international Workshop on earth observation and water managerment service Bangkok, 26 – 28 September, 2006 hydro-meteorological Service and water management in Vietnam Nguyen Thi Tan Thanh, Tran Van Sap National Hydro – Meteorological Service of Vietnam (NHMS) Content Introduction 1 – Present HM-Environmental Network 2. - Operational Forecasting and Related Researches at the NCHMF 3. Chalenges in IWRM 4. Conclution and Recomendation Introduction - Vietnam is on the industrialization and modernization period and the present H-M observation network is needed - Improving weather and hydrological forecasts and communication system - Implementation of the long – term plan of Water resources management - IWRM and it’s requirement to NHMS 1 – Present HM-Environmental Network 1.1. Meteorological station network: 174 stations - 57 class I - 69 class II - 48 class III Among this: - 25 International reported stations - 125 Synoptic reported Stations - 29 Agro-Meteorological reported stations 1 – Present HM-Environmental Network (cont.) 1.2. Rainfall measurement stations/places: 764 places - 371 raingauges located on hydro-meteorological station network - 393 raingauges located outside of hydro- meteorological station network 1– Present HM-Environmental Network (cont.) 1.3. Upper – Air Observation network: 20 stations - 6 weather radar stations - 3 radiosounding stations - 8 Pilot stations - 3 total ozone and surface infrared radiation stations 1 – Present HM-Environmental Network (cont.) 1.4. Marine H-M station network: 17 stations - 11 stations on island - 5 coastal stations - 1 station on drilling rig 1 – Present HM-Environmental Network (cont.) 1.5. Gauging-station network: 231 stations - 59 class I - 21 class II - 151 class III 1 – Present Number of Stations and Distribution (cont.) - 32 air-environment stations integrate with meteorological observation stations - 93 observation of water-environment stations integrate with gauging-stations - In addition 159 points for marine environment observation (carried out by marine research ship). Most of the stations are man-operated with manual or self – recorded (on the paper tape) equipments. Operator will report through telephone or ICOM to the Regional HM Center, which are not stable in the bad weather or on the mountain area; From RHMC data will be sent through the dialup network or Internet 2. - Operational Forecasting and Related Researches at the NCHMF 2.1 Weather Forecasting Routine OBServation satellite INPUTS network radar GTS METHODS Synoptic NWP knowledge statistics PRODUCT S Forecasted met. fields Forecats bulletine SeverE weather forecats International GTS channels HaNoi - MOSCOW: 100 bps HaNoi -Bejing: 75 bps HaNoi - Bangkok: 1200bps PCVSAT: HaNoi - Bejing: 9600bps NWP models Run operationally HRM (28 km) since 5/2002, (14km) since 7/2004. ETA model run (22 km) in experimental mode since June 2005, semi-operational (May, 2006) Barotropic models for TC tracking (BARO & BAR) for typhoon season 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Post processing (display & diagnostic output): GSM(JMA), TLAPS (BoM), AVN(NCEP), NOGAPS, ECMWF ... satellite Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GMS-5 (until 5-2003) Polar satellite NOAA Via Internet (from GOES-9, until 14 July 2005), from MTSAT-1R (currently) dissemination Hydro-Met forecasts, warnings, and information. Goverments Offices, CCFSC NCHMF Telephone Line Media Public GTS International GTS, Brocasting station in Web: nchmf.gov.vn the Costal Area, Internal Ships, boats Hydro-Met brocasting station RHMS Specific customers Media Public PHMC Local Telephone Line goverments Media 2. 2. Operational Flood Forecasting and Related Researches at the NCHMF Dr. Dang Ngoc Tinh, Hydrological Forecasting Division, NCHMF Hydro- Meteorological Stations in the North 2.1. Operational Flood Forecasting Data collection, Forecast Preparation and Dissemination Web site, bulletin, e-mail, fax, radio, telephone, etc. NCHMF + Partners 2.2. Data collection, processing, transmission Near-Real time data: Water level at 165 stations in flood season, including 4 hydrologic stations in China, not including 21 hydrologic stations from MRCS Rainfall measurement at 350 stations - Sending by LAN to NCHMF Information: Daily updated flood forecast at 22 main stations in flood season Web site http://www.nchmf..gov.vn Fo r e c a st i n g sy st e m NCHMF: 1 Regional Hydromet Center: 9 NCHM F Provincial Hydromet Center: 52 Regional Hydromet Center Regional Hydromet Center Regional Hydromet Regional Center Hydromet Center Provincial Hydromet Center Provincial Provincial Hydromet Hydromet Center Center Operational hydrological database at NCHMF • Export data from an operational database 2.3. Forecast preparation Hydrologic Model FIRR using 4 combined methods: Kinematic Wave vµ Reservoir, Unit Hydrograph, Duhamel Integral, Regulation. FIRR FIRR Ad river Thao river Lo river Rainfall Rainfall Rainfall Yªn B¸i Tuyªn Quang HoaBinh R. Reservoir Regulation Hµ Néi Inflow forecast into Hoa Binh Reservoir on Da River; flow at YenBai on Thao River, at TuyenQuang on Lo River and HoaBinh reservoir regulation. Distributed Model MARINE (France) with DEM và GIS, rainfall-runoff forecast inflow into Hoa Binh Reservoir on Da River Observed and forecasted rainfall MARINE MODEL DEM Forest Coverage Map Out put Q~t Inflow forecast to Tuyen Quang Reservoir on the Lo river: Using Tank model, Muskingum – Cunge routing and reservoir balance. SH2 Model Using Muskingum-Cunge routing and error updating to forecast flood hydrograph at the downstream Red River with 48 hours ahead. TANK Model for flood forecasting on Cau, Thuong and Luc Nam Rivers with lead time 6 – 24 hours Flood forecasting scheme for Red River-ThaiBinh river system by MIKE 11 Forecasting Model for the Ca River (NAM, Muskingum+Cunge) 5000 4500 4000 T hùc ® o 3500 D ù b¸ o 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 301 316 331 346 361 376 391 406 Flood forecasting for rivers in Quang Ngai Province by SSARR Model Flood forecasting scheme Hydrograph at Tra Khuc on Tra Khuc River (the 2005 year observed and for rivers in Quang Ngai forecasted) Province , 3 Qm/s 20 100 00 100 80 00 h Ý ¸n Tn to hc o Tù ® 00 60 00 40 00 20 0 111 133 155 177 199 221 243 265 287 309 331 353 23 45 67 89 1 hi o h T ê ®¹n(6 ) Severe Flood Identify from synoptic weather circulations causing heavy rainfall 800 60 700 50 600 40 500 400 30 300 20 200 10 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Upstream Mekong forecast by NAM Model II. Mid-term Flood forecast TANK model for 5-day forecast: Qmax at Hoa Binh, Hmax at Yen Bai, Tuyen Quang, Ha Noi, Dap Cau, P.L.Thuong, Luc Nam và Pha Lai, using HRM output (rainfall forecast) for the Red River. - u¸ nh m oµ × ® êng Q tr × Q ax 5ngµy t¹ i tr ¹ mH Bnh III. Long-term forecast - Monthly flow - Seasonal flow - Annual flow - Annual peak (20 sites) Reservoir forecast - Retaining period - Construction period 3. Chalenges in WRM • Viet Nam needs to provide enough water of adequate quality to support its population and economic growth, and to eradicate poverty. • Needs to protect life and property from damage caused by water. • To Keep the balance for sustained economic growth. Water Resource Challenges • Surface water and groundwater quantity – uneven in time and space • Surface water and groundwater pollution, which is increasingly serious • Degradation of wetlands and estuaries, coastal areas, water catchments and river banks • Managing and preventing damage caused by water related disasters Governance Challenges • Legal arrangements – a major review of the water law is required • Institutional arrangements and role separation • Capacity building of government service delivery and of the community to participate • International cooperation • Awareness and understanding at all levels • Financing structures Technical and Knowledge Challenges • Climate change • Resource availability, demand assessment and water use • Environment relate water responses • Information management and sharing Opportunities • Relative abundance of water – but careful management is needed • Political commitment and a reform environment • Good technical capabilities – but not so much in water resources management • Overseas Development Assistance • Progressively increasing community wealth • Technology Priority in Improvement 1. Training and education, capacity building, and human resource development in the field of water resources management. 2. Community awareness raising. 3. Improvement and development of legal documents on water resources. 4. Conclution • Need to improve the capacity and ability of NHMS to meet the Challenges of the sustainable development of the country • Need to Develop a Demonstration Project for the effective issue of the information for WRM • Capacity building, including technical transfer, data exchange and free provide, operational and research collaboration etc… between developed and developing countries. Thank you very much for your attention!