Anaerobic Fitness

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					            Anaerobic Fitness
   Dependent upon existing energy sources in
    muscle (versus oxygen uptake)
    – CP/ATP
    – Stored carbohydrate
            Anaerobic Fitness
   Major ATP contributors are the
    Phosphogenic and Glycolytic systems,
    although the oxidative system does
    contribute
               Anaerobic Fitness
   Strength/Power fitness ( < 15 sec.)
    – Phosphogenic – major ATP producer
    – Glycolytic – moderate
    – Oxidative – minor
   Dominant component of:
    – Football, baseball, basketball, soccer
   Power dependent upon:
    – Storage capacity of CP and ATP
    – Rate of CP and ATP use and resynthesis
    – Partially dependent on glycogen stores
             Anaerobic Fitness
 Power-endurance (less intense than power,
  slightly longer, 15 – 60 sec.)
 15 – 30 sec.
    – Phosphogenic and Glycolytic – moderate
    – Oxidative – minor
   30 – 60 sec.
    – Glycolytic – major
    – Oxidative – moderate
    – Phosphogenic – minor
            Anaerobic Fitness
 Power-Endurance
 Dominant component of:
    – 200, 300 m run
   Primarily dependent upon:
    – Glycogen energy sources
    – ATP/CP and oxidative systems
            Anaerobic Fitness
 Mixed-endurance (60 sec. – 2 min.)
 Equally dependent upon glycolytic pathway
  and oxidative pathway
     » Relative contribution depends on intensity
                      Power
   P = work/time or F X D/time
    – Force = body weight or resistance
    – Distance
    – Time = time in air (force platform) or seconds
    Anaerobic Fitness Assessment
 Power (not strength) fitness – Vertical
  jump, Wingate
 Power-endurance fitness – Wingate
 Other tests:
    – Horizontal power (40 yd. Sprint)
    – Margaria step test
    – Anaerobic Treadmill (mixed endurance)
             Vertical Jump
 Jumping ability seems mostly related to
  high-energy phosphate stores and rate of
  use
 Correlated with fast-twitch fiber percentage
  in vastus lateralis (r = .48) – may not be
  physiologically significant
 Factors that affect the jump distance:
    – Countermovement
    – Upward Arm movement
    Vertical Jump (Vertec) Procedures
   Markers are spaced 0.5 in apart
    – Red markers are every 6.0 in.
    – Blue markers are every 1.0 in.
    – White markers are every 0.5 in.
 Warm –up may help; include submax jumps
 Measure standing reach
 For jump, position feet, don’t move, one
  quick countermovement and one arm swing
    – Three trials
             Wingate Testing
 Peak power = highest power in any 5 sec.
 Mean power = average power over entire 30
  sec. (Watts)
 Fatigue Index = rate of power decrease from
  point of peak power to end of test (%)
    – 0% = no decrease in power
    – 100% means complete decrease in power
              Wingate Testing
   Supramaximal – power output that would
    require 2-4 times the VO2max
    – 60 – 85% of ATP from CP/ATP or glycolytic
   Peak Power – first 2 – 10 seconds
    – Major contribution from ATP/CP
   Mean power – over 30 sec.
    – Major contribution from glycolytic
    – Lactate values from 6 – 15 X resting
    – Significant correlation with FT fiber %
    Factors Affecting Wingate
 Warm-up seems to improve MP
 Drop in body temp. seems to decrease
  anaerobic performance
 Motivation (reward/punishment) seems to
  improve performance
                Correlations
   Vertical jump correlated with peak power (r
    = .70) and mean power (r = .74) from
    Wingate test
             Strength Fitness
 Phosphagenic ATP system
 Direct measure of dynamic strength
    – One repetition maximum: (maximal) weight
      that can be lifted one time
   Indirect measure of dynamic strength
    – Prediction of 1-RM from a 2-20 RM