9. konu

Document Sample
9. konu Powered By Docstoc

Prof. Dr. İge Pirnar
Global Competition and The Future

The future of the international tourism
industry is closely tied to worldwide
political, social and economic changes and
to long-term trends in domestic and
international tourism.

The increase in economic interdependence
among nations and the expansion of
international business and trade will
continue to drive the tourism industry
toward globalization.

Some of the global trends likely to
influence the international tourism industry
during the first twenty years of new
millenium and beyond.
          Long term Tourism Growth
•   Tourism is the most rapidly growing industry in the new world

•   The global economy is key to the hospitality industry, as
    growth in international business travel is expected to exceed
    that of leisure travel. This disparity in growth rates will be
    especially marked for arrivals to Europe, North America and
    the new industrialized countries of Asia. Leisure travel, on the
    other hand, will grow faster than business travel in Southeast
    Asia, South Asia (especially China) and the Pacific (excluding
    Japan and the newly ind. Countries).
               Factors Influencing Future

•   The long term trend for travel is clearly upward and the
    opportunities for tourism expansion are promising. The
    principal long term factors affecting tourism demand are the
    globalization of industry, demographic and social changes,
    increasing leisure and holiday time, changes in consumer
    preferences, economic growth and the overall investment
    environment. Short term influences include cost of travel,
    price changes and exchange rate parities, travel barriers,
    marketing and promotion, as well as extraneous factors
    including legislative / regulatory changes, political stability,
    technological developments, trading developments,
    transport developments, and the safety of travel.
Figure 1. Forces of change in the tourist system.

Source: Cooper Ch., Fletscher J., Gilbert D., Wanhill., Tourism – Principles & Practice, Pitman Piblishing, Surrey 1993, p. 266.
                 Megatrend Influences on the
                       Tourist Market
•   The end of the twentieth century was a time of great
    transformation in all fields of life. There were many fast paced
    changes throughout social conditions, the economy, and
    technology, which brought about many transitions within
    tourism. The constant tendencies to observe and gain
    knowledge about the markets basic condition are needed to
    succeed with each activity and the trends within tourism can
    change quickly. The ability to forecast and stimulate these
    developmental processes is the key to making the correct
    decisions for the future. The fluxuation and competition within
    the tourist market not only requires constant observation and
    the ability to anticipate change, but also being able to react to
    the new trend before it becomes the norm. This shows the
    importance of knowledge in the action of these megatrends,
    which can be classified into six basic groups; demographics,
    politics, social and cultural, economics, technology, and
    ecology. These six factors are presented in table.
Table 1. The megatrends and the tourism development.

  Demographic factors, especially:                     Political factors, especially:
  age of societies;                                   changes in Central-West Europe;
  tendencies to set up home late;                     integration of the European Union;
  a smaller number of households;                     liberalisation of international migrations;
  a dominant model of family 2+1;                     convenience passports, foreign currency;
  increasing number of lonely people;                 unstable political situation in many regions of the world;
  increasing number of childless couples;             international terrorism;
  increasing number of working women.                 increased importance of safe travel
  Social & cultural factors, especially:               Economical factors, especially:
  shortened time of working, more free time and       continuation of moderate economical increase in the
  longer vacations;                                    world scale;
  increase of time for additional work;               a bigger disproportion between rich and poor countries;
  earlier retirements;                                a bigger financial crisis in a number of countries
  increasing number of "two-income" households;       (especially, among “economical tigers" in South Asia and
  which were thought of as a healthy life;             Pacific);
  a family crisis;                                    a stable price of petroleum;
  conflicts between identity and modernisation,       liberalisation and development of an international trade;
  especially in developing countries                   capital concentration in world's economy;
  a radical demands and increases of importance       globalisation of economical activity;
  of ethnic movement etc.
  Technological factors, especially:                   Ecological factors, especially:
  automation and computerisation;                     smaller environmental resources
  developing of telecommunication                     a greater ecological awareness in society;
  developing of computing systems;                    government's concern with environment;
  developing of transport and infrastructure          conflicts causes by developing of a big agglomerations (
  (airports, motorways);                               in developing and developed countries );
  use of modern technologies in everyday life         development of the ecological movement
  (household articles, sport, tourist equipment);      international collaboration in field of natural and cultural
  developing of soft technologies;                    environment protection;
             Demographic, Economic and
                   Social Trends

•   Population growth is projected to slow down in both the
    more developed and the less developed regions.
    However, whereas the growth rate remains positive for
    the less developed regions until 2050, it turns negative
    after 2025 for the more developed regions. By 2045-2050,
    the population in the more developed regions is projected
    to be declining at a rate of -0.19 per cent per year,
    whereas the population of the less developed regions will
    be growing at a robust rate of 0.57 per cent per year.

•   The EU population is ageing….
•   The EU population is ageing and old age dependency
    rates will increase. Although fertility increased slightly
    from 1.45 children per woman in 1999 to 1.47 in 2001, it
    is still well below the replacement level of 2.1.
•   As living standards improve, the population of many nations will be
    healthier, live longer and have greather discretionary spending
    power. Travel restrictions are rapidly being relaxed. People from all
    countries are travelling more frequently and farther afield.

•   Life expectancy has almost doubled in the past century and is
    continuing to lengthen. In Europe, for example, in 2003, people aged
    65 and over represent 16% of the total population (total pop. of EU,
    in approximation, 379 million at 01.01.2003) while those 15
    countries, member of EU, represent 17%. By 2010 these ratios will
    become 18% and 16%. The most dramatic increase will occur in the
    number of 'very old' people (aged over 80), which will rise by almost
    50% over the next 15 years. These groups represents a healty and
    relatively wealty segment for tapping by the travel industry. The
    scenario is similar in North America and Japan; by the year 2025,
    about one in five Americans and one in four Japanese will be over
            Competition from Other Sources

•   In the future, competition for discretionary income will be strong coming
    from other industries with alternatives that may reduce the need for
    hotel, rooms or for travel altogether. The airlines’ offering of more
    frequent flights, shorter flying times, and lower airfares, for example,
    has eliminated the need for an overnight stay, and thus a hotel room, for
    many business travelers.
•      Particularly in the European market, do-it-yourself accommodations,
    such as holiday camps, caravans and camping, rented flats and villas
    and second homes have taken over as main providers of holiday
    accommodations. Other substitutions include recreational vehicles,
    timeshare offerings and cruise lines. The cruise industry offers another
    substitute for hotel rooms; both supply and demand continue to
    increase for cruise holidays.
•      Telecommunications tools, such as teleconferencing and video
    technology, continues to facilitate business relations as an other
    substitute to business travel.
           Deregulation and Free Trade

•   Many countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia
    are moving from central planning toward market-oriented
    economies. This trend will help to stimulate both domestic
    and international travel.
•   Forecasts for the increase of travel are based on the
    assumption that these economic and trade-liberalizing
    trends of the 1980s and 1990s will continue and the
    international trade will see substantial growth with more
    countries actively participating as both exporters and
•   Industry regulations are also very important to growth of
    international and national tourism flows. Some sectors of the
    international travel industry, such as airlines and tour
    operators, are greatly affected by regulations that govern the
    rights to markets across national boundaries.
              Single European Market

•   The European Union (EU) is a union of democratic European
    countries. Growing from six Member States in 1952 to 15 by 1995, 25
    by 2004 (Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
    The Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom,
    Belgium, Denmark, Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia,Lithuania,
    Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia), and 3 applicant countries
    (Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey). The European Union today embraces
    more than 370 million people, from the Arctic Circle to Portugal, from
    Ireland to Crete. Though rich in diversity, the Member States share
    certain common values. Unions’ goal is the elimination of trade
    barriers, standardization of trade duties and value added taxes,
    elimination of border controls and custom checks.

•      Such a community without internal borders is positively
    affecting the tourism industry, particularly as aviation becomes
    less constrained by regulations and restrictive rules.
                         Transportation in EU

•      The liberalization of transportation within the EU has the goal of
    providing greater competition, better services, and more consumer
    choice. The main proposals were designed to achieve: (1) more
    competitive pricing with greatier flexibility on tariffs, (2) more liberal
    capacity controls between bilateral partners, and (3) more liberal
    market access, allowing direct competition between airlines on major
•      In response to some of the liberalization measures, airline mergers
    and takeovers are emerging as a key part in the survival strategies of
    many carriers. Cooperative agreements, partnerships, and other types
    of alliances are also becoming more common both within and across
    national boundaries. SAS, Swissair, Austrian Airlines, and Finnair, for
    example, have created a “quality alliance” including the design of
    more efficient timetables, the development of joint service facilities,
    and the standardization of amenities.
•      Congested airports and air traffic control problems also new
    problems of the EU as well as other developed part of the world. Until
    essential air traffic control system improvements are in place, larger
    airports would provide few gains in passenger growth.
               Tour Operators and Travel
                   Agents in EU

•      The unification of European markets is making it
    increasingly feasible and attractive for tour operators
    to reach beyond their indigenous markets into
    neighboring countries. Economies of scale would give
    a natural advantage to those tour operators based in
    Europe’s biggest holiday markets.
•      The unification have the most profound impact,
    direct and indirect, on the region’s retail travel agents.
    Agents, who are already threatened by the steady
    growth of direct-sell tour operators and multiple retail
    chains and by the blurring of distinctions between
    operators and agencies, affected by the development
    on telecommunication technology and computer
    reservation systems.
       Standardized Currency (Economic
             and Monetary Union)

•     A single European currency should come into
    circulation on 1 January 1999, replacing national
    currencies as from 1 January 2002, and helping
    to make the man in the street more aware of
    belonging to a new entity.
•     The emergence of the single European
    currency is the result of lengthy, patient
                 Tourism Growth In Major Regions
Tourist Arrivals
                                 International Tourist Arrivals                     Change            Share
                                           (million)                                 (%)               (%)

                       1990     1995       2000        2001       2002*    01/00        02*/01      2002*

World                   455.9    550.4      687.3        684.1     702.6     -0.5            2.7      100
Africa                  15.0     20.0        27.4        28.3      29.1      3.2             2.8       4.1
Americas                93.0     108.8      128.0        120.2     114.9     -6.1            -4.4     16.3
Asia and the Pacific    57.7     85.6       115.3        121.1     131.3     5.1             8.4      18.7
Europe                  280.6    322.3      392.7        390.8     399.8     -0.5            2.3      56.9
 Northern Europe        32.3     41.4        46.8        44.6      46.4      -4.7            4.1       6.6
 Western Europe         113.8    116.7      142.8        139.2     141.1     -2.6            1.4      20.1
 Europe                 39.0     61.4        62.3        63.4      65.2      1.8             2.9       9.3

 Southern Europe        88.1     91.3       126.1        129.0     131.0     2.3             1.5      18.6
 East Mediterranean
 Eu.                     7.4     11.4        14.7        14.7      16.1      -0.1            9.4       2.3

Middle East              9.7     13.6        24.0        23.6      27.6      -1.3        16.7          3.9
                                          2020 Vision

•       Tourism 2020 Vision is the World Tourism Organization's long-term
    forecast and assessment of the development of tourism up to the first 20
    years of the new millennium. An essential outcome of the Tourism 2020
    Vision are quantitative forecasts covering a 25 years period, with 1995
    as the base year and forecasts for 2000, 2010 and 2020.
•       Although the evolution of tourism in the last few years has been
    irregular, WTO maintains its long-term forecast. WTO's Tourism 2020
    Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach over
    1.56 billion by the year 2020. Of these worldwide arrivals in 2020, 1.2
    billion will be intraregional and 0.4 billion will be long-haul travellers.
•       The total tourist arrivals by region shows that by 2020 the top three
    receiving regions will be Europe (717 million tourists), East Asia and the
    Pacific (397 million) and Americas (282 million), followed by Africa, the
    Middle East and South Asia. East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, the
    Middle East and Africa are forecasted to record growth at rates of over 5
    percent per year, compared to the world average of 4.1 per cent. The
    more mature regions Europe and Americas are anticipated to show
    lower than average growth rates. Europe will maintain the highest share
    of world arrivals, although there will be a decline from 60 % in 1995 to 46
    % in 2020.
                                  In 2003…

•     Worldwide tourism was affected negatively by
    conflict in Iraq and outbreak of Severe Acute
    Respiratory Syndrome (Sars) discouraged people
    from travelling overseas. For airlines, the impact
    of Sars was more severe than the Iraq conflict on
    consumer confidence. Scheduled international
    passenger traffic worldwide decreased by 2.6 per
    cent overall during the first four months of 2003.
    The Asia Pacific region was the worst affected,
    with decreases in air travel of 36 per cent
    recorded, while North America saw a drop of 22
    per cent.
                                In 2005…

•     Worldwide tourism was affected
    negatively by bird flue which again
    discouraged people from travelling
•   Political disputes, still never ending
    problems of countries like Iraq,
    negativelly affected world travel.
•      Privatization –that is, the transfer of public ownership of
    manufacturing or services enterprices to private parties- is
    a policy option being actively pursued in countries all over
    the world. The trend toward privatization evolved form a
    growing realization by governments that state enterprises
    are generally much less efficent in the use of capital and
    labor than private companies in making products and
    providing services. State-owned enterprises generally
    undermine competition in the marketplace as they are
    usually protected by government in verious ways and
    subsidized when operating at a loss. The increased
    financial burden put on government budgets by state
    enterprises and the ability to rise state revanues with
    private sector sales also helps to explain the growing
    privatization movement.
         Privatization in Turkish Tourism

•      In Turkey, Istanbul Congress Palace, Cesme Hotel and its
    annexes, Kemer Marina Hotel, Ilica Motel, Elmadag Auberge, 2
    lands in Istinye, Akcay Holiday Resort, Bodrum, Kusadasi and
    Kemer Marinas have been privatized during 1991-1999 period.
•      Turban withdrew from the operations and administration of
    Amasya, Samsun, Corum, Erciyes, Urfa and Adalya Hotels, Kaleici
    Marina, Gumuldur and Marmaris Holiday Resort and Beldibi and
    Belek tourism establisments.
•      Tender announcement for the block sale of Abant Hotel, Carlton
    Hotel's land and a land in Akcay has been published on September
    29, 1999. No bids were received for Akcay's land and tender was
        Transportation Developments
•   Aircraft Technology
•   New aircraft technology can be expected to contribute to
    further gains on weight and fuel efficiency, which in turn
    adds to aircraft range and payload.
•   Their innovative management strategies should also be
    pointed out, their use of the new technologies, new
    business strategies and ways to gain access to customers
    and the market.
•    In addition to the continuing development of larger and
    more fuel-efficient aircraft, the removal of restrictive
    legislation on airline operations will influence the cost of
•   The price of fuel-oil, which affects the transport
    components and the energy cost of hotels, is another key
    factor in the cost of travel.
      Transportation Developments
Train Technology
Japan is pioneering maglev (magnetic levitation) trains that
can reach a speed of up to 420 kph. High speed rail lines
are planned all over Europe. London, Paris and Brussels
have fast, frequent, high quality passenger service with
feeder lines from other cities. High-speed trains, particularly
in Europe, are likely to become the preffered alternative to
air travel where airport congestion, delays and hassles are
increasing. These trains may provide as convenient and
rapid a method of transport as air travel for both business
and leisure travelers. The high-speed train lines (with datas
belong to 2002) are as follows:
1. France (250 kph)          6. Sweden (175,1 kph),
2. Japan (230 kph)           7. Eurostar (171,5 kph),
3. Spain (217,9 kph)          8. Italy ( 162,0 kph),
4. Germany (200 kph)         9. USA ( 153,6 kph)
5. UK (177,1 kph),           10. Canada (144,3 kph)
    Transportation Developments
The effects of changing consumer behaviors and
economic and social progress requires the
deregulation of services related to tourism such
as airline industry, hotels, etc.
The US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan
and EU have substantially deregulated their air
services, resulting in fare reductions, cost cutting,
bankruptcies, and the emergence of a much
smaller group of large carriers.
The deregulation of air transport in Western
Europe and the relaxation of regulation governing
charters allows for the possibility of large numbers
of tourists arriving at a destination without booked
   Transportation Developments
Transportation Infrastructure

Throughout the world, the vastly increased numbers of
travelers are forcing the aviation industry to face very real
facility shortages. Lack of airport and airspace capacity
has emerged as one of the leading constraints to travel
throughout the world.

Providing more runway capacity, terminals, and other
facilities will require huge new investments and strong
government support to overcome powerful opposition.
The question of how these improvements are to be
financed remains an important issue.

In many cases, it is likely to be a joint government-
private sector initiative. Other solutions to the problem
include promoting off-peak tourism and confining charter
services to specific airports.
           Technology and Automation

•       Faced with a need to boost productivity and to improve
     efficiency, the hotel industry is moving toward automation.
     Many computerized systems have been designed to
     address the specific requirements of the hotel industry; at
     the same time, the costs of equipment and software have
     fallen dramatically.
•    In the six interrelated areas of hotel technology
1.      information processing,
2.      telecommunications,
3.   energy conservation,
4.   fire safety,
5.   security, and
6.   audiovisual systems- the problem is no longer whether to
     automate, but how much automation makes sense, what to
     select, and how to use it effectively.
•   Today’s packaged property management
    systems will increasingly evolve to offer
    more user options with respect to
    functions and property size.
•     Improved technology in back-office
    systems, registration, guest intelligence,
    smart cards, voice messaging, and so
    forth all have the ability to raise
    productivity and efficiency. Property
    Management System have proven useful
    for inventory management, menu
    planning, and analysis.

•      A view on some 10 years ahead to outline some key trends and future
    attributes of tourism services suggests the following tentative picture;
•   Increased popularity and capabilities of the Internet for a wide spectrum of
    applications for electronic services in tourism, making distribution cannels
    less dependent from traditional CRS of airlines;
•   Internet and supporting services by further new intermediaries will
    significantly transform, if not eliminate, the role of traditional travel
    intermediaries (travel agents working on commissions paid);
•   Direct on-line bookings by customers will make up a significant market
    share by 2010 with access available to most of the population in
    industrailized countries;
•   “Virtual tourists” will have an increasing demand for multi-media travel
•   Interactive TV and mobile devices will increasingly be used for the
    distribution of tourism products and services,
•   The majority of tourism organizations will also use
•   Products and services will reach a much higher level of
    personalization together with a corresponding demand;
•   The strongly risen share of people over 50s in the
    industrialized countries will effect a higher demand for e-
    services related to foreign travel, particularly to long haul
    destinations and travel for culture purposes as well as eco-
•   Further growth of “time poor” – “money rich” people will
    entail a high demand for short time holidays while, on the
    other hand, all-inclusive holidays will be demanded by a
    large number of people with needs for complete,
    unburdened relaxation and release from job pressures;
•   Particular uses of electronic technology will include smart
    cards for a variety of functions, including the management
    of destination loyalty schemes (discounts in exchange for
    customer data and loyalty), bonus schemes for
    environment-protective behaviour, etc.;
                                      E-Tourism test-
    Internet video telephones will allow customers to take
    drives for a particular destination by pictures from cameras
    placed at various sites in the holiday locality and
    transmitted via Internet;
•   Efforts to build up central databases of traveler information
    will be continued for use to get extensive insight into
    individual preferences and behavioural patterns so that the
    information can be used for active marketing;
•   Mobile city guides will be widespread and electronic
    brochures in the form of CD-ROMs will increasingly replace
    paper brochures.
•   Tourism providers will more easily and more often form
    strategic partnerships, offering complementary products.
•   Small and medium sized businesses will be forced to take a
    more strategic approach on doing business; new mediators
    on the market will assist in doing so.
•   Hotels will increasingly have to employ extensive branding
    and marketing strategies.
                    Development Issues
•   Hotel Design
•     Outside of major urban areas, the future hotel is much
    more likely to be in environmental harmony with its
•   Accommodation will be developed to match their
    environmental settings and the local culture will provide
    inspiration for the design of building features, motifs,
    furniture, furnishings, and artifacts.
•   Humanistic scale of buildings and the use of indigenous
    materials and methods will be more common. This
    approach will both maximize the economic benefit to be
    gained by the host community from hotel development
    and provide what travelers increasingly want when they
    seek an experience away from home.
•     Time and cost factors will influence hotel building
                  Development Issues

  The hotel guestrooms of the future is likely to be better
designed and more functional. In appropriate locations,
rooms will have full office facilities both in the form of work
stations and available business equipment.
Some hotels takes customers to outer
   space (figuratively, of course),
 medieval castles, or even to prison.
              Development Issues
Energy Systems

Focused energy management and waste reduction will
become more common in the future design of hotels.
Solar energy may be more widely used to heat swimming
pools and domestic hot water and for limited space
Heat recovery from the various air conditioning, cooking,
and lighting systems will substantially reduce the demand
for thermal energy, as will more efficient lighting systems.
 All of these improvements in the physical design of a
building will mean that basic energy systems will be
scaled down considerably, reducing such costs.
            Development Issues
Safety Systems

With regard to guest safety, litigation and consumer
protection trends will influence hotel design and
The growing number of female business travelers, in
particular, will place a high priority on personal safety.
In the last decade or so, new security equipment
(closed-circuit television, keyless door locking systems,
and so forth) have helped to combat hotel crime.
 Hotels     that    have     installed   such    systems,
demonstrating a high commitment to guest security,
will have an advantage over their competitors who
have not.
             Development Issues

Land Use

Land scarcity is a growing concern for hotel
developers, especially in densely populated cities,
like London, Istanbul, New York and Paris. Overall,
land shortages in urban centers will force the hotel
industry to become more flexible and to seek non-
traditional paths to expansion in order to make
profitable investments.
                     Development Issues
•     Mixed-Use Developments

•       A development approach becoming more prevalent is
    the combination of hotel development with other real estate
    projects, frequently referred to as “mixed use
    development”. For example, new and converted
    developments that combine retail space, entertainment,
    offices, and hotel and residential uses are becoming more
    and more common.
•       Within the overall mixed use development concept, the
    rising concern for environmental issues and historic
    preservation can often be accommodate.
•   The preservation of historic buildings has long been
    recognized as a priority in North America and Europe, but
    it’s now spreading more widely.
            Hotels and the Environment
•      Hotels can play a significant role in the move to
    sustainable tourism development. Moreover, they can
    realize solid and measurable economic benefits as a direct
    result of environmental initiatives. Hoteliers can lower
    operating costs while at the same time building a more
    positive public profile.
•      Consequently, higher standards of environmental
    protection concept will undoubtedly influence hotel
    construction. Certainly, hap-hazard and unlimited
    development will no longer be tolerated.
•      Hotels that willingly take up the environmental gauntlet
    before they are forced to may have a competitive
    advantage. A number of hotel companies, including Hyatt
    Hotels, Inter-Continental, and Ramada International, have
    already implemented company-wide environmental
  Ecotourism is a nature-based form of specialty travel defined as
  "responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and
  sustains the well-being of local people."
  Demand for ecotourism appears to be growing. The growth of interest at a
  world level in conservation and intimacy with nature signals a promising
  future for ecotourism in many parts of the world, particularly developing
  countries, which attract the bulk of ecotourists.
  However, growth presents numerous long-term challenges. The major
  issues include:
-the necessity to keep ecotourism enterprises small-scaled, despite
      demand, in order to avoid damage to the environment,
-limited market demand and few opportunities for repeat business,
-long-term sustainability of local value systems and lifestyles,
-possible environmental degradation despite attempts at control over
      access and use,
-the fact that visitors generally don’t pay for the full cost of the maintaining
      the site,
-ecotourism destination areas lack strong marketing support.
          Sustainable Tourism
"Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of
present tourists and host regions while protecting and
enhancing opportunities for the future.
 It is envisaged as leading to management of all
resources in such a way that economic, social and
aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural
integrity, essential ecological processes, biological
diversity and life support systems."
Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs.
Sustainable tourism requires that carrying capacity
studies for destinations and hotel development sites be
conducted, then rigorously implemented through a system
of effective planning and operating controls.
     Agenda 21 For Travel And
On June 14, 1992, 173 governments came together at
the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development
Putting aside economic, religious, cultural and political
differences, delegates unanimously adopted Agenda 21.
Agenda 21 is a global blueprint for the future of our
planet. The involvement and the empowerment of local
people underpin the philosophy of Agenda 21.

Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry, inspired
by the United Nation's Agenda 21, was produced by the
World Tourism Organization and the Earth Council
(WTTC). The guide provides a systemic approach to
planning and taking action for hotels and other members
of tourism destination that will lead to sustainable travel
and tourism.
     Sustainable transportation
 Sustainable transportation can be described as moving
 people and goods in cleaner, greener ways and, where
 possible, not moving people and goods at all.
 The Centre for Sustainable Transportation defines a
 sustainable transportation system to be one which:
1.   Allows the basic access need of individuals and societies to be met
     safety and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem
     health, and with equity within and between generations.
2.   Is affordable, operates efficiently, offers choice of transport mode,
     and supports a vibrant economy.
3.   Limits emissions and waste within the planet's ability to absorb
     them, minimizes consumption of non-renewable resources, reuses
     and recycles its components, and minimizes the use of land and the
     production of noise.
               Alternative Tourism
Alternative tourism can be used as a broad term covering
such strategies as “appropriate toursim”, “soft tourism”,
“responsible tourism”, “controlled tourism”, “small-scale
tourism” “cottage tourism”, “green tourism” and others.
It basically represents an alternative to complement mass
tourism in serving the needs and desires of specific types
of visitors who are interested in authentic experiences of
nature or culture.
Especially as it is applied in Europe, alternative tourism
may help to supplement incomes of rural dwellers in
marginal areas through such means as farm tourism,
guiding, mountain trekking, craft demonstrations,
language-learning holidays, and bed and breakfast
            Human Resource Issues
 The tourism industry has historically been dependent on
 a good supply of labour. Indeed, cheap labor represents
 a major comperative advantage for building and
 operating hotels in developing countries. The three
 primary problem areas identified by IHA are:
-the availablity of labor,
-monitoring and motivating labor,
-the provision of training.
 The solutions to labor problems are as varied as the
 causes in different parts of the world.
 Ultimately, it will be up to the industry to make itself a
 more attractive employer and to improve in the
 recruitment, retention, training, and reward of staff. Until
 such time as hospitality careers begin to enjoy the same
 status and standing as other professions in the eyes of
 the general public, human resource issues will remain a
 serious challange for the industry.
   Hotel Company Diversification
In order to promote growth, hotel companies over
the past two decades have pursued strategies of
territorial expansion and diversification of hotel
Diversification was also an effort to develop and
target niche products and services for and to
particular user groups. The standard transient hotel
has gradually been giving way to more focused
products, such as the all-suit hotel, hotels with
executive floors, casino hotels, convention hotels,
conference centers with accommodations, special
purpose resorts, boutique hotels, and so forth.
        Mergers, Acquisitions,
      Cooperative Arrangements

The tourism industry is likely to see continuing
trend toward consolidation (mergers, acquisitions,
and partnerships).
Tomarrow’s hotel industry may very well filter down
to two broad types of operators; a smaller number
of major global operators and a larger number of
relatively small-scale “niche players” catering to
specialty markets.
The small hotel stands as the backbone of the
tourism industry in most countries, and there are
still opportunities to develop location-specific and
type-specific facilities and services.
                      Space Tourism
•      Space Tourism is the term that's come to be used to mean
    ordinary members of the public buying tickets to travel to space and
    back. Many people find this idea futuristic. But over the past few
    years a growing volume of professional work has been done on the
    subject, and it's now clear that setting up commercial space tourism
    services is a realistic target for business today.
•      The first steps will just be short sub-orbital flights, since these are
    easier than getting to orbit. But the technical know-how to make
    passenger launch vehicles and orbiting hotel accommodation is
    available, and there is enormous unsatisfied demand - market
    research has revealed that most people, at least in the
    industrialized countries, would like to take a trip to space if it was
    possible. This gives huge scope for reducing the cost of space
    travel by large-scale operation like airlines.
                     Space Tourism
•   Phases of Space Tourism
•   Like any other business, once space tourism gets started it
    will develop progressively. It can be helpful to think of it as
    going through several phases. Starting with a relatively
    small-scale and relatively high-priced "pioneering phase",
    the scale of activity will grow and prices will fall as it
    matures. Finally it will become a mass-market business, like
    aviation today.
•       Space tourism is an idea whose time has come. It's going
    to start soon, and it's going to grow rapidly, generating the
    funds needed to open up space to a wide range of human
•   ....and, it is the time to discuss the management of inter-
    planets Orbital Hotels.