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an M

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 14

									                            lj1fg z[ª\vnf M %
                             hLjlj1fg (Biology)
             efO/;, pTk|]/0ff / k|ltlqmof tyf /Qm~;rf/ k|0ffnL

efO/;, pTk|]/0ff / k|ltlqmof tyf /Qm~;rf/ k|0ffnL PsfOx¿af6 7.5 cª\ssf] Pp6f
k|Zg ;f]lwg] 5 . o;sf b'O{ pkk|Zgx¿ 3 b]lv 4.5 cª\s;Ddsf] /xg] 5 . tL k|Zgx¿
1fg, af]w tyf pRrbIftf -k|of]u, ljZn]if0f, ;+Zn]if0f / d"NofÍg_ cflb ljleGg txsf
x'g ;S5g\ .
efO/;
hgfj/x¿ / la?jfx¿df ljleGg /f]u Nofpg] cToGt} ;"Id ljiff0f'nfO{ efO/; elgG5 .
efO/; zAb Nofl6gsf] e]gd cyf{t ljifaf6 cfPsf] xf] . efO/;;DaGwL cWoog
ug]{ lj1fgnfO{ efO/f]nf]hL (Virology) elgG5 .
cToGt} ;"Id eP/ klg efO/;n] kf]if0f, k|hgg\ / j[l4sf sfo{ cGo hLjsf] vf; lsl;dsf
sf]if / tGt'df ug{ ;Sb5g\ . t/ vf; lsl;dsf sf]ifafx]s cGodf eg] logLx¿ lgliqmo
/xG5g\ . To;}n] efO/;x¿ k"0f{ ¿kn] hLljtsf]ifleq k|j]z ul/;s]kl5 dfq ;lqmo
x'g] / ljz]if hLljt sf]ifaflx/ k"0f{tof lgliqmo /xg] x'gfn] efO/;nfO{ clAnu]6/L
Kof/f;fO6 (Obligatory parasite) elgG5 . efO/;x¿ dflg;df xfjf, kfgL, vfgfh:tf
ljleGg dfWodaf6 ;g{ ;Sb5g\ . dflg;df efO/;n] ;fwf/0f ?3fb]lv xf―8], bfb'/f,
lakm/, 7]pnf, hg}vl6/f, kIf3ft, /]aLh, :jfOg k\mn', P8\;h:tf 3fts /f]ux¿
Nofp―5g\ . oL /f]ux¿ lgoGq0f ug{, vf]Sbf jf xf5\o'― ubf{ lg:sg] y'ssf]
l56fnfO{ xfjfdf km}ng glbg ;kmf ?dfnsf] k|of]ub]lv lnP/ bfb'/f, kf]lnof],
/]aLhh:tf /f]usf nflu ;dod} vf]k lng'kg]{ x'G5 . P8\; h:tf] k|f0f3fts cj:yfsf
PrcfO{eL efO/;af6 aRg eg] 5'§} gof― lgd{nLs/0f ul/Psf] ;'Osf] dfq k|of]u
ug]{, HIV d'Qm /utdfq lng] lbg], HIV o'Qm dlxnfn] aRrf ghGdfpg] / HIV
nfu]sf JolQm;―u c;'/lIft of}g;Dks{ gug]{ cflb pkfo ckgfpg ;lsG5 .
dflg;sf] z/L/df /x]sf] /f]u lj?4 n8\g] ;+oGqnfO{ dfgj k|lt/Iff k|0ffnL cyf{t
Human Immunity System elgG5 .
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿ M
!= ;fwf/0f ?3f, bfb'/f / P8\; (AIDS) /f]u;―u ;DalGwt efO/;x¿sf gfd n]Vg'xf];\ .
   Ps JolQmaf6 csf]{ JolQmdf P8\; (AIDS) ;g]{ s'g} rf/ k|d'v tl/sfx¿
   n]Vg'xf];\ .                                                      (1.5+2=3.5)
@= AofS6]l/of]km]h efO/;sf] lrq sf]/]/ o;sf] s'g} b'O{efusf] gfdfª\sg
   ug'{xf];\ . g]kfndf P8\;af6 ;ª\qmldt dflg;x¿sf] ;ª\Vof lbg k|ltlbg al9/x]s]f
   5 . o;sf] d'Vo Pp6f sf/0f, o;sf] /f]syfd ug]{ Ps pkfo / o;af6 /fi6«nfO{




                                       1
   kg]{ Ps c;/ n]Vg'xf];\ .                                                (2+1.5=3.5)
#= efO/;sf] s'g} Pp6f u'0f lbg'xf];\ . kf]lnof] /f]u nufpg] efO/;sf] gfd
   lbg'xf];\ / o; /f]usf s'g} b'O{cf]6f nIf0fx¿ n]Vg'xf];\ .  (1+0.5+2=3.5)
yk gd'gf k|Zgx¿ M
$= efO/;sf              tLgcf]6f            ljz]iftfx¿        n]Vg'xf];\             .
                                                                                   (3)
%= xf―8] /f]u s'g efO/;sf] sf/0fn] nfUb5 . pQm efO/;n] ubf{ c;/ kg]{ s'g}
  b'O{ cª\usf] gfd n]Vg'xf];\ . ;fy} /f]u nfUbf dflg;df kg]{ s'g} b'O{ k|lts"n
  c;/x¿sf] ;"rL agfO{ /f]syfdsf pkfo klg n]Vg'xf];\ .            (0.5+1+2+1=4.5)
^= xfO8«f]kmf]ljof eGgfn] s'g efO/;hGo /f]u a'emfp―5 < pQm /f]u Nofpg]
    efO/;sf] gfd / c;/ kg]{ cª\u s]s] x'g\ < of] /f]u ;g]{ dfWod / /f]syfdsf]
    pkfo n]Vg'xf];\ .                                       (0.5+0.5+0.5+1+1=3.5)
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
!= /f]u                     efO/;sf] gfd
    ;fwf/0f ?3f             /fOgf] efO/;                                    (0.5)
    bfb'/f                  kf/fldShf] efO/;                                (0.5)
    P8\;                    /]6«f]efO/; -Xo'dg ODo'gf]l8lkml;oG;L efO/;_
                                 (0.5)
   Ps JolQmaf6 csf]{ JolQmdf HIV/AIDS ;g]{ s'g} rf/ k|d'v tl/sfx¿ lgDg x'g\
   (i) HIV ;ª\qmldt JolQm;―u c;'/lIft of}g;Dks{ /fVbf,                     (0.5)
   (ii) ;ª\qmldtn] k|of]u u/]sf] 5fnf 5]8\g] cf}hf/x¿sf] lgd{nLs/0f gu/L k|of]u
   ubf{,                                                                   (0.5)
   (iii) ;ª\qmldtaf6 /ut / /uthGo kbfy{ ln―bf,                             (0.5)
   (iv) HIV ;ª\qmldt dlxnfaf6 pgsf] lzz' ue{df /x―bf, k|;'tL x'―bf jf :tgkfg
   u/fp―bf .
@=
             Go'SnLs
             Pl;8           g]kfndf P8\;af6 ;ª\qmldt dflg;x¿sf] ;ª\Vof lbg k|ltlbg
               k|f]l6gsf]   a9\g'sf] d'Vo sf/0f clzIffsf] sf/0f c;'/lIft of}g;Dks{
             vf]n
                            /fVgfn] xf] . o;sf] /f]syfd ug]{ Psdfq d'Vo pkfo
                            PrcfOeL÷P8\;sf] af/]df hgr]tgf km}nfpg' xf] . (0.5)
                            P8\;af6 /fi6«nfO{ kg]{ c;/ M JolQmx¿ zf/Ll/s ¿kn]
                            c;Ifd ePkl5 >d ug{ g;sL ljsf; sfo{df cj/f]w k'Ug] x'G5




                                           2
                          .                                              (0.5)
#=       efO/;df cf0f'jlz+s u'0f x'G5 .                                    (1)
     •   kf]lnof] efO/; .                                                (0.5)
     •   s]6fs]6Lsf] xft v'6\6f n'nf] x'G5 .                               (1)
     •   of] /f]u nfu]kl5 kIf3ft klg x'g ;S5 .                             (1)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
$=       efO/;sf tLg ljz]iftfx¿
     – efO/;x¿ yf]/} ;dodf k|hgg\\ eO{ 7"nf] ;ª\Vofdf j[l4 x'g ;S5g\ .     (1)
  –      efO/;x¿df OGhfOd kfOG5 .                                          (1)
  –      efO/;df cfg'jf+lzs u'0f x'G5 .                                    (1)
%=       kf/fldShf] efO/;                                                (0.5)
  –      c;/ kg]{ cª\ux¿ M ¥ofn u|GyL, Zjf;gnL                             (1)
  –      k|lts"n c;/x¿
         •                                                                       s
             fgsf] d'lg c;fWo b'Vg] 8Nnf] lg:sg'                           (1)
         •                                                                       H
           j/f] cfpg' .                                                    (1)
     – /f]syfdsf] pkfo
         •                                                                   x
             f5\o'― ubf{ lg:sg] l56fx¿nfO{ km}lng glbg ?dfnn] gfs 5f]Kg'k5{ .
                                                                           (1)
^= –     /]aLh /f]u                                                      (0.5)
   –     /]aLh efO/;                                                     (0.5)
   –     c;/ kg]{ cª\u – ;'if'Dgf                                        (0.5)
   –     ;g]{ dfWod – ¥ofnaf6                                              (1)
   –     /f]syfdsf] pkfo – PlG6/]aLh vf]k lng] .                           (1)

pQ]hgf / k|ltlqmof
xfd|f j/k/ jftfj/0fdf z"Id Ps sf]ifLob]lv ljzfn ax'sf]ifLo hLjx¿ kfOG5g\ . oL
;a} hLjx¿n] ljleGg pTk|]/0ffk|lt k|ltlqmof b]vfp―5 . ;fdfGotof jg:kltx¿ e",
k|sfz, kfgL tyf ljleGg /;fogsf nflu pTk|]l/t x'G5g\ eg] hgfj/x¿ vfgf, cf>o,
;'/Iff, k|hggsf nflu cg's"n jftfj/0fk|lt pTk|]l/t x'G5g\ .




                                          3
dfgj :gfo' k|0ffnLcGtu{t dl:tis, ;'if'Dgf tyf :gfo'tGt'x¿ kb{5g\ . dl:tis vKk/sf]
xf8leq ;'/lIft ;]/]a|d -7"nf] dl:tis_ ;]/]j]nd -;fgf] dl:tis_ / d]8'nf cAnÍ]u]6fn]
ag]sf] x'G5 . dl:tisaf6 12 hf]8f :gfo' tGt'x¿ z/L/sf ljleGg :yfgdf uP/ hf]l8Psf
x'G5g\ . 3f―6Lsf] klxnf] ;/efOsn el6{a|L P6nf;b]lv sDd/sf] klxnf] nDa/
el6{a|L;Dd /x]sf] nfdf] :gfo' tGt'nfO{ ;';'Dgf elgG5 . leq v/fgL /· / aflx/ ;]tf]
j:t'n] ag]sf] ;'if'Dgf ;fy} dl:tisnfO{ tLg txsf] kftnf] cfj/0f (mening) n] 9fs]sf]
x'G5 . leqL b'O{ cfj/0fx¿aLr /x]sf] t/n kbfy{ -;]/]a|f] :kfOgn k\mn'8_ n]
dl:tis / ;'if'DgfnfO{ ysf{Oaf6 x'g] rf]6af6 arfp―5 . ;'if'Dgfaf6 31 hf]8f
:gfo'tGt'x¿ z/L/sf ljleGg efudf km}lnPsf x'G5g\ . :gfo' sf]ifnfO{ Go'/f]g
elgG5 . Go'/f]g :gfo'sf]if, PShf]g / 8]G8«fO6\;n] ag]sf] x'G5 .
8]G8«fO6\;n] pQ]hgf ;Gb]z :gfo'sf]iflt/ ;~rf/ ub{5g\ eg] PShf]gn] tL
;Gb]znfO{ :gfo'sf]ifaf6 cGo Go'/f]g jf tGt'df k'¥ofp―5 .
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿ M
!= tkl;nsf cjojx¿sf] sfo{ n]Vg'xf];\ M                                      (31=3)
     i) df]6/ :gfo'      ii) d]8'nf cAnª\u]6f        iii) lk6\o'6/L u|lGy
@= ld7f] vfg]s'/f b]Vbf jf af:gf cf―pbf d'vdf ¥ofn cfpg'sf] sf/0f s] xf] < of]
     lqmof :gfo' k|0ffnLsf] s'g efun] ;~rfng u5{ < dflg;sf] dl:tisdf ePsf]
     d]8'nf cAnª\u]6fsf] k|d'v sfd s] xf] < n]Vg'xf];\ .                  (1+1+1=3)
#= Pp6f rsf]{ cfjfh lg:Sof] eg] xfdL t'?Gt b'O{ xftn] sfg 5f]K5f}― . of] s:tf]
   k|sf/sf] k|ltlqmof xf] < o; k|ltlqmofdf ;lDdlnt l/;]K6/ / Okm]S6/sf] gfd
   n]Vg'xf];\ .                                                            (3)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿ M
$= lsdf]6«lkHd eg]sf] s] xf] < lk6\o'6/L u|lGynfO{ lsg gfOs] u|lGy elGG5
   < Okm/]G6 :gfo'sf] sfd s] xf] <                                  (1+1+1=3)
%= Kofª\lqmofhnfO{ lsg ldl>t u|lGy elgG5 < tn pNn]lvt sfo{x¿ dfgj
   z/L/sf] s'gs'g u|GyLn]
   ub{5 <                                                             (1+3=4)
   i) /ut / xf8df SoflN;od cfbfgk|bfg lgoGq0f
   ii)  cGo ul|Gysf] lgoGq0f ug'{
   iii) z/L/nfO{ ljleGg sfdsf nflu tof/L ug'{
^= l/kmn]S; PS;g eg]sf] s] xf] < Pp6f                           a
   pbfx/0f lbg'xf];\ . dfgj dl:tisdf c                          b

   b]vfOPsf] a,b,c / d efux?sf]                             d




                                        4
   PsPscf]6f sfd jtfpg'xf];\ .                                        (1.5+2=3.5)


S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
!= i) df]6/ :gfo' — dl:tis jf ;'if'Dgfaf6 k|]/0ff z/L/sf c? cª\udf k'¥of―p5 . (1)
   ii) d]8'nf cAnª\u]6f — Zjf; k|Zjf;, /Qm;~rf/ h:tf :jflwg sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f
   u5{ . (1)
   iii) lk6\o'6/L u|GyL — zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s j[l4 u5{ .                       (1)
@=     — l/km\n]S; PS;g -csfDo lqmof_                                         (1)
   — ;'if'Dgf                                                                 (1)
   — ! (ii) / (iii) df x]g'{xf];\ .                                           (1)
#= — csfDo lqmof                                                (1)
   — l/;]K6/ – sfgsf] hfnL                                      (1)
   — Okm]S6/ – xftx?sf df+zk]zL                                 (1)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
$= s'g} /;fogn] ubf{ j[lå pQ]hslt/ eO/x]sf] 5 eg] To;nfO{ ;sf/fTds
   lsdf]6«lk|Hd elgG5 .                                         (1)
   cGo ;a} u|lGynfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ x'gfn] lk6\o'6/LnfO{ gfOs] u|lGy
   elgG5 .                                                            (1)
   ;';'Dgfaf6 ;"rgf df+zk]zL cflbdf k'¥ofpg' .                        (1)
%= Kofª\lqmofhn] OGhfOd / xfdf]{g b'j} /;fog lgsfNg] x'―bf o;nfO{ ldl>t
   u|lGy elgG5 .                                                      (1)
   i) kf/fyfO/\jfO8                                                   (1)
   ii) lk6\o'6/L                                                      (1)
   iii) cfl8«gn                                                       (1)
^= z/L/n] s'g} pQ]hgfk|lt crfgs b]vfpg] k|ltlqmofnfO{ csfDo lqmof elgG5 .
       (1)
   tftf] j:t'df 5'―bf crfgs xft x6fpg' .                                     (0.5)
   a lat]sf 36\gfsf] ;Demgf ug'{ .                                           (0.5)
   b zf/Ll/s ;Gt'ng sfod /fVg' .                                             (0.5)
   c :j}lR5s sfo{x¿sf] lgoGq0f .                                             (0.5)
   b csfDo lqmof ;~rfng .                                                    (0.5)




                                           5
dfgj z/L/df /Qm ;~rfng lqmof
/ut M /ut Ps t/n tGt' xf] . dfgj z/L/df sl/a 5.5 ln6/ hlt /ut x'G5 . /ut b'O{
lsl;dsf kbfy{ ldn]/ aGb5 . tL x'g\ -s_ /Qm KnfHdf -v_ /Qm sf]if
-s_ /Qm Knfhf M /utsf] sl/a 55% efu KnfHdfn] ag]sf] x'G5 . of] kx]―nf]
   /ª\usf] t/n xf] . o;df 90% kfgL / 10% k|f]l6g, vlgh nj0f, lrNnf],
   sfaf]{xfO8«]6 cflb x'G5 .
-v_ /Qmsf]if M /utsf] 45% efu /Qmsf]ifn] ag]sf] x'G5 . /Qmsf]ifx¿ tLg
   k|sf/sf 5g\ . /ftf /Qmsf]if, ;]tf /Qmsf]if / Kn]6 n]6\; .
d'6' M d'6'nfO{ aflx/af6 kftnf] lemNnLn] 9fs]sf] x'G5 . of] lemNnLnfO{
k]l/sfl8{od elgG5 . o;leq t/nkbfy{ k]l/sfl8{on km\n'8 x'G5 . o; t/nn]
d'6'nfO{ aflx/L rf]6af6 ;'/Iff ub{5 . d'6'leq rf/cf]6f sf]7fx¿ x'G5g\ . bfof―
cl/sn, afof― cl/sn, bfof― e]lG6«sn / afof― e]lG6«sn . cl/snn] /ut hDdf ub{5
. e]lG6«snn] /ut kDk ub{5 . e]lG6«sndf /Qmrfk a9L x'g] ePsf]n]
cl/sneGbf o;sf] leQf afSnf] x'G5 .
bfof― e]lG6«sneGbf afof― e]lG6«snsf] leQf afSnf] x'G5 . lsg ls afof―
e]lG6«sndf /Qmrfk a9L x'G5 . o;n] z/L/el/ /ut kDk ub{5 . bfof―
e]lG6«snn] /ut d'6'df dfq k7fp―5 .
/Qmrfk M d'6'df x'g] /utsf] rfknfO{ /Qm rfk elgG5 . d'6'sf] cj:yfcg';f/
/Qmrfk b'O{ k|sf/sf] x'G5 .
•                                                                l;:6f]lns
    /Qmrfk M d'6' v'Dr]sf] cj:yfdf x'g] /QmrfknfO{ l:6f]lns /Qmrfk elgG5 .
    o;a]nf rfk a9L x'G5 . :j:y dflg;sf] /Qmrfk 110 mm Hg hlt x'G5 .
•                                                                8fo:6f]lns
    /Qm rfk M d'6'sf] df+zk]zL lj>fd u/]sf] -d'6' km's]sf]_ a]nf x'g]
    /QmrfknfO{ 8fo:6f]lns elgG5 . :j:y dflg;df 8fo:6f]lns /Qm rfk 90 mm Hg
    ;Dd x'G5 .
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿ M
!= /utsf s'g} b'O{ sfo{x¿ n]Vg'xf];\ .                                    (2)
@=sf/0f                                n]Vg'xf];\                           .
   (2+2)
   i)  lz/faf6 x'g] /Qm;|fj eGbf wdlgaf6 x'g] /Qm;|fj vt/gfs x'G5 .
   ii) bfof― e]lG6«sneGbf afof― e]lG6«sndf w]/} dfz+k]zL x'G5 .
gd'gf k|Zgx¿




                                       6
#= kNdf]g/L wdgLdf cz'4 /ut x'G5 hasL c? ;a} wdgLdf z'4 /ut x'G5, o;sf]
   sf/0f JofVof ug'{xf];\ .                                         (2)
$=     wdgL / lz/faLr kfOg] tLgcf]6f km/sx¿ n]Vg'xf];\ .            (3)
%= -s_ kNdf]lgs eNe sxf― /xG5 < o;sf] sfo{ s] xf] <                 (2)
     -v_ d'6'df bfof― e]lG6«sneGbf afof― e]lG6«snsf] leQf afSnf] x'G5, lsg
        <                                                               (2)
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
!= /utsf sfo{x¿ M
     •                                                                        k
            mf]S;f]af6 clS;hg z/L/sf] ljlwGg efudf k'¥ofpg] / sfa{g8fOcS;fO8
            Nofpg] .                                                       (1)
     •                                                                            u
            |lGyx¿af6 lg:s]sf] xdf]{gnfO{ z/L/sf] ljleGg efudf k'¥ofpg] .   (1)
@=          i)lz/fsf] leQf kftnf] x'gfn] /Qm gnLdf /Qmrfk sd x'G5 / rf]6 nfUbf
            /Qm;|fj sd x'G5 t/ wdgLsf] leQf afSnf] x'gfn] /QmgnLdf /Qmrfk
            a9L x'G5 To;}n] lz/faf6 x'g] /Qm;|fj eGbf wdlgaf6 x'g] /Qm;|fj
            vt/gfs x'G5 .                                                   (2)
     ii)                                                                  b
       fof― e]lG6«snn] kmf]S;f]df /Qm k7fpg] x'―bf sd rfk pTkGg u/] k'U5
       t/ afof― e]lG6«snn] z/L/el/ /ut k7fpg'kg]{ x'―bf a9L rfk pTkGg
       ug'{k5{ . o;sf] nfuL afof― e]lG6«sndf bfof― eGbf w]/} dfz+k]zL x'g'
       h?/L kb{5 .                                                     (2)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/ M
#= z/L/af6 cz'4 eO{ kms]{sf] /ut z'4 agfpg kNdf]g/L wdgLn] kmf]S;f]df
   nU5 . To;}n] kNdf]g/L wdgLdf cz'4 /ut x'G5 .                    (1)
   kmf]S;f]af6 kms]{sf] z'4 /ut cGo wdgL eO{ aU5 . To;}n] kNdf]g/L
      afx]ssf wdgLdf z'4 /ut x'G5 .(1)
$=          (i) wdgLsf]   leQf afSnf] x'G5 . lz/fsf] leQf kftnf] x'G5 .
                                                                            (1)
        wdgLsf] /Qm rfk w]/} x'G5 . lz/fdf /Qm rfk sd x'G5 .
     (ii)                                                        (1)
  (iii) wdgL d'6'af6 /ut nU5 . lz/fn] /ut d'6'df kmsf{p―5 .      (1)
%= -s_ kNdf]g/L cf6{/L / bfof― e]lG6«snsf]aLrdf kNdf]lgs eNe x'G5 .
                                                                            (1)




                                         7
       o; eNen] kmf]S;f]lt/ uPsf] /ut bfof― e]lG6«sndf kms{gaf6 /f]S5 .      (1)
   -v_ bfof― e]lG6«snn] /ut kmf]S;f]df dfq k7fp―5 . To;}n] o;df /Qmrfk sd
      x'G5 . afof― e]lG6«snn] z/L/sf] ;a} efudf /ut kDk ug{ w]/} rfksf]
      cfjZostf kb{5 . To;}n] o;sf] leQf afSnf] x'G5 .                  (2)

sf]ifljefhg, cd}y'lgs / d}y'lgs k|hgg\ tyf aLhf0f'af6 la?jfsf] k|hgg\
sf]if ljefhg, cd}y'lgs / d}y'lgs k|hgg\\ / aLhf0f'af6 k|hgg\ x'g] la?jfx¿af6 7.5
cª\ssf] Pp6f k|Zg ;f]lwg] 5 . o;sf b'O{ pkk|ZgdWo] 3+4.5 cyjf 3.5+4 cª\ssf
/xg]5g\ . tL k|Zgx¿ 1fg, af]w cyjf pRr bIftf -k|of]u, ljZn]if0f, ;+Zn]if0f /
d"Nofª\sg _ cflb ljleGg txsf x'g ;S5g\ .
sf]if ljefhg
hLjx¿sf] z/L/df b'O{k|sf/af6 sf]if ljefhg x'G5g\ – dfO6f]l;; / ldcf]l;; . sf]if
ljefhg x'―bf ;j{k|yd Go'lSno;sf] ljefhg x'G5 / To;kl5 ;fO6f]KnfHdsf] ljefhg
x'G5 . sf]if ljefhg x'g' cl3 lj>fdsf] cj:yfnfO{ OG6/km]h elgG5 eg] sf]if
ljefhg eO/x]sf] sf]if k|f]km]h, d]6fkm]h, Pgfkm]h / 6]nf]km]h u/L rf/ cj:yfsf
x'G5g\ .
dfO6f]l;; sf]if ljefhgdf Pp6f l8Knf]O8 (2n) dft[sf]ifaf6 b'O{cf]6f l8Knf]O8
(2n) ;Gtlt sf]ifx¿ g} aGb5g\ . tL sf]ifx¿df qmf]df]hf]dsf] ;ª\Vof dft[sf]ifdf
hlQs} x'G5 . dfO6f]l;;n] z/L/df j[l4, cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ / d[t sf]ifnfO{ lj:yflkt
ub{5 . o; ljefhgn] ubf{ cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ eO{ hlGdg] ;Gtfgdf j+zf0f'ut l:y/tf
sfod /xG5 . dfO6f]l;; sf]if ljefhg ;f]dfl6s sf]ifx¿df Ps r/0fdf k"/f x'G5 .
ldcf]l;;\ sf]ifljefhg k|hgg\ cª\udf b'O{r/0fdf k"/f x'G5 . oL b'j} r/0fdf
dfO6f]l;;\sf] h:t} rf/ cj:yfx¿ – k|f]km]h, d]6fkm]h, Pgfkm]h / 6]nf]km]h
x'G5g\ . o; sf]if ljefhgsf] cGtdf Pp6f l8Knf]O8 (2n) dft[sf]ifaf6 rf/cf]6f
xfo\KNjfO8\ (n) ;Gtltsf]ifx¿ aGb5g\ . tL sf]ifx¿df qmf]df]hf]dsf] ;ª\Vof
dft[sf]ifsf] eGbf cfwf x'G5 . ldcf]l;;\n] ubf{ uef{wfg eO{ hlGdg] ;Gtfgdf
qmf]df]hf]dsf] ;ª\Vof k'vf{sf] hlt l:y/ /lx/xG5 . oxL k|lqmofdf qml;ª cf]e/ x'g]
x'gfn] qmf]df]hf]daLr h]g]l6s -j+zfg'ut_ kbfy{x¿ ;f6f;f6 x'G5g\ . o;n] ubf{
cfkm\gf cfdfafa' b'j}tkm{sf u'0fx¿ cfkm\gf] ;Gtfgdf ;b}{ hfG5g\ . ;fy} o;n]
ubf{ ;Gtfgx¿df s]xL leGgtf -km/s u'0fx¿_ ljsl;t x'g] x'gfn] qmd ljsf;df klg
dbt k'¥ofp―5 .
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿
!= lbOPsf lrqx¿ s'gs'g k|sf/sf sf]if
    ljefhgsf / s'g s'g r/0fx¿ x'g\ < dfO6f]l;;
    / ldof]l;;aLrsf] s'g} tLgcf]6f leGgtfx¿
                                                    -s_          -v_



                                       8
   lbg'xf];\ .                                     (1+3=4)


@= lbOPsf] lrqsf] cWoog u/L ;f]lwPsf
  k|Zgsf] pQ/ lbg'xf];\ .                                                                    (1+1+2
                                                                    sf]if
  (i) of] s'g sf]ifljefhgsf] s'g cj:yf xf] <                        lemNnL
  (ii) To; cj:yfdf s] eO/x]sf] 5 < Pp6f s'/f                        (Cell
                                                                    Membrane)
        n]Vg'xf];\ .
  (iii) o; sf]if ljefhgsf b'O{cf]6f dxTjx¿
  n]Vg'xf];\ .



#= lbOPsf]       lrqsf]   cfwf/df    lgDg       k|Zgx¿sf]         pQ/    lbg'xf];\     M
                                                                                (1+2+1=4)
   (i) o; lrqsf] sf]if ljefhgsf] s'gk|sf/ / s'g cj:yf b]vfp―5 <
   (ii) o; cj:yfdf x'g] s'g} b'O{ kl/jt{gx¿ n]Vg'xf];\ .
   (iii) o; sf]if ljefhgsf] Ps dxTj n]Vg'xf];\ .
gd'gf k|Zgx¿ M
$= l8KnfO8 qmf]df]hf]d s]nfO{ elgG5 < dfO6f]l;;\ / ldcf]l;;\aLr kfOg] s'g}
    rf/cf]6f leGgtf n]Vg'xf];\ .                                       (4.5)
%= xf]df]nf]u;\ qmf]df]hf]d / l;glK;;\ eGgfn] s] a'lemG5 < s'gk|sf/sf] sf]if
    ljefhgsf] s'g cj:yf / r/0fdf of] lqmof x'G5 <                (2+1.5=3.5)
^= lrqdf s'gk|sf/sf] sf]if ljefhgsf] s'g cj:yf
    b]vfOPsf] 5 < o;k|sf/sf] sf]if ljefhgsf]
    b'O{cf]6f dxTj n]Vg'xf];\ .                                     (1+2=3)
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/ M
!= lrq ‘s’ sf]if ljefhg – ldcf]l;;, r/0f – d]6fkm]h II                 (0.5)
   lrq v sf]if ljefhg – dfO6f]l;;, r/0f – d]6fkm]h                                   (0.5)
                   dfO6f]l;;                                 ldcf]l;;
     • of] ;f]dfl6s sf]ifdf x'G5 .           • of] k|hgg\ sf]ifdf x'G5 .               (1)

     • Pp6f sf]ifaf6 b'O{cf]6f sf]ifx¿       • Pp6f sf]ifaf6 rf/cf]6f sf]ifx¿          (1)
     aGb5g\ .                                aG5g\ .                                   (1)

     • ;Gtlt sf]ifx¿ l8KnfO8 x'G5g\          • ;Gtlt sf]ifx¿ x\ofKnfO8




                                         9
       .                                         aGb5 .



@=          (i) sf]if              ljefhg                 –             dfO6f]l;;
            (0.5)
              cj:yf – k|f]km]h                                                (0.5)
     (ii)   k|To]s qmf]df]hf]ddf b'O{cf]6f qmf]dfl68x¿ aGb5g\ .
            dxTj M pQ/ g+= $ (ii) x]g'{xf];\ .
#=          (i) d]6fkm]h                                                     cj:yf
            (0.5)
        dfO6f]l;; sf]if ljefhg                                               (0.5)
   (ii) – ;]lG6«cf]g w|'jdf k'U5                                               (1)
        – j|mf]df]hf]dx¿ e"dWo efudf k'Ub5g\ .                                 (1)
   (iii) j[l4 / ljsf;sf] nflu dxTjk"0f{ 5 .                                    (1)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
$= Pp6f ;fdfGo sf]ifdf x'g] qmf]df]hf]dsf] k"0f{ ;ª\VofnfO{ l8KnfO8
   qmf]df]hf]d(2n) elgG5 .                                                   (0.5)
                      dfO6f]l;;                          ldcf]l;;
   • of] ;f]dfl6s sf]ifdf x'G5 .            • of] k|hgg\ sf]ifdf x'G5 .        (1)
   • Pp6f sf]ifaf6 b'O{cf]6f sf]ifx¿        • Pp6f sf]ifaf6 rf/cf]6f sf]ifx¿   (1)
   aGb5g\ .                                 aGb5g\ .                           (1)

   • l8KnfO8 sf]ifaf6 l8KnfO8               • l8KnfO8 sf]ifaf6 x\ofKnfO8       (1)

   sf]ifx¿ g} aGb5g\ .                      sf]if aGb5 .
   • qml;ª\u cf]e/ x'―b}g .                 • qml;ª\u cf]e/ x'G5 .


%= cfdfaf6 cfPsf (maternal) / afa'af6 cfPsf (paternal) p:t} qmf]df]hf]dx¿sf]
     hf]8LnfO{ xf]df]nf]u; qmf]df]hf]d elgG5 .                                 (1)
     • qmf]df]hf]dsf] hf]8f aGg] k|lqmofnfO{ l;gflK;;\ elgG5 .                 (1)

     • of] lqmof ldcf]l;;\df x'G5 .                                           (0.5)

     • cj:yf – k|f]km]h I                                                     (0.5)

     • cj:yf –hfOuf]l6g                                                       (0.5)

^= sf]if ljefhg dfO6f]l;;                                                     (0.5)




                                            10
   – r/0f M Pgfkm]h                                                         (0.5)
   – dxTj
       • of] k|lqmofaf6 z/L/sf] j[l4 x'G5 .                                   (1)

       • o; ljlwaf6 Ps sf]ifLo hLjdf cd}y'lgs k|hgg\\ x'G5 .                  (1)

cd}y'lgs / d}y'lgs k|hgg\
;hLjsf k|d'v nIf0fx¿dWo] Pp6f nIf0f k|hgg\ xf] . ;a} hLjx¿n] cfkm"h:t}
;Gtfgx¿ pTkfbg u/]/ cfkm\gf] j+zsf] cl:tTj sfod /fv]sf x'G5g\ . hgfj/x¿ tyf
jg:kltx¿n] b'O{ lsl;daf6 k|hgg\ ub{5g\ . tL x'g\ cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ / d}y'lgs
k|hgg\ .
efn] tyf kf]yL Uofd]6x¿sf] ;+of]hglagf g} PSnf] hLjaf6 ;Gtfg pTkfbg x'g]
lqmofnfO{ cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ elgG5 eg] efn] tyf kf]yL Uofd]6x¿sf]
;+of]hgaf6 ;Gtfg pTkfbg x'g] lqmofnfO{ d}y'lgs k|hgg\ elgG5 .
la?jfx¿df km"naf6 afx]s cGo cª\u h:t} h/f, sf08, kfth:tf ljleGg cª\uaf6 x'g]
cd}y'lgs k|hgg\nfO{ e]lh6]l6e k|f]kfu];g\ elgG5 .
cd}y'lgs k|hgg\sf w]/} kmfObfx¿ 5g\, h:t} of] ljlwåf/f rf―8f], ;:tf] / ;lhnf]
tl/sfaf6 la?jfx¿ pTkfbg ug'{, aLp pTkfbg ug{ g;Sg] u'nfkm, s]/fh:tf
la?jfx¿sf] ;lhn};―u k|hgg\ u/fpg' . o; k|lqmofaf6 ag]sf ;Gtltx¿df Ps¿ktf
cfpg'sf ;fy} k}lqs u'0f oyfjt\ /xg] x'―bf pRr u'0f:t/sf t/sf/L tyf kmnkm"nsf
la?jfx¿ pTkfbg ug{ ;lsG5 .
d}y'lgs k|hgg\\sf s]xL kmfObfx¿df – cfdfafa' b'j}tk{maf6 ;Gtfgdf j+zf0f'ut
u'0fx¿ ;g'{, ;Gtfgdf leGgtf cfpg', pGgt g:nsf hGt' tyf jg:kltsf] ljsf; ug{ ;lsg'
;fy} hLjx¿sf] qmdljsf;n] lg/Gt/tf kfpg' cflb kb{5g\ .
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿ M
!= lgDg cª\uaf6 cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ x'g] PsPs la?jfsf] gfd n]Vg'xf];\ .
                                                                      (1.5+2=3.5)
   (i) h/faf6   (ii)sf08af6       (iii) kftaf6
   hfOuf]6 / Uofd]6aLr b'O{cf]6f km/sx¿ n]Vg'xf];\ .
@= cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ eg]sf] s] xf] < cfn'nfO{ 6'qmf6'qmf sf6]/ /f]Kg'kg]{
   s'g} b'O{ cf]6f sf/0f lbg'xf]; . (1+2)
#= aflx/L / leqL uef{wfg eg]sf] s] xf] < d}y'lgs k|hgg\af6 ag]sf ;Gtltsf]if /
   To;s} dfpsf]ifaLr j|mf]df]hdsf] cfwf/df Ps leGgtf n]Vg'xf];\ .    (2+1=3)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿ M
$= Uofd]6 eg]sf] s] xf] < b'O{ ljk/Lt Uofd]6x¿sf] ;+of]hgaf6 ag]sf] gof―




                                       11
     sf]ifnfO{ s] elgG5 < o;k|sf/sf] k|hgg\ lqmofsf] b'O{ dxTj n]Vg'xf];\ .
                                                                       (1+0.5+2=3.5)
%= :jk/fu;]rg / k/k/fu;]rgaLr pbfx/0f lbO{ leGgtf b]vfpg'xf];\ . Eofu'tfdf s:tf]
  uef{wfg x'G5 <                                                     (3+0.5=3.5)
S.L.C. df    ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
!=   (i)   h/faf6 – ;v/v08 (ii) sf08af6 – cb'jf     (iii)   kftaf6 – a|fof]kmfOnd
                                                                         (0.5×3=1.5)
                     hfOuf]6                                Uofd]6
     !=       o;df qmdf]hf]d      ;ª\Vof !=      o;df qmf]df]hf]d       ;ª\Vof     (1)
           l8KnfO8 x'G5 .                     x\ofKnfO8 x'G5 .
                                                                                   (1)
     @= hfOuf]6 dfO6f]l;;            sf]if @= Uofd]6x¿ ;+of]hg            eO{
      ljefhg eP/ e|'0f aGb5 .               hfOuf]6 aGb5 .
@= dfp hLjaf6 dfq n}ª\lus sf]if aGg] k|lj|mof geO{ z/L/sf] s'g} efuaf6 gof―
  ;Gtfgx¿ aGg] lqmofnfO{ cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ elgG5 .                              (1)
  cfn'nfO{ 6'qmf kf/]/ /f]Kg] sf/0f l56f] l56f] tyf sd ;dodf la?jf x'sf{pg' xf]
     (1)
   /fd|f] vfnsf] k}t[s u'0f ;Gtltdf oyfjt sfod /fVg .                       (1)
#= efn] / kf]yL Uofd]6sf] ;+of]hg kf]yLsf] z/L/ aflx/ x'g] k|lj|mofnfO{ afx\o
   uef{wfg elgG5 eg] kf]lysf] z/L/leq ;+of]hg x'g] k|lj|mofnfO{ leqL
   uef{wfg elgG5 .                                                          (2)
   d}y'lgs k|hggaf6 ag]sf] ;Gtlt sf]ifdf j|mf]df]hf]dsf] ;ª\Vof l8Knf]O8 x'G5
   .                                                                        (1)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/
$= ldcf]l;; sf]if ljefhgkZrft\ aGg] x\ofKnfO8 sf]ifnfO{ Uofd]6 elgG5 .
                                                                                  (1)
     – hfOuf]6                                                                   (0.5)
     – d}y'lgs k|hgg\ lqmofsf] dxTj
           •                                                                    d
             }y'lgs k|hgg\af6 hLjx¿sf] ;ª\Vofdf j[l4 eO{ kl5;Dd j+z sfod
             eO/xG5 .                                                       (1)
           •                                                                    ;
             Gtfgx¿df gof―gof― nIf0fx¿ b]vfkg]{ x―'bf qmdljsf;df dbt k'Ub5 .
               (1)
%= Pp6} k"mnsf] PGy/df /x]sf] k/fus0f ToxL k"mnsf] l:6u\Udf;Dd k'Ug]




                                         12
     lj|mofnfO{ :jk/fu ;]rg elgG5 . pbfx/0f M s]/fpsf] k"mn               (1.5)
     Pp6f la?jfsf] k"mnsf] PGy/df ePsf] k/fus0f ToxL la?jfsf] csf]{ k"mnsf]
     l:6u\Udf jf csf]{ k"mnsf] l:6u\Udf k'Ug'nfO{ k/k/fu ;]rg elgG5 . pbfx/0f
     M 306L k"mn                                                         (1.5)
  Eofu'tfdf aflx/L uef{wfg x'G5 .                                         (0.5)
aLhf0f'af6 la?jfsf] k|hgg\
s]xL lgDg:t/sf la?jfx¿df aLhf0f'x¿ jGb5g\ . clt ;"Id x\ofKnf]O8 ;ª\Vofdf
qmf]df]hd ePsf oL sf]ifx¿af6 la?jfdf k|hgg\ x'G5 . o:tf] lsl;dsf] cd}y'lgs
k|hgg\nfO{ :kf]¿n];g elgG5 . Do's/, d;, Rofp plgp― cflbdf aLhf0f'af6
k|hgg\ x'G5 .
plgp―
h/f, sf08 / kft :ki6;―u 5'6\ofpg ;lsg] ck'iks la?jfx¿dWo] ;a}eGbf ljsl;t
plgp―nfO{ elgG5 . o;df kfgL / vlghtTj cGo efudf k'¥ofpgsf nflu hfOnd
tGt'sf ;fy} kftdf tof/ ePsf] vfgf la?jfsf] cGo efudf k'¥ofpg km\nf]od tGt'
/fd|/L ljsf; ePsf] x'G5 .
plgp― ljleGg yl/sf x'G5g\ . o;sf] h/f u'R5] x'G5 . sf08 df6f]d'lg /fOhf]dsf]
¿kdf x'G5 . xl/of] /ª\sf] plgp―sf] kft Kjf―vh:tf] agfj6sf] x'G5 . kftsf]
km}lnPsf] efu (Lamina) ;fgf ;fgf 6'j|mfdf ljeflht x'G5g\, ltgnfO{ lnkm\n]6\;
(Leaflets) elgG5 .
S.L.C. df ;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿ M
!= plgp―sf] la?jfnfO{ :kf]/f]kmfO6 / k|f]yfn;nfO{ Uofd]6f]kmfO6 eGg'sf]
    Pp6f sf/0f n]Vg'xf];\ .                                              (2)
@= lbOPsf] lrq plgp―sf] hLjgrqmsf] s'g cj:yf xf] <                       (2)
     plgp―sf] aLhf0f'x¿ s;/L x\ofKnf]O8 aGb5g\ <                           (2)



#=     plgp―sf] hLjgrqmdf cN6/g];g ckm h]g]/];g eg]sf] s] xf] <            (2)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿ M
$=   lrqdf plgp―sf] hLjgrqmsf] s'g r/0f
  b]vfOPsf] 5 < 'X', 'Y' / 'Z' efux¿sf] gfdfs/0f
  ug'{xf];\ . o; r/0fsf] Pp6f k|d'v sfd klg
  n]Vg'xf];\ .                                                             (3)
%= km/s 5'6\ofpg'xf];\ —                                                   (4)




                                       13
     :kf]/f]kmfO6 / Uofd]6f]kmfO6
S.L.C. df;f]lwPsf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/ M
!= plgp―sf] la?jfdf aLhf0f' -:kf]/_ aGg] x'gfn] o:nfO{ :kf]/f]kmfO6 /
   k|f]yfn;df efn] Uofd]6 / kf]yL Uofd]6x¿ aGg] x'gfn] o;nfO{
   Uod]6f]kmfO6 elgPsf] xf] .                                      (2)
@= Uofd]6f]kmfO6 cj:yf                                             (1)
     ldof]l;; sf]if ljefhg k|lqmofåf/f l8Knf]O8 aLhf0f' cfdf sf]if   (Spore mother cell)
     x\ofKnf]O8 aLhf0f' (Spore) aGb5 .                                               (1)
#=     plgp―df cd}y'lgs k|lqmofåf/f :kf]/f]kmfO6af6 :kf]/ aGg] / pQm
   :kf]/af6 ag]sf] k|f]yfn;-Uofd]6f]kmfO6_ df d}y'lgs k|lqmofåf/f Uofd]6x¿
   aGg] u/L b'O{ r/0fdf hLjg k"/f x'g] k|lqmofnfO{ cN6/g];g ckm h]g]/];g
   elgG5 .                                                              (2)
gd'gf k|Zgx¿sf] pQ/ M
$=     Uofd]6f]kmfO6 r/0f, X - cfls{uf]lgof Y- PGy]/]l8of (1+0.5+0.5=2)
   o; r/0fsf] k|d'v sfd d}y'lgs k|hgg\ k|lqmofåf/f Uofd]6 pTkfbg u/L
   uef{wfg k|lj|mof u/fpg' xf] .(1)
%=                   :kf]/f]kmfO6                       Uofd]6f]kmfO6
       != o; r/0fdf aLhf0f'x¿sf] dfWodåf/f         != o; r/0fdf Uofd]6x¿sf]
          cd}y'lgs k|hgg\ ub{5g\ .                    lgdf{0fåf/f    d}y'lgs         (1)
                                                      k|hgg\ ub{5 .
       @=                                        @=Uofd]6f]kmfO6af6 PGy]/f]hf]O8 -z'qmf0f'_
                                    :kf]/f]kmfO6af6 aLhf0f'x¿ lg:sG5g\ .
                                                                                     (1)
       #= o;sf] k|To]s sf]if Diploid x'G5 .        #= o;sf]     k|To]s       sf]if   (1)
                                                      Haploid x'G5 .

       $= o; cj:yfkl5 k|f]yfn; aG5 .               $= o; cj:yfkl5 gof― la?jf         (1)
                                                      aG5 .




                                         14

								
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