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					African NGO-Government Partnerships for Sustainable
            Biodiversity Action Project.

   Guidelines for the Planning and Implementation of
  Ornithological Training Courses for BirdLife African

                Compiled by James Currie
                  BirdLife International
                       April 2001

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                       page
Acronyms                                                 4
Acknowledgements                                         5
Summary                                                  6
1     Introduction                                       7
      1.1    Background                                  7
      1.2    Rationale                                   7

2     Pre-planning considerations                        8
      2.1    Prioritisation and Assessment               8
      2.2    Feasibility and Options                     8
      2.3    Decision-making                             9
      2.4    Mission and Objectives                      9

3     Options and Levels of Training                     10
      3.1   Key definitions                              10
            3.1.1 Train the trainers                     10
            3.1.2 Bird guides                            10
            3.1.3 IBA participants                       10
            3.1.4 Community educators                    11
            3.1.5 Principle trainers                     11
      3.2   Training Options                             11
            3.2.1 Regional train the trainers            11
            3.2.2 National train the trainers            12
            3.2.3 Incorporation                          12
            3.2.4 Principle trainer visits               12
            3.2.5 Sabbaticals                            13
      3.3   Training Levels                              13
            3.3.1 The branched approach                  14
            3.3.2 The integrated approach                15
            3.3.3 The modules                            15

4     Implementation Considerations                      19
      4.1   Duration                                     19
      4.2   Location                                     19
      4.3   Safety                                       20
      4.4   Selection                                    21
            4.4.1 Continuous selection                   21
            4.4.2 Prior selection                        21
            4.4.3 Invitation                             22
      4.5   Language Compatibility                       22
      4.6   Availability of resources and instruments    23
      4.7   Ethics and Morals                            23
            4.7.1 Cultural                               24
            4.7.2 Land                                   24
            4.7.3 Wildlife                               24
      4.8   Legal requirements                           24
      4.9   Marketing and Preparations                   25
            4.9.1 Advertisement                          25
            4.9.2 Applicants Information                 25
      4.10 Training Methods                              25
      4.11 Evaluation of Participants                    27

5   Future Considerations                 29
    5.1   Government Accreditation        29
    5.2   Feedback                        29
    5.3   Support and monitoring          30
    5.4   Confidentiality and copywrite   30

6   Conclusions and recommendations       31

7   Annotated bibliography of training    32

8   Annexes                               38
    Annex     1                           38
    Annex     2                           41
    Annex     3                           46
    Annex     4                           47
    Annex     5                           68
    Annex     6                           72
    Annex     7                           74
    Annex     8                           76


BLSA       BirdLife South Africa
COC        Cameroon Ornithological Club
EWCO       Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organisation
EWNHS      Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society
GEF        Global Environment Facility
GPS        Global Positioning System
GWS        Ghana Wildlife Society
IBA        Important Bird Area
NCF        Nigerian Conservation Foundation
NGO        Non-Government Organisation
NP         National Park
PPP        Pre-Planning Process
RSPB       Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
SSG        Site Support Group
TTT        Train the Trainers
WCST       Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania
ZICOMA     Zones d’Importance pour la Conservation des Oiseaux a Madagascar
ANGAP       Association Nationale pour la Gestion des Aires Protegees
MEF        Ministere des Eaux et Forets


This report has been prepared as a set of guidelines resulting from the collection and
analysis of a wide range of ornithological training material. In this way, many
organisations have assisted (albeit unknowingly!) in its compilation. Thanks to those
individuals and Partners who have submitted the attached training reports, an analysis
of a wide range of training courses was ensured. Many thanks to all the Partners who
replied to the questionnaire on ornithological training and who submitted suggestions
and comments.

Also, thanks must go to Hazell Thompson, Julius Arinaitwe, Ken Smith, Peter
Robertson and all those at BirdLife International for their support, suggestions and
assistance. Assistance was provided by the RSPB through locating and sending training
documents. And finally I would like to extend special thanks to Carol de Bruin from
BLSA for her invaluable time spent on sending BLSA’s training documents, and also for
sharing the experiences of BLSA’s ornithological training.

                                                                         James Currie


This report shall attempt to provide some form of working framework that can be used
by Partners in the design of ornithological training courses. In order to ensure as
comprehensive a report as possible, much seemingly obvious information has been
included. I apologise for any redundancy as a result.

This report will also attempt to adopt a consultative and participatory approach to
ornithological training and, therefore strives to draw on the experiences of a variety of
organisations and individuals.

The specific objectives of these guidelines are to provide:

(a) A comprehensive set of important considerations for the planning of ornithological
    training courses.
(b) Appropriate frameworks for the structure and levels of training courses.
(c) Different training options that can be applied to different situations.
(d) A discussion of the use of modules that can be included in the design of courses or
    used as guidelines for the contents of training courses.
(e) An easily accessible, annotated bibliography of previous/existing training that can
    assist in the design of courses.
(f) A set of post-training course and future considerations.


1.1    Background

The GEF-IBA project aims to enhance biodiversity conservation in Africa through local
and national NGO-government partnerships in the Important Bird Area process. IBA’s
are globally important areas for bird conservation. Birds are useful indicators of habitat
biodiversity and condition and conserving IBA’s and managing them properly will
ensure that some of the most fragile and ecologically rich areas in the world are used
intelligently. The project aims to build the capacity of the NGO’s, government partners
and local communities at various levels to participate in all aspects of IBA conservation,
including monitoring, tourism and advocacy. In order for this to happen, there is a need
for ornithological skills. The guidelines set out in this report shall attempt to assist
African BirdLife partners in initiating, or further developing, ornithological training
courses in their respective countries.

Organisations, no matter how closely linked, differ form each other. They differ in the
people they employ, have different needs and priorities, operate in different
environments and have differences in their abilities to access resources. More
specifically, some partners have greater experience than others have in the field of
ornithological training. It is important, therefore, not to regard this report as a rigid set
of rules that must be adhered to. Rather, it should be regarded as a flexible tool that
can be adapted according to each situation, preferably in consultation with experts in
this field of work.

1.2 Rationale

The results of a questionnaire survey (see appendix 1) of African Partner countries
indicate that ornithological training is a top priority (50%) or important priority (50%)
for the countries concerned. To date, successful training courses have been
implemented according to specific training needs (eg. IBA participant training or guide
training). However, in many instances there appears to be a lack of long-term vision,
sharing of information between BirdLife partner countries and sense of continuity, both
in the planning stages and the post-implementation stages of training courses. The
suggestions in this document have been drawn up to aid in the facilitation of these
processes, as well as attempting to serve as a set of guidelines for the training process


As with any project, it is vital to tackle ornithological training in 3 stages namely
planning, implementation and monitoring/evaluation. But before these 3 stages are
tackled it is important to address certain issues that need to be considered during the
pre-planning phases of the training process.

The Pre-Planning Process (PPP) should be viewed as the vital foundation of the training
structure. At the end of this stage the following conclusions should have been arrived
(a) A prioritisation of training needs
(b) A clear agreement on the feasibility of the training
(c) A decision to go ahead with or abort the next stage of the training process
(d) A clear agreement on the long-term goals of the training

2.1 Prioritisation and Assessment
It is of paramount importance that training needs are regularly prioritised and
monitored, as priorities will often change with time. The results of the training needs
questionnaire survey (appendix 2) carried out in August 1999 are no longer consistent
with the priorities of 2001 (appendix 1, question 1.1). Ornithological training has now
become a top priority of many Partners. Prioritisation is important because top
priorities need to be addressed more urgently than lesser priorities. Therefore, priority
analysis at the national level is needed in order to identify where ornithological training
exists in the training needs hierarchy of each partner. If it happens to be a lesser
priority, it should not be tackled until the more important priorities have been
adequately dealt with.

 Having recognised ornithological training as a top priority or having sufficiently
addressed greater priorities, specific ornithological training needs should be assessed at
the national AND local level and should include identification and prioritisation.
Identification possibilities could include the following training needs:
(a) IBA surveying/monitoring
(b) Bird-watching knowledge for guides
(c) “Train the trainers” training
(d) Educating communities in sustainable utilisation of resources and monitoring of
    impact on biodiversity, especially bird species diversity.

Once needs have been identified they should then be prioritised in order to address the
more pressing needs first. (For many countries, “train the trainers” training may be a
top priority. However, it should be deliberated whether lower level training needs to be
completed first so that graduates can proceed to “train the trainers” training with first-
hand experience of what they will be teaching).

2.2 Feasibility and Options
The next stage of the Pre-Planning Process involves contemplating the feasibility of
implementing training courses. Once the more specific training needs have been
prioritised, a feasibility study of the type(s) of training should be carried out. Factors
that might be worth considering at this stage include the following:
(a) Funding
(b) Will there be sufficient participant interest/qualifications to run the course(s) (this
    should have been answered in part by the needs assessment in 2.1.1)
(c) What levels of training are required to satisfy prioritised needs (see section 3) and
    will the implementation of different levels be feasible?
(d) Other training options. (Can specific-needs training be incorporated into existing
    ornithological training courses eg. National Parks courses, bird club courses etc?)
(e) Will training courses be politically feasible?
(f) Risk assessment. What safety limitations and variables can influence training
    feasibility? Are Partners willing to take an ethical responsibility for the safety of
    trainers and training course participants?

2.3 Decision-making
Once a feasibility study has been successfully completed, there needs to be a clear
decision as to whether the training project should go ahead or be aborted. Decisions
need to be taken on the advantages and possibilities of utilising other options(eg.
incorporating specific training needs into existing training courses).

2.4 Mission and Objectives
The mission of BirdLife International and the objectives of the GEF-IBA are the
overarching principles under which all stages of the training process should take place
(appendix 3). Any activities or decisions that contradict the above-mentioned mission

and objectives should be actively avoided and prevented. This same principle applies
also to the mission and objectives of the relevant Partners.

To conclude the PPP stage, a training vision should be designed that takes into account
the needs and priorities of NGO’s, governments AND local people.


The results of the ornithological training questionnaire in appendix 1 show that there is
unanimous agreement on the need for different levels of training. However, there is little
consensus on what the type of each level of training should be and how this training
should be carried out. Once again this is due to the needs-specific nature of training in
each country. This section aims to propose different training options and list some of
their advantages, disadvantages and considerations.

3.1 Key Definitions

The definitions provided below concern the training needs that have been identified by
BirdLife Partner countries, training experts and previous ornithological training course

3.1.1 “Train the trainers”
There is widespread agreement on the need for “train the trainers”(TTT) courses. The
aim of these courses is to train local people in advanced ornithology and training
methods so that they can obtain the necessary skills needed for training other local
people at the local level. The rationale behind this is two-fold:
(a) To create a cadre of local people who are able to form a self-sustainable group of
    local-level trainers who embrace the aims of the IBA process and
(b) To promote community-ownership of the training process by encouraging
    progression and career development in the field of ornithology/training.

Graduates from the TTT courses would be provided with the skills to plan and
implement the types of training described in 3.1.2, 3.1.3 and 3.1.4.

3.1.2 Bird guides
In many African countries, “ecotourism” is (or is fast becoming) a dominant industry. In
the future, tourism will play an increasing role in the IBA process as the industry
further diversifies into “ecotourism”. The Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as
“responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the
welfare of the local people.” However, this nice-sounding definition is seldom carried out
in practice and many organisations promoting ecotourism advocate exactly the opposite
of this definition. Properly organised bird-watching tours have the ability to fulfil the
above-mentioned requirements whilst embracing the mission of BirdLife International
and the aims of the GEF-IBA project. Hence, in many areas there is a need for bird
guide training courses.

3.1.3 IBA participants
IBA participant training involves the training of local people so that skills, like
monitoring and surveying, can be acquired to aid in the IBA process. This is
understandably an important priority for many Partner countries. However, countries
that have already developed such training may regard it as a lesser priority due to the
prior establishment or knowledge of this training type.

3.1.4 Community educators
Certain Partners have expressed an interest in training that will enable conservation
education of community members living in, or in close proximity to, IBA areas. The type
of education required may include basic bird identification, monitoring and
understanding sustainable utilisation of resources, understanding conservation laws
and understanding the aims of the GEF-IBA project. This education forms a vital part of
facilitating a participatory approach to the IBA process. Whether educators should be
specifically trained for this purpose or whether this training should be included in the
IBA participant training is a matter worth considering.

3.1.5 Principle trainers
The majority of previous ornithological training courses have employed the services of
one/several principal trainers. These trainers have, in most cases, been responsible for
the planning, implementation and report-back phases of the training. These trainers
have carried out locally based training and have therefore been used to train local
people in the skills required for 3.1.2, 3.1.3 and 3.1.4. Principle trainers are regarded as
experts in the field of ornithology and would be the logical choice for the “training of the
trainers” proposed in 3.1.1.

3.2    Training Options

3.2.1 Regional “Train the Trainers”
Objective   To set up one or more “train the trainers” centres on a regional basis (i.e
            a Southern African centre in South Africa, East African centre in Kenya)
            so that Partner nationals can be trained to train local people in their
            country of origin.
Positives   There is a definite need for different levels of training. If successful, the
            end-product would be self-sustainable training programmes at the local
            level in Partner countries. Regional training would enable a sharing of
            information between Partners and initiate an integrated training
            network. Career advancement and community ownership of the training
            process will be strengthened. At least one Partner (South Africa) already
            has the infrastructure and training in place to implement “train the
            trainer” courses. Participants can obtain the tools necessary to
            implement a variety of needs-specific training courses (3.1.2, 3.1.3 and
            3.1.4). Graduates will more than likely be loyal, well-qualified individuals
            who support their host organisations. Cost of “train the trainers” courses
            become centralised in one/a few Partners. Ornithological training
            methods become unified and standardised throughout the network.
Negatives   Partner countries may not be able to secure financial resources to send
            applicants to host country. Language barriers may become problematic.
            Host Partner would need to assume liability for the applicants from other
Comments    As the overwhelming majority of African Partners suggest in the
            questionnaire survey, this training option appears, in theory, to be the
            most appropriate. The positives greatly outweigh the negatives and the
            negatives are to a certain extent solvable. It is recommended that this
            training option becomes an important consideration in the training
            aspirations of Partners and that the GEF-IBA project identifies suitable
            host countries to begin planning and setting up training centres and
            facilities. The development of this training structure requires the
            adoption of a regional (i.e African) training policy that is fully supported
            by the GEF-IBA project.

3.2.2 National “Train the Trainers”
Objective   To set up “train the trainers” centres in each Partner country so that
            local people can be trained to train others in their country.
Positives   Encourages different levels of training, community ownership of training,
            self-sustainability and loyal/well qualified graduates. Language barriers
            are eliminated. Travel costs are not as great as in 3.2.1. Able to focus on
            the training in the country concerned.
Negatives   Has the potential to create fragmentation and disunity in the training
            process of the network. Realistically, many Partners will not have the
            resources to carry out this type of training.
Comments    This training option has many of the advantages of the above-mentioned
            option. However, in reality it may prove too ambitious an option for the
            majority of Partners. There are the added advantages of limiting language
            barriers, focusing on National issues and reduced travel costs. This
            training method would therefore be appropriate for the participants of
            the host countries themselves and could be a final goal of other Partner
            countries – once they have progressed from the training described in

3.2.3 Incorporation into existing courses
Objective   To incorporate specific-needs training into existing training structures
            eg. National Parks ornithology courses.
Positives   Small financial burden. May promote closer co-operation between NGO’s
            and government. Could lead to a standardised National training.
Negatives   GEF-IBA aims may be compromised due to limited influence of Partner in
            training process. Danger of training becoming a top-down process that
            alienates rather than embraces local communities. Discourages
            networking and a standardised training process.
Comments    This option may prove useful as a temporary measure for those Partners
            unable to locate the resources for carrying out other more desirable
            options. Serious thought should be given to ensuring that such training
            courses embrace the BirdLife International mission and the goals of the
            GEF-IBA project. Also it must be attempted to encourage a participatory
            approach to the training as far as possible.

3.2.4 Training visits by principal trainers
Objective   To train local people in particular fields by running training courses in
            Partner countries as part of an ongoing programme of visits made by
            ornithology and training experts.
Positives   Short-term training needs are successfully addressed. Ensures the use of
            top-quality trainers who are experts in their fields. Training is easily
            accessible and requires minimal organisation on the part of the Partner
            involved – the “training comes to us” effect. Able to draw on the
            successes/failures of past courses (due to abundance of literature on
            these types of courses). Facilitates the gathering of new scientific
            information as a bi-product of training, especially in countries that have
            a lack of scientific data. Networking and standardisation can be achieved
            but this will be limited to the Partners that the experts visit.
Negatives   Danger of adopting a top-down approach to training (due to long-
            distance planning and misunderstanding of local culture and community
            needs). Self-sustainability of community training is questionable. Gaps
            between visits may prove too long. Continuity of training is difficult to
            maintain. Possible language barriers.
Comments    This training option has been used widely in the past and many
            successful training courses have been carried out in BirdLife Partner

               countries. However useful this training may prove in the short-term,
               serious consideration needs to be given to its compatibility in the long-
               term interests of Partner training. This option could prove to be useful in
               the short term until an appropriate training strategy has been provided.

3.2.5 Long term visits to Partners by experts (sabbaticals)
Objective    To train local people in specific fields as part of sabbaticals taken by
             experts from other Partners around the world.
Positives    Minimal organisation and finances required from the Partner being
Negatives    No continuity, possible language barriers, no self-sustainability and
             danger of top-down process.
Comments     Obviously, this training type cannot logically be considered as a long-
             term option. However, it could still prove useful as a form of additional
             training and sabbaticals could be used in the future to monitor more
             viable long-term options.

3.3    Training Levels

Once specific training needs, options and feasibility have been realised; consideration
should be given to the different levels of training required. Each specific need might
require different levels of training. For example, an IBA that is a popular tourist
destination and well-known bird-watching area may well require different levels of bird
guides. This may be necessary to cater for the differing education backgrounds of
potential guides and also to cater for the different needs of visitors (i.e. professional
birder or casual tourist). However, this same IBA will more than likely require some
form of IBA participant training too. How to incorporate different needs into some form
of structure thus becomes an important planning issue. Two different strategies are
discussed in 3.3.1 and 3.3.2.

3.3.1 The branched approach

                                              “Train the

                                              from TTT

            Bird guide                        participant                       Other courses
            courses                           courses
The above approach shows how training and knowledge can be disseminated to reach
different levels of a specific training need. Trainers who have graduated from the “Train
the trainers” course would have gained the necessary skills to train local people at
different levels in specific needs. This strategy might be adopted by trainers in an area
where only1 need is regarded as important or in areas where different training priorities
have to be tackled separately, for whatever reasons.

3.3.2   The integrated approach

                                                  Level 3 participants would acquire the skills to
                                                  become trainers to plan and implement level 1 &
  Level 3                                         2 training courses. Graduates of level 3 could also
  “Train the trainers” course                     be regarded as advanced bird guides and IBA

                                                  Graduates from level 1 would be able to progress
                                                  to a level 2 integrated intermediate course that
  Level 2                                         would enable them to gain skills to become full-
  Intermediate course                             time IBA participants and Level 2 bird guides.
                                                  Course contents could include more advanced in-
                                                  depth survey/monitoring techniques and further
                                                  development of bird guide knowledge.

                                                  An integrated introductory course could consist
                                                  of taught modules that could serve as an
  Level 1                                         introduction to both bird guiding and bird
  Introductory course                             monitoring/surveying so that the graduate of such
                                                  a course could be used as both a reserve IBA
                                                  participant and level 1 bird guide.

The above strategy might be adopted in an area where it is feasible and preferable to
incorporate a selection of needs into a single training course level so that graduates
become accomplished in a variety of skills.

3.3.3 The modules
A useful method of deciding upon the contents of ornithological training is to break up
course contents into modules that can either be incorporated into an intensive training
course or that can be taught as separate modules that need to be completed within a
certain time frame. This module method can be applied to different strategies as
illustrated in (a) and (b) below. Participants of “train the trainers” courses would need to
either have passed all the required modules or proved themselves sufficiently in
possession of the ornithological skills required. Modules should be regarded as flexible
and subject to change according to different situations and the modules provided below
are only illustrative examples.

(a) Integrated to incorporate guiding and IBA participant needs at each level as in 3.3.2

Level 1                                                                                           Level 2
Pre-requisites                                                                                    Pre-requisites

  Basic Bird                                                                                         Surveying &
  Identification                                                                                     Monitoring 2

  Surveying &                                                                                        Bird Biology &
  Monitoring 1                                                                                       Behaviour 2

  Bird Biology &                                                                                     Community
  Behaviour 1                                                                                        Interaction

+ any 2 extra                                                                                     + any 2 extra
courses                                                                                           courses

          Guiding                     Biodiversity &             Introduction to                  Basic Ecology
          techniques                  GEF-IBA proj.              sustainability

                       Conservation                    Tourism                     Bird Ringing
                       Theory                                                      Techniques

This approach involves the use of modules that can be run either as separate short
courses themselves or integrated into one longer level 1 or level 2 course. Therefore, a
candidate would have to complete a prescribed amount of modules, whether modules
are done individually or as a set course, to obtain a level 1 certificate and graduate to
level 2 training. The above example focuses on 2 of the more blatant needs - namely
guiding and IBA participants. However, other needs can also be incorporated into this
training. For example, if a need for community educators exists, other modules like
“sustainability” and “community interaction” can be incorporated as prescribed
modules at either level.

(b) Branched use of modules to allow for specific needs training courses as in 3.3.1

Level 1                                 Bird Biology &                            Level 1
Bird                                    Behaviour 1                               IBA
Guiding                                                                           Participants
Course                                                                            Course
                                        Basic Bird

                                        Techniques 1

                                        Surveying &
                                        Monitoring 1

                                        Basic Ecology

                                        Biodiversity &
                                        GEF-IBA proj.

                                        Bird Biology &
Level 2                                 Behaviour 2                               Level 2
Bird                                                                              IBA
Guiding                                                                           Participants
Course                                  Conservation                              Course

                                        Techniques 2



                                        Surveying &
                                        Monitoring 2

                                        Introduction to
+ 1 course                              sustainability                         + 1 course

                                        Bird Ringing

The above example shows how modules can be applied and used to fulfil a particular
ornithological need. As in 3.3.3(a), only 2 needs are illustrated here and modules could
be designed to fulfil other training needs too.

Modules are a very useful method of planning and implementing ornithological training
courses. In training there will always be many different ways to achieve desired training
goals. Some methods will prove more useful than others will. By designing a universal
set of modules, Partners will be able to select those modules most relevant to specific
training needs and thereafter incorporate these modules into a training course.
Universal modules should never be perceived as a rigid set and should be adapted
according to the requirements of each training situation. In this way, information can
be omitted, added or shifted according to specific requirements. For example, a Partner
wishing to design an introductory workshop on ornithology for community members
may wish to select only the most basic information from several modules and
incorporate this information into a set of easy to follow lectures.

New modules may also need to be created to cater for specific needs. For example, a
Partner wishing to foster small business development in local communities by
encouraging guides to start their own businesses may wish to design a module on Small
Business Management. By creating a universal set of training modules, information can
be shared between Partners and the contents of these modules can be constantly
updated. A set of universal modules will enable Partners to build their own self-
sustainable training frameworks.

BirdLife South Africa has designed a set of modules for guide training (see appendix 4 )
and these modules are useful examples of what examples from a universal set may look
like. Accompanying these modules, BLSA have designed a set of training guidelines for
each module (see example in appendix 5). The rationale behind these guidelines is to
provide a lesson outline that trainers can use to prepare training sessions. These
guidelines could prove to be very useful for new trainers or trainers who may not
possess extensive knowledge of the topic. Following BLSA’s example, it could prove
beneficial to accompany a universal set of modules with a set of module training


Careful planning is a vital part of ensuring the smooth implementation of a training
course. Planning needs to take into account the variety of implementation factors that
could affect the smooth running of such a course. Prior to any implementation
decisions, a training course should have clear objectives and outputs (example in
appendix 6). These objectives and outputs should be seen as the skeleton of the
training design and further considerations should be decided upon to “add meat” to
training course design.

4.1 Duration

Due to the number of variables involved, there are no prescribed rules regarding the
length of training courses. There are, however, certain guidelines that can be followed to
ensure that courses are run as efficiently and cost-effectively as possible within the
shortest time-frame possible.
• Timetable design. A realistic course programme should be drawn up. This must be
    adhered to as much as possible. Information concerning venues, facilities, transport
    and guest speakers should be confirmed and updated regularly and substitutions
    should be found where necessary.
• Intelligent use of time. Time on training courses must be well-utilised. Intelligent use
    of time can greatly reduce the length of a training course. Early mornings should be
    used for field training and evenings can prove useful for visual learning eg.videos,
    slide shows.
• Beware of work overload. Intelligent use of time would not be complete without the
    inclusion of logical and long breaks to ensure the full concentration of participants.
    Allow enough free time for practising/studying new information.

4.2 Location

Careful consideration should be given to the location of the proposed course. It is
important that planners address the following considerations as far as possible:
• Adequate facilities. A training location should be compatible with the requirements
   of the training course. Lecture rooms should have adequate and comfortable
   seating. Facilities for training like VCR’s and overhead projectors should be
   available if needed. Accommodation and eating facilities will be needed for longer
   courses and more remote training centres.
• Accessibility. Course locations need to be in areas that are easily accessible to the
   participants. If not easily accessible through public transport, alternative means will
   need to be taken to transfer participants to the course location.
• Proximity to field training needs. Ornithological training courses will need a location
   that is in close proximity to a wide range of suitable birding habitats so that field
   techniques may be demonstrated. Close proximity to local communities may also be
   an added bonus for illustrating sustainability, community interaction and other
   community-based training techniques. It might be important to ensure that the
   training location itself is within a good birding area so that participants can try out
   skills in their free time.
• Safety. The location must have adequate safety precautions in place. See section

4.3 Safety

Safety must be a top priority of the planning and implementation processes. As
mentioned in 2.2, a risk assessment should be carried out in the pre-planning stage to
guage the feasibility of the training process. Safety must be assessed from two angles –
as concerns and guidelines for the safe implementation of training courses; and as
possible training modules. Considerations could include the following:
• Presence of dangerous game. Since a substantial amount of IBA’s are in areas that
    contain potentially dangerous big game, rifle training may need to be included as a
    module in the training courses of such areas. This would be of particular relevance
    to guide training, in which case the safety of tourists is of paramount importance.
    Potentially dangerous game includes lion, elephant, rhino, buffalo, leopard,
    crocodiles and hippopotomi. The presence of dangerous game is a safety factor that
    should not be ignored during the training process. In areas containing dangerous
    game it may be necessary to conduct fieldwork training in “safe”areas like bird hides
    or under escort of an armed ranger. Participants and trainers need to be made
    aware of the dangers and briefed on field training safety eg. What to do if dangerous
    game is encountered. Under NO circumstances should the safety of participants and
    trainers be compromised.
• Other field training safety considerations. The terrain in which training is carried out
    is also an important factor. Areas to be avoided for training purposes include cliffs,
    mountains and precipitous areas (it is difficult to look at birds while watching every
    step!), tall grass where vision is impeded (dangerous game and snakes can be
    surprised easily) and slippery areas adjacent to water (risk of drowning and
    dangerous water wildlife like crocodiles and hippopotomi). Trainers and participants
    should be made aware of the potential dangers of field outings eg. Snakes,
    scorpions, dangerous terrain, getting lost etc.
• Training facilities and accomodation need to comply with acceptable safety
• Health of participants. Trainers should be made aware of any health impediments
    that participants may have eg. Asthma, allergies etc.
• First Aid. It is recommended that first aid is incorporated as a module for training
    courses, especially “train the trainers” courses and guiding courses. This is an
    important concern for trainers and guides who are ethically (and in many cases,
    legally) responsible for the safety and well-being of people in their care.
• Proximity to medical facilities. As far as possible training locations need to be within
    a short distance of hospitals, doctors or medical clinics.
• Crime and personal safety. Areas that have a history of high crime rates and that
    have a high risk of compromising the personal safety of participants and trainers
    should actively be avoided as training locations.
• Transport. If transport is to be used during stages of the training process, actions
    need to be taken to ensure that safety regulations are not transgressed.
• Safety manual. It is recommended that a safety manual is compiled for each training
    course and/or training location. It could prove useful to hand out such a manual to
    participants at the beginning of the training.

4.4 Selection

Once again, because of the specific-needs nature of ornithological training, selection of
participants will differ from course to course. The following selection options are
proposed and should be applied according to the specific needs of a particular type of
training. Some of these options can be used together to achieve a desired result (eg.
4.4.1 and 4.4.2 can be combined to create a training course that includes both selection
prior to training and selection during the training itself).

4.4.1 Continuous selection
Objectives  This option incorporates several stages of evaluation and selection of
            course participants during the training process. The number of starting
            participants is gradually reduced until only the best participants remain.
            Participants are made aware of the fact that selection is continuous and
            that they can be asked to leave the course at any stage. Final selection
            produces the graduates of the training course.
Rationale   Continuous selection can be used successfully in situations where there
            is a need for a small number of only the “best of the best” course
            participants. It is also useful in situations where it is difficult to evaluate
            the calibre of applicants prior to the training. For example, a Partner
            willing to employ IBA participants for surveying and monitoring may well
            receive a substantial number of applicants. However, the Partner may
            only have employment vacancies for a fraction of the number that
            applied. By using continuous selection and evaluation, the trainers will
            be able to select participants who have proved themselves worthy of
Comments    This type of training course can be effective if carried out in the correct
            manner. Applicants must be fully aware of the selection process. If a
            participant is withdrawn from the training course, he/she should be
            given an adequate explanation and must not be made to feel inferior to
            the remaining participants (see section 4.11). Due to the time-consuming
            nature of continuous selection, it is suggested that this option is limited
            to the longer and more intensive of training courses (4 weeks or longer).
            Where possible, participants who fail selections should be encouraged to
            try other options (eg. more basic courses, employment opportunities that
            might be better suited to the participant’s skills).

4.4.2 Prior selection
Objectives   In certain circumstances it might be necessary to select participants in
             accordance with some form of prior selection. Types of prior selection
             criteria might include one or more of the following: passing of entrance
             exams, required levels of education, interviews, past work experience. An
             applicant would be expected to meet the selection requirements of the
             training course before admittance. Prior selection might also be
             implemented on the basis of the following criteria:
             a) Regions that have comparatively more IBA sites
             b) Government & other organisations that are working closely with the
             c) Employees of protected areas
             d) Members of SSG’s
Rationale    The use of prior selection ensures that unsuitable candidates are ruled
             out before the training and this provides a form of “quality control” for
             the admission process. This helps to guard against unneccessary waste
             of time, money and resources. Prior selection can also ensure the
             training of individuals form organisations that are trully commited to the
             IBA process and who do not seek the training for other means eg Private
             company profit. This option is relevant for training that requires a
             specific calibre of participant.
Comments     The main danger of this option is that it has the capacity to predujice
             under-qualified applicants. However, if the training is of a certain
             advanced standard, previous qualifications may well need to be pre-

4.4.3 Invitation
Objectives   Selection can, in certain circumstances be based on invitation. In this
             situation, participants are invited to attend a training course and their
             qualifications are of no particular concern.
Rationale    Invitation to training courses is a useful method of attracting
             participants to training where awareness is the only objective. This
             option is best suited to training courses that do not have other end-
             product objectives like training graduates worthy of employment or
             training people to become bird guides. It can prove useful for Partners
             that seek to educate and empower members of local communities and
             create greater awareness about the importance of birds and biodiversity.
             Invitees may be schoolteachers, government employees, forestry workers
             or ordinary members of the communities.
Comments     This option is a useful one because it does not discriminate against
             participants due to their qualifications. This type of selection does
             however pose problems for a course that might require a certain level of
             education. It is therefore recommended that this option is used for the
             more basic short courses or workshops that focus on creating
             ornithological awareness.

4.5    Language Compatibility

The issue of language compatibility could be of concern for training options that involve
the use of non-resident trainers. In these cases trainers need to be selected who are
fluent in the official language(s) of the country. However, this may not be enough to
overcome the language barriers – many African countries have several official languages
and not all local people are able to speak the official language(s). It is therefore
recommended that a “train the trainers” option is encouraged as this option has the
ability to train trainers who are fluent in one/more of the languages of his/her area.
However, this does not alleviate the potential problem of language incompatibilities in
the “train the trainers” courses, of which the taught language would most likely and
logically be English; although it could be expected that the majority of participants at
this level would have an adequate command of English.

4.6    Availability of Instruments and Resources

The success of a training course can be disadvantaged by the unavailability and
inadequacy of resources and instruments. Careful consideration needs to be given to
the ability to access the necessary resources. Resources that might be considered as
vital for the smooth running of a training course are listed below:
• Binoculars for participants and trainers
• Stationary
• Bird guides and other books
• Field training tools eg. Mist nets, GPS, mapping and surveying tools, tape recorders
• Lecture/teaching aids eg. Videos, slides, transparencies

It is not only important that these tools are made available, but that they are suited to
the requirements of the training. Binoculars should be of an adequate quality and
should be tested before training begins. Inferior binoculars have the potential to create
a severely negative birding experience. It is advised that extra pairs are available in case
of breakage, bad weather etc. NB. Sharing of binoculars is NOT a desirable option.
Likewise, an adequate supply and adequate quality of bird guides is encouraged. Due to
the cost of these tools, participants should be encouraged beforehand to bring their own
binoculars and guides if possible. If participants do not possess such items, they should

be encouraged that these items are an essential part of ornithology and that it would be
to the individual’s advantage to possess such necessities. It is recommended that each
participant is supplied with a field notebook, pencils (for field notes), lecture writing
pads/books and pens. The cost of necessary training equipment must be carefully
assessed beforehand so that funds and/or secondhand equipment can be made
available at an early stage.

Human resources also need to be carefully considered. The material resources of a
training course are often easier to organise than the the human resources. However, the
latter are more important in terms of the smooth-running of a training course. Careful
consideration is needed to decide who will oversee the quality-control aspects of
training. It makes no difference which training option is chosen. Even trainers that have
completed TTT courses will need to be continually assessed. An even more difficult
consideration would involve deciding which people are the most suitable candidates for
implementing the initial training courses.

4.7 Ethics and Morals

It is vital that training courses are implemented according to certain ethical and moral
standards. The first purpose of BirdLife International, namely conservation, must
NEVER be compromised. These standards apply to the land, the people and the wildlife
of the area. Trainers and designers of training courses must demonstrate that they
“practice what they preach”!

4.7.1 Cultural ethics
Designers and implementors of training courses need to consider the customs of local
people (especially those of course participants) during the implementation of training
courses. This is of particular concern to those training courses that are utilising the
services of non-resident trainers. Trainers should be briefed on the cultural make-up of
the local communities and should conduct themselves in a manner that is consistent
with the customs of the area. It is important to remember at all times that trainers are
ambassadors of conservation and the BirdLife family and that a negative impact on the
area will reside longer in the minds of local people than the benefits of a successful
training course. In instances where training courses might impact on local communities
(eg. field trips through community land), the permission of these communities must be

4.7.2 Land ethics
Training courses must be carried out by following sound land ethics. This applies
particularly to field trips. However, logical conservation decisions also need to be made
about the entire training process eg. Recycling should be a non-negotiable for training
facilities (where possible) and littering must be prohibited.
On field trips, trainers and participants need to place 1st purpose needs (conservation)
above those of 2nd purpose needs (training). In other words, NEVER compromise the
environment for the sake of training. Sound field trip practices include the following:
a) Never drive vehicles off-road for any purpose.
b) When on foot, stay on paths as much as possible. Avoid walking around
    puddles/wet areas as this increases erosion.
c) Be as quiet as possible – noise is a form of pollution!
d) Leave the areas visited as they were when the group arrived. Remember to take litter

4.7.3 Wildlife ethics
During field trips, the training group must have as little impact on the surrounding
wildlife as possible. Special consideration needs to be given to ethics relating to

approaching nesting birds, capturing birds for surveying purposes (eg. mistnetting),
flushing birds for surveying purposes (eg. rope dragging), viewing birds at night and the
ethics behind the various methods of attracting birds (eg. “pishing”, setting baits and
use of tape recordings).

4.8    Legal Requirements

Training must be carried out in accordance with the legal requirements of the particular
country/area. Ignoring these requirements has the ability not only to jeapordise current
training, but also to place at risk all future relationships between
governments/legislators and Partners. Training activities that might require legal
permits include access to protected areas, driving vehicles, utilisation of training
facilities and mist-netting. The training process itself might require some form of
permit. In order to be efficient and avoid “red tape” dilemmas, organisers need to
investigate what legal requirements are necessary and find out well in advance how to
obtain the necessary permits.

4.9    Marketing and Preparations

4.9.1 Advertisement
Most training courses will require some form of marketing or advertisement to attract
applicants. The target market and number of applicants needed for training courses
should be carefully considered in order to attract a suitable quality and quantity
applicants. Once a target market and selection strategy has been decided upon, it is
necessary to adopt the most cost-effective marketing option possible. In most cases this
would simply entail contacting stakeholder institutions and informing them of the
training course details. However, in other circumstances it might be necessary to
spread the word by other means. An invitation strategy might require advertisement to
a fairly large number of community members in order for there to be sufficient numbers
to attend a workshop or training course. Certain accredited guiding courses might
require a course fee to cover costs and therefore the marketing for such a course might
require wider publicity and more expensive advertising. It is therefore important that
marketing needs are assessed at an early stage in order to assertain the feasibility of

What all courses will require, however, is the design of some type of application form.

4.9.2 Applicants Information
Once applicants have been accepted, they will need to be informed on a variety of issues
that will enable a smooth beginning to the course (see example in appendix 7).
Information that applicants might require well in advance include the following:
• A what to bring list eg. warm clothes, bird guides, sleeping blankets
• Transport details
• Addresses and contact numbers
• An awareness of the potential risks of the area being visited
• How to confirm participation
• A course programme

4.10    Training Methods

The use of appropriate training methods is probably the single-most important factor
that has the ability to shape the success of a training course. Inappropriate training
methods can create negative views of conservation among local communities and can
increase disparity between governments, Partners and local people. Furthermore,

debased training methods easily spread between different levels and it is important that
the methods of trainers at all levels are of a high standard. Remember that today’s
trainees are tomorrow’s trainers! “Train the trainers” courses may prove to be an
extremely useful way of disseminating information and graduates from such courses
should have gained the necessary skills to apply appropriate training methods to future
local level training. In those circumstances where “train the trainers” courses are not
yet feasible options, special attention must be given to the methods of the proposed

 It is important to bear in mind that ornithological trainers are sufficiently
knowledgeable in ornithology but many are not well versed in how to disseminate this
information.The wealth of knowledge needs to be utilised to its full extent and this is
only possible through appropriate training methods.

Training differs from lecturing and it is important that training is presented by people
with training backgrounds as opposed to people with a teaching or lecturing
backgrounds. This is not to say that lecturers, teachers and ornithologists are unable to
train, but rather that people with these backgrounds should acquire the skills
necessary for successful training. Training must be underpinned by some form of value
system that empowers and enables rather than dictates.

The following are issues that should be tackled in order to ensure that training methods
are of the highest standard – these considerations might also prove useful as criteria for
the evaluation of potential trainers in TTT courses:
• Participation. There can be no training without participation. Trainees must be
    encouraged to participate in lectures and field studies as much as possible. Training
    must always be a 2-way process. Besides trainees learning from trainers, trainers
    should not be above learning from both their trainees and other trainers; and
    trainees should also be encouraged to share their knowledge with other trainees.

                                    “TTT” TRAINER

                      TRAINER                         TRAINER

    TRAINEE       TRAINEE        TRAINEE        TRAINEE         TRAINEE      TRAINEE

           = Direction of information dissemination

•    Non-authoritarian Attitude. Trainers should be seen as people who help others
     develop and add to their existing skills and experience. A duplication of schoolroom

    tactics is not acceptable. It is of paramount importance that trainers do not see
    themselves as superior to their trainees and that an “I know it all” attitude is
    actively discouraged. Beware of potential trainers who forget to leave their egos at
    the door! The training environment must be friendly and supportive.
•   Knowledge of process issues. Trainers must be made aware that different audiences
    require different training methods. It is therefore vital that trainers become skilled
    in process issues and acquire the tools that will enable them to read their groups
    successfully. These tools include knowledge on how to mix methodologies, create
    new training methods according to specific audiences and the ability to control
    process in order to enable learners.
•   Discipline and respect. Training courses need to be implemented on a basis of
    mutual respect. All of the above mentioned considerations will help to achieve this
    respect. But trainers must be well-versed on how to treat adults in the classroom
    and how to discipline behaviour without undermining mutual respect.
•   Confidence and self-esteem building. In Africa, many people have not had the
    priveledge of a nurturing education system. A large number have grown up in a poor
    and often unkind school system. It is to be expected, therefore, that there will be
    those participants that will enter the training process with many negative learning
    experiences and feelings of inadequacy. Trainers must instill in their participants
    feelings of worthiness. For example, if participants fail dismally at their first
    assessment, trainers must assure them that they are not failures but rather that
    they should now build upon what they have learnt. The need for confidence and
    self-esteem building is especially relevant in the evaluation process described in
    4.11. Unless trainers consciously empower people, training will almost certainly be
    a failure.

4.11   Evaluation of Participants

The evaluation of course participants will vary according to the expected outputs of
training courses. For example, an ornithology workshop for community members would
probably require no participant evaluation if the expected output of the course is simply
to create community awareness. However, if the expected output of a training course is
to produce certified bird guides, some form of participant evaluation will be needed to
ensure that graduates are worthy of this certification.

The nature of evaluation is such that it has the potential to create a sense of failure
amongst participants. Strategies like continuous selection and the final decision-
making process (who gets certified and who does not) need to be handled carefully. This
is more easier said than done but these processes can be made easier by following some
simple guidelines:
• Where possible provide other options to those not selected. These options might
    include other employment or training opportunities in the conservation process. For
    example, a person may not have the personality that is needed to become a good
    guide. However, this same person may possess the ability to become a really good
    monitorer or surveyor.
• Encourage self-evaluation. Before participants are dismissed from a training course,
    they should be encouraged to evaluate themselves and explain how they see
    themselves fitting into the conservation process. The evaluators should then explain
    what types of people they are looking for and what skills are lacking. Once again,
    this should be done in a way that highlights the ways in which a participant has
    strong points that can be better utilised in another situation.
• Create a fair and impartial evaluation process. Evaluation needs to be suited to the
    skills of the participants. For example, it makes little sense presenting an English
    written examination to a participant who expresses him/herself best in Swahili!

    Furthermore, examinations and tests should be designed in such a way as to find
    out what participants know as opposed to what they don’t know. Realistically,
    written evaluations that suits the skills of each individual participant are not always
    possible and the following consideration may help to alleviate this:
•   Utilise a mix of different evaluation techniques. The evaluation of participants must
    never be based on a single type of evaluation. There are those participants who are
    unable to express knowledge through written examinations. Conversely, there are
    those who are unable to express themselves orally. A mix of evaluation techniques
    provides the evaluators with a much more holistic view of their participants.
    Options that are worth considering might include written examinations, individual
    presentations, oral interviews, practical problem solving exercises and individual
    personality assessments. Obviously the mix of methodologies would depend on the
    type of training course.


In order for ornithological training to become a viable process, there needs to be some
form of long-term planning. The outputs of training should be carefully monitored and
assessed and further options may need to be considered to facilitate the expansion of
the training process.

Partners must make a concerted effort to work towards developing a self-sustainable
training process. Wherever possible, Partners must:
• Encourage use of local trainers
• Strive to ensure that training becomes self-funded
• Encourage other structures to buy in to the training
• Ensure a flexible approach to training through careful monitoring
• Involve local communities
• Learn and share experiences through the Partner network

5.1 Government Accreditation

Due to the ever-increasing need for government/NGO partnerships in global biodiversity
conservation, steps should be taken to encourage more integrated conservation policies.
One of the ways in which this can be achieved is by NGO’s striving to become
government accredited institutions for certain forms of conservation training. Many
African governments have non-existent or under-developed ornithological and
conservation training structures. Due to their conservation focus, Partners should
position themselves to become the government accredited institutions for ornithological
training. In this way, governments and Partners can mutually benefit from each other
and work towards achieving more unified conservation policies. Existing conservation
and ornithological structures should be encouraged to buy in and support the training
process so that certification (where applicable) gains value.

5.2 Feedback

At the end of any training course, measures should be taken to evaluate the successes
and failures of the course. This should be done in 3 steps:

1) Course participants should be encouraged to evaluate the training course. This can
   be done in 2 ways (or a combination of both) – namely personal interviews and the
   more commonly used method of course evaluation forms (see appendix 8).

2) After the course evaluations of the participants have been analysed, trainers need to
   assess whether the expected outputs and goals (set out at the beginning of the
   course) have been met.
3) From the above analyses, a set of future recommendations and considerations
   should be compiled so that future training courses address the failures of previous

5.3 Post-training support and monitoring

Training should not end with the completion of a training course but rather, training
courses should be seen as a “means to an end”. An important issue in any type of
ornithological training, therefore, involves considering what structures should be put in
place to enable post-training support and monitoring. Once participants have
successfully completed training courses, they need to be able to see that opportunities
exist for further advancement and that they will not remain trapped at a particular

5.4 Confidentiality and copywrite

Partners and BirdLife International must come to some form of decision as to how they
would like to disseminate training information. Whilst sharing of information between
partners is always welcomed and encouraged, many training reports might contain
information which, although in most cases is not confidential, might certainly be of
value to other commercial organisations which are not (and may never be!) currently
within the BirdLife Partnership.


The need for ornithological training in Africa is immense. As the IBA process expands
and develops, this need is certainly going to increase. These guidelines have attempted
to outline and analyse the many different variables that are present in ornithological
training. It has also attempted to list various options that can be applied to different
situations in order to meet different training requirements.

The successful implementation of ornithological training relies on the following major

•   Careful planning that includes a feasibility study, prioritisation of training needs
    and a long-term vision for the training process.
•   An analysis of what training options are best suited to needs.
•   A decision on a long-term structure for ornithological training with careful attention
    to different levels of training.
•   An awareness of the considerations that might affect the smooth implementation of
    a particular training course.
•   A clear strategy for the post-training process.

The following recommendations are proposed:

•   Partners need to work towards developing an African training network that
    disseminates innformation from the regional level to the national level to the local
•   “Train the trainers” is a very useful option that will enable Partners to develop
    sustainable training at the local level. Partners need to discuss and brainstorm the
    feasibility of TTT courses at a regional workshop so that some form of regional

    training structure can be developed for the network. This will enable a collaborative
    approach and a sharing of experience and information.
•   Local communities and governments must be encouraged to participate in all stages
    of the training process.

The future of IBA’s and biodiversity conservation in Africa is inextricably linked to the
success of training.Without careful planning and implementation, training has the
potential to undermine the conservation process. It is vital, therefore, that ornithological
training is urgently addressed to ensure the protection and wise use of the world’s
sensitive and fragile ecosystems.


Date           February/March 1992
Actors         RSPB- Ann & Bob Scott (trainers)
               Rusizi National Park, Burundi
               Akagera National Park, Rwanda
Location       Rusizi National Park, Burundi; Akagera National Park, Rwanda
Description    Sebattical training of Ann & Bob Scott. 2 Training courses in each
               country lasting 5 days. Aims: to provide game guards & guides with
               tourist skills, ornithology skills & recording skills. 20 participants
               (Burundi), 21 participants (Rwanda). Participants were NP employees or
               tour guides. No indication of formal assessment/evaluation of
Contents       Bird ecology, food chains, birds as indicators, adaptation of birds to
               environment, use of binos, using bird guides, field ID, feeding habits and
               shape of bills, interaction with tourists, bird migration, bird habitats,
               difficulties of birdwatching, protected area management, bird population
               levels and age and death of birds.

Date           4-8 June 1994
Actors         RSPB- David Chandler, Ken Smith
               GWS- Fordjour Sabesi, Vivian Nuhu
Location       Ghana
Description    Conservation education skills training course. Aims: to provide
               participants with the skills necessary to carry out their job descriptions.
               8 participants, all with previous wildlife experience. No evidence of
               participant assessment.

Contents      Practical Conservation Education Skills (basic birdwatching, recruiting
              wildlife club leaders, work planning & prioritization, dealing with public,
              presenting talks, communicating messages).

Date          26 June – 4 August 1995
Actors        BirdLife International- Peter Robertson
              EWNHS- Mengitsu Wondafrash, Yilma Dellelegn
Description   IBA field surveyor training course. Aims: to provide Ethiopians with the
              skills needed to become IBA field surveyors and train young Ethiopians
              as a future resource for biodiversity conservation and ecotourism. 10
              best candidates selected through advertisement in National Press - all
              candidates had either Bsc or Msc degrees. Selection course so only 4
              best candidates selected for IBA field surveyor posts. Progressive
              assessment 45 marks, Final exam 25 marks, additional skills and
              qualities 30 marks. Final selection was based on having a team with a
              broad range of skills - therefore the 4 selected were not necessarily 4
              highest scorers.
Location      Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Kenya; field trip to Rift Valley
Contents      Birds and their place in nature, the IBA project, the role of surveyors as
              advocates, bird identification, fieldwork skills, survey techniques, botany
              and hydrology.

Date          12-17 February 1996
Actors        Resident instructors- Colin Jackson, Leon Bennun, Edward Waiyaki
              Visiting lecturers- Luc Lens, Simon Thomsett, Munir Virani
              BirdLife International
              National Museums of Kenya
Location      Elsamere Field Study Centre, Naivasha, Kenya
Description   Fundamentals of Ornithology certificate course. Aims: to provide general
              introduction to basic ornithology, teach field ornithology skills, train in
              detailed note-taking, enable participants to further the knowledge of
              Kenyan birds and to teach professionalism in educating/guiding tourists.
              Course open to anyone, however target was mainly existing bird guides.

              Course was advertised to tour companies & hotels. The first 12
              applicants were accepted and asked for 50% deposit for course fees. No
              formal assessment.
Contents      History of birds, taxonomy, habitats, conservation, distribution, bird
              physiology, bird identification, how to submit records, studying birds,
              bird ecology, ornithology in East Africa - who does what?, bird ringing
              demo, practical bird ID divided into forest, raptor, waterbird & savannah.

Date          21-25 April 1997
Actors        BirdLife International
              Peter Robertson, Voninavoko Raminoarisao (Authors of report and
Location      Fort Dauphin, Madagascar
Description   Training in applied ornithology. Aims: to provide training for potential
              ornithology researchers and government employees, to encourage and
              support students in field techniques and to build a team of potential
              surveyors consisting of local people. 24 participants. No formal
              assessment of participants.
              Contents         Principles of bird surveying, basic bird topography and
              identification, bird surveying techniques.

Date          8 November – 20 December 1997
Actors        BirdLife International
              Ron Demey (principal trainer)
Location      Zaria, Nigeria
Description   Bird Identification training. This course was a follow-up to the course
              carried out in Feb-March 1997 by Ron Demey. Aims: to provide further
              training in bird ID for the National IBA team and also to assess progress
              of team members. Training limited to IBA team members.
Contents      Field identification, field surveying techniques and species counts

              * 3 different reports are available – mapping & surveying report,
              technical report & Ron Demey’s course report
Date          31 January – 25 April 1999
Actors        BirdLife International
              Ron Demey (principal trainer)
Location      Nguti, Cameroon
Description   Selection course in field training in bird ID and bird survey techniques.
              Aims: to train Cameroonians in bird ID and select a team capable of
              conducting IBA surveys. 15 Participants – 5 finally selected. Evaluation
              consisted of selection exam on 19 Feb and field assessment.
Contents      13 day introduction to field ornithology (3 days theory, the IBA process,
              basic bird ID, use of binos & other field equipment, field characteristics
              of birds). The remainder of the course focused on field trips. Mist-netting,
              bird description, use of reference books, survey techniques, field ecology.

Date          August, 1999
Actors        WSCT
              Charles Mlingwa, Charles Msuya (Lecturers)
              University of Dar es Salaam
Location      Msimbazi Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Description   Ornithological workshop (2 days). Aims: to educate and train local people
              in basic ornithology theory and fieldwork. 22 participants from different
              backgrounds. No evaluation of participants.
Contents      Birds and man, taxonomy, importance of birds, harmful birds, habitats,
              bird ecology, migration, threats, basic bird ID.

Date          24 October – 28 November 2000
Actors        BirdLife International
              Ron Demey (Principal trainer)
Location      Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Description   NATURAMA field training in bird identification. Aims: to train young
              Burkinabe in bird ID in order to make up a team capable of training
              others in bird ID. 8 participants from NATURAMA, government agencies

              and NGO partners involved in IBA process. 5 completed course. No
              indication of assessment.
Contents      Course contents were dominated by field trips - no indication of lectures
              or more general teaching. Focus on bird ID in the field. 4 major field trips
              (a few days or more).

Date          10-25 November 2000
Actors        BirdLife International
              EWNHS- Leyikun Abune, Mengitsu Wondafrash, Yirmed Demeke,
              Anteneh Shimelis (trainers)
Location      Menagesha-Suba training centre, Ethiopia
Description   EWNHS Basic Ornithology training course. Aims: to transfer knowledge
              that exists at EWNHS to government institutions and NGO’s involved in
              natural resources conservation, to equip participants with skills in
              ornithology and to train young Ethiopians as future advocates of
              biodiversity conservation and ecotourism. 16 participants with prior
              experience in conservation (foresters, biologists & game rangers).
              Certificated course but no indication of formal evaluation/assessment of
Contents      EWNHS briefing, IBA process and BirdLife International, biodiversity in
              Ethiopia, biodiversity conservation in Ethiopia, bird biology and ecology,
              birds of Ethiopia, bird identification, census techniques, report writing.

                                      ANNEX 1

Results from questionnaire survey of African Partners (8 responses)

Percentage & Ratio of response

1.1     At the present time, ornithological training in the IBA’s of your country is

        1       A top priority that is currently being addressed (50%) 4/8

        2       An important priority that needs addressing in the near future (50%)

        3       A minor concern that is currently being addressed (0%)

        4       A minor concern that does not require attention (0%)

1.2     Do you know of ornithological training courses that are/have been carried
        out by one/more organisation(s) in your country?(if yes, please give details
        in the spaces provided)

        1       Yes (71,4%) 5/7

        2       No (28,6%) 2/7

2       Ornithological training courses are necessary for the IBA’s of your country

        1       To train guides for tourism purposes

        2       To enable IBA participants to conduct fieldwork and surveys (12.5%)

        3       Both of the above (87.5%) 7/8

3.1     Courses designed for local tourist guides need to be carried out at different
        levels i.e. Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced. This is necessary to target
        the different educational backgrounds of potential guides and also to cater
        for the differing needs of tourists i.e. casual visitor or keen ornithologist

        1       Agree (87.5%) 7/8

        2       Disagree. Figure 2 is a better option. (12.5%) 1/8

3.2     Individuals from the following group(s) would greatly benefit from tourist
        guide ornithological courses: (if 2 numbers are relevant, use both boxes)

        1       Government employees (12.5%) 1/8

        2       NGO employees (12.5%) 1/8

        3       Community members (25%) 2/8

      4     All of the above (75%) 6/8

3.3   Local level training for potential guides should (if more than 1 number is
      relevant, use additional boxes)

      1     Be limited to community members (12.5%) 1/8

      2     Be limited to government employees

      3     Be limited to NGO employees

      4     Be open to anyone willing to embrace the aims of the IBA project
            (87.5%) 7/8

3.4   Priority should be given to local community members for admittance to
      local guide training courses

      1     Agree (75%) 6/8

      2     Disagree (25%) 2/8

3.5   Training courses for guides should be carried out at

      1     The localities of the relevant IBA’s (75%) 6/8

      2     At several regional locations (25%) 2/8

      3     At one national location (0%) 0/8

4.1   Training courses for IBA participants should be carried out at

      1     The localities of relevant IBA’s (14,3%) 1/7

      2     At several regional locations (42,9%) 3/7

      3     At one national location (42,9%) 3/7

4.2   Which one of the following statements do you agree with most

      1     Training courses for IBA participants should be carried out at
            different levels to cater for beginners, intermediate & advanced
            applicants (57,1%) 4/7

      2     Only one course is necessary and Figure 2 is a better option (42,9%)

4.3   IBA participant training should be

      1     Limited to community members

      2     Limited to government employees (14,3%) 1/7

      3     Limited to NGO employees (14,3%) 1/7

      4      Open to anyone willing to assist in the GEF-IBA project (85,7%) 6/7

4.4   Priority should be given to local people for admittance to IBA participant

      1      Agree (71.4%) 5/7

      2      Disagree (28.6%) 2/7

5.1   “Train the trainers” workshops will need to be set up

      1      In each BirdLife member country (12.5%) 1/8

      2      At a central training camp in one/two African member countries
             (87.5%) 7/8

5.2   Trainers who “train the trainers” will need to have successfully completed
      the local guide training courses and the local IBA participant courses

      1      Agree (62.5%) 5/8

      2      Disagree (37.5%) 3/8

5.3   The proposed levels of training displayed in Figure 1 is a useful method of
      developing ornithological training for the GEF-IBA areas

      1      Agree (87.5%) 7/8

      2      Disagree (12.5%) 1/8

5.4   A useful option for levels of training

5.5   might be to design the guiding course as an introductory level, the IBA
      participants course as an intermediate level, and the “train the trainers”
      course as an advanced level (see Figure 2)

      1      Agree (42,9%) 3/7

      2      Disagree (57,1%) 4/7


    Training (Capacity building) Program for the African NGO –
Government Partnership For Sustainable Biodiversity Action Project

                            INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND

In August 1999 we produced and applied a questionnaire to all the 10 Partners in
Africa who are implementing the African NGO – Government Partnerships for
Sustainable Biodiversity Action Project. Nine out of ten countries have so far responded
and this proposed training program for the next 3 years is drawn from the responses to
that questionnaire. (It should however be noted that the questionnaire covers other
aspects of the Partner, which will be analyzed and used at a later stage). Also more
information is drawn from the recent training Workshop on Project Management Tools
held in Accra, Ghana in early November 1999. During one of the sessions the trainees
while examining the various roles of the Project Manager, were requested to identify and
prioritize the various aspects of their responsibility where they need further training.
The results there off are also used in this analysis, recommendation and conclusion.


The training needs were identified and prioritized as follows by the 9 Partners according
to the questionnaire: -

Training needs area                            No. Of countries     Level of   Comments
                                               identifying   this   signific
                                               area. / as a 1st     ance
Site Actions / Community Development /         4 (45%) /   3        B          This appears to
Integrated Rural Development / Working with                                    be the next item
Rural Communities / PRA techniques                                             for training at
                                                                               regional level
Financial management / Administration          1 (11%)   /   0      E          Has had some
                                                                               training in 1998 in
Fund raising / marketing / Mechanisms of       5 (55%)   /   0      A          Still high despite
Funding                                                                        some        training
                                                                               done earlier 1997
Field Survey techniques / Research             3 (34%)   /   0      C          -
Techniques / Multivariate statistics
Project management / Planning / Monitoring     5 (55%)   /   3      A          A lot has been
and Evaluations                                                                done during 1999
TRAINING NEEDS AREA                            NO. OF COUNTRIES     LEVEL      COMMENTS
                                               IDENTIFYING THIS     OF
                                               AREA. / AS A 1       SIGNIFI
                                               PRIORITY             CANCE
       DATABASE MANAGEMENT                     5 (55%) /   1        A          Is     the    next
                                                                               Regional training
                                                                               – 2000
Conservation Biology / Wildlife management /   3   (34%) /   0      C          Significant     at
Ecotourism                                                                     sub-regional level
French language                                1   (11%) /   0      E          -

Ornithology                                    2 (22%)     /      2     D           Significant     at
                                                                                    sub-regional level
Environmental laws and Policies                1 (11%)     /      0     E           -
Advocacy / Communication / Public Relations    3 (34%)     /      0     C           Growing concern
GIS                                            3 (34%)     /      0     C           Growing concern
Project Document preparation / Project         1 (11%)     /      0     E           -
proposal writing
Environmental Impact Assessment                1      /  0              E           -
Desk Top Publishing                            1 (11%) /     0          E           -
Membership recruitment and Service             1 (11%) /   0            E           -

( A is the highest level of significance and E is lowest level)

Prioritized training needs from the topics on the Role of a Project Manager (From the
Ghana Project Management Workshop): -

TOPIC                                  SCORE            COMMENTS
                                       (HIGHEST 10
                                       LOWEST 0)
1. Project Personnel Management        10               This is essential and could be covered in a
                                                        general NGO Organizational management
2. Project Financial Management /      10               Needs further clarification in regard to earlier
Budget                                                  training done in 1997 in South Africa
3. Project Reporting                   9                Essential as is part of the needs of the project.
                                                        Could be covered in a general Organizational
4.   Project Coordination              8                Same as above (1 & 3)
5.   Net working and Collaboration     3                Same as above
6.   Lobbying and Advocacy             3                Same as above
7.   Healthy and safety                2                Same as above
8.   Management of project materials   1                Same as above
9.   Project time Management           1                Same as above

From the above data a training could be conducted on “NGO Organizational
Management” which would target the above mentioned topics in particular numbers 1,
3 – 9, that is one training covering all these above topics.

There is need to establish exactly what is missing in Project Finance and Budget, so
that a training can then be organized. This is the knowledge that several training
sessions have already been held in this regard covering financial management and
funds raising.


From the Needs Questionnaire which was filled in by 9 of the ten participating countries
in the GEF – UNDP funded IBA Project, the following training needs were identified and
hereby presented in ascending order of significance with remarks and additional
information: -

a) Funds Raising / Mechanisms of raising Funds / Marketing: This has been again
   identified as an important training need. While this is true, we are also aware that
   in 1997 in South Africa a training workshop was conducted and almost all the GEF

     project countries participated in this training. What appears to be missing is the
     exposure to actual situations. The officers have the principles, but they need
     exposure from those persons who have actually done the funds raising and how
     they have managed. For example an exposure training workshop can be organized o
     the following lines: We request the participants to come for the workshop with drafts
     of proposals on how they intend to conduct funds raising in their countries and at
     different levels. Then we could get someone who has been involved in the actual
     funds raising like Mr. Martin Davies from RSPB or Mr. Tim Appleton from British
     Bird Watching Fair and / or other persons whom we could identify in Africa having
     been involved in this area to give examples of how they started what problems they
     encountered and how they sorted them out and how they are planning for the next
     activity. This exposure would be very useful for the participants who should be
     encouraged to come with specific questions on the way they have been operating
     and discuss how to go about solving them.

b) Project Management / Planning / Monitoring and Evaluation

This area has been covered relatively well in this year - 1999 where by in April in
Kampala the Monitoring and Evaluation was effectively covered and then in October in
Accra project management tools and planning were effectively covered.
There is however need to cover other aspects of project management not covered during
the above two training workshops as clearly indicated in the Accra Training Workshop
for example Organization and Implementation of projects.

c) NGO Organizational Management

This is a training, which is certainly very essential and would cover basically all the
topics not yet covered by the Project Management courses so far undertaken. It may
also be used to raise, in a learning situation, other management issues, which may not
be able to be raised under different circumstances. This is set for 2000 under the
Regional Program.

d) Database Management

This is set for January 2000 in Tunisia and hopefully will be effectively covered then.

e) Site Action / Community Development Work / PRA techniques

This is the direct result of the work along IBA sites and the formation of Site Support
Groups (SSGs). Also following an exchange visit done in East Africa it was strongly
recommended that training is needed in Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques and
methods of working with local communities. This is essential for any effective further
work on sites

f)   Basic Ecology / Conservation Biology

This has also been discussed in the recent past and there is need to train some of the
managers and / or heads of these Partner organizations whose basic training is not
biology so that they may appreciate the situations in which they operate.

g) Field Survey techniques / research techniques

Important in getting the basic data and in training the local site support groups
especially as they start monitoring activities. It would be good and comprehensive if it
contained aspects of data analysis – statistics.

h) Advocacy / communication / public relations

This area was further identified during the recently concluded training in project
management tools workshop in Accra, Ghana.
It is an important need especially for implementation of the GEF project in particular
working together with the Government and other national and international

i)   Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

Useful but it is not fully needed at the moment hence only identified by 3 countries.

j)   Ornithology

This was identified by only 2 countries this may be due to the current stage at which
the project is when it will reach the need for monitoring the IBA sites this need may
take a more central stage.

k) French / English

This was identified by only one country but from the various training in the past year
(1999) it has been identified that most participants from the Francophone countries
have definite problems in following the trainers and so would the Anglophone countries
should the reverse occur. It is suggested that this be conducted at sub-regional level.

BirdLife International Mission Statement

The BirdLife International Partnership strives to conserve birds, their habitats
and global biodiversity through working with people towards sustainability in the
use of
natural resources.


•   To prevent the extinction of any bird species
•   To maintain and where possible improve the conservation status of all bird
•   To conserve sites and habitats important for birds
•   Through birds, to help conserve biodiversity and maintain the quality of life
    on earth.

Key objectives of the GEF-IBA project

•   Protect a network of key sites for biodiversity conservation, based on IBA’s
•   Strengthen NGO-Government partnerships for effective biodiversity conservation
•   Build strong, financially sustainable local constituencies for conservation
•   Develop a cadre of national conservationists across Africa


              CONTENTS                                                      i

              PROGRAMME PURPOSE                                             1

              WELCOME                                                       2

                SECTION 1 – ORIENTATION
  MODULE 1                        ORIENTATION
                  1.1    Introductions and General Administration           1
                  1.2    Expectations                                       5
                  1.3    People and Cultural Differences,                   9
                  1.4    South Africa and Tourism Today                    11
                  1.5    What is conservation ?                            14
                  1.6    BirdLife South Africa and birding                 20

                  1.7    Equipment and observations                        23


                  2.1    Research Skills
                  2.2    Geography and history overview
                  2.3    South Africa Today
                  2.4    Tourism in South Africa
                  2.5    Researching Wakkerstroom                          22

                  2.6    Researching own area

                  3.1    Types of habitats
                  3.2    Habitat concerns
                  4.1    Ecosystems

                          5.1   Structure of the Animal kingdom
                          5.2   Birds
                          5.3   Animal examples in SA
                          6.1      Structure of the plant kingdom
                          6.2      Plant examples in SA                                  64
                          6.3      Plants and Birds
                          7.1      Sustainable Utilisation and conservation
                          7.2      General Conservation Issues – Broad

                                   Context                                               74

                          7.3      Conservation structures

                          8.1      Water cycle                                           80

                          8.2      South African Water                                   83
                          8.3      Soil
                          8.4      Pollution
                          8.5      Combating Pollution

                          9.1      Identification framework
                          9.2      Life cycle of a bird
                          9.3      Bird communication
                          9.4      Bird Identification according to Family Groups
                          9.5      Migration
                          9.6      Background Information



                                10.1   The BLSA guide                                              1
                                10.2   Client and client needs                                     5
                                10.3   Presentation skills                                        10
                                10.4   Interpersonal skills and communication                     15

                                10.5   Client contact –special situations                         23
                                10.6   Briefing the client
                                10.7   Guiding the client

                                11.1   Products and services
                                11.2   Selling


                                12.1   Business concepts
                                12.2   Banks and financial services
                                12.3   Business Responsibilities and Liabilities
                                12.4   Planning and controlling                                   17

                                12.5   Setting up and running a business

                                13.1   Community Interaction


N.B. First aid training, at Level 1, is essential for completion of this course but is not
included in this manual as it will be provided as a separate course.

Example of 1 of BLSA’s modules mentioned above – TOURISM MODULE

                                         TOPIC 2/1

                                    RESEARCH SKILLS


  To provide skills to seek out information generally and for specific purposes,
  analyse, screen and format it into usable and user friendly material for self or

                  SUGGESTED TIME ALLOCATION:                 2 HOURS

                                  TRAINING OBJECTIVES

At the end of this topic the delegate will be able to:

1. Explain what is meant by the term research
2. List and explain at least 3 methods of conducting research
3. Demonstrate the ability to make notes from personal knowledge and validate them
   using other methods
4. Demonstrate the ability to do a book search for information on a specific topic and
   take notes
5. Demonstrate the ability to rearrange the information into a usable format
   appropriate to its use

                                 WORKSHEET 2/1/1

Name:                                                              Date:

Choose a rare or endemic bird from your own area, or use the example provided by the
tutor, and research its habitat, feeding habits, distribution, weight and size, nesting
information, type and number of young that it raises, seasonal movements and the best
way to locate it in the field.

Also find out if there are other birds that can be confused with it, why it is rare or
whether it is an endemic that is threatened in any way. If so how? Use several sources.

Feeding Habits:
Weight and size:
Nesting information:
Type and number of young that it raises:
Seasonal movements:
The best way to locate it in the field:
Other birds that can be confused with it:
Why it is rare or whether it is an endemic that is threatened in any way:
If so how?

                                   Evaluation 2/1/1

1. Explain what is meant by the term research

2. Describe at least 3 methods of conducting research

3. Why is it necessary to validate research?


                        GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OVERVIEW


To provide a broad background to the geography of South Africa and to create
awareness to identify historical events

                SUGGESTED TIME ALLOCATION:                 30 MINUTES

                                  TRAINING OBJECTIVES

At the end of this topic the delegate will be able to:

1. Identify and locate, with a map:
   •       the 9 South African provinces and their location within the SA borders
   •       at least one large town or city per province
   •       at least 3 mountain ranges in SA
   •       4 major man made dams
   •       6 major South African rivers
   •       at least 4 major S. A. nature reserves
   •       2 desserts or near desert areas
   •       6 areas where you might find an example of one of South Africa’s different
2. Explain at least 6 major SA historical events of significance which would be of
   interest to tourists and their general location
3. Research their own area to identify similar places of geographical or historical

                                   Evaluation 2/2/1

Name:                                                      Date:

Maps of South Africa will be made available to you to complete this. Please make
sure that you put your name on them and attach them to your evaluation sheets.

1. Using the maps of South Africa, locate, name and show:
   •      the 9 South African provinces and their location within the SA borders
   •      at least one large town or city per province
   •      at least 3 mountain ranges in SA
   •      4 major man made dams
   •      6 major South African rivers
   •      at least 4 major S. A. nature reserves
   •      2 desserts or near desert areas
   •      6 areas where you might find an example of one of South Africa’s different
      cultures - this means that each area will show one type of culture and you must
      identify 6 different areas and cultures

2. List at least6 major SA historical events of significance and their location
Event               Why important                          Province         Nearest town or

3. List at least 6 similar places of geographical, cultural or historical interest that exist
   in your own area which you will research for your assignment


Annex 8 Summary of participant questionnaires.

Previous birding experience of participants.
        • experience ranged from 0—15 years.
        • 3/11 had led birding tours, 4/Il had not led any tours

Pm-course preparation
A. 1-how useful....info?                                 Excellent        8
                                                         Good             3

Other information before the course started?
  Information on books available for sale.

Course structure
C. Balance....formal teaching and independent work?      Too formal       3
                                                         About right      8

D. Student participation during seminars and exercises?      Too little
                                                      About right         10

E. Balance between teaching indoors and in the field? Too much indoors    2
                                                      About right         8

F. Overall lectures and discussions?                     Excellent        9
                                                         Good             2

G. Order of lectures and discussions?                    Excellent        10
                                                         Good              1

H. Content of lectures and discussions?                  Too difficult    1
                                                         Too basic        2
                                                         About right      8

I. How useful an introduction to ornithology?            Excellent        11

J. How much material did lectures cover?                 Just right       11

K. Information on the handouts?                          Too detailed      2
                                                         Just right        9

L. Interesting or useful lectures?     Evolution & classification
                                     Habitats of Kenya
                             Princiiples of bird ID: bird topography
                             Principles of bird ID: finding the right family
                             Principles of bird ID: taking field notes
                             How to submit records
                             Movements and migration                               1
                             Raptor id and ecology                                 2
                             Avian ecology: feeding strategies                     2
                             Biogeography and distribution of birds                1
                             Morning birdwalks                                     1
M. Particularly interesting or useful discussion?
Conservation and env. Education                                                   2

N. Lecture(s) happily missed?               None

AB.    Two things most disliked?                                       None

(a) March/April                          Yes   —   8   No   -0
(b) May/June                             Yes   —   9   No   —0
(c) July/August                          Yes   —   3   No   —5
(d) September/October                    Yes   —   5   No   —4

AD.     Any other comments?
“Behavioural studies & examples would be interesting” “For Students / guides the
course was perfect”
More work on distinguishing families to assist in id. illustrated with slides
“a most interesting course
“excellent and very educational”
“Course was not well advertised; participants should be given enough time to get
prepared ie about 6 months before the course starts”
“More time required. especially on outdoor activities: if possible to see some endemic
bird species”
“more time should be allocated to raptors — they are very difficult to Id yet most
Stress should be made on the importance of bird conservation and include how it is
that birds can be of benefit to humans.

“Generally the site was perfect, excellent facilities and the timing good when there are
migrant birds around that are difficult to identify”

0.    Discussion(s) happily missed?          Being professional                                 1

P. Three additional topics?                  Scientific names
                                              Local movements of birds
                                              Interesting tid bits” re. bird behaviour
                                              Social biology
                                              More on raptor id and behaviour
                                              Economic Importance of birds
                                              Threats to bird populations
                                              basic plant identification

Excursions to Hell’s Gate National Park, Kieni Forest and L. Alaivasha
Q. How worthwhile?                                   Excellent                       7
                                                     Good                            4

R. Follow up on the lectures?                                Just right             11

S. Changes to the programme?           More time
                                       Play back bird recordings made during Kieni
Teaching staff
T. Overall subject balance of the course staff?      Excellent                      10
                                                     Good                            1

U. Contribution of the visiting teachers?            Excellent                       10
                                                     Good                             1

V. Number of visiting teachers?                      Too few
                                                     About right                     9

W. Alternative subject areas?          Common vegetation / habitat types

X. Rate the course overall?                          Excellent                      10

Y.      Overall level of difficulty?                 Too easy                        1
                                                     About right                    10

Z. Overall pace of the course?                       Too fast                        4
                                                     About right                     7
AA.     Two things most enjoyed? Ringing                                             3
                                 Avian Ecology                                       1
                                 Kieni Forest                                        2
                                 Use of overheads & slides                           1

    Relationship between staff & participants      1
    Mode & manner of lectures                      1
    “Lectures”                                     1
    Discussion on conservation                     1
    Exchange of ideas                              3
    Info, on how one can contribute to birds in   Kenya
    Birdwalks                                      1


Description: Iba Project Report Marketing Globally document sample