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  Jewish History: Churban Bayis
 Sheini through Savora’im Review
                             By Yaffa Rosenberg

Grade Level: High School

Basic review sheet for Jewish history for the time period from the destruction of
the second Beis Hamikdash through Savora’im. Points are in English and
includes graphics for easy and enjoyable studying.

Students will use this sheet when studying for a test on material covering
Churban Bayis Sheini through the Savora’im.

   1. Give this sheet to the students well before the test.
   2. Tell them clearly what information they are responsible for.
Year 9                                                                    Jewish history

                          REVISION GUIDE
This revision guide should be used only once you have read through your notes
thoroughly. The purpose of these sheets is to condense and reinforce that which you
have already learnt and to highlight the names and stories you will have to know.
The test will take a 35 minute lesson and consist of a multiple choice section, a
question section and an essay section, the test will be out of fifty marks.
The test is not there to catch you out but simply so that you will know your Jewish
history well and for life!
‫ הצלחה רבה‬I’m sure you will all do as best as you can!

BUILD UP TO ‫חורבן בית שני‬

Daily scuffles between Jews and Romans result in much bloodshed. Three factions

*Zealots - those who wanted war. Consisted of hotheads/criminals.
*Moderates – those not wanting to provoke the more powerful Rome. Consisted of
those loyal to Torah.
* Friends of Rome – those who wanted power/money. Consisted of assimilated or
corrupt jews.

‫ ר' יוחנן בן זכאי‬goes on behalf of his people to speak to Vespasian. Emerging from the
coffin and after greeting Vespasian correctly as emperor, ‫ ר' יוחנן בן זכאי‬is granted 3
requests. With amazing foresight he asks:
(1) '‫'תן לי יבנה וחכמיה‬
(2) Family and dynasty of ‫ ר' שמעון בן גמליאל‬should not be touched
(3) A doctor for ‫ר' צדוק‬

Vespasian accepts and leaves to Rome as new emperor, appointing Titus in his place
to command the siege of Yerusholaim.

 ‫( 0383 פסח‬no, you don’t have to know this date           !!)Titus, fed up with the
no-go situation marched into the city. Tisha Be’Av is when they actually lit the walls
of the Beis Hamikdosh with the flames rising Heavenward together with the cries of
the people.

‫ גלות‬BEGINS

Klal Yisrael are rounded up: healthy ones are either sold as slaves to Eygpt, sent to
Greece, or shipped to Rome for the victory march. Some do remain in Eretz Yisrael,
but ‫ יבנה‬and ‫ בבל‬are now to become the main places of ‫.תורה‬

THE ‫תנאים‬

‫ ר' יוחנן בן זכאי‬appoints ‫ ר' גמליאל‬as ‫ נשיא‬and leaves Yavneh to spread Torah
to thirsty Yidden.
Year 9                                                                     Jewish history

          ‫ ש''ע‬and ‫ סדר התפילה‬written at this time.
          Talmidim must be ‫ – תוכו כברו‬inside like outside to learn in his Beis Medrash.
          After ‫ ר' גמליאל‬is deemed to have beeen too harsh on ‫ , ר' יהודה‬R’ Elozor ben
         Azarya was appointed ‫ נשיא‬and allowed entry to all who wished to come and

         HADRIAN AND THE ‫ככבא‬            ‫ בר‬REVOLT
Hadrian offers only then to retract his offer to ‫ כ''י‬to build the ‫.בהמ''ק‬
‫ כ''י‬are furious, but are comforted through the mashal of the lion/bird etc.
Hadrian then banns ‫ שבת, מילה, לימוד התורה‬and more- all ingredients for rebellion.

Shimon Bar Kosiba, a mighty warrior was named by ‫ ר' עקיבה‬as ‫ בר ככבא‬alluding to
the ‫ 'דרך כוכב מיעקב' ;פסוק‬regarding ‫.משיח‬
‫ ,בר ככבא‬led a powerful army against Rome. Although starting with good motives the
power reached his head and through a story of misunderstanding, impatience and
strength he killed his uncle ‫ .ר' אלעזר המודעי‬As this great man left the world, so did his
tefillos and zechusim that protected his people. The Romans, now victorious captured
the city of Beitar and thousands were killed. The corpses were forbidden to be buried.

‫עשרה הרוגי מלכות‬

10 martyrs killed by Romans for teaching Torah;
* R’ Akiva – rock/water. Tortured whilst saying shema.
*R’ Yehuda ben Bava – told his talmidim to abandon him and save themselves.
*R’ Chanina ben Tradyon – burnt with ‫ .ספר תורה‬Roman officer leaps in flames... ‫יש‬
‫.קונה עולמו בשעה אחת‬

ANTONINUS; Kind emperor to Jews, allows Beitar corpses to be buried. People
arrive to do this and are stunned as they see that after 6 yrs the bodies did not
decompose. They compose [‫ברכת הטב והמטיב ]ברכת המזון‬

‫ר' מאיר‬
Learnt under Elisha ben Avuya/ Acher who strayed from Torah Umitzvos.
Explaining he could do so for he knew how to '‫ .'תוכו אכל וכליפתו זרק‬His wife
was ‫ ברוריה‬an exceptionally clever woman. Story; he rescued her sister…

‫ ר' יהודה הנשיא‬AND THE COMPLETION OF ‫משנה‬

Also called ‫ רבי‬or ‫.רבינו הקדוש‬
We are not supposed to write ‫ ,תורה שבעל פה‬it should be                passed by mouth
– learning teaching etc. Yet Rebbi foresaw that times will             change and if it
  would not be written down it will eventually be forgotten.
Year 9                                                                     Jewish history

Although he had a luxurious lifestyle, on his deathbed he raised his 10 fingers saying,
that he never derived personal benefit from Olom Hazeh.

‫שמואל & רב‬

‫ רב‬opened a yeshiva in ‫ ]בבל[ סורה‬and is known as the author of ‫.מברכים החודש‬
‫ שמואל‬opened a yeshiva in ‫ ,נהרדעה‬and was an expert in many areas including; maths
astrology and science.

‫ריש לקיש & ר' יוחנן‬

R’ Yochanan very handsome man with a very tragic life (lost 10 children). Reish
Lakish was infamous highwayman. Story of the former swimming in river etc. They
become brother-in-laws and ‫’חברותה‬s until Reish LAkish is niftar. R’ Yochanan was
beside himself until the ‫ חכמים‬found for him ‫ ,ר' אלעזר בן פדס‬who brought 24 proofs
and not refutations. R’ Yochanan suffered terribly until the ‫ חכמים‬davened for his soul
to be taken From here we see the importance of a good ‫ חברותה‬or friend;
'‫'או חברותה או מיתותה‬

‫רבה & אביה‬

A position as Rosh Yeshiva in ‫ בבל‬was vacant, so the choicest of the Talmidei
chachomim were chosen to go into a room and decide who should assume this status.
‫ אביה‬was selected.


This is the name of the Empire that took over the Roman Empire. After much killing,
the Emperor Constantine secured his throne making Constantinople the capital city.
Christianity, a newer religion is becoming more popular.

‫תלמוד ירושלמי‬

Written by ‫ .ריש לקיש & ר' יוחנן‬It is not easy to read because due to constant
attacks from the Christians they could not write it in calm tranquility.

‫תלמוד בבלי‬

Written by Ravino and R’ Ashi. It helps explain Mishna, contradictions in Mishna
etc. True gemoro to sharpen ones mind. They also had the additional advantage of
being able to check back to the ‫ תלמוד ירושלמי‬as it was written first.
Year 9                                                               Jewish history


We know very little due to the difficult times, not much is recorded for us
about their works. They learnt under Tanaim and ‫ משנה‬and [‫ גמרא ]תלמוד‬had
already been completed and sealed.
They undertook to ensure ‫ ש'ס‬the ‫ שישה סדרי משנה‬is remembered. Without the
printing press they had to write by hand copies of these long works! Theses
copies are rare and were very expensive.
Yet Torah is spreading…

                           !!!‫הצלחה רבה‬

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