Bicycle Facilities Plan

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					             St. Louis County
           Bicycle Facilities Plan




                        Prepared by:

                     St. Louis County
             Department of Highways and Traffic



2/5/2007
I) Introduction
The growing interest in cycling and demand for mode choice has caused an increase in
the number of bicyclists using our roadway system. According to the Federal Highway
Administration, there are 103 million bicyclists in the United States. Saint Louis County
has found the need for guidelines that allow bicyclists and pedestrians to coexist in a
safe way.


Purpose:
The purpose of these guidelines is to create a framework that will improve field
conditions and enhance the safety of bicyclists on St. Louis County’s roadway system,
while still maintaining effective movement of vehicles.

Overview:
The St. Louis County Departments of Highways & Traffic, Parks, and Planning
recognized the importance of safe bicycle routes on our streets. The St. Louis County
Bike Task Force was formed in December of 2002. This task force developed guidelines
and requirements for design, construction, and the operation of bicycle facilities
throughout St. Louis County, with the goal of creating a safe coexistence between multi-
modal traffic.

Definitions:
           1)   Bicycle Facilities (AASHTO): A general term denoting improvements
                and provisions made by public agencies that accommodate or
                encourage bicycling, including parking and storage facilities, and shared
                roadways not specially defined for bicycle use.

           2)   Shared Roadway (AASHTO): A roadway that is open to both bicycle
                and motor vehicle travel. This may be an existing roadway, street with
                wide curb lanes, or road with paved shoulders.

           3)   Signed Shared Roadway (AASHTO): A roadway that has been
                designated by signing as a preferred route for bicycle use.

           4)   Bikeway (AASHTO): A generic term for any road, street, path or way
                which in some manner is specifically designated for bicycle travel,
                regardless of whether such facilities are designated for exclusive use of
                bicycles or are to be shared with others transportation modes.

           5)   Bike Lane (AASHTO): A portion of a roadway that has been designated
                by striping, signing, and pavement markings for the preferential or
                exclusive use by bicycles.

           6)   Bike Path (Engineering Services): A path segregated from motorized
                traffic for the use of bikes, sometimes shared with pedestrians.

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           7)   Shared Used Path (AASHTO): A bikeway physically separated from
                motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and either within
                the highways right-of-way or within an independent tight-of-way. Shared
                use paths may also be used by pedestrians, skaters, wheelchair users,
                joggers, and other non-motorized users.

           8)   Wide Shared Lane (AASHTO): A roadway that is open to both bicycle
                and motor vehicular travel. This may be an existing roadway, street with
                wide curb lanes, or road with paved shoulders.

           9)   Shoulder (AASHTO): A portion of the roadway contiguous with the
                traveled way that has been designated by signing as a preferred route
                for bicycle use.

           10) Designated      Bicycle Route (AASHTO): A system of bikeways
                designated by the jurisdiction having authority with appropriate
                directional and informational route signs, with or without specific bicycle
                route numbers. Bike routes should establish a continuous routing, but
                may be a combination of any and all types of bikeways.

           11) Hybrid Lane (Urban Systems): lanes that are a combination of wide
                curb lanes and bicycle lanes. A hybrid bicycle lane incorporates bicycle
                lane symbols stenciled on the right side of the lane at regular intervals.
                The stencils identify the right side of the lane as the area used by
                bicycles, which serves to alert motorists to the potential presence of
                bicycles even when there is no bicycle on the road. (See Figure 1)




                          Figure 1 - Hybrid Symbol (Urban Systems)




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II) Planning
   A) Bicycle Level

   There are different skill levels of bicyclists. The type of cyclist will determine what
   the roadway needs are to accommodate him/her. The majority of bicyclists can be
   categorized into three types:



                                            MAIN BICYCLE
                                              LEVELS




                RECREATIONAL                 COMMUTER                    CHILDREN




           1)   Recreational Bicyclists These are casual riders who tend to utilize
                their bikes for the purpose of exercise and or leisure. This group would
                be categorized in the low to medium skill level. The routes chosen by this
                particular group consist of less traveled roads or bicycle paths; they are
                less likely to ride great distances. The avoidance of congested roadways
                could be contributed to the lack of experience with large numbers of
                motored vehicles and the added distraction of outside interferences
                which lessens the rider’s ability to focus on the traffic.

           2)   Commuter Bicyclists These are professional riders. They prefer to ride
                on major roads, for more often and for longer distances. This group
                would have a high skill level and would utilize cycling as a primary
                means of transportation.

           3)   Children Underage drivers, who are not license motorized vehicle
                drivers. These cyclists utilize their bicycles, on their own or with their
                parents, for the purpose of transportation to different locations as well as
                commuting to and from school. This group would be classified more in
                the low skill level.



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   B) Method of Travel
           1)   Wide Shared Lane Wide shared lanes are a good alternative to striped
                bicycle lanes. Bicycle lanes may position cyclists in an unsafe position
                for safely maneuvering in a traffic intersection or the lanes may confine
                bicyclists against the right curb where they are less visible to motorists.
                Wide shared lanes do not have stripes to delineate a place for bicycle
                and motor vehicles such as in standard bicycle lanes. Wide shared lanes
                accommodate bicycle traffic along with motored traffic side by side. Bike
                lanes discourage bicyclists from using ordinary arm signals and proper
                lane change movements in advance of a left turn. Bike lanes require a
                high level of awareness and also can produce a false sense of security
                for inexperienced bicyclists, causing them to give less attention to the
                constantly changing traffic around them. (ODOT Design Guidance for
                Roadway-Based Bicycle Facilities and U.S. Department of
                Transportation-Federal Highway Administration)

           2)   Hybrid Lane Hybrid lanes are a cross between bicycle lanes and wide
                shared lanes. These particular lanes present the benefit of the traditional
                bicycle lane, without many of the dilemmas associated with bicycle
                lanes. The fact that a roadway requires the coexistence of motor vehicles
                and cyclists, hybrid lanes cater to the more experienced rider, and are
                recommended for roadways with higher traffic volumes. Hybrid lanes do
                not include a separating line, dividing the road between motor vehicles
                and bicycles. A common misconception is that the dividing white line
                between motor traffic and bicyclist indicates that the two are permanently
                separated from one another, but actually, this line does not designate
                bikers to that specific area. In the utilization of the hybrid lanes, the
                absences of the dividing line help motorists recognize that cyclists are
                able to share the same lane. (Urban Systems)

           3)   Bike Path Bike Paths are off-road facilities, separated from motor
                vehicle traffic, either by a barrier or space. Sometimes called multi-use
                path and are used by a variety of non-motorized travel, such as walkers,
                skaters, and joggers, etc., as well as for cyclists. Bicycle paths are fine
                facilities for some trips, but have limited usefulness for most trips
                throughout the city. (Bicycle Facilities-Path and Road Markings and
                Bicyclinginfo.org)

           4)   Bicycle Lane Bike lanes can be included when it is advantageous to
                define available space for use by bicyclists and motorists and to allow for
                more expected movements by both. Bike lanes generally should be
                constructed on the right side of the street. They should also be one-way
                facilities and transport bicyclists in the same direction as the bordering
                motored traffic. For roads without curbs and gutters, a minimum width of
                4 feet should be provided for the lane. A minimal of 5 feet should be

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                  imparted if parking is allowed, also the bike lane should be placed
                  between the parking vicinity and traffic lane. The suggested width of the
                  bicycle lane is 5 feet from the face of the curb or guardrail to the bike
                  lane stripe. The lane markings are subject to deterioration due to
                  automobile tires because of their location on the road and some marking
                  materials have the capability of becoming slippery when wet. (AASHTO
                  and U.S. Department of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration)

   C) Safety
           Dangerous situations result from the lack of understanding of traffic laws by both
           the bicyclist and by the motorist. For example, bicyclists not following the traffic
           laws for vehicles, or a motorist not watching for potential cyclists create safety
           issues. Understanding the laws of the road is an important aspect in riding a
           bicycle or driving a motored vehicle. Familiarizing oneself with safety regulations
           and following them is a good way to help prevent accidents. Resources on
           bicycle safety, such as the U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Highway
           Administration, is a good source to obtain additional pertinent information
           concerning traffic safety methods and actions.


III) St. Louis County Design Framework
Context friendly design is an integral component for safe bicycle travel. The addition of
new facilities and the improvement of existing facilities benefit all road users.

The following text describes our areas of focus for design and permit issuance:

   A) Chosen Bicycle User
             Commuter Bicyclist - one who uses his/her bike for commuting to specific
             locations on regular basis and utilizing the streets to do so.

   B) Chosen Method of Travel
             Hybrid Lane - Considering the advantages of bicycle lanes and wide curb
             lanes, a hybrid lane could be considered a better choice, along with a more
             convenient way for the commuter bicyclist to travel between destination
             points. The hybrid lane is a less confusing way to accommodate both
             bicyclists and motorized vehicles. In utilizing this lane, bicyclist is not
             permanently separated from other commercial vehicles via striped line;
             therefore, more legitimizes the presence of cyclists on the road. This lane
             simply has a symbol that makes one aware of the presence of cyclists will be
             in the same lane; also these markings are less likely to be worn down by


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             vehicle tires insomuch as of their locations in the road. (U.S. Department of
             Transportation-Federal Highway Administration)

   C) Design Traffic Speed
           The speed of the traffic plays an important role when motor vehicles and
           bicycles share the same space. Roads in which the speed exceeds 35 MPH are
           not recommended for travel especially for the inexperience bicyclist. Novice
           bikers tend not to feel comfortable on such roadways and the likelihood of
           accidents caused from lack of experience is higher (U.S. Department of
           Transportation-Federal Highway Administration).

   D) Design Traffic Volume
       Traffic Volume is also an important component when providing standards for
       bicycle use. The average daily traffic (ADT) should be between the range of
       10,000 to 15,000 vehicles on a two-way road. Recreational riders do not have the
       practice of traveling in high traffic volumes. One must always consider the
       number of lanes on the roadway, since the flow of traffic differs according to the
       number of lanes on a street with the same number of vehicles (U.S. Department
       of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration).

   E) Lane Striping
       By making use of the hybrid lane, we eliminate the need for striping. The hybrid
       symbol located on the right side of the lane is all that is necessary. *Lane stencils
       should be positioned in intervals of a spacing of 328 feet to 492 feet. (Urban
       Systems) (*See figure1)

   F) Pavement Structure
       F1) Pavement Surface Quality
       The smoothness of the riding surface affects the comfort, safety and speed of the
       bicyclist.

             1)   Pavement surfaces should be smooth and have a uniform width

             2)   Surfaces in which wide cracks, holes, and bumps where cyclists could be
                  caused to swerve into motored traffic shall not be considered

             3)   Roadways that have had an Asphaltic Concrete Overlay or
                  Microsurfacing will be candidates for bicycle travel

             4)   Paved shoulders shall be smooth and free of debris

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       F2) Lane Widths
           1)   A hybrid lane width of 14 feet (not including the gutter) is recommended.
                A width of 14 feet allows a motor vehicle to safely pass a cyclist without
                having to cross into the adjacent travel lane. Where on-street parking is
                provided, this standard also allows enough width for cyclists to avoid
                conflicts with car doors. The width of a hybrid bicycle lane should not
                exceed 15 feet, however, as this would enable vehicles to pass other
                vehicles on the right. It is important that the width of the gutter is not
                included in the 14 feet width. (Urban Systems)

           2)   If on-street parking exists along the route, a parking width of 8 feet
                should be allowed for parked vehicles, in addition to the 14 feet required
                for the hybrid bicycle lane. The 8 feet width of the parking lane includes
                the gutter. (Urban Systems). (See Figure 2)




                           Figure 2 - Hybrid Lane Marking (Urban Systems)

       F3) Grade
           1)   Grades on hybrid lanes will be controlled by the roadway design grades.

           2)   Grades for paths outside the roadway will be kept to a minimum. A grade
                greater than 5% will be considered undesirable, but where terrain

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                 dictates, design may need to exceed 5% for short sections. As a general
                 guide, the following grade restrictions and grade lengths are suggested
                 (See Table 1):

                Table 1 - Grade Restrictions and Grade Lengths for Hybrid Lanes (AASHTO)


                           5% - 6%                            For up to 800 ft (240m)
                             7%                               For up to 400 ft (120m)
                             8%                               For up to 300 ft (90m)
                             9%                               For up to 200 ft (60m)
                            10%                               For up to 100 ft (30m)
                            11%                                For up to 50 ft (15m)



           3)    Grades steeper than 3% may not be practical for hybrid lanes with
                 crushed stones or other unpaved surfaces for both handling and
                 drainage erosion reasons. (AASHTO)

       F4) Sight Distance
           1)    Sight Distance on hybrid lanes will be controlled by the roadway design.

           2)    Sight Distance on hybrid lanes will give bicyclists the advantage to see
                 and react to the unexpected, and should be designated with adequate
                 stopping distance. (See Figures 3 & 4 and Tables 2 & 3)




                                Figure 3 - Minimum Stopping Distance (AASHTO)

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                                                                          Bicycle Facilities Plan
           Figure 4 - Minimum Stopping Sight Distance vs. Grades for Various Speeds (AASHTO)


             Note: The above figure indicates the minimum stopping distance for various
             design speeds and grades based on total perception and break reaction time of
             2.5 seconds and a coefficient or friction of 2.5 to account for the poor wet braking
             characteristics of many bicycles (AASHTO).




2/5/2007                               Page 10 of 40                           St. Louis County
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     Table 2 - Minimum Length of Crest Vertical Curve (L) Based on Stopping Distance (AASHTO)


 A                                           S = Stopping Sight Distance (ft)
(%)     20      40   60    80    100   120     140    160    180    200     220   240     260     280        300
 2                                                                                 30      70     110        150
3                                                      20    60     100     104   180     220     260        300
4                                      15       55     95    135    175     215   256     300     348        400
5                                20    60      100    140    180    222     269   320     376     436        500
6                          10    50    90      130    171    216    267     323   384     451     523        600
7                          31    71    111     152    199    252    311     376   448     526     610        700
8                    8     48    88    128     174    228    288    356     430   512     601     697        800
9                    20    60    100   144     196    256    324    400     484   576     676     784        900
10                   30    70    111   160     218    284    360    444     538   640     751     871    1000
11                   38    78    122   176     240    313    396    489     592   704     826     958    1100
12              5    45    85    133   192     261    341    432    533     645   768     901    1045    1200
13              11   51    92    144   208     283    370    468    578     699   832     976    1132    1300
14              16   56    100   156   224     305    398    504    622     753   896    1052    1220    1400
15              20   60    107   167   240     327    427    540    667     807   960    1127    1307    1500
16              24   64    114   178   256     348    455    576    711     860   1024   1202    1394    1600
17              27   68    121   189   272     370    484    612    756     914   1088   1277    1481    1700
18              30   72    128   200   288     392    512    648    800     968   1152   1352    1568    1800
19              33   76    135   211   304     414    540    684    844    1022   1216   1427    1655    1900
20              35   80    142   222   320     436    569    720    889    1076   1280   1502    1742    2000
21              37   84    149   233   336     457    597    756    933    1129   1344   1577    1829    2100
22              39   88    156   244   352     479    626    792    978    1183   1408   1652    1916    2200
23              41   92    164   256   368     501    654    828   1022    1237   1472   1728    2004    2300
24      3       43   96    171   267   384     523    683    864   1067    1291   1536   1803    2091    2400
25      4       44   100   177   278   400     544    711    900   1111    1344   1600   1878    2178    2500




             Note: The above table is used to select the minimum length of vertical curve necessary
             to provide the minimum stopping sight distance at various speeds on crest vertical
             curves. (AASHTO)



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             Table 3 - English Units. Minimum Lateral Clearance (M) for Horizontal Curves (AASHTO)



 R
                                                S = Stopping Sight Distance
(ft)
       20     40     60     80    100     120     140    160     180    200    220       240     260     280    300
 25    2.0    7.6   15.9
 50    1.0    3.9    8.7   15.2   23.0   31.9     41.5
 75    0.7    2.7    5.9   10.4   16.1   22.8     30.4   38.8    47.8   57.4   67.2
 95    0.5    2.1    4.7    8.3   12.9   18.3     24.7   31.8    39.5   48.0   56.9      66.3    75.9   85.8
125    0.4    1.6    3.6    6.3    9.9   14.1     19.1   24.7    31.0   37.9   45.4      53.3    61.7   70.6    79.7
155    0.3    1.3    2.9    5.1    8.0   11.5     15.5   20.2    25.4   31.2   37.4      44.2    51.4   59.1    67.1
175    0.3    1.1    2.6    4.6    7.1   10.2     13.8   18.0    22.6   27.8   33.5      39.6    46.1   53.1    60.5
200    0.3    1.0    2.2    4.0    6.2    8.9     12.1   15.8    19.9   24.5   29.5      34.9    40.8   47.0    53.7
225    0.2    0.9    2.0    3.5    5.5    8.0     10.8   14.1    17.8   21.9   26.4      31.3    36.5   42.2    48.2
250    0.2    0.8    1.8    3.2    5.0    7.2      9.7   12.7    16.0   19.7   23.8      28.3    33.1   38.2    43.7
275    0.2    0.7    1.6    2.9    4.5    6.5      8.9   11.6    14.6   18.0   21.7      25.8    30.2   34.9    39.9
300    0.2    0.7    1.5    2.7    4.2    6.0      8.1   10.6    13.4   16.5   19.9      23.7    27.7   32.1    36.7
350    0.1    0.6    1.3    2.3    3.6    5.1      7.0   9.1     11.5   14.2   17.1      20.4    23.9   27.6    31.7
390    0.1    0.5    1.2    2.1    3.2    4.6      6.3   8.2     10.3   12.8   15.4      18.3    21.5   24.9    28.5
500    0.1    0.4    0.9    1.6    2.5    3.6      4.9   6.4     8.1    10.0   12.1      14.3    16.8   19.5    22.3
565           0.4    0.8    1.4    2.2    3.2      4.3   5.7     7.2    8.8    10.7      12.7    14.9   17.3    19.8
600           0.3    0.8    1.3    2.1    3.0      4.1   5.3     6.7    8.3    10.1      12.0    14.0   16.3    18.7
700           0.3    0.6    1.1    1.8    2.6      3.5   4.6     5.8    7.1     8.6      10.3    12.0   14.0    16.0
800           0.3    0.6    1.0    1.6    2.2      3.1   4.0     5.1    6.2     7.6      9.0     10.5   12.2    14.0
900           0.2    0.5    0.9    1.4    2.0      2.7   3.6     4.5    5.6     6.7      8.0     9.4    10.9    12.5
1000          0.2    0.5    0.8    1.3    1.8      2.4   3.2     4.0    5.0     6.0      7.2      8.4    9.8    11.2


       Note: The above table indicates the minimum clearance that should be used for the line of sight
       obstructions for horizontal curves. (AASHTO)




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       F5) Horizontal Alignment
           1)    Horizontal Alignment on hybrid lanes will be controlled by the roadway
                 design.

           2)    Horizontal Alignment on hybrid lanes will use the following tables (See
                 Table 4 and Table 5):

                       Table 4 - Minimum Radii Based on 15-Degree Lean Angle (AASHTO)


                       Desirable Minimum Radii for Paved Shared Use Paths
                                 Based on 15 Degree Lean Angle
                     Design Speed (V)                           Minimum Radius (R)
                Km/l                  (mph)                     m                     (ft)
                20                     (12)                     12                   (36)
                30                     (20)                     27                   (100)
                40                     (25)                     47                   (156)
                50                     (30)                     74                   (225)

       Note: Based on various design speeds of 12-30 mph (20-50kn/l) and a desirable
       maximum leas angle of 12 degrees, minimum radii of curvature for a paved path can be
       selected. (AASHTO)


                          Table 5 - Minimum Radii at 20-Degree Lean Angle (AASHTO)


                            Minimum radii for Paved Use Paths
                Based on 2 % Super Elevation Rate and 20 Degree Lean Angle
                                          Friction Factor (f)
           Design Speed (V)               (paved surfaces)            Minimum Radius (R)
           Km/l       (mph)                                             m           (ft)
            20         (12)                       0.31                  12         (36)
            30         (20)                       0.28                  27        (100)
            40         (25)                       0.25                  47        (156)
            50         (30)                       0.21                  74        (225)


       Note: Where a greater lean angle can be tolerated, the minimum radii of curvature for a
       2% super elevation rate and various design speeds of 12-30 mph (20-50 Km/l) can be
       taken from table. (AASHTO)



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       F6) Grates and Inlet Sumps
           1)    Grates will be placed in a manner that will minimize severe and/or
                 frequent maneuvering of the bicycles.

           2)    For all new construction along designated bicycle routes, grates and inlet
                 sumps will be constructed to accommodate bicyclist. A modified Inlet
                 Sump design will be used. See Standard drawing C604.45 for
                 Construction details in Appendix A.

           3)    All grates will be bicycle safe. See Standard Drawing C614.11 for
                 construction details in Appendix B

       F7) Signings and Markings
           1)    Bicycle signs shall be standard in shape, length and color. Along all the
                 roadways where there is a hybrid lane, the W16-1 sign will be used in
                 conjunction with the W11-1 sign. (See Figure 5)




                Figure 5 - Share the Road Sign (Manual on uniform traffic control devices)

                Note: All signs shall be reflectorized for the use on bikeways, including bicycle
                paths and bicycle lane facilities.

           2)    Sign assemblies should be placed every ½ mile or as directed by the
                 Department. Signing should also be erected within the functional area of
                 all major intersections on the route on which other assemblies have been
                 placed and only for the outbound direction.




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       F8) Funding and Maintenance

       To guarantee the continual use of bicycle facilities, preservation of these facilities
       is a necessity. The cost of proper upkeep should receive as much thought during
       budget discussions as in the preliminary construction and installation costs.
       Preliminary construction and installation costs are as follows: 30”x30”Bike sign
       vinyl material is approximately $ 37.00, 18x24 share the road sign, vinyl material
       is approximately $17.00, 12 foot U post is approximately $ 26.00, and along with
       paint cost would be an estimated $0.40 cents a foot. Bicycle facilities should be
       continually monitored and proper upkeep should be an ongoing process. By
       allowing the deterioration of facilities, this lack of action will create an unfavorable
       response by cyclists, thereby generating a lesser amount of usage of bicycles as
       a method of transportation.

       F9) Public Information

       For in depth information on bicycling, safety, and facilities, please refer to East-
       West Gateway’s St. Louis Regional Bicycling and Walking Transportation Plan
       and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
       (AASHTO). For information on bicycle trails in St. Louis County, please reference
       The St. Louis County Department of Parks, detailing valuable maps of parks and
       bicycle trails. See Appendices C and D for a sample bicycle trail map and for
       East-West Gateway’s bicycling and walking-friendly ordinances.




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IV) Appendices

           Appendix A - Standard Drawing C604.45

           Appendix B - Standard Drawing C614.11

           Appendix C - Creve Coeur Trail Map

           Appendix D - East-West Gateway Ordinance




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           Appendix A - Standard Drawing C604.45




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           Appendix B - Standard Drawing C614.11




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           Appendix C - Creve Coeur Trail Map




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           Appendix D - East-West Gateway Bicycle Ordinance




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V) References
“Development of the Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Final Report.” The
University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center. December 1998. Retrieved
August 2006, http://www.hsrc.unc.edu/research/pedbike/98072/index.html

AASHTO. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC. American
Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials, 1999.

U. S. department of Transportation-The Federal Highway Administration. National Bicycling and
Walking Study: Case Study No. 24. August 1992.

Ohio Department of Transportation. “ODOT Design Guidance for Roadway-Based Bicycle
facilities.” The Ohio Department of Transportation. October 2005. Retrieved August 2006.
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/bike/New Downloads/Roadway Based Facilities.doc

Kifer, Ken. “Cyclist Errors Which Cause Automobile-Bicycle Collisions, Illustrated.” Ken Kifer’s
Bike Pages. October 6, 2003. Bike Forums.net. Retrieved August 2006.
http://www.kenkifer.com/bikepages/index.htm

“Bicycle Parking Facilities.” Queensland Transport. August 3, 2006. Queensland Government.
Retrieved July 2006.
http://www.transport.qld.gov.au/qt/LTASinfo.nsf/ReferenceLookup/C8_Maintaining_cycling_facili
ties.pdf/$file/C8_Maintaining_cycling_facilities.pdf

St. Louis County Parks. St. Louis County Government. Retrieved August 2006.
http://www.stlouisco.com/parks/

"SHARE THE ROAD" FERGUSON PILOT B.I.K.E.* PROJECT. 2001. City of Ferguson.
Retrieved July 2006. http://home.swbell.net/mpion/Hybrid_Bicycle_Lanes.pdf

“Bike Lane Design Guide” October 2002. Bicyclinginfo.org Pedestrian and Bicycle Information
Center. Retrieved December 2006. http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/pdf/bike_lane.pdf

“Bicycle Facilities – Path and Road Markings” October 2006. The Department of Cambridge
Community Development. Retrieved in December 2006.
http://www.ci.cambridge.ma.us/cdd/et/bike/bike_map.pdf

“Share the Road” December 2006. Manual of Traffic Signs. Retrieved in December 2006.
http://www.trafficsign.us/share.html




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