Periodic Trends Worksheet 3 by fpt11744

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									                                                       Worksheet: Periodic Trends
1.
          What general statement can be made regarding the ionic
          radii of cations having the same number of electrons, but a
          different number of protons (for example.Al3+ versus Na+)?        14. Arrange the elements N, Al, C, and B in order of increasing
                                                                                electronegativity. (lowest to highest)
2.        a) How may the relative sizes of the ionic radius of an anion
          and its parent neutral atom be summarized?                        15. Select the element that has the greatest electronegativity in
          b) Summarize the relative ionic radii of anions having the        each set:    (a) Cl, P, or S;  (b) F, O, or S:     (c) Sr, In or Ge
          same number of electrons, but different number of protons
          (for example N3- versus F-).                                      16. Identify the element in each of the following pairs that tends
                                                                            to acquire electrons from the other when forming a bond:
3.        Identify the atom or ion with the larger radius in each of the         (a) H and C;        (b) O and F;             (c) S and P.
           following pairs: (a) Cl or S;         (b) Cl- or S2-;
                            (c) Na or Mg;        (d) Mg2+ or Al3+           17. Identify the element in each of the following pairs that tends
                                                                            to acquire electrons from the other when forming a bond:
4.                                                                              (a) Si and Al;      (b) S and As; (c) Cl and Br.
           Which atom or ion has the smaller radius: (a) Li+ or Na+;
                   (b) Cl or Cl-; (c) Al or Al3+; (d) N3- or 02-

     5.     Predict which atom of each pair has the greater first
            ionization energy (be alert for any exceptions to the           18. Circle the best choice in the list:
             general trend):
               (a) Na or Mg; (b) C or N;         (c) P or S.                  (a)   highest first ionization energy     Se, S, Te
                                                                              (b)   smallest radius                     Cl-, Br-, F-
     6.     Predict which atom of each pair has the greater first             (c)   lowest electron affinity            Ba, Sr, Cs
            ionization energy (be alert for any exceptions to the general     (d)   largest ionization energy           O,S, F
            trend):                                                           (e)   lowest second ionization energy     Ar, K, Ca
               (a) Ba or Ca; (b) Be or B; (c) Ar or Xe.                       (f)   most paramagnetic                   Fe, Co, Ni
                                                                              (g)   largest ionic radius                Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+
                                                                                                                         2-
     7.     In terms of electron configurations obtained from the             (h)   largest radius                      S Cl- , Cl
            building-up principle, explain why the ionization energies of     (i)   highest first Ionization energy     C, N, O
            Group 16 elements are smaller than those of Group 15              j)    highest electron affinity           P, S, Cl
            elements.                                                         (k)   highest electronegativity           As, Sn, S
                                                                              (l)   smallest atom                       Sn, I, Bi
     8.     In terms of electron configurations obtained from the             (m)   lowest ionization energy            K, Na, Ca
            building-up principle, explain why the ionization energies of     (n)   impossible subshell designation     4g, 5d, 4p
            Group 3                                                           (o)   number of orbitals for n = 2        2, 4, 8
            elements are smaller than those of Group 2 elements.              (p)   number of 5f orbitals               14, 7, 9

     9.      Explain why the second ionization energy of sodium is
            significantly higher than the second ionization energy of
            magnesium, even though the first ionization energy of
           sodium is less than that of magnesium.


10. Explain why the second ionization energy of sodium is
    even larger than the third ionization energy of aluminum,
    even though the first ionization energy of sodium is low.

11.
          (a) Which group of elements has the highest ionization
          energies? (b) Which group of elements has the lowest
          ionization energies?

12.       (a) Which group of elements tends to have high
     electron affinities? (b) What is the general trend in electron
     affinities across a period?
    1
13. Explain why the electron affinity of chlorine is greater than
     that of bromine.
Part I
1. In which group of the periodic table are Mg, Pd, Cl, Ga, Ag? ____________
2. In which period of the periodic table are Li, Mo, Nd, U, Br? _____________
3. Mark the following as transition elements (T), representative elements (R), noble gases (N), or inner transition
elements (I).       Be ______         P ______         Cr ______         Kr ______         Am _______
4. Who was primarily responsible for formulating the periodic table? ______________________________
5. According to the periodic law, when the elements are arranged in the order of their ________________, their
properties show periodicity.
6. When a phenomenon shows the same pattern over and over, we say the pattern is ____________________.
7. Elements that conduct heat and electricity well are classified as ________________.
8. Elements that do not conduct heat and electricity well are gases and brittle solids. These elements are classified as
 ________________ and _________________.

Part II
1. Classify each of the following as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid: Si, Ce, C, Cs, Ca, O, H, Ge.
2. How many electrons are in the valence shell of Na? Ca? F? Cl? O? Al? C?
3. The amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom is called the __________________________
          energy.
4. Which element in each pair has the greater ionization energy? He or O, Na or F, Ca or Br, K or S.
5. Which element in each pair has the larger atoms? Li or K. F or Br, Na or S,           B or In.
6. In which groups of the periodic table would elements with the following electron configurations be found? 2-8-1,
          2-8-4,         2-8-8-2.


  Part III

  Matching Set – Use an answer only once.

  1. Periodic                                                  a. Electron arrangement 2-8-2
  2. Ionization energy                                         b. Generally a gas or a brittle solid
  3. Larger atoms                                              c. Greater for group 17 than for group 1
  4. Two valence electrons                                     d. Eight valence electrons
  5. A noble gas                                               e. At the bottom of a group
  6. A metal                                                   f. Prascodymium (Pr)
  7. A nonmetal                                                g. Electron arrangement 2-8-1
  8. A halogen                                                 h. Seven valence electrons
  9. An Inner Transition element                               i. Repeated pattern
  10. Valence shell                                            j. Ruthenium
                                                               k. Outermost occupied shell

								
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