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					The French Revolution
      -Key Concepts-
I. Revolutionary Ideas
   -Ideological Foundation for
       Political Liberalism-
A. Liberty
      The notion of individual
         human rights
        A new type of
         government in which the
         people are sovereign
        The importance of a
         representative assembly
        The importance of a
         written constitution
        The notion of self-
         determination
        Freedom to accumulate
         property
               B. Equality
 Equality of rights and civil liberties
 Equality before the law
 No special privileges for the rich
 Equality of opportunity
 ―Careers Open to Talent‖
 Inherent tension between liberty and
 equality
II. Roots of Liberalism
             Enlightenment
              Foundation
             Locke’s Notion of the
              Rights of Englishmen
             Liberal notion of
              individual rights in
              conflict with
              Rousseau’s ―will of
              the people‖ which
              inspired more radical
              philosophies
        III. ―A Dual Revolution‖
 The French Revolution was the inaugural
    European revolution
   The French Revolution and the Industrial
    Revolution together transformed the western
    world
   This ―Dual Revolution‖ changed everything
    politically, socially and economically
   Triumph of European states and economies
    globally
   The Modern Era was inaugurated by the Dual
    Revolution
  IV. ―The Atlantic Revolution‖
 French Revolution was a part of a whole
  series of revolutions which took place
  during the late 18th century
  --Political agitation in England, Ireland,
  Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy,
  Germany, Hungary, Poland and the
  American colonies
 One big movement of revolutionary
  agitation
The American Revolution
            1760’s:British Parliament taxes the 13
               North American colonies to pay for the
               Seven Years war with France
              1774 Continental Congress: ―No
               taxation without representation’
              1775 Battles at Lexi9ngton and
               Concord
              July 4, 1776: Declaration of
               Independence – ―All Men are Created
               Equal.‖ Influenced by ideas of John
               Locke and the Enlightenment.
              American victory made possible by
               military support from France and the
               Netherlands.
              1783 Peace of Paris
              The significance of the American
               constitution (1787)
              The influence of the American
               Revolution on revolutions throughout
               the world
    The Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776


   When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political
    bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth,
    the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a
    decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which
    impel them to the separation.
   We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
    Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their
    just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government
    becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to
    institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in
    such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence,
    indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and
    transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to
    suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are
    accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same
    Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty,
    to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has
    been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains
    them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain
    is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an
    absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
The Bill of Rights- first 10 amendments to the U.S.
  Constitution, ratified on December 15, 1791
   Amendment I: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
    exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
    assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
   Amendment II: A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to
    keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
   Amendment III: No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner,
    nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
   Amendment IV: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
    unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
    supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to
    be seized.
   Amendment V: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a
    presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when
    in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice
    put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be
    deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
    without just compensation.
   Amendment VI: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an
    impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been
    previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with
    the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the
    assistance of counsel for his defense.
   Amendment VII: In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of
    trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United
    States, than according to the rules of the common law.
   Amendment VIII: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual
    punishments inflicted.
   Amendment IX: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage
    others retained by the people.
   Amendment X: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the
    states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
Revolutions in Mexico and Central
       and South America
                 Led by wealthy Creole class
                 Goal: Independence from Spanish
                    and Portuguese rule
                   Simon Bolivar, the father of Latin
                    American independence: led
                    revolts in Columbia, Venezuela,
                    Ecuador and Peru
                   Bolivar cooperated with Jose de
                    San Martin and Bernardo
                    O’Higgins in successful revolts in
                    Argentina and Chile
                   Bolivar’s goal ―a United Sates of
                    South America‖
                   By 1825 Spanish rule ended in
                    South America
                   1822 Independence of Brazil
                    under Emperor Pedro I
                   1821 End of Spanish rule in
                    Mexico and Central America
                   Continued dominance of the white
                    Creole elites
 Background of Haitian Revolution
 Treaty of Ryswick (1697): Spain cedes
  Western third of Hispaniola to France
 From 1697 to 1789, Saint Domingue
  becomes the richest colony in the world
  based on slave produced sugar, coffee
  indigo dye, cotton, tobacco and exotic
  spices
 The plantation system on S.D. was the
  most brutal the world had ever seen.
1791: The structure of Saint
    Domingue society
               20,000 whites (Planters
                and Petit Blancs)
               50,000 ―free people of
                color‖ (affranchis)
               500,000 African slaves
                (most born in Africa)
               10,000 to 20,000
                Maroons (runaway
                slaves) living in the
                mountains.
    Impact of American and French
    Revolutions on Saint Domingue
 500 gens de couleur (affranchis) serve in French
    army and participate in the American Revolution.
    Bring revolutionary ideas back to S.D.
   The planters want an independent S.D. that they
    can control without interference from Paris.
   The petit blancs are the only group loyal to
    France; hostile to the free persons of color and
    want to retain slavery.
   The affranchis want a free Saint Domingue—
    with slavery- and equal rights with the whites.
   The slaves want only one thing—freedom!
The Haitian Revolution Begins
                August 21, 1791:
                 revolt of the slaves on
                 the northern plain.
                More than a thousand
                 planters and their
                 families killed
                Whites and affranchis
                 unite to put down the
                 rebellion
Francois-DominiqueToussaint
  (L’Ouverture) 1744-1803
               Former slave, 47
                years old, joins rebels
                as a medical officer
               Rises to become a
                general and the
                leader of the
                revolution
               To get rid of French
                he allies with the
                English and Spanish
Toussaint L’Ouverture
            In 1793, the National
               Assembly in France abolishes
               slavery.
              Sonthanax, the French
               representative in S.D. issues
               proclamation ending slavery.
              In 1794, Toussaint joins the
               French side as . a brigadier
               general
              He defeats the Spanish and
               English and conquers the
               whole island of Hispaniola by
               1801
              July 26, 1801: Toussaint’s
               Constitution
Napoleon Bonaparte
          Napoleon wants to
           take power back from
           ―the gilded African‖
          1802: General Laclerc
           lands at Cap Francois
          Toussaint betrayed,
           arrested and sent to
           France—dies in
           prison in April 1803.
The Republic of Haiti
            Henri Christophe and
             Jean Jacques Dessalines
             continue war.
            French surrender in
             November 1803.
            Napoleon, disgusted at
             the cost of colonial wars,
             sells Louisiana to the
             U.S.
            January 1, 1804:
             Dessalines proclaims the
             independence of Haiti
The problems of independence
 A devastated economy: Former slaves refuse to
    return to plantation labor. Do not produce for
    export.
   International boycott against trade with Haiti
   Haitian independence recognized by France in
    1825; England in 1833; the United States in
    1862!!!
   The affranchis form a Haitian ruling class.
   Between 1843 -1915, a succession of 20 rulers;
    16 overthrown by revolution or assassination.
   United States military occupation of Haiti (1915-
    1934)
      C. The French Revolution
 More fundamental and profound
    consequences than the American
    Revolution
   France = most powerful and populous
    state in Europe
   Massive social revolution
   Worldwide impact
   Becomes model for future revolutions
How Should We Look at
the French Revolution?
  ―Series of revolutions which became
  more radical as leadership cascaded
     down through French society.‖
      Backgound to the French
            Revolution
 The ideas of the Enlightenment: Locke,
  Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, Rousseau
 The burdens on the French peasantry:
  tithes to the church; taxes to the State and
  to wealthy landlords; the corvee—unpaid
  labor services; the salt monopoly
 Grievances of the bourgeoisie
 Grievances of the urban poor
V. The Events of the
 French Revolution
Watch for the different revolutions
     within the Revolution!
       A. Origins
The financial crisis of Louis
    XVI’s government
              Began as a revolt of
               the aristocracy
              Attempt to capitalize
               on the financial woes
               of the monarchy
              Only solution = tax
               reform and a direct
               tax on all property
              Aristocracy refused
               and forces the issue
B. The Estates-General
            An old feudal assembly
             that had not met since
             1614
            Three Estates: Clergy,
             Nobility, All Others
            1788 the cahiers des
             doleances
            The miscalculation and
             lack of social awareness
             of the aristocracy
C. The Third Estate
           Who were they?
           Third Estate was
            dominated by the middle
            class
           Blending of aristocratic
            and bourgeois classes by
            1789
           Middle class = Big
            Winners
           Revolutionary goals of
            the middle class
D. An Agenda of Classical
       Liberalism
              Representative
               government did not
               mean democracy or
               ―mob rule‖
              Estates-General
               became the National
               Assembly in June of
               1789 with the power
               to frame a constitution
               --Tennis Court Oath
E. ―Revolutionaries in the Streets‖
                   Who were they?
                   ―Sans-culottes‖
                    (without knee
                    britches)
                   Picked up the ideas
                    and slogans of the
                    Revolution from the
                    more educated
                    leadership of lawyers
                    and journalists
What were the Motivations of these
        Revolutionaries?
                  Poverty and Hunger
                  Low wages and fear of
                   unemployment
                  Heightened expectations
                   and the exposure to a
                   political perspective
                   -- ―Cahiers‖
                  Strong dislike for and
                   distrust of the wealthy
                  The role of conspiracy
F. A Case Study: Storming the
          Bastille
                Events of the night of July
                   13, 1789
                  Reasons for the attack on
                   the Bastille the next
                   morning
                  The stubbornness of the
                   governor of the fortress
                  Celebrations on the night
                   of July 14th
                  Sparks tremendous
                   popular revolution all over
                   France
G. ―The Great Fear‖
           Independent
              revolutionary agitation in
              the countryside
             Rumors of Royalist troops
              becoming wandering
              vandals
             Fear breeds fear and
              peasants start marching
             Within 3 weeks of July
              14, the countryside of
              France had been
              completely changed
             Abolition of the Nobility
    The Declaration of the Rights of
    Man and Citizen August 26, 1789
   The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contemp t of the
    rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn
    declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all t he members of
    the Social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power, a s well as those of
    the executive power, may be compared at any moment with the objects and purposes of all political institutions and may thus b e more
    respected, and, lastly, in order that the grievances of the citizens, based hereafter upon simple and incontestable principles, shall tend to
    the maintenance of the constitution and redound to the happiness of all. Therefore the National Assembly recognizes and procl aims, in
    the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and of the citizen:Articles:1. Men are born and
    remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.2. The aim of all political association is
    the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistan ce to
    oppression.3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which
    does not proceed directly from the nation.4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the
    exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the en joyment of
    the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may
    be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.6. Law is the expression of
    the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It m ust be the same for
    all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public
    positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.7. No person shall be
    accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. Any one soliciting, transm itting,
    executing, or causing to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law
    shall submit without delay, as resistance constitutes an offense.8. The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and
    obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulga ted before the
    commission of the offense.9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed
    indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner's person shall be severely repressed by law.10. No one shall be
    disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the publi c order
    established by law.11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every cit izen may,
    accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by
    law.12. The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the
    good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be intrusted.13. A common contribution is essential for the
    maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citiz ens in
    proportion to their means.14. All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the
    public contribution; to grant this freely; to know to what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection
    and the duration of the taxes.15. Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of his administration.16. A society in
    which the observance of the law is not assured, nor the separation of powers defined, has no constitution at all.17. Since property is an
    inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity, legally determined, shall clearl y demand it,
    and then only on condition that the owner shall have been previously and equitably indemnified.
H. The Court Returns to Paris
                Mounting unemployment
                 and hunger in Paris in the
                 fall of 1789
                ―October Days‖
                 -- ―The point is that we
                 want bread!‖
                Women nearly killed the
                 Queen
                The Royal Family returns
                 to Paris on October 6,
                 1789
I. The Consolidation of the Liberal
           Revolution
 Events from October, 1789 through
    September, 1791
   Abolition of the French nobility as a legal
    order
   Constitutional Monarchy established
   Economic centralization
   Nationalization of the Church
    --Stage set for subsequent civil war
J. Popular Political Mobilization
                  Revolutionary Talk
                   --More than 500 new
                   newspapers
                   --Oath of Loyalty
                   -- ―Liberte, Equalite,
                   Fraternite!‖
                  Revolutionary Symbols
                  Revolutionary Clubs
                   --The Jacobins
                  Revolutionary Leaders
K. Growing Radicalism
            Reasons:
             --Snowball Effect
             --Unsatisfied
             Expectations
             --Outbreak of War
            Results:
             --Increasing Violence
             --Change in Political
             Leadership
L. Robespierre’s Reign of Terror
                 The Committee of
                  Public Safety
                 The Concept of ―Total
                  War‖
                 Maximum price
                  ceilings on certain
                  goods
                 Nationalization of
                  Small Workshops
L. The Reign of Terror (cont)
                Execution of 40,000
                   ―Enemies of the Nation‖
                  Stress on radical
                   definition of equality
                  Wanted a legal maximum
                   on personal wealth
                  Wanted a regulation of
                   commercial profits
                  End of Robespierre’s
                   dictatorship on July 28,
                   1794
M. The Directory and Napoleon
          Bonaparte
                The Directory (1794-
                   1799)
                  Napoleon’s Rise to
                   Power
                  The Napoleonic Code
                  Establishment of the
                   Bank of France
                  Reconciliation with the
                   Catholic Church
                   --Concordat of 1801
                  Heavy Censorship
                  Napoleon’s ―Art of War‖
VI. Legacies of the French
       Revolution
              A revolutionary model
              A Mass political
               consciousness
              Varying interpretations of
               the Revolution
               --Conservative View:
               Edmund Burke
               --Liberal View: Thomas
               Jefferson
              Conflict within the Liberal
               Tradition
              ―Libertarianism‖ vs.
               ―Egalitarianism‖

				
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