxf/sf] kIfdf 6fOD; n] ljut !^             Pp6f kIfsf] ljrf/ ;DkfbsLo k[i7df 5fK5            ub{5g\ .


24                                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
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                                                                                                                           ef/tLo k|;


cfTdlg/LIf0f
   {
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   ;f]dgfy r6hL{                                    {                                                    ]|
                            ef/tn] :jtGqtf k|fKt ug'eGbf cl3 kqklqsfx¿ b'O{ k|sf/sf lyP . Ps ;d"x cª\uhL pklgj]zL zlQmsf]
                            kIfdf lyof], v'Nnf geP klg leqL ¿kdf p;sf] b'gf] ;f]em\ofOlbg] sfd uYof]{ . csf]{ ;d"xsf kqklqsf
                                                              {
                            hgtfsf OR5f / cfsfª\Iffsf s'/f uy], cGofo / bdgsf] lj/f]w uy]{ . o:tf klqsfnfO{ bdg ug{ s8f sfg"gL

Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . o:tf klqsf z'? ug]{, rnfpg],        k'Uof] . ef/t :jtGq x'g'eGbf cl3 o;sf] sNkgf klg
k|sflzt ug]{ / ;Dkfbg ug]{ JolQmx¿ :jfwLgtfsf]             ug{ ;lsGg lyof] .
cfGbf]ng;Fu s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf ;DalGwt lyP . To;a]nf               kqsfl/tfsf s]xL If]qdf clxn] cfP/ ;DkfbsLo eGbf
kqklqsfsf] ;ª\Vof ;Lldt lyof]Ù k|zf;lgs s8fO t             Jofkf/ zfvfnfO{ a9L dxŒj lbg yflnPsf] 5 . slt
5“b}lyof], k|ljlw klg ljsl;t eO;s]sf] lyPg . t/ klg        klqsfdf t ahf/df s] rN5 / klqsfdfkm{t Tof] sfd
5flkPsf] cIf/sf] ;fx|} 7"nf] k|efj lyof] / o;n] hgdfg;df   s;/L ug]{ eg]/ dfs{]l6ª zfvfn] lg0f{o lng yfn]sf] 5 .
pT;fx eg]{ sfd ub{Yof] .                                   To;}n] cfhef]ln gfd rn]sf sltko klqsfsf] klxnf]
        ef/tsf] :jtGqtf;“u,} s]xL jif{leq} ;+ljwfg cfof]                                                            '
                                                           k[i7df dgf]/~hg If]qdf gfd rn]sf] s'g} JolQmsf] vfg]s/fsf]
h;n] jfs\:jtGqtf / k|]; :jtGqtfsf] k|Tofe"lt u¥of] .       ?lrsf ljifodf jf s'g} dgf]/~hgfTds k|ltof]lutf s;n]
To;kl5 k|;df nfUb} cfPsf] aGwg klg 6'6of], ;+ljwfgsf]
             ]                               \             lhTof] eGg] ljifodf ;dfrf/ k9\g'k5{ . b]zsf] dxŒjk"0f{
wf/f !( -@_ df plNnlvt s]xL ‘ts{;ut k|ltaGwx¿’
                                           +               ljifosf] ;dfrf/ rflx“ leqLk[i7sf] s'gfdf km\of“lsPsf]
afx]s .                                                    x' G 5 .
        :jtGq ePsf] s]xL jif{;Dd ef/tLo k|];n] ;To /             t/ klqsfdf h] eO/x]sf] 5 To;nfO{ 6]lnlehgn]
kf/blz{tfdf cfkm\gf] k|lta4tf b]vfof] . To;}tfs Pp6f       5fof“df kfl/lbPsf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] 5q5fof“df rn]sf] >Jo–
gofF k|jl[ Q b]vf k¥of]M s]xL kqklqsfsf] :jfldTj k|sfzs    b[Zosf] Pp6f dfWodaf6 lghL If]qsf] ;+nUgtfdf ;~rflnt
/ ;Dkfbsaf6 Jofkfl/s ;+:yfx¿df ;¥of] . s]xL jif{;Dd,       zlQmzfnL ;~rf/dfWod;Ddsf] cj:yf;Dd cfOk'Ubf
klqsfsf dflnsx¿ cfkm\gf] Wofg klqsfaf6 x'g]                6]lnlehgsf] 7"nf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . If]qLo efiffx¿df
cfDbfgLdf s]lGb|t ul//x]sf lyP eg] klqsfsf ;Dkfbsx¿        ePsf] o;sf] ljsf; klg pNn]vgLo 5 . t/, o;sf
k"0f{ ;DkfbsLo :jtGqtf pkef]u ul//x]sf lyP . Tof]          ;fy;fy}, 6]lnlehgsf sfo{qmd / o;sf] ;dfrf/ h;/L
o:tf] ;do lyof] h'ga]nf klqsfx¿df ;zQm / dxfg\             cl3 al9/x]sf] 5 Tof] 7Ls lbzfdf uO/x]sf] 5 ls 5}g
;Dkfbsx¿ lyP, h;n] :jtGqtf / lgikIftfnfO{                  eGg] ljifodf ;a}n] ;f]Rg'kg]{ a]nf cfPsf] 5 .
kqsfl/tfsf] cleGg c+usf] ¿kdf ljsf; u/] .                        lghL Rofgnx¿ s]jn ;dfrf/d'vL dfq 5}gg\ .
        lj:tf/} cGo sf/sx¿ ;an aGb} cfP . tLdWo]           pgLx¿n] cfkm" lj1fkgdf cfwfl/t 5f}+ eGg] s'/fnfO{ uf]Ko
;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ sf/s eg]sf] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; lyof] .      /fv]sf klg 5}gg\ . ptf, lj1fkgbftfx¿n] s'g sfo{qmd
gofF k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] nfvf}+ k|lt klqsf Ps} k6s           slt bz{sx¿n] x]g{ ?rfp“5g\ eGg] cfwf/df lj1fkg
5fKg ;lsg] eof], sDKo'6/df k]h agfpg ;lsg] eof] .          k|jflxt ul//fv]sf 5g\ . o;sf b'O6f v/fa c;/ b]vf
o;n] klqsfsf] 5kfOnfO{ b'tt/ ult dfq lbPg vr{
                                |                          k/]sf 5g\ . klxnf], lj1fkg kfpg] cToGt s8f k|lt:kwf{n]
klg sd nfUg] eof] . To;kl5 :of6nfO6sf] ljsf;n]             ubf{ sltko Rofgnx¿n] ;TotYodf ;d]t ;Demf}tf ug{
klqsfsf kfgfx¿ Ps7fp“df tof/ u/]/ csf]{ 7fpFaf6            yfn]sf 5g\ . bf];|f], y'k|}n] ‘;]G;];gflnHd’sf] af6f] /f]h]sf
5fKg ;lsg] eof], h;n] ubf{ /fli6«o ;+:s/0fsf ;fy}          5g\ / To;sf nflu pko'Qm x'g;Sg] s'g} klg syfnfO{
:yfgLo ;+:s/0fx¿ klg Ps} k6s 5fKg yflnof] . lj1fkg         ;dfrf/sf] ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ .
ahf/sf] csNkgLo j[l4 csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ sf/ssf] ¿kdf                        {
                                                                 o;df b'Odt 5}g ls xfd|f sltko 6LeL Rofgnx¿n]
b]vf k¥of] . lj1fkg pBf]un] 7"n} /sd kqklqsfdf             ;dfrf/sf] dxŒj / o;sf] ;Totf;“u s'g} ;Demf}tf u/]sf
vGofof] . o;af6 sltko klqsfx¿ t u|fxsnfO{ l;Q}df      “    5}gg\, h;n] ubf{ pgLx¿sf] ljZj;gLotf / bz{s ;ª\Vofdf
af“8g ;Sg] cj:yfdf k'u] lsgeg] ltgsf] d'Vo cfDbfgL],
      \                                                    klg a9f]Q/L ePsf] 5 . t/, of] ;ª\Vof Hofb} Go"g 5 .
b}lgs s/f]8f}+ ?k}of“, lj1fkgaf6} x'g yfNof] . klqsfsf]          :jtGqtfk|flKtkZrft ef/tLo ldl8ofsf] ;a}eGbf
laqmLaf6 x'g] cfDbfgL rflx“ gu0o jf cg'Nn]vgLo aGg         pNn]vgLo s'/f eg]sf] o;sf] :jfldTjsf] k|sl[ tdf cfPsf]

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                            25
               ]                                    '}
             k|; :jtGqtf eg]sf] lhDd]jf/L /lxt x“bg . klqsfsf ;DkfbsLo gLltx¿ ldl8of ;d|f6 -d'un_ jf
                                                       {     ' '“ }                     “
              ldl8of zlQmx¿ -Aof/f]g_ af6 slxNo} lgb]lzt x'gxbg . d'gfkmfd'vL x'g' cfkm}df unt xf]Og t/
                                             ' “' }
             d'gfkmf Pp6} dfq p2]Zo rflx“ x'gxbg . clxn] h'g k|sf/sf / h'g dfqfdf ;dfrf/x¿ On]S6«flgs]
                              / 5fkf dfWoddf cfO/x]sf 5g\ To;n] lrGtf hGdfPsf] 5 .
kl/jt{g xf] . s'g} klg klqsf jf RofgnnfO{                                                     ' “' }
                                                  xf]Og t/ d'gfkmf Pp6} dfq p2]Zo rflx“ x'gxbg,        x'G5 clg ;+;b / ;f+;b eGg' g} gsf/fTds /
clxn] ;a}eGbf Jofkfl/s ;+:yfsf] ¿kdf x]l/G5,      ljz]iftM b]zsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ 36gf jf                cem ckdfgsf] ljifo h:tf] x'g yfN5 .
h'g k|yf lj1fkgdf cfl>t cGo b]zx¿sf               ;dfrf/x¿sf ljifodf . clxn] h'g k|sf/sf                        ;~rf/dfWodn] cfkm" n fO{ hgtfsf]
klqsf / Rofgnx¿df klg 5 . t/ lj1fkgdf             / h'g dfqfdf ;dfrf/x¿ On]S6«fl] gs / 5fkf            cfjfhsf] ?kdf pEofpg ;Sg' Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{
cfl>t x'g' / klqsf jf Rofgnsf] ;fv sfod           dfWodx¿df cfO/x]sf 5g\ To;n] lrGtf                   ofqf lyof] . ef/t :jtGq x'g'eGbf klxn]
ug'{ oL b'O{ s'/f Pscsf{sf] ljk/Lt x'g'k5{        hGdfPsf] 5 .                                         ;~rf/dfWod hgtfsf k|ltlglw lyP / clxn]
eGg] s]xL 5}g . sltko klqsfsf dflnsx¿                     cfkm"n] u/]sf] sfo{n] b"/ufdL ¿kdf           klg s]xL ;~rf/dfWodn] cfkm\gf] dof{bf sfod
cfkm\ g f] klqsfn] kqsfl/tfsf] d" N o /           ;dfhnfO{ s;/L k|efljt kfb{5 eGg] s'/fsf]             /fv]sf 5g\ . t/ ;dfhsf ljleGg If]qn] s]
dfGotfnfO{ sfod /fvf];\ eGg] ljifodf ;w}“         ljifodf ldl8of cfkm}“ rgfvf] x'g'kb{5 . /fli6«o      eGg yfn]sf 5g\ eg] ldl8ofsf] Jofkf/Ls/0fn]
;r]t x'G5g\ . t/ o:tf dflnsx¿sf] ;ª\Vof                          [
                                                  cv08tf ;'b9 kfg',{ ax'njfb / wd{lg/k]IftfnfO{        ubf{ ;~rf/dfWodsf] ljZj;gLotf / dof{bfdf
;fx|} yf]/} 5 / ;dfrf/nfO{ /fd|f] Kofs]lh+u       a9fjf lbg', cfh o;cl3eGbf emg\ a9L                   clxn] 7"nf] wSsf nfu]sf] 5, h;sf] c;/
u/]/ a]Rg'k5{ / w]/} k};f sdfpg'k5{ eGg]sf]       cfjZos / dxŒjk"0f{ ePsf] 5 . xfd|f] b'ef{Uo          kqsfl/tfk|lt ;dlk{t / cfkm\gf] OdfGbf/Ldf
;ª\Vof a9\bf] 5 .                                 xf], cfhef]ln s]xL ldl8ofx¿ ;dfrf/ ;Dk|if0f     ]    s'g} ;Demf}tf gug]{ klqsf / Rofgnx¿df klg
       Pp6f ljifo oxfF pNn]v ug{ ;fGble{s         ug]{ gfddf tYo / j:t'lgi7tfnfO{ kG5fP/ Ps            k/]sf] 5 .
x'G5 . Tof] s] eg], ahf/sf] rfxgf s] xf] eGg]     kIfsf] ;dfrf/ lbO/x]sf 5g\ . ldl8ofsf] OHht                   d"ntM xfdL ;~rf/dfWodsf] :jtGqtfsf]
;f]raf6 a9L u|:t ePsf sf/0f b]z rnfpg]            eg]sf] ltgn] slt tYok"0f{ / j:t'k/s ;dfrf/           k"0f{ ;dy{g ub{5f}+ . t/, o;sf ;fy;fy} ca
d'Vo tLg c+ux¿ sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsf /           lbG5g\ eGg] s'/fdf cfwfl/t x'G5 . t/                 klqsf, 6]lnlehg, OG6/g]6 ;dfrf/ cflbdf
Joj:yflksfnfO{ hlt dxŒj lbg'kg]{ xf] jf klxn]               {
                                                  b'Mvk"js eGg'k5{, sltko ldl8ofx¿ cfkm\gf]            ;+nUg ;a}n] oL dfWodx¿nfO{ kf/blz{tf /
hlt lbOGYof] cfhef]ln Tolt lbOPsf] 5}g .          d" n st{ J oaf6 ljd' v ePsf 5g\ . s] x L             ;To ;dfrf/sf] ;+jfxssf] ¿kdf ;an agfpg
vfnL oL c+ux¿df s'g} ‘;]G;];gn’ s'/f eof]         OHhtbf/ ckjfb afx]s cfhef]ln klqsf /                 lg/Gt/ cfTdlg/LIf0f ug]{ kl/kf6L a;fpg]
eg] dfq To;nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] rng rn]sf]         ;dfrf/ Rofgnx¿sf] /fhgLlts cfu|x /                   s'/fdf Wofg lbg' clt h?/L ePsf] 5 . xfdL
5 .                                                       |                                 |
                                                  k"jf{ux k|:6 b]lvG5 . o;n] ;f“rf] / k"jf{ux/lxt      xfd|f ;~rf/dfWodaf6 of] s'/fsf] cfzf ub{5f}+
       of] rng hlt b'ef{Uok"0f{ 5 Tolts} unt      ;dfrf/ / ljrf/ k|;f/0f, k|sfzgdf k|lts'n             / rfxG5f}+ ls ljutdf h:t} cfkm\gf ;~rf/–
klg . of] eg]sf] ;~rf/dfWodsf] zlQmsf] unt        c;/ kfb{5 .                                          dfWoddfly ;w}“ uf}/j ug{ ;sf}+ .
k|of]u xf], Tof] klg ljz]iftM 6]lnlehgsf], h;n]           :jtGq k|];ljgf nf]stGqsf] sNkgf klg                   of] r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{nfO{ ;kmn agfpg ef/tLo
hgtfdf 7"nf] k|efj kf5{ . o;n] hgtfdf b]z         ug{ ;lsGg eg] o;sf] ;kmntf klg k|];n]                  ]
                                                                                                       k|; sfplG;nsf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . of]
rnfpg] c+ux¿sf af/]df gsf/fTds k|efj              ;+;b / hgtfsf aLrdf s:tf] k|sf/sf] s8Lsf]            ;+:yf;“u qm"/tfk"0f{ clwsf/ geP tfklg, h'g
dfq kl//x]sf] 5}g unt ;Gb]z klg lbO/x]sf]         sfd u5{ eGg] s'/fdf lglxt x'G5 . k|hftGqsf]          jf:tjdf x'g' klg x'Gg, o;n] ;a} ;~rf/–
5 .                                               d'6' eg]sf] ;+;b xf] . To;}n] o;k|lt ;a} rgfvf]      dfWodaf6 OHht / k|lti7f cfh{g ug'kb{5 /       {
       cfhef]ln kqklqsf tyf lghL Rofgnx¿n]        x' g ' k 5{ , rfx] hgtf x' g \ , sfo{ k flnsf,              “
                                                                                                       ;a};u a;]/ of] p2]Zo s;/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5
z]o/ ahf/sf] ljifodf cTolws cf;lQm b]vfp“b}       Gofokflnsf, gful/s ;dfh jf ldl8of . ;+;b                                                     {
                                                                                                       eGg] ljifodf ljrf/–ljdz{ ug'kb{5 . xfdLn]
;fgf]eGbf ;fgf] ;dfrf/ lbO/x]sf 5g\ . t/          g} To:tf] 7fp“ xf] hxf“ hgtf;“u ;DalGwt              ;w}F b]vs} 5f}+, h'g p2]Zo sfg"gn] k"/f ug{
                                                                                                                    ]
ltg} ;~rf/dfWod ;+;bdf dxŒjk"0f{ ljifodf          dxŒjk" 0 f{ lg0f{ o x¿ lnOG5 / ;/sf/sf]              ;Sb}g Tof] ;a}sf] ;xdltn] ug{ ;Sb5 . cfkm"nfO{
ePsf jfbljjfb / ;Daf]wgx¿nfO{ eg] jf:t}           hjfkmb]xL vf]lhG5 . ;+;bdf 5nkmn eO/x]sf             ;+;f/sf cGo ;a}yf]s eGbf ;TotYodf ;dlk{t
ub} { g g\ . o:tf s' / fx¿sf] ;dfrf/ aGg}         jf ;+;bsf] cwLgdf /x]sf dxŒjk"0f{ ljifox¿af/]            ]{
                                                                                                       ug]x¿ ;a}n] of] ljifodf uDeL/ Wofg lbg'kg]]{
5fl8;s]sf] 5 .                                    hgtfnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg] lhDd]jf/ lgsfo eg]sf           ;do cfPsf] 5 .
         ]                                 “}
       k|; :jtGqtf eg]sf] lhDd]jf/L /lxt x'bg .   ;~rf/dfWod g} x'g\ . ;/sf/ / g]tfsf e|i6
ldl8ofn] ;w}“ aª\UofOPsf / agfOPsf s'g}           lqmofsnfkx¿ hgtf;fd' pbf·f] kfg]{ k|];n]                  ef/tLo k|]; sfplG;nåf/f /fli6«o k|]; lbj;sf]
vf; ljifonfO{ dfq h?/t eGbf a];L dxŒj             pgLx¿n] u/]sf /fd|f sfdsf] ;/fxgf klg                cj;/df !^ gf] e ] D a/ @))& df cfof] l ht
lbg] ;dfrf/ k|sfzg, k|;f/0f ug{ cfkm}nfO{   +     ug'{kb{5 . vfln ;+;bsf] ult/f]w, u8a8 /              æ;~rf/dfWodsf] e" l dsf tyf hgtfsf cfjfh–
b'?T;fxg ug'{kb{5 . klqsfsf ;DkfbsLo              ;+;b cj?4 ePsf ;dfrf/ dfq k|sfzg,                    :jtGqtf klxn] / kl5Æ gfds ;+jfb sfo{qmddf ef/tLo
gLltx¿ ldl8of ;d|f6 -d'un_ jf ldl8of              k|;f/0f ugf{n] xfd|f lgjf{lrt ;f+;bx¿sf]             nf]s;efsf ;efd'v r6hL{åf/f ul/Psf] ;Daf]wg .
zlQmx¿ -Jof/f] g _ af6 slxNo} lgb] { l zt         rl/qsf] unt lrq0f dfq x'g] geO{ nf]stGq              ef/tLo cª\u|]hL b}lgs b lxGb" sf] @@ gf]e]Da/, @))&
x'g'x'“b}g . d'gfkmfd'vL x'g' cfkm}“df unt sfo{   Pj+ ;+;bk|lt g} unt efjgf km}nfpg] sfd               df 5flkPsf] n]vsf] cg'jfb .

26                                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                     ljZn]if0f


;ª\qmd0fsfn /
;~rf/ If]q
  k|f= s[i0f vgfn           s'g} klg 7"nf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5 gof“ Joj:yfsf] ljlwjt :yfkgf gx'Gh]nsf] cjlwnfO{ xfdL ;ª\qmd0fsfn
                                                                                     '                       }
                            eGb5f}+ . cfGbf]ngsf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{' / To;nfO{ d'nssf] /fhgLlts Pj+ ;+jwflgs Joj:yfdf ¿kfGt/0f
                                                                                                     [
                            ug'{ of] cjlwsf] ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ sfd xf] . cfGbf]ngsf] tfstdf o;sf] g]tTj ug]{ zlQmx¿n] g} ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]

Joj:yfkg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L kfPsf x'G5g\ . o;sf ljlw /                      }                   '
                                                          @)$& sf] ;+jwflgs Joj:yfsf k|dv cfwf/ / d"Nox¿
Joj:yfx¿ c:yfoL cyf{t\ cGtl/d x'G5g\ . gofF ;+ljwfg       — ;+j}wflgs /fhtGq, ax'bnLo nf]stGq / ;+;bLo
agfP/ ljlwjt\ lgjf{lrt k|ltlglwx¿sf] xftdf ;'Dkg'                                                             {
                                                          zf;gk|0ffnLnfO{ k"0f{ ¿kdf ;dfKt u/]sf] lyof] . csf]tkm{
;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] k|d'v nIo xf] .                            g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] @)%@ ;fnb]lv ;~rfng ub}{ cfPsf]
       @)^@÷)^# df ;DkGg ePsf] a[ x b\                               ]
                                                          ;z:q ljb|fxnfO{ /fhgLlts lgsf; lbg] eg]/ dfcf]jfbL
hgcfGbf]ngkl5 g]kfn uDeL/ /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfndf          / zfxL ;/sf/aLr ePsf] jftf{sf] gf6s klg ;dfKt
k|j]z u/]sf] 5 . o;n] /fhfsf] k|ToIf zf;gnfO{ dfq         ePsf] lyof] . o; k[i7e"lddf zfxL lg/ª\s'ztfsf] lj?4
km\of“s]sf] xf]Og, g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$&          cfGbf]ng/t ;ftbn ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf nflu /
cg';f/sf] /fHoJoj:yfnfO{ klg cGTo u/]sf] 5 . t/           dfcf]jfbL ax'bnLo nf]stGqsf nflu ;xdt ePkl5
csf]{ Joj:yfsf] :yfkgf eO;s]sf] 5}g . clxn] /fHo          ;+o'Qm cfGbf]ngsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ePsf] lyof] . afx|a'“b]
;~rfng;DaGwL ;a} Joj:yf / sfd sf/afxLx¿                   ;dembf/Ldf ;ft bnn] eg]sf] k|ltlglw;efsf] af6f]af6
cGtl/d cyf{t\ csf]{ Joj:yf geP;Ddsf nflu c:yfoL           jf dfcf]jfbLn] eg]sf] uf]nd]r ;Dd]ngaf6 zflGtjftf{,
k|s[ltsf x'g\ . To;}n] clxn]sf] ;+ljwfgnfO{ cGtl/d        dfcf]jfbL;d]tsf] ;xeflutfdf cGtl/d ;/sf/sf] u7g
;+ljwfg elgPsf] xf] . o;cGtu{t ag]sf] Joj:yflksf–         / ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg u/L d'n'sdf ;z:q
;+;b, ;/sf/ nufot w]/} s'/fx¿ cGtl/d 5g\ .                åGåsf] cGTo Pj+ k"0f{ nf]stGqsf] :yfkgf ug{sf nflu
;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] Joj:yfkg kl/jt{gsf jfxs cfGbf]nsf/L        ;ft bn / dfcf]jfbLn] cf–cfk\mgf] 7fp“af6 cfGbf]ng
zlQmx¿n] ub{5g\ . tyflk kl/jt{gnfO{ Pp6f jf s]xL          ug]{ s'/fdf ;xdlt ePsf] lyof] . afxa'“b] ;dembf/L /
bnljz] i fsf] cu| ; /tfdf ;Lldt ul/g' x ' G g .           cfGbf]ngsf qmddf Jofks ¿kn] cleJoQm hgefjgf
;ª\qmd0fsfnnfO{ ck]lIft nIodf k'¥ofpg /fhgLlts            ;d]tnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf nIox¿
bnx¿ nufot cfGbf]ngdf of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] ;dfhsf             lgDgfg';f/ lyP eGg ;lsG5M—
;a} kIfx¿sf] e"ldsf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . To;dfly
;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsf cem dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . o; ;DaGwdf           /fh;+:yfsf] pGd"ng / nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf]
                                {
;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsfsf] rrf{ ug'eGbf klxn] g]kfnsf]            :yfkgf,
jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsf] uGtJo, k|s[lt /                                       ]
                                                              dfcf]jfbL ;z:q ljb|fx cyf{t\ hgo'4sf] cGTo Pj+
r'gf}tLx¿sf af/]df k|:6 x'g' h?/L 5 .                         lbuf] zflGt axfn, /
                                                              ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj tyf g]kfnL hgtfsf] ljljwtf
jt{dfg ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] uGtJo                                   ;d]l6g] u/L /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf .
/fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsf] uGtAo cfGbf]ngsf] nIo /
p2]Zo;“u hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . o; ;DaGwdf ;j{k|yd                     o; cy{df jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]
hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf nIo / p2]Zox¿ s] lyP eg]/              d' V o /fhgLlts uGtJo eg] s f] oyf;So l56f]
a'e\mg' h?/L 5 . g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf] bz jif{ nfdf]         ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg u/L pko'{Qm /fhgLlts
;z:q ljb| f ] x / zfxL lg/ª\ s ' z tfsf] k[ i 7e" l ddf   Pj+ ;+j}wflgs nIo xfl;n ug'{ xf] . ;+ljwfg;efsf]
hgcfGbf]ng–@)^# sf] lgdf{0f ePsf] xf] . Psflt/ b/af/      r'gfjkl5 of] ;ª\qmd0f cfGbf]ngsf] hgfb]zaf6 nf]slk|o
xTofsf08kl5 tLa| ultdf k|ltlglw;efsf] lj36g, !*           r'gfjL hgfb]zdf k|j]z ug]{5 . o;n] cfGbf]ngaf6
                  “               '
c;f]h / !( df3 x'b} zfxL lg/ª\sztfsf] k'g?Tyfgn]          :yflkt ;QfnfO{ hgcg'df]lbt j}wflgs ;Qfdf ¿kfGtl/t

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                       27
                       ug]{5 . To;kl5 xfdL gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] r/0fdf         ;do;Ldfsf] pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof] . t/ h]7 d;fGtleq
                       k|j]z ug]{5f}+ .                                           ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj x'g ;s]g . To;kl5 dª\l;/sf]
                                                                                  ldlt tf]lsO{ cGtl/d ;+ljwfg tbg'?k ;+zf]wg ul/of] .
                                             [
                       jt{dfg ;ª\qmd0fsf] k|slt                                   t/ r'gfjsf] d'vdf g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] @@ ;"qLo dfu
                       s'g} klg cfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfkl5 ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf]              /fvL dª\l;/ ^ ut] s'g} xfntdf r'gfj x'g g;Sg] eGb}
                       Joj:yfkg ;f“lRrs} r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfd xf] . To;dfly klg       ;/sf/af6 ;d]t alxu{dg u/]kl5 ;f] ldltdf klg
                       cfGbf]ngsf/L bnx¿sf] ljljw j}rfl/s k[i7e"ld /              r' g fj ePg . To;kl5 k' g M @)^$ ;fnleq
                       /fhgLlts k|fyldstf, !) jif{ nfdf] ;z:q åGå, hgtfn]         ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ul/;Sg] ;xdlt sfod u/L
                       /fhfnfO{ k6Ss} grfx]sf] t/ pm gx6]sf] cj:yf, nfdf]         tbg'?k cGtl/d ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L,
                       ;dob] l v sfod /x] s f] s] G b| L s[ t Pj+ PsfTds          Pskl5 csf]{ axfgfdf r'gfj ;fb}{ hfg] xf] eg] @))&
                       /fHo;+/rgfsf] ;+3Los/0f cflb s'/fx¿sf ;Gbe{df              ;fnkl5sf] /fhgLltsf] k'g/fj[lQ gxf]nf eGg ;lsGg .
                       ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] Joj:yfkg a9L hl6n x'g' / ;do nfUg'          t/ dfcf]jfbLsf] pk]Iff u/]/ r'gfj ug{ vf]Hg' plrt
                       s'g} c:jfefljs xf]Og . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ;DkGg           gx'g] dfq xf]Og k|To'Tkfbs klg x'g ;S5 . cfGbf]ngkl5
                       ePkl5 clxn]sf] ;ª\qmd0fsfn Pp6f gofF r/0fdf k|jz       ]   oxfF;Ddsf] /fhgLlts ljsf;df dfcf]jfbLsf] klg plQs}
                       ug]{5 . tyflk ;ª\qmd0fsfn ;ls“+b}g . ;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0f    dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg 5 . t;y{ p;sf hfoh egfO /
                       / To;cg';f/ :yflkt /fHo;+/rgfn] ljlwjt\ sfd ug{            u'gf;f]x¿sf] ljj]sk"0f{ ;'g'jfO{ x'g' cfjZos 5 .
                       yfn]kl5 dfq of]] ;ª\qmd0f k"/f ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 .          r'gfjsf] ltlyeGbf klg ef]ln aGg] ;+ljwfgsf] l;4fGt,
      ;+j]bgzLn        To;sf/0f clxn]sf ;ft /fhgLlts bnx¿sf] ;xdlt /              cfwf/e" t /fHo ;+ / rgf / hgtfsf df} l ns
                       ;dembf/L gofF ;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0f / To;cg';f/               xs÷dfgjclwsf/ Pj+ ;fdflhs Gofosf ljifox¿df
  ljifox¿df s]jn       Joj:yflksf / sfo{kflnsf nufot /fHo;+rfngsf                 ;ft bnsf aLr ;xdlt / Pstf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f xf] .
  zLif{ssf lx;fan]     lgsfox¿ u7g geP;Dd sfod /fVg' cfjZos 5 .                                                            “'
                                                                                           @)^@ dª\l;/df ePsf] afx|ab] ;dembf/Lb]lv
 xf]Og, ;"rgfd"ns             g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf of] klxnf] ;ª\qmd0fsfn xf]Og .   @)^# ;fn sflQs @@ ;Dddf ;ftbn / g]skf
hfgsf/L / ljifout      o;eGbf cufl8 klg cfGbf]ngx¿ ePsf lyP . @))&                dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf /fhgLlts ;xdlt, ;dembf/L /
                       / @)$^ ;fnsf] cfGbf]ngkl5 g]kfnn] /fhgLlts                 lg0f{ox¿ tyf % dª\l;/df g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf
     Pj+ lj1tfdf       ;ª\qmd0fsfn Joxf]/]sf] lyof] . @))& ;fndf g]kfnL           dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf plNnlvt
cfwfl/t ljZn]if0fsf]   sfª\u|];n] d'lQm ;]gf u7g u/]/ ;z:q cfGbf]ng u/]sf]        s'/fx¿ tyf cGtl/d ;+l+ jwfgn] u/]sf s]xL Joj:yfx¿n]
 a9L vf“rf] kb{5 .     eP klg To;n] dfcf]jfbLsf] h:tf] ;+u7g, ;+/rgf /            efjL ;+ljwfg / /fHoJoj:yfsf sltko l;4fGt / ;+/rgf,
  o; cy{df g]kfnL      Jofkstf kfPsf] lyPg . t;y{ d'lQm ;]gf / p;sf] xltof/       /fhgLlts k|0ffnL, dfgj tyf /fhgLlts clwsf/nfO{
                       Joj:yfkg vf;} ;d:ofsf] ljifo lyPg . /fhf;“u k|ToIf         :yflkt / lglb{i6 u/]sf] 5 . sflQs @@ df ;ft bn /
  ldl8of sG6]G6df      åGå gePsf sf/0fn] To;a]nf u0ftGqsf] ;jfn p7]s}             dfcf]jfbLsf zLif{ g]tfx¿sf] a}7sn] u/]sf] lg0f{onfO{
    sdhf]/ ePsf]       lyPg . @)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng lgb{nLotfsf] gfddf           x] b f{ pgLx¿ ;xdlt ePsf s' / fx¿sf] ljk/Lt
kfOG5 . s]xL :tDe      /fhfsf] /fhgLltdf ;lqmo ;+nUgtfnfO{ ;dfKt ug]{ /           ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjdf k|:t't x'g :jtGq 5}gg\ . pQm
   /fv]/ jf a9fP/      ax'bnLo nf]stGqnfO{ ;+ljwfgtM ;+:yfut ug]{ s'/fdf          lg0f{osf] kf“rf}“ efusf] t];f] a'bfdf elgPsf] 5, æclxn]
                                                                                                              | “
                       d'Vo ¿kn] s]lGb|t lyof] . cfGbf]ngsf qmddf s]xL            ;femf ;xdlt sfod x'g g;s]sf ljifox¿df /fhgLlts
dfq k'Ub}g . sltko
                       gf/fx¿ /fhfsf] lj/f]wdf nfu]sf eP tfklg To;a]nf            kf6L{x¿ ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] qmddf cf–cfk\mgf
 :tDex¿df dgf]ut       u0ftGqsf] d' 2 f ;LdfGtdf g} lyof] . To;a] n fsf]          gLlt / dt cg';f/ k|:t't x'g :jtGq x'g]5g\ .Æ o;n]
     dfGotf a9L,       ;ª\qmd0fsf] d'Vo bfloTj / nIo eg]sf] /fhf, sfª\u; / ]|     :ki6 ub{5 ls ef]ln aGg] ;+ljwfgdf xfn;Dd ;xdlt
  ljifout 1fg sd          '                                             }
                       ;+oQm jfddf]rf{sf] ;xdltdf ax'bnLo nf]stGq, ;+jwflgs       ePsf s'/fx¿sf] ;Ddfg / k|Tofe"lt ug{ ;ft bn /
 ePsf w]/} b[i6fGt     /fhtGq / ;+;bLo zf;g k|0ffnL ;lxtsf] ;+ljwfg agfpg'        /fHo afWo 5g\ . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj;Dd k'Ubf /fHo,
                       lyof] . t/ o;k6ssf] ;ª\qmd0f klxn]sf] eGbf Jofks           /fhgLlts bn / ;/f]sf/jfnf ;d"xx¿sf aLr c¿
      kfOG5g\ .        / hl6n k|s[ltsf] 5 . ;]gf / xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg,            klg ;Demf}tf / ;xdlt x'g ;S5g\ . o;aLr /fHon]
                       u0ftGq, /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf h:tf ljifox¿ @))& /             cflbjf;L÷hghflt / dw];L ;d'bfo;Fu 5'§f5'§} ;Demf}tf
                       @)$^ ;fndf lyPgg\ . nf]stGq g} klg olt Jofks /             u/]sf] 5 . o;af6 efjL ;+ljwfg ljd'v x'g ldNb}g .
                       ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf] ljifo ag]sf] lyPg .                              ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj lgs6 cfO;Sbf klg
                                                                                       '
                                                                                  d'nsdf r'gfjsf] /fhgLlts dfxf}n ag]sf] 5}g eGg]
                       ;+ljwfg;ef r'gfj / gof“ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf r'gf}tL          l6Kk0fL ;a}lt/af6 cfO/fv]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf o;sf]
                       @@ sflQs @)^# df ;ft bn / g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf                                                            '
                                                                                  d'Vo sf/0f efjL ;+ljwfgn] lg¿k0f ug{kg]{ ljifox¿df
                       aLr ;DkGg ;dembf/L cg';f/ @)^$ ;fnsf] h]7                  cem} klg k|To]s bnsf] cf–cfk\mgf txdf / cGt/bnLo
                       d;fGtleq ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ug]{ ;xdlt ePsf]              ;xdlt gaGg' klg xf] . g]skf dfcf]jfbLn] klg ;ftbn
                       lyof] . ;f]xL adf]lhd cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf klg of]             / /fHo;Fu u/]sf] k|lta4tf / ;Demf}tf cg'?k cfk\mgf]


28                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
b[li6sf]0f Pj+ Jojxf/df tfnd]n ldnfpg ;ls/fv]sf]          agfp“b}df ;+ej x'Gg . cfk\mgf] k]zf Pj+ hgtfk|ltsf]
5}g . ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf nflu ck]lIft /fhgLlts         pQ/bfloTjaf]w / tbg's"n cfr/0f tyf Jojxf/af6 g}
dfxf}n agfpg bnx¿sf aLr efjL ;+ljwfgsf] l;4fGt,           o;nfO{ :yflkt ug]{ xf] .
d"No / ;+/rgfsf af/]df Go"gtd ;xdlt lgdf{0f, tbg'¿k               ;ª\qmd0fsf] cj:yfdf dfq xf]Og, cl3kl5 klg
cfr/0f / Jojxf/ x'g' h¿/L 5 . ;fy} r'gfjsf]               ;~rf/ If]q 36gfd'vL 5 . of] :jfefljs xf] . 36gfsf]
;j{:jLsfo{tf :yflkt ug{ ;ft bn afx]ssf cGo bnn]           l/kf]l6{ªdf dfq ;Lldt x'g' ;~rf/ If]qsf] sfd xf]Og .
cf–cfk\mgf] dt / b[li6sf]0f;lxt :jtGq ¿kn] r'gfjdf        ;/sf/ / dfcf]jfbLaLr zflGt ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 .
hfg ;Sg] l:ylt agfpg klg ;ft bn / ;/sf/                   ;]gf / xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg eO/x]sf] 5 . o;sf]
OdfGbf/Lsf ;fy nfUg' h¿/L 5 .                             ;kmntfdf g} ;ª\qmd0fsfnsf] uGtJo lge{/ ub{5 .
                                                          o;}u/L ;+3Lo nufot g]kfnL /fHosf] ;du| ;+/rgfsf]
;~rf/ If]qsf] e"ldsf                                      af/]df 7"nf] ax; rn]sf] 5 . efjL ;+ljwfgn] o;sf]
d}n] dfly klg pNn]v ul/;s]sf] 5' ls g]kfnsf] of]          Joj:yf ug'{kg]{5 . oL sltko ljifox¿ dgf]efjgfut
P]ltxfl;s /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsfnnfO{ nlIft uGtJodf          / ;+j]bgzLn klg 5g\ . ;~rf/dfWodaf6 ;+k|]lift x'g]
k'¥ofpg ;~rf/nufot gful/s ;dfhsf ;a} If]qsf]              ;"rgf / hfgsf/Ln] o;sf kIfdf ;sf/fTds /
e"ldsf cToGt dxTjk"0f{ 5 . tyflk oxfF ;~rf/If]qnfO{       gsf/fTds b'j} k|efj kfb{5 . t;y{ o:tf ljifox¿df
s]lGb|t u/]/ s]xL rrf{ ug{ rfxG5' .                       s]jn zLif{ssf lx;fan] xf]Og, ;"rgfd"ns hfgsf/L /
        g]kfnL ;~rf/hutsf] ;+/rgfnfO{ x]bf{ Pkm=Pd=       ljifout Pj+ lj1tfdf cfwfl/t ljZn]if0fsf] a9L vf“rf]
/]l8of] / 5fkf dfWodsf] kx'“r clt Jofks kfOG5 .           kb{5 . o; cy{df g]kfnL ldl8of sG6]G6df sdhf]/             nf]stflGqs /fHon]
clxn] Pkm=Pd= /]l8of]sf] se/]h b]zel/ k'Ug nfu]sf]        ePsf] kfOG5 . s]xL :tDe /fv]/ jf a9fP/ dfq k'Ub}g .       ;~rf/sf] lgoGq0f
5 . t/ s]xL j}rfl/s cledt / ljZn]if0fafx]s                sltko :tDex¿df dgf]ut dfGotf a9L, ljifout
/fhgLlts ;" r gf / hfgsf/L ;Dk| ] i f0fsf nflu            1fg sd ePsf w]/} b[i6fGtx¿ kfOG5g\ .
                                                                                                                     ub}{g . To;dfly
5fkfdfWodsf va/nfO{ g} k|fyldstf lbO“b} cfPsf]                    cGTodf, g]kfndf ;~rf/dfWodsf] kx'“r /              ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg
5 . o;sf cltl/Qm clxn] OG6/g]6 cgnfOg, ;L=8L=,            k|r/tfsf] dfqf a9\bf] 5 . t/ o;sf] ;sf/fTds of]ubfg,
                                                              '                                                          /fhgLltdf
JolQmut Anusf] k|of]u ;d]t w]/} a9]sf] 5 . ;a}df          vf; u/]/ d'ns / d'2fsf] ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg Pj+ t/n
                                                                         '                                             ;~rf/If]qsf]
Go"h a|]s ug]{ xf]8 klg a9]sf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf        cj:yfdf, ;' l glZrt ug' { r' g f} t Lk" 0 f{ sfd xf] .       e"ldsf oxL g}
a]nf ;L=8L= sf] k|of]un] ;fDk|bflos pQ]hgf a9fPsf]        nf]stflGqs /fHon] ;~rf/sf] lgoGq0f ub}{g . lgodg               '
                                                                                                                      x'gk5{ eGg] s'g}
s'/f clxn] ;a}n] :jLsf/ ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . t;y{             klg xflb{s dflgb}g / ;Dej klg 5}g . To;dfly               dfkb08 klg 5}g .
;~rf/sf cgf}krfl/s dfWodx¿ klg clxn]sf] ;Gbe{df           ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg /fhgLltdf ;~rf/If]qsf] e"ldsf oxL            ;~rf/ pBdL÷
;+j]bgzLn Pj+ dxTjk"0f{ 5g\ .                             g} x'g'k5{ eGg] s'g} dfkb08 klg 5}g . ;~rf/
        /fhgLltdf clwsf+z s'/fx¿ k|rf/afhLnfO{ nIo        pBdL÷Joj;foL / ;~rf/sdL{x¿sf] :jlgodg /
                                                                                                                         Joj;foL /
u/]/ k|:t't ul/Psf x'G5g\ . ;f/ ljifoj:t'x¿ sd}           pQ/bfloTjaf]w o;sf] Pp6f dfkb08 xf] . ;r]t                 ;~rf/sdL{x¿sf]
x'G5g\ . t/ ltg} ljifon] d'n'ssf] /fhgLltnfO{ xf“s]sf     >f]tf÷kf7s / ltgn] lgwf{/0f ug]{ ;+k/LIf0f csf]{ dfkb08       :jlgodg /
x'G5g\ . of] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L /fVg] / ljZn]if0f ug]x¿sf]
                                                  {       xf] . o;sf nflu lgb] { z gd' v L xf] O g, cWoog÷            pQ/bfloTjaf]w
;ª\Vof s'g} klg ;dfhdf yf]/} g} x'G5 . cGt/;+jfb,         cg';Gwfgd"ns cg'udgsf] cfjZostf k5{ .                         o;sf] Pp6f
ljrf/–:tDe, ;DkfbsLo, ;dfrf/ ljZn]if0f cflbn]                     g]kfndf ldl8of sG6]G6 cg';Gwfgsf] kl/kf6L         dfkb08 xf] . ;r]t
;"rgfnfO{ k|rf/afhLaf6 cnUofP/ /fhgLltsf] ;f/             ljsf; ePsf] kfOGg . s]xL ldl8of xfp;n] cfGtl/s               >f]tf÷kf7s /
Pj+ r'/f]df k'¥ofpg d2t u5{ . xfdLsxfF kf7s jf            k|of]hgsf nflu To:tf Psfw cg';Gwfg u/]sf xf]nfg\ .        ltgn] lgwf{/0f ug]{
>f]tfx¿df ;fdfGotM ;dfrf/sf] ;Totfdf k|Zg p7fpg]          t/ Tof] kof{Kt 5}g . t/fO{sf 36gfx¿nfO{ x]bf{ cfpg]
k|rng 5}g . cem} klg /]l8of]df h] elgof] / 5fkfdf         lbgx¿df g]kfndf b+ufd'vL / lx+;fTds /fhgLlt a9\g]
                                                                                                                      ;+k/LIf0f csf]{
h] n]lvof] ToxL ;To xf] eGg] dfgl;stf Hofbf 5 .           ;+efjgfnfO{ kG5fpg ;lsGg . o; cj:yfdf sG6]G6                 dfkb08 xf] .
g]kfndf dfq xf]Og ;+;f/sf k|foM ;a} 7fp“df cfd            l/;r{n] efjL gLlt / /0fgLltnfO{ dfu{bz{g ug{ ;S5 .
hgtfsf nflu klxnf] / clGtd hfgsf/L jf ;"rgfsf]            pbfx/0fsf nflu x[lts /f]zg sf08 jf O/fsdf g]kfnLsf]
   ]
;|ft eg]sf] /]l8of], 6]lnlehg, kqklqsf h:tf cfd           xTofn] l;h{gf u/]sf] 36gfdf g]kfnL ;~rf/If]qsf] s]
;~rf/sf dfWod g} x'g\ . k|rf/jfhL cyf{t\ k|fkf]u08fsf]
                                              ]           s:tf] e"ldsf / k|efj /x\of], s'g} cg';Gwfg x'g;s]sf]
;:tf] ahf/af6 Jofj;flos ;~rf/ hut\ s;/L d'Qm              5}g . t/fO{df ePsf] lx+;f / cfGbf]ngx¿sf ;Gbe{df
x'g] eGg] u+eL/ ;jfn ;ª\qmd0fsfnLg t/n /fhgLltsf          ;~rf/sf] kx'“r / k|:t'ltn] s] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 To;sf]
;Gbe{df g]kfnL ;~rf/ If]qn] v]Ng] e"ldsfsf] Pp6f          klg cWoog eO/fv]sf] 5}g . o:tf] cWoog / cg';Gwfg
dxTjk"0f{ kIf x'g ;S5 . of] s'/f s'g} lgod sfg"g          ldl8of dlg6l/ª ug]{ lgsfox¿sf] klg bfloTj xf] .




df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                        29
cWoog
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                                                                               dfG5]sf] cf]xf]/bf]xf]/ 7]nd7]n g} lyof] . xs/sf]
                                                                               xftsf] cvaf/sf] rfª eg] cfwf 306f
     ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf]                                                       s/fO;Sbf klg 36]sf] b]lvPg . o:t}df xs/sf]
                                                                               glhs} Pshgf dlxnf b]lvOg\ . lkmSsf /ftf]
                                                                               ;f/L / Anfph nufPsL sl;nf] hLp8fnsL
                                                                               ux'“uf]/L tL dlxnfn] cvaf/ lslgg\ . /fd|/L



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                                                                               cvaf/ /fVg'cl3 bfof“afof“ x]l/g\ . ckl/lrt
                                                                               eP klg o; k+lQmsf/l;t d':sfp“b} elgg\–
                                                                               ‘ca=== nfO{ klg ;dfKt kfg'{k5{ .’ ulx/f]
                                                                               ljZjf; lnP/ pgL af6f] nflug\ . nfUYof]–
                                                                               cvaf/df ;a}eGbf klxn] pgn] ToxL zLif{s
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                            xl/snf clwsf/L                                     lyof] . t/ ‘ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt’ eGg]
                                                                               cfjfhsf] k|ltlglw cIf/ Tof] cvaf/df 5flkPs}
                                                                               lyPg .
                                                                                         lj=;+= @)^# r}tsf] t];|f] ;ftfsf]
 ‘ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt=== ef]lnb]lv /fhf ;dfKt’ ef]6flx6L–/Tgkfs{ cfsf;]       clGtd lbgsf] ;f] 36gfn] g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLg
 k'nlg/sf] df]6/;fOsn la;f}gLdf Pp6f xs/ Ps rfª cvaf/ lnP/ nuftf/              cvaf/sf] ;a}eGbf sdhf]/ kf6f] p3fl/lbPsf]
                                                                               5 . Tof] xf]– ljZj;gLotfsf] cefj .
 lrRofO/x]sf] lyof] . k|wfgdGqL lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;f]xL lbg gof“lbNnLaf6
               + ''
 sf7df8f}+ kms{b} x'gxGYof] . pxf“n] cl3Nnf] lbg gof“lbNnLdf g} ‘cab]lv /fhf   g]kfndf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/
 geGg"’ eGb} u/]sf] b[Zo 6]lnlehgåf/f ;fj{hlgs ePsf] lyof] .                   ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] Oltxf; a]nfotdf !@!
                                                                               jif{ nfdf] eP klg g]kfndf $% jif{eGbf k'/fgf]
                                                                               5}g . lj=;+= @)!( sflQs @ ut]b]lv @)@@
                                                                               ;fn c;f]h @@ ut];Dd ‘uf]/vfkq’ ;f“´df
                                                                               klg k|sflzt ePsf] b]lvG5 . csf]{ hfgsf/L
                                                                               k|fKt gx'“bf;Dd ‘uf]/vfkq’ b}lgssf] oxL
                                                                               ;fo+ s fnLg ;+ : s/0fnfO{ ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/sf] k|f/DelaGb' dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 .
                                                                                         lj=;+ = @)$% d+ l ;/ @( ut]
                                                                               /fhwfgLdf g] k fn efiffdf ‘ljZje" l d’
                                                                               ;fo+sfnLg b}lgssf] k|sfzg k|f/De ePsf]
                                                                               lyof] . g]kfnL efiffsf lghL If]qsf ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/n] eg] k|hftGqsf] k'gj{xfnLkZrft\
                                                                               g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& nfu" ePkl5
                                                                               dfq} sf7df8f}+sf ahf/df k|j]z u/] . o;/L
                                                                               k|j]z ug]{x¿dWo] ;a}eGbf cufl8 ‘dxfgu/’
                                                                               b]vf kb{5 .
                                                                                         clxn] /fhwfgLaf6 dfq !^ j6f
                                                                               ;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/ lgl:s/x]sf]
                                                                               hfgsf/L b}lgs klqsf /fli6«o ;~hfnn] lbPsf]
                                                                               5 . k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg
                                                                               @)^# df Ps bh{ g hlt ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                               cvaf/x¿ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 k|sflzt
                                                                               b]lvG5g\ . sf7df8f}+ aflx/sf b'O{j6fdWo]
                                                                               ‘kf]v/f’ ;GWofsfnLg xfn aGb 5 eg]
                                                                               ‘;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cfsf+Iff’ wg'iffaf6
                                                                               k|sflzt b]lvG5 . sfplG;nsf] k|ltj]bg
                                                                               cg';f/ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 k|sflzt
                                                                               eO/x]sf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df pkTosf
                                                                               ;GWofsfnLg, qmfOd l/kf]6{/ ;GWofsfnLg,

30                                                                                                              df3–r}t @)^$
vf]htnf;, dxfgu/, ;GWofsfnLg, ;GWof tflnsf !
6fOD;, ;f“´sf] >Lsdf08/, ;f“´sf] l;6L
6fOD;, l;6L kf] i 6 cflb kb{ 5 g\ . k| ] ; cWoog ul/Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/, ltgsf] pd]/ / ;d]l6Psf c°x¿
sfplG;nsf] k|ltj]bgdf b}lgs cvaf/sf] cvaf/                                     pd]/                            cWoog ul/Psf c°x¿
;"rLdf pNn]v geP klg ;GWofsfnLg eg]/
                                               dxfgu/                            !% jif{                        !)$ b]lv !)(
5flkPsf cvaf/x¿ ;d]t sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf
ahf/df e]l6G5g\ .                              vf]htnf;                          !) jif{                        !&) b]lv !&^
                                               >Lsdf08/                          ( jif{                         !#@ b]lv !#&
cWoog ljlw / ;Ldf                              l;6L 6fOD;                        # jif{                         @$( b]lv @%$
sf7df8f}+sf ahf/df pknAw ;GWofsfnLg            l;6L kf]i6                        # jif{                         !^% b]lv !&!
b}lgsx¿sf] ;;{tL{ cjnf]sg;lxt ltgsf] ;/n
/ ;xh k|flKtnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ o; cWoogsf       l6Kk0fLM l;6L 6fOD;sf] c° @%# / l;6L kf]i6sf] c° !&) k|sflzt gePsf]
nflu kf“rj6fnfO{ 5flgPsf] lyof] . ;fy}, cNk–
;dofjlwsf] cWoog ePsf sf/0f jif{sf] klxnf]
;ft lbg ‘@)^$ j}zfv ! b]lv & ut];Dd’ tflnsf @
k|sflzt ltgsf c+snfO{ o;df ;d]l6Psf] cWoogdf ;d]l6Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ / ltgdf k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;ª\Vof
            {'
lyof] . -x]gxf];\ tflnsf !÷@_ ltgdf k|sflzt
;fdu|Lsf] cWoog Pjd\ ljZn]if0fsf cltl/Qm
;DalGwt ;Dkfbs, k|sfzs / ;/f]sf/jfnf–         cvaf/          j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv j}zfv                           j}zfv hDdf
l;tsf] s'/fsfgLaf6 yk hfgsf/L k|fKt ul/Psf]      ut]            !        @         #           $          %        ^         &
lyof] .                                      dxfgu/            s         @)        @)          @)         @#       @)        @)   !@#
         cvaf/sf ;fdu| L x¿sf] ljZn] i f0f
kqsfl/tfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGt / k|of]hgk/s vf]htnf;               %v        (         !@          !$         !!       *         !)   ^(
eflifs sf]0faf6 ul/Psf] 5 eg] ;dfrf/, >Lsdf08/                 s         *         (           !)         !$       !!        !$   ^^
ljrf/, lj1fkg, 5kfO, ahf/ cflbnfO{ klg l;6L 6fOD; s                      (         !#          !!         !#       u         !&   ^#
Vofn ul/Psf] 5 .                             l;6L kf]i6        *v        *         &           !)         !#       u         !)   %^
         ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] s'n ;+VofdWo] hDdf                !#        %$        ^!          ^%         &$       #(        &!   #&&
Psrf}yfO{ hlt dfq ;d]l6g' / b'O{ xKtfdf ;ft
                                             s= zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] .
lbgleq k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;fdu|Lsf] ;°ngb]lv
                                             v= zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg j}zfv ! ut] gof“ jiff{/De zlgaf/ k/]sf]n] k|sflzt .
cWoog ljZn]if0f ul/;Sg' o;sf] ;Ldf xf] .
                                               u= lah'nL gcfPsf] sf/0f k|sflzt gePsf] .
;fdu|L ljZn]if0f                              lnPsf] b]lvG5 . To;kl5sf] :yfg ck/fw÷xTof,    sltko ;dfrf/nfO{ ljifosf
ljifout ljljwtf / ;ª\VofTds ljt/0f                                                cfwf/df ;n{Ss 5'6\ofpg ;ls“b}g . g]tfsf]
                                              lx+;f / cfqmd0f÷lj/f]w k|bz{g h:tf ljifon]
ljifosf cfwf/df ;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/df      lnPsf] kfOG5 . lzIff÷:jf:Yo÷ lj1fg /gfd hf]l8Psf u}//fhgLlts 36gf, cfqmd0fsf]
k|sflzt ;dfrf/ ;fdu|LnfO{ s]nfp“bf ;a}eGbf                                        k|of]hg gePsf] a]jfl/;] adaf6 b'3{6gf klg
                                              ;~rf/÷;"rgf k|ljlw ;DaGwL ;dfrf/ ;a}eGbf
a9L :yfg /fhgLlts / s"6gLlts ;dfrf/n]         sd kfOPsf] 5 . -x]g'{xf];\ tflnsf #_x'g gkfPsf] l:ylt cflbdf ag]sf ;dfrf/sf]
                                                                                  peod' v L k| s [ l tnfO{ ljrf/ u/] / To:tf
tflnsf #       cvaf/df ;d]l6Psf d'Vo         ljifo jf If]q / ;dfrf/ ;fdu|L ;ª\Vof ;dfrf/nfO{ ljljw cGtu{t /flvPsf] 5 . o:t},
   d'Vo ljifo jf If]q             dxfgu/        vf]htnf; >Lsdf08/    l;6L 6fOD; l;6L kf]i6      hDdf            k|ltzt
    /fhgLlt÷s"6gLlt                @$            @)         !^            @#      !#            (^              @%=$^
    ck/fw÷xTof–lx+;f               !#            !%         $             *       !^            %^              !$=*%
    cfqmd0f÷lj/f]w k|bz{g          !!            !!         !#            *       &             %)              !#=@^
    v]ns'b÷dgf]/~hg                @(            –          *             %       !             $#              !!=$!
       {
    b'36gf÷k|fs[lts k|sf]k         (             &          !             !)      !)            #&              (=*!
    ;flxTo÷;+uLt÷snf÷;+:s[lt       !!            @          !             #       –             !&              $=%!
    cy{÷>d÷ko{6g                   @             –          !@            –       –             !$              #=&!
    lzIff÷:jf:Yo÷lj1fg             ^             –          %             !       –             !@              #=!*
    ;~rf/÷;"rgfk|ljlw              #             %          !             !       @             !@              #=!*
    ljljw                          !%            (          %             $       &             $)              !)=^!
    hDdf                          !@#           ^(          ^^            ^#      %^            #&&             !))
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                      31
v] n s' b df ljjfb gxf] n f t/ dgf] / ~hg                 ‘laxfg p7\of] . 6]lnkmf]g                             sf7df8f}+ . cf7 bnn] c;f/ ^ ut]
ljjfb/lxt 5}g . Pp6fn] dgf]/~hg u/]sf]                                                                ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg ug{sf nflu ldlt
ljifo csf] { n fO{ lrQ b' V g] vfnsf] klg                  u¥of] . cl3Nnf] lbgsf]                     l;kmfl/; u/]klg lgjf{rg cfof]un] c;f/
x'g;S5 . oxfF eg] dgf]/~hg :tDe cGtu{t                   36gfsf] hfgsf/L lnof] .                      dlxgfdf ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj x'g g;Sg] /
/flvPsf ;fdu|LnfO{ ‘dgf]/~hg’ gfdd} u0fgf                                                             r'gfjsf] nflu !!) lbg ;do rflxg] kq
ul/Psf] 5 . h] x f] ; \ , peod' v L k| s [ l tsf             xr'jfsf e/df va/                         ;/sf/nfO{ lbPkl5 ;/sf/ / cf7 bnaLr
;dfrf/;lxt k|d, ;Ddfg, ljlgdf{0f, n}l·stf
                ]                                        agfof] . cG6;G6 zLif{s                       7"nf] e'O“rfnf] uPsf] lyof] .
h:tf ljljw ljifon] ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df                      /fVof] / xtf/–xtf/df                                -l;6L 6fOD; ;GWofsfnLg, j}zfv %_
!)=^! k|ltzt :yfg kfPsf] b]lvG5 .
          ljifout ljljwtf b] l vP klg                      5kfP/ laxfg} cvaf/                                 k[i7e"ldaf6 z'? u/]/ cfVofg z}nLdf
;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df /fhgLlt, ck/fw,                                                                        \
                                                                                                      6'ªUofOPsf] o:tf] ‘ln8’nfO{ ;dfrf/ n]vgsf]
                                                           ahf/df k'¥ofof] . o:tf]                    k|rlnt l;4fGtn] :jLsf/ ub}{g . ;dfrf/sf]
cfqmd0f, lj/f]w k|bz{g h:tf ;d;fdlos /
36gfk|wfg ljifon] a9L 7fpF lnPsf 5g\ .                   eO/fÚ5 . clwsf+zn] oxL                       :j?k / z}nLsf] cfwf/e"t dfGotf g} k"/f gu/L
k|ltztsf lx;fan] v]ns'b÷dgf]/~hg rf}yf]                          ul//fÚ5g\ .’                         tof/ ul/Psf] of] ;fdu|LnfO{ o;sf] k|sfzg
:yfgdf b]lvP klg v]ns'b;DaGwL ;dfrf/sf]                                                                                   ]
                                                                                                      :yfg / zLif{s x]// dfq} ;dfrf/ elgPsf]
ljt/0f ;a} cvaf/df ;dfg'kflts e]l6Fb}g .                                                              xf] . o:tf] k|j[lQ ;GWofsfnLgx¿df a9L g}
v]ns'b / dgf]/~hg;DaGwL s'n $# j6f                                                                    b]lvPsf] 5 .
;dfrf/ ;fdu| L dWo] ‘dxfgu/’ b} l gsdf                               -l;6L kf]i6, @)^$ j}zfv @_               36gfk|wfg ;dfrf/af6 k|lqmofk|wfg
dfq @( j6f 5g\ eg] vf]htnf; b}lgsdf                                                                   ;dfrf/lt/ df]l8g] qmddf /fhgLlt dfq xf]Og
z"Go 5 .                                                      of] ‘Aofg/ x]8nfOg’ sf] d'lg bfof“kl§   cGo ljifosf] ;dfrf/df klg peos/0f ePsf]
          ;dfrf/ k|sfzg ;ª\Vofsf] lx;fan]          aS;df ‘;z:q k|x/Lsf] u0f Wj:t’ zLif{ssf]           5 . ‘afa'åf/f 5f]/L ue{jtL’ zLif{s ;dfrf/sf]
‘dxfgu/’ ;a}eGbf cufl8 b]lvPsf] 5 .                ;dfrf/ ;d]t /flvPsf] 5 .                           klxnf] jfSo o:tf] 5–
‘dxfgu/’n] cf};t b}lgs @)=% j6f ;dfrf/                        plNnlvt zLif{sx¿n] lbg] ;Gb]z xf]–              of}gn] dflg;nfO{ o:tf] cGwf] agfp“5,
5fk]sf] b]lvG5 eg] ‘l;6L kf]i6’ n] cf};t b}lgs     dfcf]jfbLx¿ Joj:yflksf ;+;b / ;/sf/df              h;;“ u ;DalGwt ck/fwx¿ sNkg} ug{
(=## j6f .                                         cfO;s]kl5 klg s]xL jif{ klxn] jftf{ 5f8]/          g;lsg] x'g] u/]sf] xfdL kfp“5f}+ .
                                                   h·n k;]h:t} km]l/ h·n} k;]5g\ . ;z:q k|x/L                                -l;6L kf]i6, j}zfv $_
d'Vo ;dfrf/ zLif{s M cfwfeGbf a9L Aofg/            u0fnfO{ klg pgLx¿n] cfqmd0f u/]/ Wj:t
                                                   kf/]5g\ . t/, oyfy{df g k|r08n] To:tf] 3f]if0ff             of] ;fdu|Ldf ‘xfdL kfp“5f}’+ jfSof+z
l;4fGttM s'g} dxTjk"0f{ 36gf x'Fbf cvaf/df                                                            cg'ko'Qm 5 . ‘xfdL’ zAb ;DkfbsLodf dfq}
‘Aofg/ x] 8 nfOg’ lbOG5 . t/ g] k fnL              u/]sf lyP, g dfcf]jfbL h+un k;]sf lyP g t
                                                   k|x/L u0fdf pgLx¿n] cfqmd0f g} u/]sf lyP .         k|of]u ug{ kfpF5 kqsf/n] . ;dfrf/sf 7fpFdf
;GWofsfnLg b}lgsx¿n] o:tf] k|of]unfO{                                                                 kqsf/n] ljrf/ lbg yfNof] eg] cvaf/ s]sf
;fdfGo¿kdf lnPsf] b] l vG5 . cWoog                 ;dfrf/sf] k]6af]nLdf To:tf] s'g} s'/f lyPg .
                                                              zLif{snfO{ ;DkfbsLos/0f u/]sf] klg      nflu / s;sf nflu eGg] k|Zg p7\5 .
cjlwdf k|sflzt cvaf/dWo] %) k|ltzteGbf                                                                         ;dfrf/df ljrf/ / ljrf/df ;dfrf/
a9Ldf Aofg/ k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 .                     kfOG5 . j}zfv ^ ut] >Lsdf08/df 5flkPsf]
                                                   Pp6f ;dfrf/sf] zLif{s 5– ‘Pdfn]sf] k|wfgdGqL       x'G5, gx'g] xf]Og . n]vg jf k|:t'ltsf] z}nLn]
         ax';ª\Vosn] ;dfrf/sf] ulx/fO /                                                               oL b'O{ ljwfnfO{ cnu agfp+5g\ . l/kf]6{/ jf
dxŒjnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ eGbf klg cfd                 df]x’ o;/L ;dfrf/sf] zLif{sdf ;DkfbsLos/0f
                                                   x'g'x'“b}g eG5 kqsfl/tfsf] l;4fGtn] .              kqsf/n] s;}nfO{ p4/0fdf gNofOsg, 36gfsf]
kf7snfO{ tTsfnsf nflu cfslif{t ug]{ b[li6n]                                                           alnof] cfwf/ g;dfOsg, cfwf/e"t k|Zgsf]
dfq zLif{ssf] k|sf/sf] rog / 8]ssf] k|of]u                                                            ;dfwfg ug]{ hfgsf/LnfO{ l;nl;nfa4 u/]/
ug]{ u/]sf] b]lvG5 . o; qmddf sltko                peok|sl[ tsf ;dfrf/
                                                                                                      ;xL 7fpF glbOsg cfkm}F h] dg nfUof] ToxL
cvaf/n] ;dfrf/nfO{ lgs} a9fOr9fO{ u/]sf]           ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df 5flkg] clwsf+z                s' / f hf] 8 ] / ‘;dfrf/’ agfpg kfpFb} g .
b]lvG5 . cvaf/df ;dfrf/sf] d"No / dfqf             ;dfrf/ peo k|sl[ tsf x'G5g\ . ltgdf ljrf/n]        cWoogdf ;d]l6Psf ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf
                  ]
cg'¿k dxTj a'´/ cIf/ ugL–ugL, zAb lagL–            ;dfrf/nfO{ cltqmd0f u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;a}eGbf         ;dfrf/ ;fdu|LdWo] cfwfeGbf a9Lsf] :j¿k
lagL / 7fpF 5fgL–5fgL zLif{s nufP/ ;dfrf/          klxn] ;dfrf/ lbg;Sg] / 36gfk|wfg ;dfrf/            eg] o:t} 5 . sltko ‘;dfrf/’ sf] t ;'?cft
5fKg'kg{] xf] t/ Totflt/ Wofg lbPsf] b]lv+b}g .    lbP k'Ug] cj:yfdf ;'? ul/Psf ;GWofsfnLgx¿          g} pvfgaf6 ul/Psf] kfOG5 . h:tf]–
         ;GWofsfnLgdWo] sltkosf] zLif{s            clxn] sl7g ;+qmd0fdf 5g\ . nf]stflGqs                          æsf7df8f}+ . ‘h'g hf]uL cfP klg
pQ]hgf km}nfpg] dfq p2]Zon] /flvPsf] /             cfGbf]ngsf] ljho / lg/+s'z /fhtGqsf]               sfg} lr/]sf’ pvfg rl/tfy{ ePkl5 dfcf]jfbL
unt ;Gb]z ;Dk|]if0f ug]{ vfnsf] kfOG5 .            cf}krfl/s lgliqmotf kZrft\ PkmPdx¿n]               cWoIf k|r08n] cfÇg}f dGqLx¿nfO{ c6]/ ug]{
sltko l:yltdf Aofg/ zLif{sd'lg aS;df               tTsfn} ;dfrf/ æa| ] s Æ ug{ yfn] k l5              / c;xof]u ug]{nfO{ x:tIf]k ub}{ dGqfnosf
lbOPsf c;DalGwt ;dfrf/n] kf7snfO{ ;xL              ;GWofsfnLgx¿ cfkm\gf] kl/rosf] vf]hLdf             sfd tdfd ug{ lgb]{zg lbPsf 5g\ .Æ
              ]     {
;"rgf ;Dk|if0f ug'sf] ;§f e|ddf kfg]{ sfd          b]lvG5g\ .                                                  -vf]htnf;, j}zfv %_
u/]sf] b]lvG5 . Pp6f cvaf/sf] ‘Aofg/                        o;}qmddf w}/}h;f] ;GWofsfnLgx¿n]
x]8nfOg’ o:tf] 5M                                  ;dfrf/nfO{ n]v / ;dfrf/sf] lvr8Lsf ¿kdf      ;dfrf/df ljrf/ ld;fP/ u/] s f]
   k|r08åf/f ;D´f}tf e+u ePsf] 3f]if0ff            k:sg yfn]sf 5g\ . Pp6f k|d'v ;dfrf/sf] ;dfrf/ ;Dk|if0fsf] csf]{ gd'gf o;k|sf/ 5M
                                                                                                     ]
dfcf]jfbL ;]gf lzlj/ aflx/, /Qmkftsf] ;+st   ]     klxnf] jfSo o:tf] 5M                           æsf7df8f}+ . g]kfnL ;dfhdf ;fnL

32                                                                                                                                   df3–r}t @)^$
/ e]gf;DaGwL b'O{ pvfg k|rlnt 5g\, Ps :tDex¿n] of] cj:yf :ki6 kf5{g\ .                           tflnsf $
u'Gb|'s ksfpg'kb}{g, ;fnL kmsfpg'kb}{g / csf]{             of}glzIff cGtu{t aRrf hGdfpg]                cvaf/, :tDe / k[i7
;fnL s;sf] e]gfsf] . === === ===Æ                tl/sf, Ct'rqm h:tf ljifosf] cfwf/e"t

                                                                                                        dxfgu/
                         -l;6L kf]i6, j}zfv &_ j}1flgs hfgsf/L cfjZos 5 . :tg 7"nf]
                                                 kfg]{ pkfo, of]lgkfg, d'vd}y'g h:tf s'/fn]
         Ps t of] Pp6} cg'R5]b !@@ zAbsf] eg] /fd| f ] ;Gb] z lbF b } g g\ . ;' k fRo klg
                                                                                                               ,
5 . To;dfly cfTdxTof;“u ;DalGwt o; 7xl/Fb}gg\ . t/ ;GwofsfnLgx¿df o;sf] s'g}                           kLknaf]6
;dfrf/sf] k|f/Dedf l5r/f] pvfgsf] hyfefjL 5\ofgAofg ePsf] kfOFb}g . Psflt/ o:tf] l:ylt                 r'6\lsn f
                                                                                                                          ';\
k|of]un] ljifoj:t'k|ltsf] c;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ 5 eg] csf]l{ t/ Pp6f cvaf/sf leqL k[i7x¿                              v'6\ofpg
                                                                                                        u|x–bzf
68\sf/f] kf/]sf] 5 . o;n] l/kf]6{/÷kqsf/sf] ef]lnkN6 h:tfsf] t:t} 5flkPsf] ;d]t kfOPsf]                  ;Dkfbs
                                                                                                                 Lo
;Lk / ;d´ b' a } kIfdf ckl/kSjtf / 5 . ;f]xL cvaf/df Pp6f wf/fjflxsnfO{
                                                                                                         ljrf/
u}/lhDd]jf/L k|bz{g u/]sf] 5 .                   ;fdfGo km]/abn dfq} u/]/ t];|f] lbg km]l/
                                                 5flkPsf] klg e]l6Psf] 5 .
8]6nfOg / ;dfrf/sf] cGt/;DaGw                              o;af6 clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLgx¿n]
8]6nfOg / ;dfrf/aLr cGt;{DaGw /x]sf]
x'G5 . 8]6nfOg /fVg] s'/fdf >Lsdf08/afx]s
                                                 cvaf/sf] ;DkfbsLo / n]v/rgf k[i7tkm{ rf;f]
                                                 glbg] u/]sf] k'li6 x'G5 . o:tf] l:yltdf tL                 vfhtnf;
                                                                                                              ]
                                                 cvaf/df 5flkPsf j}rfl/s ;fdu|Lx¿ slQsf]                        Lo
rf/}j6f cvaf/sf] z}nL Pp6} 5– 7fpF dfq                                                                  ;Dkfbs
                                                 lhDd]jf/, ljZn]if0fd"ns / tfls{s xf]nfg\–;xh}                    f
n]Vg] . /, ToxL n]Vbf klg ;GWofsfnLgx¿                                                                  n]v/rg
                                                 cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 .                                               gLlt
uDeL/ g/x]sf] cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . cWoog                                                                 rf0fSo
                                                                                                                    g
ul/Psf clwsf+z cvaf/sf ;dfrf/df 36gf                                                                     dgf]/~h            f] efUo
                                                 cfTdfnf]rgf                                                     f] tkfO{+s
                           +
hxfFsf] eP klg sf7df8f}sf] 8]6nfOgdf lbg]                                                                 c fhs
u/]sf] kfOG5 . s]xLn] t ljb]zL Ph]G;Lx¿af6 ;GWofsfnLgsf ;d:of÷r' g f} t Lx¿k| l t                                      pkGof;
                                                                                                           wf/fjflxs
cg" l bt ;dfrf/nfO{ ;d] t sf7df8f} + s } ;Dkfbs÷k| s fzsx¿ cgle1 b] l v“ b } g g\ .
8]6nfOgdf ;|f]t ;d]t gv'nfO{ lbPsf] b]lvG5 . ;f“´sf] >Lsdf08/sf k|wfg ;Dkfbs o'ugfy
                                                            ]
                                                 zdf{ kf}8n eG5g\—æc¿ b}lgs cvaf/x¿                                 8/
;dfrf/ n]vs÷k|ifssf] cg'kl:ylt
                   ]                             h:t} ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ klg lhDd]jf/ x'gk5{ '                 >L sdf0
                                                 eGg] nfUof xf] t/ eO/x]sf 5}gg\ .Æ l;6L                            Lo
clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLgdf ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf 6fOD;sf k|wfg ;Dkfbs ;'hLj ah|frfo{sf]                                   ;Dkfbs /rgf_
k|:t't ul/Psf ;fdu|Lx¿df ;dfrf/ n]vs b[ l i6df ;GWofsfnLgx¿df ‘cZnLntf /                                    ljrf/ -n]v
                                                                                                                     -sljtf_
jf k|ifsaf/] s]xL pNn]v u/]sf] kfOFb}g . ^) 5f8fkg’ b]lvG5 eg] l;6L kf]i6sf ;Dkfbs
       ]                                                                                                     ;flxTo            g
                                                                                                                       dgf]/~h
k|ltzt cvaf/sf] ‘;dfrf/ ;fdu|L’ sf] l:ylt g]qk|;fb Gof}kfg] !^ dWo] tLgj6f ;GWofsfnLg                        hgdt–
                                                                                                                        tlqmof
o:t} 5 . o;nfO{ ;GWofsfnLgsf ax';ª\Vos cvaf/n] ;a} ;GWofsfnLgnfO{ ‘uGxfpg]’ /                                 kf7s k|l {÷jfl0fHo
                                                                                                                         y
;Dkfbsx¿n] ;fdfGo s'/fsf ¿kdf lng] u/]sf ‘kf7sn] y'Ss eGg]’ ;Ddsf] cj:yfdf k'¥ofPsf]                          lj1fg– c
5g\ . o:tf] k|of]un] cvaf/sf] ljZj;gLotf s'/f n'sfpg rfx“b}gg\ .                                               v]ns   'b
36fpF5 / ;DkfbsnfO{ cg'Q/bfoL b]vfpF5 .                    cr]n gofF ;dfrf/ yfxf kfpg cvaf/
n]v/rgf / :tDex¿
                                                 s'g'{kb{}g, PkmPdn] g} EofOlbG5g\ . tfhf
                                                 ;dfrf/ lbg gkfPkl5 ;GWofsfnLg
                                                                                                                L6 ;
                                                                                                             l;6sLo fOD
;GWofsfnLg b}lgs cvaf/dWo] w]/}n] leqL cvaf/x¿n] cfk"mnfO{ s;/L k|:t't ub}{5g\ t                            ;Dkfb
                                                                                                                       f
k[i7x¿df ljleGgvfnsf :tDe /fv]/ kf7snfO{ < ‘vf]htnf;’ sf sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs ofbj                               n]v/rg
cfslif{ t ug{ vf] h ] s f] b] l vG5 . ltgdf yklnof eG5g\—ælaxfg p7\of] . 6]lnkmf]g                           bz{g
                                                                                                                         1fg
;DkfbsLob]lv bz{g, lj1fg, r'6\lsnf, Jo+Uo, u¥of] . cl3Nnf] lbgsf] 36gfsf] hfgsf/L lnof] .                    ljrf/ lj 1fg
/flzkmn, ;fdfGo 1fg, sljtf, wf/fjflxs xr'jfsf e/df va/ agfof] . cG6;G6 zLif{s                                 :jf:Yo lj fjflxs
                                                                                                              xf“;f}+– wf/
;fdu|L, of}glzIff, dxTjk"0f{ 6]lnkmf]g, 6]lnlehg /fVof] / xtf/ xtf/df 5kfP/ laxfg} cvaf/                       of}glzIff fh
                 '
/ /]l8of]sf] a]nsLsf] sfo{qmd / ;'grfFbLsf] ahf/df k'¥ofof] . o:tf] eO/f’5 . clwsf+zn]                         tkfO{+sf]
                                                                                                                           c
efp;Dd lbg] u/] s f] kfOG5 . cWoogdf oxL ul//f’5g\ .Æ
;d]l6Psf cvaf/x¿df k|sflzt x'g] u/]sf                      ahf/sf] c:j:y k|lt:kwf{sf sf/0f
:tDex¿sf] ;"rL tflnsf $ df lbOPsf] 5 . ;GWofsfnLgx¿ ;f“ e mdf lg:sg' s f] ;§f
         o;/L, ljljwtfsf gfddf cvaf/sf] dWofGxdf ;l/;s]sf] atfpFb} kf}8]n eG5g\—                                 l;6L kfi6
                                                                                                                        ]
k[i7 / cfsf/eGbf a9L ;fdu|L ;d]6g vf]h] æo;sf] df]8fln6L abNg'k¥of] eGg] cg'ej
                                           \                                                                  ;Dkfbs
                                                                                                                      Lo          f_
klg w]/}n] cfÇgf] nlIft ju{ ;d]t 7Dofpg ul/Psf] 5 .Æ ah| f rfo{ s f] egfO 5—                                                -nv/rg
                                                                                                                              ]
                                                                                                              ;d –;fdlos
                                ]
;s]sf] kfOFb}g . l;sf?n] n]vsf] lr7\7L ‘dgsf æ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/n] klxn] h:tf] 36gfk|wfg                                   fg
s'/f’ b]lv of}g / of]lgkfg dfq xf]Og gLlt, dfq xf]Og ljrf/k|wfg÷ ljZn]if0fk|wfg ;dfrf/                         ;fdfGo1
                                                                                                                         efUo
bz{g, lj1fg;Ddsf ;fdu|L c6fOPsf cwsNrf lbg'k5{ .Æ                                                              tkfO{+sf]
                                                                                                                         s
                                                                                                                wf/fjflx
                                                                                                                ljljw
df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                           33
          æ;GWofsfnLgx¿nfO{ ;+:yfut¿kdf,      ‘;~hfn’ u7g u/]/ bafj l;h{gf u/L 3 ju{df        tLg ?k}ofF 5 t/ xs/÷laqm]tfn] b'O{ ?k}ofF
;+oldt, ;Gt'lnt, Jojl:yt eP/ rnfpg            /flvPsf ;GWofsfnLgx¿nfO{ u ju{df ;fg]{ -        &) k};f;Dd lng] / ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzsn] #)
        {
;Sg'kg]Æ ljrf/ b}lgs klqsf /fli6«o ;~hfnsf    h;af6 ;/sf/n] lbg] ;'ljwf s]xL a9L kfpg         k};f dfq kfpg] oyfy{ klg 5 . lj1fkgsf] b/
cWoIf s]zj b]jsf]6fsf] 5 . ;fy}, ;/sf/n]      ;lsof];\_ k|of; klg rln/x]sf] kfOG5 .           /]6 klg lglZrt 5}g .Æ
klg ;a} ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/nfO{ Pp6} ju{df       o;af6 ;GWofsfnLgx¿n] cfkm\gf] ;xL af6f] /                              ]
                                                                                                       æcvaf/ a]r/ cfPsf] k};fn] sfuh
/fv] / Jojxf/ ug{ gx' g ] wf/0ff /fV5g\ ,     :jLsfo{ 9f“rf klxNofpg c´}+ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\      lsGg / 5kfO vr{ dfq} k'U5 . af“sL vr{
;~hfnsf pkfWoIf tyf ahf/ cg' u dg             eGg] klg k'li6 x'G5 .                           lj1fkgaf6 h'6fpg'k5{Æ ;'hLj ah|frfo{sf]
;ldltsf ;+of]hs g]qk|;fb Gof}kfg] . ‘l;6L                                                     egfO{ 5 . pgL cvaf/sf] laqmLaf6 tLg efusf]
kf]i6’ ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzs ;d]t /x]sf Gof}kfg]sf]   lj1fkgsf] e/                                                               \
                                                                                              Ps efu /sd cfk"mn] g5f]8g] -laqm]tf÷xs/nfO{
egfOdf æsltko ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿ t            ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿df s' n k| s fzg              d"Nosf] b'O–ltxfO{ dfq sldzg lbg]_ atfp“5g\ .
                                                                                                         {
3/ n}hfg} g;lsg] vfnsf klg 5g\ .Æ o:tf]       :yfgsf] @^=# k|ltztb]lv $)=* k|ltzt;Dd                   ;fdfGotM ;dfrf/÷ljrf/sf nflu ^)
x'g glbg ;~hfnn] cfrf/;+l+ xtf agfpg] tof/L   lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] kfOG5 eg] ;dfrf/ /           / lj1fkgsf nflu $) k|ltzt :yfg lbg'
ul//x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .                        ljrf/n] %(=@ b]lv &#=& k|ltzt;Dd :yfg           cvaf/sf] :jf:Yosf nflu ;Gt'lnt dflgG5 .
          ;+If]kdf eGbf, ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/                         {'
                                              kfPsf] b]lvG5 . -x]gxf];\ tflnsf %_             t/ ;GWofsfnLgx¿n] Tolt ‘w]/}’ lj1fkg
rnfpg]x¿n] cl:tTjsf] ;+s6 cg'ej ub}{                  lj1fkgaf6 k| f Kt x' g ] /sd g}         kfpFb}gg\ . cWoogsf] ;do gofF jiff{/Dedf
hLjg/Iffsf] pkfo vf]Hg yfn]sf] b]lvG5 . o;    ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] d'Vo cfDbfgL xf] .          k/]sfn] dfq oL cvaf/df olt;Dd lj1fkg
qmddf Psflt/ k|sfzg ;do cufl8 ;f/]/           c:j:y k|lt:kwf{n] laqmL / lj1fkgsf] cfo         b]lvPsf] xf] . ;fy}, lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfgsf]
dWofGxd} NofOPsf] kfOG5 eg] csf{ l t/         v:sfPsf] 5 . ;~hfnsf cWoIf b]jsf]6f             u0fgf ubf{ ;DalGwt k|sfzgsf] lj1fkgnfO{
ljrf/k|wfg agfpg] gfddf ;dfrf/nfO{ g}         eG5g\— æclwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf]             klg ;d]l6Psf] 5 . o:tf lj1fkgaf6 k|sfzg
peos/0f u/]sf] klg k|z:t e]l6G5 . To:t},      cfly{s l:ylt gfh's 5 . d"No k|lt klqsf          ;+:yfnfO{ cfo cfh{g gx'g] :jtMl;4 5 . o:t},

     tflnsf %                           ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/df ;dfrf/÷ljrf/ / lj1fkgsf] :yfg

           dxfgu/                                      vf]htnf;                                         >L sdf08/
     6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $              6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $                 6\ofAnf]O8                   k[i7 $

     ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                    ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg
      !@%!(=*      ju{ ;]=ld                       !#&&&=)      ju{ ;]=ld                           !#*@!=@      ju{ ;]=ld
      &)=* %                                       ^)=& %                                           ^!=* %

        lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                      lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                          lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg
      %!%#=@ ju{     ;]=ld                         *()#=)       ju{ ;]=ld                            *%@*=* ju{ ;]=ld
      @(=@ %                                       #(=# %                                            #*=@ %

                                                                                           l6Kk0fLM
                                                                                           != dxfgu/sf] 5 lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
            l;6L 6fOD;                                   l;6L kf]i6                            k|sflzt gx'g] .
      6\ofAnf]O8               k[i7 $              6\ofAnf]O8                k[i7 $        @= vf] h tnf;sf] ;ft lbgsf] c° ;d] l 6Psf] ,
                                                                                               zlgaf/ k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg ! ut] -
     ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                ;dfrf/÷ljrf/n] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                zlgaf/_ gof“ jif{ ePsf]n] k|sflzt .
                                                                                           #= >Lsdf08/sf] ^ lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
      !!$&*=)      ju{ ;]=ld                       !)&^#=*       ju{ ;]=ld                     k|sflzt gx'g] .
      &#=& %                                       %(=@ %                                  $= l;6L 6fOD; kf“r lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
                                                                                               glg:sg] / j}zfv ^ ut] laxLaf/ lah'nL
                                                                                               gcfPsf]n] k|sfzg gePsf] .
        lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg                      lj1fkgn] cf]u6]sf] :yfg               %= l;6L kf]i6 5 lbgsf] c° ;d]l6Psf], zlgaf/
      $)()=* ju{ ;]=ld                              &$@*=@ ju{ ;]=ld                           k|sflzt gx'g] eP klg ! ut] -zlgaf/_ gofF
      @^=# %                                        $)=* %                                     jif{ ePsfn] k|sflzt ePsf], j}zfv ^ ut]
                                                                                               laxLaf/ lah'nL gcfPsfn] k|sflzt gePsf] .

34                                                                                                                            df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                                         dLg ah|frfo{
logsf lj1fkgbftfx¿df ljljwtf b]lvFb } g .        æclwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/sf] cfly{s l:ylt gfh's 5 . d"No
s]xL lglZrt lj1fkgx¿ g} lgoldt¿kdf jf
lglZrt cGt/fndf 5flkPsf kfOG5g\ .                k|lt klqsf tLg ?k}of“ 5 t/ xs/÷laqm]tfn] b'O{ ?k}of“ &) k};f;Dd
         ;GWofsfnLgx¿sf] 3f]lift gLlt zlgaf/
cvaf/ k|sflzt gug]{ eP klg lj1fkg                 lng] / ;Dkfbs÷k|sfzsn] #) k};f dfq kfpg] oyfy{ klg 5 .Æ
k|flKtsf] ;Defjgfs} sf/0f j}zfv ! ut]
zlgaf/ k/] s f] eP klg $) k| l tzt             ;xL pkrf/sf] h¿/t                               uDeL/ ljifoj:t' n fO{ xNsfk' m Nsf /
;GWofsfnLgn] To; lbgdf ;d]t cvaf/                                                              ;To36gfnfO{ klg xr'jfh:tf] agfOlbg]
k|sflzt u/]sf] kfOof] . Ps jfSodf eGbf,        d'n's clxn] ;ª\qmd0fsf] qmddf 5 . Psflt/,
                                               lxhf];Dd åGå/t kIfx¿ ;D´f}tfa4x'b} ljrf/sf
                                                                                 “             efiffz}nL k|of]u gug]{ .
;du|df clwsf+z ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿                                                                                            {
                                                                                               zLif{s rog, ;dfrf/ n]vg÷k'gn]vg, ;"rgf
lj1fkgsf] b[li6n] s'kf]lift 5g\ . lj1fkgsf]    dfWodaf6 cf–cfÇgf nIotkm{ cl3 a9\g
                                               vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ . csf{lt/, gofF lsl;dsf åGå,     jf ;fdu|Lsf] ;Tofkg, ;fh;Hhf cflb;DaGwL
s'kf]if0fn] klg ;dfrf/÷ljrf/ ;fdu|Lsf]                                                         cfwf/e"t ;DkfbsLo ;Lkdf uDeL/tfk"j{s
:jf:YonfO{ kIff3ftsf] l:yltdf k'¥ofPsf]        ;ª\3if{ / cfjfhx¿ b]vf kl//x]sf 5g\ . o:tf]
                                               a]nf ;"rgfsf] v]tL ug]{x¿sf] e"ldsf klg         Wofg lbg'kg]{ .
x'g;S5 .                                                                                       ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ jf:tjdf g}
                                               ablnG5 . ablng' k 5{ . ;GWofsfnLg
laqmL l:ylt                                    cvaf/x¿ To;sf] ckjfb x'g ;Sb}gg\ .              ;GWofsfnLg x'g'kg]{ . cl3Nnf] lbgsf]
                                                        g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLgx¿ c´} afd] ;g]{      ;dfrf/nfO{ k:s]/, k|ftMsfnLg cvaf/x¿df
ljZjsf 7"nf Ps ;o cvaf/x¿sf] ;"rLdf                                                                                             "
                                                                                               k|sflzt ;dfrf/x¿nfO{ cfÇgf] cg'sn 9fn]/
PSsfO;f}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] ofª\;] Oelgª kf]i6     cj:yfdf g} 5g\ . kf7ssf] ljZjf; cfh{g
                                               ug{ logn] c´} lgs} s;/t ug{ af“sL g} 5 .        ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/ lgsfNg] k|j[lQnfO{
-rLgaf6 k|sflzt_ sf] !& nfv !% xhf/ k|lt                                                       xtf]T;flxt ug]{ .
laqmLsf] t'ngfdf g]kfnL ;GWofsfnLgsf] l:ylt    oL cvaf/x¿n] tTsfn} Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fnfO{
gu0o 5 . ;Dks{df cfPsf k|sfzs÷ ;Dkfbs–         o;/L ;"rLa4 ug{ ;lsG5M
                                                                                                  ;GWofsfnLg cvaf/x¿n] cfÇgf]
x¿n] 36Ldf b'O{ xhf/b]lv a9Ldf tL; xhf/;Dd                                                cl:tTjnfO{ hf]ufO/fVg] xf] eg] ljlzi6tf
laqmL ljt/0f x'g] u/]sf] bfaL u/]sf 5g\ .          ;dfrf/nfO{ b'?:t agfpg] . n]v/rgf /
;~hfnsf cWoIfsf] egfOdf eg] ;a}eGbf a9L            :tDex¿ k"0f{, :t/Lo, ;d;fdlos / ;'kfRo b]vfpg}k5{ . xs/÷laqm]tfx¿sf] rsf]{ cfjfhn]
                                                   x'g'kg]{ . ljZj;gLotfnfO{ dxŒj lbg] .  dfq cvaf/ l6sfpg ;ls“b}g .
                    { ]
laSg] cvaf/sf] ‘;s'n;g’ kfFr xhf/;Dd 5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                      35
     sfg"g


>dhLjL kqsf/ P]g
sfof{Gjogsf] k|Zg
      ;'/z cfrfo{ Joj:yflksf ;+;bn] >dhLjL kqsf/ P]g ;+zf]wg;lxt kfl/t u/]kl5 cfd kqsf/df >dhLjL kqsf/sf]
         ]
                     clwsf/ ;'/lIft aGb}5 eGg] cfzf knfPsf] 5 . klxn] sltko cfd ;~rf/sdL{ cfkm}+ cGof]ndf lyP .
                     pgLx¿nfO{ nfUYof], >dhLjL kqsf/sf] clwsf/ ;'/lIft ug]{ sfd of] b]zdf ;Dej 5}g . Joj:yfksx¿

                   7fGy], P]g sfof{Gjog x'g' eg]sf] cfkm" cyf{t\ Joj:yfkg            ;/sf/n] P]gdf Joj:yf ePsf] ‘kfl/>lds tyf
                   sdhf]/ x'g' xf] . pgLx¿ o;nfO{ sfof{Gjog gu/L                Ifltk"lt{ lgwf{/0f ;ldlt’ u7g gu/]sf] xf]Og . t/ Tof]
                   ;~rf/dfWod rnfpg rfxGy] . clxn] ;+zf]lwt P]g                 slxNo} k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]g . kqsf/ dxf;+3n] o;sf]
                   Jofjxfl/s agfpg vf]lhPsf] cfef; ePsf] 5 / nfu"               cWoIf k|sfzsdWo]af6 5fGg lbPsf] ;'emfj cg';f/
                   xf]nf eGg] cfzf klg a9]sf] 5 .                               ;/sf/n] klxnf] cWoIf lxdfno 6fOD; b}lgssf pHHjn
                                                                                zdf{nfO{ agfof] hf] P]gnfO{ cf+lzs ¿kdf ;d]t nfu"
                   lsg nfu" ePg P]g <                                           ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf 5}gg\ eGg] ;a}n] a'em]sf lyP . t}klg
                          g]kfndf >dhLjL kqsf/n] slxn] ;/sf/L dfGotf            pgsf] sfo{sfndf tTsfnLg ;/sf/L tnasf cfwf/df
                   kfof], Tolt k|:6 5}g . hgdt ;ª\u|xkl5 k~rfotL                Go"gtd kfl/>ldssf] 9f“rf tof/ u/]/ l;kmfl/; ul/Psf]
                   zf;gdf k|]; sfplG;n g]kfnsf] u7g ubf{ >dhLjL                 lyof] . t/ To;} jif{ ;/sf/n] e|i6frf/ lgd"{n ug]{ eGb}
                   kqsf/dWo]af6 klxnf] k6s k|ltlglwTj u/fOPsf] lyof] .          sd{rf/Lsf] tna em08} bf]Aa/ agfPkl5 ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/;
                   @)#( ;fn df3 !@ ut] u7g ePsf] sfplG;ndf                      c;fGble{s ag]/ s'gfdf ylGsof] .
                   ab|Lk|;fb u'Ktf >dhLjL kqsf/sf] klxnf] k|ltlglw lyP .             bf];|f] cWoIf lgo'Qm ul/Psf g]kfn ;dfrf/kq
                          @)%! ;fndf >dhLjL kqsf/;DaGwL P]gdf /fhfn]            b}lgssf k|sfzs k'is/nfn >]i7n] kb g} :jLsf/ u/]gg\ .
                   nfndf]x/ nufP . Tolta]nf d'n'sdf Pdfn]sf] cNkdtsf]           oBlk >dhLjL kqsf/ ;DaGwL P]g sfof{Gjogsf nflu
                   ;/sf/ lyof] . P]gsf] d:of}bf p;n] u/]sf] lyPg, h;            lgodfjnL agfpg] ;ldltdf of] n]vs;“u} pgL klg ;b:o
                   lng] a]nfdf dfq pm cfOk'u]sf] lyof] . P]g aGg'k5{ eGg]       lyP . cfkm";d]t nfu]/ agfPsf] lgodfjnL sfof{Gjogsf]
                   s'/fdf klxn] s;}sf] ljdlt lyPg t/ P]g ag]kl5                 lhDd]jf/L kfp“bf pgL efUg'kg]{ sf/0f lyPg . t];|f] cWoIf
                   kqsf/x¿ ljeflht eP . Pdfn]n] NofPsf] P]g nfu" x'“bf          agfOPsf dx]Gb| z]/rg /fhwfgL b}lgssf k|sfzs x'g\ .
                   ;a} kqsf/ Pdfn] aGnfg\ eGg] dgf]u|GyLsf sf/0f,                                  [                    '
                                                                                pgL ;ldltsf] g]tTjdf cfpgf;fy d'nsdf /fhgLlts
                   sfª\u|];n] agfPsf] k|]; o'lgog P]gsf] 3f]/ lj/f]wL aGof] .   k|ltudg rn]sfn] ;ldltdf /x]sf kqsf/af6} pgn]
                   /d]z t'kmfg o'lgogsf cWoIf lyP . /f;;df cem} pgsf]           ;xof]u kfpg ;s]gg\ . pgL cfkm}+ P]gsf] sfof{Gjogdf
                   hflu/ 5 . tTsfnLg g]kfn kqsf/ ;+3 -clxn]sf]                                                                       }
                                                                                slt OdfGbf/ /x] eGg] k|Zg cfkm\gf] 7fp“df hLljt 5“b5 .
                   dxf;+3_ l;4fGttM P]gsf] ;dy{gdf lyof], t/ nfu" ul/xfNg            n]vs dxf;+3sf] ;efklt ePsf a]nf o;sf]
                   rflx“ o;sf] g]tTj cfkm}df tof/ lyPg . P]gn] kqsf/nfO{
                                   [       +                                                                              {
                                                                                sfof{Gjogsf ljifodf Joj:yfksx¿;“u b'Ok6s 5nkmn
                   ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L u/]/ b'O{ efudf ljefhg u/]sf]             ePsf] lyof] . s;}af6 o;sf] sfof{Gjogdf c;lhnf] x'g]
                   lyof] . kqsf/ ;+3df ;/sf/L kqsf/n] ev{/} dfq k|j]z           atfOPg . a¿ /fHon] lj1fkg lbg'kg]{ gLlt agfpg
                   kfPsf] To; cj:yfdf ;+3sf] g]t[Tj of] ljjfb km]l/ z'?         ;xof]u ug{ cfu|x ul/of] . t/ kl5 eg] sfg"g g}
                   ug{ rfx“b}gYof] . ;f] P]g lghL If]qdf dfq nfu" x'g]          Jofjxfl/s gePsf] eGg] l6Kk0fL u/]sf] ;'lgof] . sfg"gsf]
                   k|sl[ tsf] ePsfn] ;/sf/n] To;sf] sfof{Gjogdf rf;f]           s'g bkmfn] Joj:yfksnfO{ s] s:tf] ;+s6 kf¥of] eg]/
                   b]vfPg . P]gsf] kfngf gu/]df bl08t x'g'kg{] sfg'gL           rflx“ s;}n] pNn]v u/]g . ;"rgf ljefun] k|]; kf;
                   k|fjwfg g} g/flvPsf sf/0f Joj:yfksx¿n] To;nfO{               hf/L ubf{ l;kmfl/;kqsf] ;f6f] lgo'lQmkq dfUg] ;xdlt
                   ;xh} a]jf:tf u/] . ;a}lt/af6 pk]lIft ;f] P]g cGttM           dxf;+3n] ljefu;“u u¥of] . t/ To;sf] k|efjsf/L
                   af“b/sf] k'R5/sf ¿kdf ;Lldt x'g k'Uof] .                     sfof{Gjog ePg . k|]; /lhi6«f/sf] lhDd]jf/L kfPsf

36                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
ljefusf dxflgb]zsnfO{ s'g} klg ;~rf/dfWoddf sfd ;+:yfx¿n] c¿ s'g} ;'ljwf glbO{ >dhLjLnfO{ sfd
                    {
ug]{ >dhLjLsf af/]df hfgsf/L dfUg] sfg"gL clwsf/ nufPsf 5g\ .
5 . t/ ltgn] ‘Joj:yfksx¿ lrl9g]’ o; sfddf xft                     k]zfut xslxtsf nflu cfjfh p7fpg'kg]{ ;+:yf
xfNg rfx]gg\ .                                           g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3 xf] . xfdLsxf“ >dhLjL kqsf/sf
                                                         nflu dfq} eg]/ n8\g] ;+:yfsf] ljsf; x'g;s]sf] 5}g .
sfg"gL l5b| / cJofjxfl/s k|fjwfg                         P]gsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu u7g x'g] ;ldltdf dxf;+3sf]
      P]gsf] bkmf % df s/f/df >dhLjL kqsf/ lgo'Qm        k|ltlglwTj clgjfo{ /xG5 . o; ;Gbe{df dxf;+3n] P]gsf]
ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] . >dhLjL kqsf/x¿sf] kfngf u/fpg Ifdtf k|bz{g ug{ g;s]sf] :jLsf/
zf]if0f ug{ afgL k/]sf Joj:yfksx¿n] o;} bkmfnfO{ ug'{k5{ .
zf]if0fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] xltof/sf] ¿kdf k|of]u u/] .
s/f/df /flvPsfx¿nfO{ To;df pNn]v eP afx]s s'g} ;+zf]wgkl5sf] gof“ Joj:yf
;'ljwf lbg' gkg{] / s/f/ gylklbg] qf;sf] t/af/                    ;+zf]lwt P]gn] ‘;~rf/ k|lti7fg’ nfO{ k'gM kl/eflift
6fpsf]dfly e'm08\ofP/ ;w}“ lg/Lx Pj+ /IffTds cj:yfdf     u/L ;~rf/;DaGwL s'g} Joj;fo jf ;]jf ;~rfng ug]{                   >dhLjL kqsf/
/fVg ;lsg] ePsfn] Joj:yfksx¿sf nflu of] ‘/fdaf0f’ p2]Zon] tLg hgf jf ;f]eGbf a9L >dhLjL kqsf/,                              P]gsf] kl5Nnf]
7xl/of] . P]gnfO{ To;sf] efjgfcg'¿k sfof{Gjog u/fpg sd{rf/L jf sfdbf/ sfo{/t /x]sf] ;fj{hlgs jf lghL                      ;+zf]wgn] To;nfO{
;/sf/n] klg bfloTj lnPg / kqsf/ cfkm}+ klg sfg"gsf ;~rf/dfWod jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ ;Demg'k5{ eg]sf]                           lgs} xb;Dd
cfwf/df :yfoL÷c:yfoL lgo'lQmkq / ;]jf, ;'ljwfx¿sf] 5 . o;cl3 klqsf k|sfzg ug]{ ;+:yf dfq ;~rf/dfWod                      Jofjxfl/s agfPsf]
dfu ug{ cl3 ;/]gg\ . Joj:yfkgn] lbPsf] df}lvs eg]/ kl/eflift lyof] . t/ o; k6ssf] kl/efiffn] sfo{qmd
cfZjf;gdf g} w]/}h;f] e/ k/] / zf]lift eO/x] . pTkfbg dfq} ug]{ ;+:yfnfO{ ;d]t ;d]6]sf] 5 . of] sfg"g                   5 . t/, ;/sf/ /
Joj:yfkg;“u clwsf/sf] n8fO“ n8\g] cf“6 u/]gg\ . kfngf ug{ k|;f/0f jf k|sfzg ug}{ kg]{ h¿/L 5}g .                         kqsfl/tfhut :jo+
ev{/} elgP em}+, sfg"gsf] plrt sfof{Gjog gubf{ ;fy} ckjfbsf ¿kdf g]kfn ;/sf/n]] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f                        o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf
Joj:yfkg bl08t x'gkg{] s'g} k|fjwfg gePsf] a¿ >dhLjL ;ldltsf] k/fdz{df g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg
                      '                                                                                                 nflu ;lqmo gx'g] xf]
kqsf/nfO{ g} b08 ;hfo ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf /x]sfn] u/L kqklqsfsf] laqmL ;ª\Vof, /]l8of] oGqsf] Ifdtf,                         eg] P]g >dhLjL
                                                             '
pQm P]g kqsf/x¿sf nflu sfunfO{ a]n kfs]eGbf vf;} s]an 6]lnlehgsf] u|fxs ;ª\Vof, cgnfOg klqsf k|of]u
a9L x'g ;s]g .                                           ;ª\Vof, sfo{qmd pTkfbg ;ª\Vof, ;dfrf/ ljt/0f                   kqsf/sf nflu km]l/
      kqsf/nfO{ ;/sf/L sd{rf/L;/x labf lbg'kg{] ;ª\VofnfO{ ljrf/ u/L s'g} ;~rf/ k|lti7fgdf of] P]g                        klg sfunfO{ a]n
lgodfjnLsf] k|fjwfg rflx“ cfkm}+df cJofjxfl/s lyof] . nfu" gx'g] ug{ ;Sg] k|fjwfg klg ;+zf]wgn] ;d]6]sf] 5 .            kfs];/x x'g k'Ug]5 .
lgodfjnLn] e}k/L cfpg] / kj{ labf ^–^ lbgsf b/n]                  ;+:yfdf sfd ug]{sf] kbsf] juL{s/0f o;cl3 ;+:yf
!@ lbg, 3/ labf #) lbg / la/fdL labf !@ lbg u/L                +}
                                                         cfkm+n] ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf /x]sf]df clxn] ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f
jif{df %$ lbg lgoldt labfsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . u/]adf]lhd ug'{kg]{ ul/Psf] 5 . tL kbsf] nflu rflxg]
o;afx]s ^) lbg ;'Ts]/L labf, !% lbg lsl/of labf / of]Uotf, cg'ej, sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tyf pQ/bfloTj
kf“r jif{ sfd ug]nfO{ Ps jif{;Ddsf] a]tnjL labf lbg'kg]{ eg] ;DalGwt Joj:yfkssf] lhDdfdf 5fl8Psf] 5 . ;fy}
                  {
k|fjwfg 5 . cfjZostf kbf{ !* 306f;Dd sfd ub{} / o;k6s P]gn] lgo'lQmkq glbO{ s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ sfddf
nufO“b} cfPsf]df Ps lbgdf * 306feGbf a9L sfddf nufpg gx'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
nufpg gkfOg] / yk sfdsf] nflu yk /sd lbg'kg]{                     cl3Nnf] sfg'gdf slt hgf;DdnfO{ s/f/df lgo'lQm
Joj:yf ;~rf/dfWodsf nflu cgf}7f] lyof] . o;sf ug{ ;lsg] eGg] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] lyPg . o;k6s
;fy}, lgodfjnLn] Joj:yf u/]sf] jflif{s tna j[l4, eg] s'g} JolQmsf] ljz]if1 ;]jf lng'kg]{ ePdf Joj:yfksn]
                                                           ]
sNof0fsf/L sf]ifsf] :yfkgf, ;~rosf]if, pkrf/ vr{, k|; /lhi6«f/sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ lglZrt ;dofjlw tf]sL
pkbfg, bz}+ vr{ / aLdfsf] k|fjwfgnfO{ klg Joj:yfkg       kGw| k|ltzt;Dd dfq >dhLjL kqsf/ /fVg kfpg]
kIfn] yk e'Qmdfgsf ¿kdf lnof] . s]xL ;Lldt ;+:yfn] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy}, s/f/df lgo'Qm ePsf] JolQmsf]
b'3{6gf aLdf ul/lbg' afx]s clxn];Dd klg ;~rf/ ;d]t kfl/>lds, ;~ro sf]if tyf c¿ ;'ljwf ;~rf/

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                             37
                       k|lti7fgsf] ;dfg kb jf txdf sfo{/t >dhLjL kqsf/n]          / ;/sf/sf k|ltlglw /xg]5g\ . af“sL rf/ hgfdWo]
                       kfpg]eGbf sd ug{ kfO“b}g . sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf s'g}           kqsfl/tf If]qdf ljlzi6 of]ubfg u/]sf] JolQm cWoIf
                       >dhLjL kqsf/nfO{ rf]6k6s nfu]df, lghsf] c+ue+u             /xg]5 eg] g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf] ;efklt, ;~rf/
                       ePdf, d[To' ePdf jf lghsf] JolQmut ;DklQ gi6               ;+:yfdf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/L / >d tyf cy{ ljz]if1
                       ePdf pkrf/ vr{ jf Ifltk"lt{sf] /sd ;DalGwt ;~rf/           ;b:o /xg] 5 g\ . ;ldltsf] of] ;+ / rgfn] lqkIfLo
                       k|lti7fgn] g} Joxf]g'{kg]{ Joj:yf klg sfg"gn] u/]sf] 5 .   ;Gt'ngnfO{ sfod u/]sf] 5 .
                            Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug{ aGg] ;ldltsf]                  s'g} klg ;~rf/ ;+:yfdf ztk|ltzt kqsf/ s/f/df
                       ;+/rgfdf Jofks x]/km]/ ePsf] 5 . ca ;/sf/af6               /fVg ;lsg] 9f]sf aGb u/]/ !% k|ltzteGbf a9L /fVg
                       ;x;lrj:t/sf JolQmn] k|ltlglwTj ug{]5g\ eg] g]kfn           gkfpg] ul/Psf] 5 . of] k|fjwfg Hofb} dxŒjk"0f{ 5 t/
                       kqsf/ dxf;+3sf ;efklt kb]g ;b:o /xg]5g\ .                  o;nfO{ nfu" u/fpg ;/sf/n] 7"n} s;/t ug'{kg]{
                       Joj:yfkssf] plrt k| l tlglwTj x' g ] 5 / ;~rf/             x'g;S5 . JolQmut ¿kdf s/f/d} sfd ug{ rfxg]
      s'g} klg ;~rf/ k|lti7fgdf sfd ug]{ sfdbf/ jf sd{rf/Laf6 klg k|ltlglw        JolQmx¿sf sf/0fn] of] k|ltzt gf£of] eg] s] ug]{ < of]
   ;+:yfdf ztk|ltzt    /xg]5g\ . sy+sbflrt\ ;ldltn] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug{         afWofTds k|fjwfgaf6 pDsg ;+:yfut ¿kdf s'g} clen]v
 kqsf/ s/f/df /fVg ;s]g eg] ;/sf/ cfkm}+n] Go"gtd kfl/>lds tf]Sg ;Sg]             g} g/fvL -df}lvs ;xdltsf] dfq cfwf/df_ >dhLjL
 ;lsg] 9f]sf aGb u/]/ j}slNks Joj:yfnfO{ ljwfosx¿n] /fd|f] dfg]/ ;dfj]z           kqsf/ lgo'Qm ug]{ vt/f o;n] a9fPsf] 5 . s/f/sf]
  !% k|ltzteGbf a9L u/]sf 5g\ .                                                   bfo/fnfO{ cln v'snf] ul/lbPsf] eP To:tf] vt/f sd
                                                                                                       '
                            s'g} Joj:yfksn] of] P]g ljk/Lt sfd u/]df kRrL;        x'g]lyof] .
 /fVg gkfpg] ul/Psf] xhf/ ?k}of“;Dd hl/jfgf ug{ ;lsg] / ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn]                ;+zf]wgsf] csf]{ dxŒjk"0f{ kIf sfg"gsf] kfngf gug]{
 5 . of] k|fjwfg Hofb} To;f] u/]df ;/sf/n] lbg] ;'ljwfdf /f]s nufpg ;lsg]         ;~rf/dfWodnfO{ /fHon] ug]{ juL{s/0fdf g/fVg] / /fHon]
dxŒjk"0f{ 5 t/ o;nfO{ Joj:yf P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . ;'ljwf /f]s nufpg] ;Gbe{df          lbg] c¿ ;'ljwf klg /f]]Sg ;Sg] k|fjwfg xf] . cvaf/sf
 nfu" u/fpg ;/sf/n] ;/sf/n] kqklqsfnfO{ juL{s/0fdf ;dfj]z gug{, cg'bfg            xsdf juL{s/0fdf g/x]kl5 /fHo s'g} ;'ljwf lbg afWo
                  {
   7"n} s;/t ug'kg]{   jf lj1fkgdf /f]s nufpg jf s6f}tL ug{, ;~rf/ ;fdu|L           “}
                                                                                  x'bg . juL{s/0f cfjZos eP klg /]l8of] / 6]lnlehgnfO{
                               “
                       Pj+ ;f];u ;DalGwt sRrf kbfy{sf] cfoftdf /f]s nufpg         juL{s/0f ug]{ k|fjwfg 5}g .
  x'g;S5 . JolQmut / ;/sf/L e|d0f bndf ;xefuL gu/fpg ;S5 .                              xfd|f ;Gbe{df /fHon] lbg] ;'ljwf pNn]vgLo gePsf]
¿kdf s/f/d} sfd ug{         ;+zf]lwt P]gn] >dhLjL kqsf/x¿nfO{ o; cl3              of] Joj:yf ;f]r] hlt k|efjsf/L gx'g] vt/f 5 . sfg'g
   rfxg] JolQmx¿sf     Joj:yf gePsf] 6«]8 o'lgog u7g ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/              kfngf gubf{ ul/g] b08 hl/jfgf lgs} sd 5 . g}lts
  sf/0fn] of] k|ltzt   lbPsf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn] >dhLjL               bfloTj af]w ug]{ ;+:yfsf nflu Go"gtd hl/jfgf klg
  gf£of] eg] s] ug]{ < kqsf/sf] Jofj;flos bIftf, Ifdtf / ;Lk ljsf;sf]             7"nf] ;hfo xf] . t/ cl3Nnf] k6s !@ jif{;Dd sfg'gsf]
                                                               ' {
                       nflu cWoog tyf tflndsf] Joj:yf ug{kg]5 . o;lglDt           a]jf:tf ug{ glxlRsrfPsf ;+:yfx¿ / ;+:yfut x'g
                       ;/sf/n] ;~rf/ k|lti7fgnfO{ cfly{s tyf k|fljlws             g;ls/x]sf] xfd|f] kqsfl/tf–;+:sf/sf sf/0f @% xhf/
                       ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg ;Sg]5 eg] ;~rf/ k|lti7fgn]              ?k}of“sf] b08 hl/jfgf klg sfg"g kfngfsf ;Gbe{df
                       klg cfkm\gf] jflif{s s'n cfosf] Ps k|ltzt /sd              vf;} cy{k"0f{ gxf]nf eGg] 8/ 5 .
                       5'6\ofpg'kg]{5 .                                                 >dhLjL kqsf/ P]g klxn] sfg"gL l5b|, cJofjxfl/s
                                                                                  k|fjwfg / rf}tkmL{ pk]Iffsf sf/0f a]jfl/;] x'g k'usf]]
                            ca sfof{Gjog xf]nf P]g <                              xf] . kl5Nnf] ;+zf]wgn] To:tf l5b| x6fP/ o;nfO{ lgs}
                                 sfg"g ;+zf]wgdf s]xL cfwf/e"t kl/jt{g ePsf       xb;Dd Jofjxfl/s agfPsf] 5 . t/, ;/sf/ /
                            5g\ . klxnf] t cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gsf] dfGotfcg'¿k    kqsfl/tfhut :jo+ o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;lqmo
                            kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ;ldltdf ;/sf/, Joj:yfkg /           gx'g] xf] eg] ‘;~rf/ k|lti7fg’ sf] Joj:yfkgn] k'gM
                            >dhLjLsf] ;dfg k|ltlglwTjsf] k|of; ePsf] 5 . !#       k'/fg} /j}of ckgfpg] / P]g >dhLjL kqsf/sf nflu
                            ;b:oLo ;ldltdf #—# hgf Joj:yfks, >dhLjL kqsf/         km]l/ klg sfunfO{ a]n kfs];/x x'g k'Ug]5 .



  38                                                                                                                        df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                                    b[li6sf]0f



dlxnf d'2f /
cfhsf] cfjZostf
        1fg" kf08] g]kfndf /f0ffsfnLg cGwsf/ o'un] ult lnO/x]s} ;doaLr lj=;+= !(%* df ‘uf]vf{kq’ sf] k|sfzg z'? ePsf]
                     xf] . o;sf] ;“u;“u} g]kfndf kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; z'? ePsf] dflgG5 . Tof] Oltxf;df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]
                     ;Gbe{ eg] krf; jif{kl5 lj=;+=@))* ;fnb]lv dfq uf“l;Psf] xf] . oBlk sltkon] g]kfndf dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf]


                                        Oltxf; lj=;+= !(*) af6} yflnPsf] xf] eg]sf]        ;~rf/If] q df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]
                                        klg kfOG5 t/ g]kfnleq} /x]/ g]kfnL dlxnfn]         ultlj:tf/
                                        kqsfl/tf ug{ z'? u/]sf] ;do eg]sf] @))*            g]kfndf 5fkf tyf ljB'tLo b'j} ;~rf/dfWoddf
                                        ;fn g} xf] . ;fwgf k|wfg / sfdfIffb]jLsf]                                              }
                                                                                           dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] ult ;“u;“uh;f] cufl8
                                        ;+oQm ;DkfbsTjdf @))* ;fn h]7df ‘dlxnf’
                                            '                                              a9]sf] kfOG5 . ‘dlxnf’ dfl;saf6 cf/De ePsf]
                                        dfl;s k|sflzt ePkl5 g]kfnsf] kqsfl/tfdf            5fkfdfWoddf dlxnf ;xeflutfnfO{ Tolta]nf
                                        dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] Oltxf; cf/De ePsf]               lk|oDabf zdf{, s'GtLb]jL, /dfb]jL, /Ltf, sNkgf,
                                        xf] . oBlk dlxnf ljifodf dfq s]lGb|t ePsf]         rGbf, ljhonIdL dNn, nIdLb]jL lrqsf/,
                                        pQm klqsf g]kfn dlxnf ;+3sf] d'vkq lyof]           ;/f]lhgL dfgGw/, nIdL /l~htsf/nufotsf
                                         / To;a]nf s]jn Psjif{ dfq lg:s]/ Tof] aGb         dlxnfx¿n] cufl8 a9fpg] sfd u/]sf] a'lemG5 .
                                                 ePsf] lyof] . t/ klg dlxnf                oL dlxnfx¿n] cfkm" ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs
                                                   kqsfl/tfsf] Oltxf; lgdf{0fdf To;n]      agL k| e f -@))*_, hgljsf; -@)!)_,
                                                   k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] pRr d"Nof+sg       hg;flxTo -@)!!_, ef]/ -@)!!_ , /+ud~r -
                                                   gul//xg ;lsGg .                         @)!!_, 1fgljsf; -@)!%_ h:tf dfl;s tyf
                                                             Toltv] / pQm klqsfdf          å}dfl;s klqsf cufl8 NofPsf lyP . logLx¿s}
                                                    ;x;Dkfbssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{         ;"rLdf c¿ tLg dlxnfsf] gfd klg cfp“5 .
                                                    zLnaGbL, dw's/L, k|ldnfnufotsf                \                  ]
                                                                                           tL x'gM zlzsnf zdf{, k|ds'df/L kGt / cfzf
                                                    dlxnfx¿sf] gfd klg oxf“lg/ :d/0fLo     l;+x zfx . zlzsnf zdf{sf] ;DkfbsTjdf
                                                   x'g cfp“5 . g]kfnh:tf] dlxnf hfltk|lt   @)!% ;fnaf6 k|sflzt x'g z'? ePsf]
                                                   cToGt ;+sl' rt ;f]r kfNg] ;fdflhs       ‘:jf:gLdfG5]’ -z'?df q}dfl;s kl5 å}dfl;s_
                                                kl/j]z ePsf] d'nsdf -Tof] klg cfhsf]
                                                                   '                       lgs} kl5;Dd klg lgl:s/x]sf] lyof] . kqsfl/tf
                                              s'/f xf]Og_ Tof] hdfgfdf dlxnfx¿n]           ljifodf ljb]zaf6 pRr lzIff xfl;n u/L o;
                                                kqsfl/tfdf xft xfNg' eg]sf] ;fdfGo s'/f              ]
                                                                                           If]qdf k|jz ug]{ k|yd g]kfnL dlxnf cfzf l;+xn]
                                                     xf]Og . tL dlxnfx¿n] Toltv]/ To:tf]   @)#@ ;fnb] l v cfkm\ g } ;DkfbsTj Pj+
                                                          cu|;/tf gb]vfOlbPsf eP eGg       k|sfzsTjdf lgsfNg z'? u/]sf] ‘l;ld|s’
                                                             ;lsGgYof], cem} slt nfdf]     -;fKtflxs_ n] klg lgs} kl5;Dd g} lg/Gt/tf
                                                             ;do xfdLn] s'gkYof]{ xf]nf
                                                                             {'                          ]
                                                                                           kfO/x\of] . k|ds'df/L kGtsf] kqsfl/tfsf] ofqf
                                                             g]kfndf dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf]     @)@# af6 z'? ePsf] xf] . z'?df ‘bL ljSnL
                                                             Oltxf; z'? ePsf] x]g{ .       ld//’ af6 cufl8 cfPsL pgL kl5 uP/ ‘bk{0f’,


df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                          39
                                                                                                  @)$^ ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5
                                                                                        t kqsfl/tfdf dlxnf cfsif{0f pNn]vgLo 9+un]
                                                                                        g} a9\b} uPsf] kfOG5 . jf:tjdf b]zdf l;+u}
                                                                                        kqsfl/tfhut g} km:6fp“b} hfg', lghL ¿kdf
                                                                                                                                “
                                                                                        -klg_ gof“–gof“ ;+rf/ ;+:yfx¿ v8f x'b} hfg',
                                                                                        Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ gof“gof“ b}lgs cvaf/x¿
                                                                                        wdfwd lg:sg z'? x'g,' lghL:t/df 6]lnlehgsf
                                                                                        Rofgnx¿ klg Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ ylk“b} hfg',
                                                                                        cem Pkm=Pd :6];gsf] :yfkgfdf t emg\ af9L g}
                                                                                        cfpg' cflb sf/0fn] ubf{ klg x'g;S5 5ofnL;
                                                                                        ;fnkl5sf jif{x¿df dlxnfx¿df kqsfl/tfnfO{
                                                                                        g} d'Vo k]zf agfP/ cufl8 a9\g] xf]8 lgs} a9]/
                                                                                                                              “ “
                                                                                        uPsf] b]lvG5 . t/ d'Vo s'/f, Tolt x'bfx'b} klg
                                                                                        dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] ;ª\Vof k'?if ;xeflutfsf]
                                                                                        t'ngfdf cem} klg cToGt Go"g /x]sf] 5 .
                                                                                                  g]kfnsf ;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfx¿sf] cu'jf
                                                                                        ;+:yf cl:dtfn] kl5Nnf]kN6 lj=;+=@)%( ;fndf
                                                                                                    {
                                                                                        u/]sf] ;j]If0fn] ;+rf/df dlxnf ;xeflutfsf]]
                                                                                        ;+Vof !(=#* k|ltzt b]vfPsf] 5 . ;f]xL ;+:yfaf6
                                     ‘g] ; gn :6f/’, ‘8] n L ld//’ h:tf c¿                                       {
                                                                                        klxnf] kN6 @)$( df ;j]If0f ul/+bf Tof] k|ltzt
                                     klqsfx¿sf] ;Dkfbg tyf k|sfzgdf klg ;lqmo                                       {
                                                                                        !@=#@ dfq lyof] . pQm ;j]If0fn] b]vfPcg';f/
                                     /lxg\ . ‘b ljSnL ld//’df z'?df pgL ;Dkfbg          bz jif{sf] cjlwdf ;~rf/If]qdf dlxnf
                                     ;xof]uLsf ¿kdf ;+nUg ePsL lyOg\ t/ s]xL            ;xeflutfsf] cj:yfdf h'g ultn] clej[l4 ePsf]
                                     jif{kl5 To;sf] ;Dkfbg tyf k|sfzgsf] k"/f           kfOof] Tof] lgZro g} sd dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f xf]Og .
                                     cleef/f PSn}n] af]sL lgs} kl5;Dd To;               t/ klg o; cjlwdf b]zsf]] l;+uf] ;+rf/hutn]
       @)$^ ;fnsf] /fhgLlts          klqsfnfO{ pgn] lg/Gt/tf lbO/lxg\ . pgL             h'g 9+udf ljsf;sf] km8\sf] df/]sf] 5 To;sf]
                                     cem};Dd kqsfl/tfdf ;lqmo g} 5g\ .                  t'ngfdf dlxnf ;xeflutf clej[l4sf] Tof] ult
      kl/jt{gkl5 b]zdf ;a}eGbf                otf ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWoddf dlxnf            ;Gtf]ifk|b s'/f xf]Og . dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
       a9L km:6fPsf] If]q eg]sf]                                '
                                     ;xeflutfsf] ;Gbe{ z'? x'gdf /]l8of] g]kfnsf]       ;DaGwdf jl/i7 kqsf/ xl/x/ lj/xLn] tLg jif{
     kqsfl/tf g} xf] . t/ klg s'g}   :yfkgf dxŒjk"0f{ dfWod ag]sf]] b]lvG5 . dbfn;f                                   {
                                                                                        cl3 Ps ;Gbe{df JoQm ug'ePsf] egfO oxf“
      ljb]zLn] ‘ltd|f] b]zdf clxn]   l;+x, zfGtf >]i7, /lZd /fHonIdL /f0ff, k|ef        pNn]v ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g] b]V5' . dlxnf
      dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf] ;ª\Vof        a:g]t, /~hgf zdf{, ld7"bjL, uf}/L s]=;L=, s[i0ff
                                                             ]                                                              \
                                                                                        kqsf/x¿sf] cj:yfaf/] s'/f sf]6ofp“bf of]
                                                                          '
                                     tfd|fsf/, jLgf u'?ª, /fgL u'?ª, g'k/ e§frfo{,      k+lQmsf/l;t pxf“n] eGg'ePsf] lyof], æ@)$^
     slt 5 <’ eg]/ k|Zg u¥of]] eg]                { '
                                     wg nfdf, ;"osdf/L kGt, sNof0fL l/dfn, ;l/tf        ;fnsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{gkl5 b]zdf ;a}eGbf
        nfhn] lz/ lgx'/fpg'kg]{      e§, ef/tL l;njfnnufotsf dlxnfx¿sf] gfd             a9L km:6fPsf] If]q eg]sf] kqsfl/tf g} xf] . t/
           cj:yf 5 xfd|f] .          g]kfnsf] ljB'tLo ;~rf/dfWodsf cu|h dlxnf           klg s'g} ljb]zLn] ‘ltd|f] b]zdf clxn] dlxnf
                                     kqsf/x¿sf] ;"rLdf kb{5 . oLdWo] s]xL               kqsf/x¿sf] ;ª\Vof slt 5 <’ eg]/ k|Zg
                                     cem};Dd klg /]l8of] g]kfndf ;lqmo ¿kdf             u¥of]] eg] nfhn] lz/ lgx'/fpg'kg]{ cj:yf 5
                                     sfo{/t 5g\ . ljB'tLo ;~rf/dWoddf dlxnf             xfd|f] .Æ
                                     ;xeflutf clej[l4 u/fpg g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf]
                                     :yfkgfsf] klg p:t} dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x\of] .       ;~rf/df dlxnf d'2f
                                     vf;df eGg] xf] eg] g]kfn 6]lnlehgsf] :yfkgf        dlxnf d'2f dlxnfsf] dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf]Og,
                                     -:yfkgf @)$!, lgoldt k|;f/0f @)$@_ b]lv            Tof] l;+uf] ;dfhs} ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] eGg] s'/f
                                     g} g]kfndf ;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfx¿sf] ;+Vofdf            g]kfnL ;~rf/If]qn] cem};Dd klg /fd|/L a'em\g
                                     clej[l4 x'g z'? ePsf] xf] / ;~rf/sdL{              g;s] em}+ k|tLt x'G5 . lsgls xfdLsxf“ z'?b]lv
                                     dlxnfx¿k|lt cfd ;dfhsf] rf;f] klg a9]/             g} dlxnf d'2fnfO{ dlxnfsf] dfq rf;f]sf] ljifo
                                     hfg yfn]sf] xf] .                                  xf] h:tf] Jojxf/ ul/“b} cfPsf]] kfOG5 . sltko

40                                                                                                                       df3–r}t @)^$
cj:yfdf t :jo+ dlxnfx¿ g} klg o; k|sf/sf]
;f] r n] u| : t ePsf] e] l 6G5 . dlxnf
;~rf/sdL{sf] cj:yf ljifosf] cg';Gwfgsf]
qmddf ;lqmo kqsfl/tf ul//x]sf clwsf+z
dlxnfx¿n] eg] s f lyP– ‘w] / } h ;f]
;~rf/dfWodx¿df dlxnf kqsf/nfO{ dlxnf,
                             \
afnaflnsf, :jf:Yo, z[ªuf/, ;fh;Hhfh:tf
ljifoafx]s cGo ljifodf ltgn] rfx] klg sfd
                   }
ug{ lhDdf lbO“bg . 7f8} elgG5– /fhgLlt,
cy{, k//fi6« jf pBf]uJofkf/h:tf ljifo hl6n
x'g,\ dlxnf kqsf/n] oL ljifonfO{ kf/ ug{
;Sb}gg\ .’ cg';Gwfgsf] l;nl;nfdf ul/Psf]
5nkmn sfo{ q mddf :tDen] v gdf ;lqmo
dlxnfx¿sf] klg s'/f ;'Gg] cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] .
tLdWo] s] x Lsf] egfO lyof] – ‘dlxnf
:tDesf/x¿n] hlxn] klg dlxnfs} ljifodf dfq
n]lvlbof];\ eGg] rfxG5g\ ;Dkfbsx¿ .’ sltko
:tDesf/x¿n] eg] cfkm" :jo+ g} dlxnfsf]
ljifodf s]lGb|t x'g ?rfPsf] atfPsf lyP .
          oxf“ oL ;Gbe{x¿ p7fP/ dlxnf
kqsf/n] dlxnf d'2f p7fpg'nfO{ a]7Ls eGg
     ]
vf]hsf] lsdfy{ xf]Og . rfx] cx|fP/ xf];\ of :j]R5fn]
dlxnfn] dlxnfsf] d'2fdf snd rnfpg' jf
                                       {
sfo{qmdx¿ lgdf{0f ug',{ k|:t't ug'nfO{ cGoyf
cy{df a'em\g ldNb}g . t/ d'Vo s'/f s] eg]
dlxnf d'2f s]jn dlxnfs} dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo
xf] eGg]h:tf] Jojxf/ ug'{ rflx“ ;xL xf]Og . kqsf/
k|tLs k|wfg dlxnf kqsfl/tfsf] k|jl[ Qaf/] s'/f         cfhsf] cfjZostf
p7]sf] a]nf k|foM eGg] u5{g,\ ‘dlxnfn] dlxnfs}         jf:tjdf ;~rf/dfWodsf] sfd ;dfhdf ;"rgf
ljifodf -dfq_ n]vg\ jf n]Vg'k5{ eG7fGg' ;xL
                     '                                 ;Dk|i] f0f ug'{ dfq xf]Og, ;dfhnfO{ lzlIft ug'{
xf]Og .’ t/ oyfy{ nueu To:t} To:t} dfq b]Vg'kbf{       klg xf] . kqsfl/tfsf] ;fdflhs bfloTjk|lt
pgL x}/fg x'G5g\ . /, eG5g\– ‘dlxnf kqsfl/tfdf         cgle1tfsf] Jojxf/ ug'{ ;DalGwt s;}nfO{ klg          kqsfl/tf k]zfdf /xg /x/ dfq ug'{
plxn]bl] v g} b]lv“b} cfPsf]] of] k/Dk/fsf] ca         ;'xfpg] s'/f x'Gg . cfkm\gf] of] bfloTjk|lt st}
cGTo x'gk5{ / dlxnfn] dlxnf d'2fafx]s c¿
           '                                           g]kfnL ;~rf/hut cfjZos dfqfdf ;hu x'g                  kof{Kt x'Gg, cfOkg]{ ofjt r'gf}tLsf]
d'2fdf klg lg/Gt/ snd rnfpg'k5{ .’ k|wfgsf]            r'ls/x]sf] t 5}g < o;af/] d'nssf] ;~rf/If]qsf
                                                                                     '                                                 {
                                                                                                         ;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; tyf w}osf] klg plQs}
of] egfOk|lt ;dy{g hgfpg lxlRsrfpg'kg]{ s'g}           xtf{stf{x¿n] uDeL/ eP/ ;f]Rg'kg]{ vf“rf]                vf“rf] 5 . hxf“;Dd sfo{If]qdf
               }
sf/0f b]lv“bg . t/ d'Vo s'/f, dlxnf d'2f               68\sfl/Psf] 5 . ;dfhdf dlxnfsf] cj:yfdf
                                                                                                                                            {
                                                                                                         n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'kg]{ s'/f
dlxnfsf] dfq ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo xf] eGg] ;f]r            kl/jt{g gcfp~h]n b]z ljsf;sf] ;kgf sbflk
xfd|f] ;~rf/If]qdf plxNo}bl] v cfh;Dd klg xfjL         k"/f x'g;Sb}g eGg] tYo 5n{· eO;s]sf] cfhsf]            5 To;sf nflu klg dlxnfnfO{ x]g{ ]
5, ;a}eGbf klxnf t To;}df kl/jt{g cfpg'                ;dodf ;~rf/dfWodsf xtf{ s tf{ x ¿af6                k'?ifsf] k'/ftg ;f]rdf kl/jt{g cfP/
h?/L 5 . ;Dkfbsx¿n] cfkm" dftxtsf k'?if                ;dfhnfO{ k|lzlIft ug{ kxn ug'{ t stf xf] stf      dfq k'Ub}g, k'?ifnfO{ x]g{ ] dlxnfsf] ;f]rdf
kqsf/nfO{ klg dlxnf d'2fdf snd rnfpg jf                pN6f] cfkm\g} If]qleq sfo{/t dlxnfx¿k|lt ;d]t
sfo{qmd lgdf{0f ug{ k|fT;flxt ug'{ h?/L 5 .
                          ]                            lje]bk"0f{ Jojxf/ ul/G5 eg] Tof]eGbf nfhdbf]{     klg kl/jt{g cfpg' plQs} vf“rf] 5 eGg]
gq eg] dlxnf d'2f dlxnf kqsf/ jf dlxnf                 s'/f c¿ s] x'g;Snf < kqsfl/tf ug{] /x/ lnP/                      a'em\g' h?/L 5 .
:tDesf/x¿n] p7fpg sd ubf{ cvaf/df jf                                                   ]
                                                       o; If]qdf kfOnf 6]Sg cfOk'usf dlxnfx¿df
/]l8of] 6]lnlehgx¿df Tof] ljifo emg\ 7\ofDd}           kqsfl/tf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ / ;~rf/df dlxnf
gcfOlbg] kf] xf] ls ! s]xL eGg ;lsGg .                 ;xeflutfsf] ;ª\Vof ;do ;'xfp“bf] 9+udf a9fP/

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                                                      41
nUgsf nflu ;a}eGbf klxnf o; If]qdf JofKt
n+l} us cGwtfsf] cj:yfsf] cGTo x'g' cfjZos
5 / sfof{noleqsf] ef}lts ;+/rgf, Joj:yfkg
                                                                           dlxnf kqsf/sf ;d:of
kIf tyf lg0ff{os txb]lv ;xsdL{sf] tx;Dd               xfdLsxf“ kqsfl/tf If]qdf dlxnfsf xsdf plxn]bl] v cfh;Dd klg Pp6f k|jl[ Q 68\sf/f]
                               '
;j{q n}l+ usd}qL ;f]r xfjL x'gkg]{ vf“rf] 5 .                                                                                    ]
                                                      ¿kdf b]lv“b} cfPsf] 5– dlxnfx¿ o; If]qdf z'?df v"a pT;flxt eP/ k|jz u5{g\ t/
xfdLsxf“ ;+rf/If]qdf gLltlgdf{0ftxdf dlxnf            ToxL pT;fxsf ;fy nfdf] ;do;Dd l6ls/xg eg] ;Sb}gg\ . lsg xf]nf < ;~rf/If]qdf
pkl:yltsf] cefj cem};Dd klg v6\ls/x]sf]               dlxnf ;xeflutf a9f];\ eGg] ;f“Rr} rfxgf xf] eg]] o; If]qsf xtf{stf{ ;a}n] ;a}eGbf
      ]
kl/k|Io 5 . lg0ff{os txdf dlxnfsf] plrt               klxnf o;sf] sf/0f klxNofpg hf“u/ b]vfpg' cfjZos 5 . dlxnf kqsf/x¿n] ef]Ug
;xeflutf geP;Dd ;~rf/dfWoddf                          kl//x]sf] b]lvg]–gb]lvg] tdfd ;d:ofx¿sf] klxrfg gu/L / tL ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu
dlxnfx¿sf] :jljj]sLo df}lns Ifdtfsf] k|efj            pkfox¿ cjnDag ug{ tbf?stf gb]vfO{ s]jn dlxnfx¿d} dfq ;w}“ sdhf]/L b]Vg' jf
emNsg ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f a'emL To;df ;'wf/               b]vfpg' lsdfy{ Gofo;+ut s'/f x'Gg . x'g
Nofpg ;DalGwt ;a} If]qaf6 kxn x'g h?/L                t kqsfl/tf eg]sf] cToGt r'gf}tLk"0f{ k]zf
5 . ;~rf/dfWodsf sfof{nox¿ leqsf] dfq                 xf] . of] efu vf]h]/ cfpg] If]q x'“b} xf]Og .
s'/f xf]Og, ;~rf/If]qdf n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0f          Ifdtfjfg\ geO{ s' g } klg JolQmn]                     ;~rf/dfWodsf
l;h{gf u/fpg / ;~rf/dfWodx¿df dlxnf                   -rfx] dlxnf xf];\ of k'?if_ of] k]zfnfO{               sfof{nox¿leq
;xeflutf clej[l4 u/fpg /fHon] klg                     lg/Gt/tf lbg ;Sb}g . t/ klg a'em\g'kg]{             +
                                                                                                        n}lusd}qL jftfj/0fsf]
/0fgLlts 9+un] kxn ug'kg]{ vf“rf] 5 . h:tf]
                         {                            s'/f s] xf] eg] JolQmdf Ifdtf 5 g} eg] klg
                                                      olb sfo{If]qdf c;xof]uL lsl;dsf] jftfj/0f          cefj ePsf] sf/0f
ls s'g} klg k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0f ;+:yfnfO{
Ohfht lbg] a]nfdf /fHon] rfx]df ltgsf cufl8           xfjL x'G5 eg] To;n] p;sf] Ifdtfdf g}               dlxnfx¿ o; k]zfdf
zt{ /fVg ;S5– ltgn] kqsf/ egf{ ug]{ a]nfdf            k|lts"n k|efj k'¥ofpg ;S5 cyjf p;sf]               nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sg
lglZrt k|ltzt :yfgdf cfwf/e"t of]Uotf                 pT;fxdf 7]; nufpg ;S5 . /, cGttM pm                     g;s]sf x'g\ .
ePsf dlxnf pDd]bjf/x¿aLr dfq k|lt:kwf{                cgfof; k]zfaf6} knfog x'g afWo x'gk'U5 .
u/fpg'k5{ eg]/ . /fHon] c¿ klg o:tf sltko                                           “
                                                      dlxnfsf xsdf k|foM o:t} x'b} cfPsf] ljleGg
                                                      cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 .
/0fgLltx¿ clVtof/ ug{ ;S5 .
                                                                ;~rfl/sf ;d"xsf] tTjfjwfgdf @)^) ;fndf ePsf] ‘;~rf/sdL{ dlxnfsf]
/, cGTodf                                             cj:yf’ zLif{ssf] cg';GwfgfTds -Ps jif{sf]_ cWoogsf] l;nl;nfdf k|dv cg';Gwftfsf]
                                                                                                                              '
clt dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f s] eg] kqsfl/tf If]qdf                                        '
                                                      ¿kdf of] k+lQmsf/nfO{ d'nssf kf“r} ljsf; If]qdf 5l/P/ /x]sf ;lqmo dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
dlxnf ;xeflutf clej[l4sf nflu cGoqaf6                 glhs k'u]/ ltgn] ef]Ug' kl//x]sf y'k|} ;d:ofx¿ af/] hfGg]–;'Gg] cj;/ k|fKt ePsf] lyof]
kxn ul/g'kg]{ vf“rf] t cfkm\gf] 7fp“df 5“b5       }   / ;fy;fy} d'n'ssf] ;~rf/If]qdf gb]lvg] u/L u8]/ a;]sf sltko ;d:of tyf q'l6x¿
                                                      klg glhsaf6 lgofNg] cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] . cg';Gwfgsf] bf}/fgdf sltko dfdnfdf
To;sf cltl/Qm o; If]qdf nflu/x]sf dlxnfx¿
                                                      :jo+ dlxnf kqsf/x¿d} klg q'l6 sdhf]/L /x]5 eGg] tYo klg kQf gnfu]sf] xf]Og, t/
     “
cfkm}n] klg k];fsf] bfloTj lgjf{xdf cfkm"nfO{
                                                      w]/} xb;Dd rflx“ ltgLx¿k|lt ;~rf/dfWodsf xtf{stf{ k'?ifx¿sf] b[li6sf]0f g} k"jf{uxL |
v/f] ptfg{ k|of; u/L pbfx/0fLo ag]/ cufl8
                                                      ePsf] e]l6Psf] xf] . hfgL–hfgL eGbf klg w]/}h;f] cj:yfdf cGhfgdf g} ;~rf/dfWodsf
                     {
cfpg k|of; ug'kg]{ vf“rf] 5 . kqsfl/tfdf              sfof{noleq dlxnfx¿k|lt k'?if xflsd tyf k'?if ;xsdL{x¿af6 q'l6k"0f{ Jojxf/ x'g]
dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] s'/f ubf{ ;ª\Vof dfq a9\gnfO{ '     u/]sf] a'lemPsf] lyof] . xfd|f] ;dfhdf htftt} JofKt ;+/rgfut q'l6sf] k|efj ;~rf/If]qdf
kof{Kt dfGg ;lsGg, u'0ffTdstfdf klg clej[l4           klg xfjL /x]sf] / ;~rf/dfWodsf sfof{nox¿leq n}l+ usd}qL jftfj/0fsf] cefj ePsf]
x'gkg]{ cfhsf] cfjZostf xf] eGg] s'/f x/xd];f
   '                                                  sf/0f dlxnfx¿ o; k]zfdf nfdf] ;do;Dd l6Sg g;s]sf x'g\ eGg] tYo cg';Gwfgaf6
x]Ssf /fVg' h?/L 5 . kqsfl/tf k]zfdf /xg              v'nf;f ePsf] lyof] .
/x/ dfq ug'{ kof{Kt x'Gg, cfOkg]{ ofjt\ r'gf}tLsf]              kqsf/ 6+s kGtn] ‘kqsfl/tfdf dlxnf’ zLif{ssf] cfkm\gf] n]vdf pNn]v u/]sf]
                                {
;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; tyf w}osf] klg plQs} vf“rf]           s'/f oxf“ p4[t ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g] b]V5' . pgn] eg]sf 5g\– ‘xfd|f] ;dfhdf k'?if /
5 eGg] s'/f a'em]sf dlxnf kqsf/x¿n] ga'em]sf          dlxnfaLrsf] lje]b ;fdflhs / /fhgLlts Joj:yfaf6 pTkGg ePsf] xf] . g]kfnL
dlxnf kqsf/x¿nfO{ a'emfpg–l;sfpg sbflk                kqsfl/tfhut klg ToxL Joj:yfleq g} af“r]sf] 5 . /fHosf] rf}yf] c+u klg c¿ tLgj6f
          {'
kl5 kg'xGg . hxf“;Dd sfo{If]qdf n}l+ usd}qL           c+u h;/L g} ;dfhdf xfjL /x]sf] zlQm k|0ffnL / xf]8afhLsf] v]nleq k|foM ;Dk"0f{ ¿kdf
                         {
jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug'kg]{ s'/f 5 To;sf nflu            s}bL 5’ -kqsfl/tf, j}zfv–h]7, @)^) M !*_ . lgZro g} of] cj:yfn] dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf]
klg dlxnfnfO{ x]g{ ] k'?ifsf] k'/ftg ;f]rdf kl/jt{g   pT;fxdf afwf k'lu/x]sf] 5 . dlxnfsf] ultzLntfsf] clwsf/k|lt cToGt cg'bf/ ljBdfg
cfP/ dfq k'Ub}g, k'?ifnfO{ x]g{ ] dlxnfsf] ;f]rdf     kfl/jfl/s–;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] v6gk6gl;t h'‰g dlxnf kqsf/x¿nfO{ p;} klg sd
klg kl/jt{g cfpg' plQs} vf“rf] 5 eGg] a'em\g'         ufx|f] kl//x]sf] 5}g . Toltn] gk'u]/ km]l/ sfo{If]qleq klg p:t} lsl;dsf] lje]b JofKt
h?/L 5 eGg] nfU5 .                                    ePsf] b]Vg–ef]Ug kg'{ slt b'MvnfUbf] s'/f xf] dlxnf kqsf/x¿sf nflu !


42                                                                                                                               df3–r}t @)^$
                                                                                                   ;/sf/L ;'ljwf


nf]ssNof0fsf/L lj1fkg
lxhf] / cfh
    '
 d'sGbk|;fb cfrfo{           @))& ;fncl3 g]kfndf ;dfrf/kqsf] ¿kdf uf]/vfkq dfq k|sflzt x'GYof] . k"0f{ ;/sf/L k|sfzgsf]
                             ¿kdf . c¿ klqsfx¿ lzIff, pBf]u, ;flxTo ljifosf dfq x'Gy] . ;ft ;fnkl5 lghL If]qaf6, /fhwfgL
                                                                                                             ]
                             sf7df8f}+ tyf cGo lhNnfx¿af6 ;d]t ljleGg kqklqsfx¿ lg:sg yfn] . t/, e/kbf]{ ;|ftsf] cefjdf
                             tL klqsfx¿ yf]/} ;dod} x/fp“b} klg uP . @))& b]lv @)!& ;fn;Dd k|sflzt ;dfrf/kqx¿dWo]
                                                                                }
                             clwsf+ztM s'g} g s'g} /fhgLlts bn;“u cfa4 lyP . w]/h;f] ;fKtflxs klqsfx¿df clxn] klg ToxL
                             k|j[lQ b]lvG5 .


;/sf/L ;xof]u
@)!% ;fnsf] cfd lgjf{ r gkl5 :yflkt
;/sf/n] @)!^ dfu{ dlxgfb]lv g]kfndf
k| s flzt kqklqsfx¿nfO{ rf/ >] 0 fLdf
ljeflht u/L dfl;s ?=^)) b]lv ?=@))
;Ddsf] ;/sf/L lj1fkg tTsfnLg k|rf/ tyf
k|;f/ ljefuaf6 pknAw u/fpg] gLlt cjnDag
u/]sf] lyof] . of] g} ;/sf/L:t/af6 lgoldt
¿kdf kqklqsfnfO{ lj1fkgafkt egL /sd
pknAw u/fpg] k|lqmofsf] yfngL xf] . t/ o;
cGtu{t klqsfx¿sf] juL{s/0f ug]{ :ki6 cfwf/
eg] to ePsf] b] l vGg . ;fy} , of] gLlt
sfof{Gjog x'g yfn]sf] 5 dlxgf gk'Ub} ;/sf/L
gLltsf] cfnf]rgf ug]{ kqklqsfx¿nfO{ o:tf]
lj1fkg lbg aGb ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
          @)!& ;fnkl5sf] ;/sf/n] klg
lj1fkgafkt egL kqklqsfnfO{ x/]s dlxgf
lglZrt /sd pknAw u/fpg] k|lqmofnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbof] . o;qmddf k~rfotL ;/sf/n]
                                          '
cfkm\gf] kIfdf jsfnt ug]{ klqsfx¿nfO{ ‘6]an
d'lgaf6’ ;d]t /sd pknAw u/fpg] u/]sf]
lyof] .

klqsf juL{s/0fsf nflu
dfkb08 lgdf{0fsf] k|of;
k|]; sld;g, @)!%
        k|]; sld;gsf] k|ltj]bg @)!% df
;/sf/L lj1fkg lbgsf nflu lgDglnlvt
l;4fGtnfO{ cfwf/sf] ¿kdf lng l;kmfl/;
ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

df3–r}t @)^$                                                                                                         43
s_ klqsf k|sfzgsf] cjlwM b]zsf] kqsfl/tfsf]
ljsf;df s]xL b]g lbPsf klqsfx¿n] k|fT;fxg
kfpg\ eGg] p2]Zo /fvL sDtLdf Ps jif{
                                    ]                            ]
                                                               k|; sfplG;nåf/f kqklqsfsf] juL{s/0f
k|sfzg eO;s]sf] klqsfnfO{ lj1fkg lbg]                @)$@ ;fnb]lv k|]; sfplG;nsf] dftxtdf kqklqsf ljt/0f ;+k/LIf0fsf] sfo{ z'? ePsf] xf] .
cfwf/ agfpg l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] 5 .                     To;a]nf kqklqsfx¿df cvaf/L sfuhsf] vkt / lj1fkg;DaGwL sfdsf] dfq cWoog ug]{
v_ ;fwgsf] cefj M k|ltj]bg lb“bfsf avt !             ul/GYof] . ;fy} sfplG;nn] u/]sf l;kmfl/;nfO{ ;/sf/n] x]/km]/ ug]{ klg ub{Yof] .
jif{ e Gbf a9L k| s fzg cjlw k' u ] s f                       ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnon] @)%# r}t @% ut] ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sflzt u/L
kqklqsfx¿sf] ;ª\Vof $.% j6f dfq ePsf]                                            ]
                                                     @)%$ ;fn >fj0f ! ut]bl] v k|; sfplG;naf6 juL{s/0f ePsf kqklqsfx¿n] dfq ;x'lnotafkt
oyfy{ k|:t't ub}{ kqsfl/tf If]qdf b'O{ jif{bl] v     cvaf/L sfuh ;'ljwf k|fKt ug]{ / To;kl5 lgodfg';f/ juL{s[t gePsf kqklqsfx¿n] o:tf]
sfd ub}{ cfPsf JolQmåf/f ;+rflnt kqnfO{              ;'ljwf gkfpg] Joj:yf u¥of] .
klg ;/sf/L lj1fkgsf] ;x'lnot lbg'k5{ eGg]                       k|]; sfplG;n P]g, @)$* df kqklqsfsf] juL{s/0f;DaGwL sfo{nfO{ sfplG;nsf]
                                                     5ftfleq ;d]l6of] .
;'emfj lbOPsf] 5 .
                                                                xfn sfplG;nn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dfkb08cg';f/ g} g]kfne/af6 k|sflzt x'g] b}lgs,
u_ ljt/0f ;+Vof M ;/sf/n] lj1fkg lbg'sf]             ;fKtflxs, cw{;fKtflxs / dfl;s kqklqsfx¿sf] x/]s jif{ juL{s/0f ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf]
p2]Zo s'g} s'/f hgtfdf k'¥ofpg rfx]sf] x'Fbf         juL{s/0fdf ;dfrf/ kq÷klqsfsf cltl/Qm ;flxlTos Pj+ cGo ljwf