Laptop Market Research - PowerPoint

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					Defining the Research
The Marketing Research Process
 Step 1: Defining the Problem

 Step 2: Developing an Approach to the Problem

 Step 3: Formulating a Research Design

 Step 4: Doing Field Work or Collecting Data

 Step 5: Preparing and Analyzing Data

 Step 6: Preparing and Presenting the Report
Problem Discovery                       Problem                                                                                     Selection of
                                       discovery                                                                                exploratory research
  and Definition                                                                                                                     technique
                                      Selection of
                                  exploratory research
                                       technique                                                                            Probability    Nonprobability

                                 Experience            Pilot              Case                                                     Collection of
          (historical)                                                                                       Data
                                   survey              study              study                                                         data
                                                                                                             Gathering              (fieldwork)

                                                                                                             Data                   Editing and
                                    Problem definition                                                                                coding
                                      (statement of                                                          Processing
                                   research objectives)                                                      and Analysis
                                       Selection of                                                                                 processing
Research Design                       basic research
                                         method                                                                                    Interpretation
                                                                                                             and Report               findings
         Experiment                                   Survey
     Laboratory          Field            Interview       Questionnaire           Observation
                                                                                                Data Study                            Report
The Problem Definition and Approach Development Process

                                   Tasks Involved

   Discussions with     Interviews with        Secondary Data          Qualitative
   Decision Makers          Experts               Analysis              Research

                      Environmental Context of the Problem

                             Step 1: Problem Definition

                         Management Decision Problem

                             Marketing Research Problem

                        Step 2: Approach to the Problem

      Analytical Framework              Research                  Specification of
           and Models           Questions and Hypotheses        Information Needed

                               Step 3: Research Design
   Beware the Iceberg!
• The Iceberg Principle
 – The dangerous part of many marketing problems is
   neither visible to nor understood by many marketing
 – “Submerged” parts of the problem must be
   understood and including in the research design for
   the research to be useful.
 Symptoms vs. Problems
• Microbrewery
• Symptom
 – Consumers prefer the taste of competitor’s brand
• PD based on the Symptom
 – What type of reformulated taste is needed?
• True Problem
 – Old-fashioned package influenced taste perception
 Symptoms vs. Problems
• Manufacturer of palm-size computers
  with Internet access
• Symptom
  – Distributors complain prices are too high
• PD based on the Symptom
  – Investigate business users to learn how much prices
    need to be reduced
• True Problem
  – Distributors do not have adequate product
    knowledge to communicate product’s value
Management Decision Problems vs.
  Marketing Research Problems

• Management                • Marketing
  Decision Problems           Research Problems
  – Ask what the decision     – Ask what information is
    maker needs to do           needed and how it
  – Action oriented             should be obtained
  – Focus on symptoms         – Information oriented
                              – Focus on the underlying
Translating Management Problems into
   Research Problems (Questions)

• Management Problem
  – Determine the best ways the firm can communicate with
    potential purchasers of laptop computers
• Research Questions
  – How familiar are consumers with the various brands of
  – What attitudes do consumers have toward these brands?
  – How important are the various factors for evaluating the
    purchase of a laptop computer?
  – How effective are the communications efforts of the various
    competitive marketers in terms of message recognition?
Errors in Defining the Market Research Problem


    Problem Definition is                Problem Definition
           too Broad                        is too Narrow
   •Does Not Provide                  •May Miss Some
   Guidelines for                     Important Components
   Subsequent Steps                   of the Problem
   •e.g., Improving the               •e.g. Changing Prices in
   Company’s Image                    Response to a
                                      Competitor’s Price
  “Bad” vs. “Good” Research
• Research questions should be
  stated as clearly as possible
• “Bad” research question
 – Is advertising copy X better than advertising copy Y?
• “Good” research question
 – Which advertising copy has a higher day-after recall
Development of Research Questions & Hypothesis

    Components of
    the Marketing
   Research Problem


Analytical Framework & Models
• Research questions & hypotheses are
  developed within analytical frameworks
  – Basically, theories & models
• Theory suggests that satisfaction improves
  morale & perceptions
• A sales manager who wants to increase
  market share (management problem) may
  – Ask how to encourage salespeople to generate more sales
    (research question)
  – State that (based on theory) higher job satisfaction leads to
    greater sales productivity (hypothesis)

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