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MICROBIOLOGY

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					 MICROBIOLOGY
BACTERIA AND VIRUSES
   OTHER TERMS
BACTERIOLOGY
VIROLOGY
PATHOLOGY
PATHOGENS
“GERMS”
VIRULENT
AGENTS OF DISEASE
          PROKARYOTES =
            BACTERIA
• Oldest natural history
• Found in the widest
  range of environs
• Simplest cells
• No membrane-bound
  organelles
• DNA loop + Plasmids
• Termed: “microflora”
            CLASSIFICATION
              MONERANS
    ARCHAEA              BACTERIA OR
                         EUBACTERIA

                        Simplest DNA setup and
DNA is closer to
                        simplest cells
eukaryotes than other
bacteria
DOMAINS
  Why use RNA as an “evolutionary chronometer?”

1.It is universally distributed across group chosen –
   all organisms have rRNA
2. It is functionaly similar between organisms –
   rRNAs - all participate in protein synthesis
3. Its sequence changes slowly - good for looking
   across long periods of time
4. The rRNA sequences can be aligned, or matched
   up, between 2 organisms
5. Not as “cumbersome” to check fewer base pairs
6. Evolved first???
             MISCELLANEOUS

• Most common pervasive thing
• Environmental conditions good will divide
  every 20 minutes
• Recycles
• Converts nonuseable nitrogen to usable
  nitrogen thus allowing higher organisms to
  evolve
        ANTIBACTERIAL PRODUCTS
• A problem in using
  antibacterial products
  is that you kill certain
  bacteria, however,
  you leave the more
  resist bacteria.

• Hygiene theory
    AEROBIC VS ANAEROBIC BACTERIA

• Aerobic- conduct cellular respiration thus
  requiring oxygen
• Anaerobic – don’t require oxygen
  – obligates die in the presence of oxygen
  – facultative will use oxygen if it is present
  – can survive in the presence of oxygen, but do
    not use oxygen
  – oldest living thing?
SHAPES
WHICH TYPE?
           WHICH TYPE?
• Staphylococcus
WHICH TYPE?
BENEFICIAL BACTERIA
  CYANOBACTERIA
1 ST   IN FOOD CHAIN GREAT OCEAN
                DEPTHS
NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA
    IN FOODS
ACIDOLPHILUS MILK
PROBLEMS
ANTIBIOTICS
         MISCELLANEOUS
• 75% of your feces by weight
• 10 bacteria to 1 human body cell
• Most numerous near body orofices or
  openings
       PATHOGENS
CAUSE INFECTIOUS DISEASES
             • ANTHRAX
                – cutaneous
                – inhalation
                – Ingested

                Produces toxins
           BUBONIC PLAGUE
• Bubonic is a bacterial
  infection (bacillus-
  Yersinia pestis )
  having many strains
  transmitted by the bite
  of fleas or an infected
  rat and other
  agents??
           BOTULISM - ANAEROBIC
Clortridium botulinum
  bacteria are in the soil,
  marine sediments,
  surface of produce,
  meats, and in seafood.

Watch out for dented
 canned goods in
 nonacidic foods
             SALMONELLA
• Facultative bacteria
• Food poisoning
  –eggs
  –poultry
  –reptiles
  –nuts
  –produce
PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS –
  PRODUCES BLEEDING GUM
STREP

  Streptococcal bacteria
  usually harmless and
  commonly found on skin
  and in throat.

  It rapidly divide.
                  PNEUMONIA
Bacterial pneumonia is
   caused
by bacillus and cocci types
   of
bacteria which cause
   excessive
fluid build up in the lungs-
“you’re slowly drowning”
because oxygen cannot
   reach
alveoli
          TUBERCULOSIS- TB
• Infects half the
  world’s population
• Primarily infects lungs
• New virilant strains.
                   CHOLERA
Vibrio cholerae, a vibrio, is a
common organism found on the
 surface of waters worldwide
 killing up to 10% of the
population in contaminated
Areas and is caused by the
ingestion of affected foods
or water resulting in severe
diarrhea and vomiting thus
severe dehydration.

Watch out for raw shell fish.
Don’t drink the water in other
  countries or well water.
       DIARHEAL DISEASES
• Diarrhea “cure”- WHO recipe for a tonic to
  stop diarrhea: glucose, salt, potassium
  chloride, and tri-sodium citrate
          STD’s
• Syphilis    Cured with
• Gonorrhea   antibiotics
• Chlamydia
              LYME DISEASE
• Borrelia spirochetes
  causing a bacteria
  infection after a tick
  bite.
• Look for bulls-eye
  rash pattern
              DIPHTHERIA
• Corynebacterium
  diptheriae produces
  a toxin that is carried
  in the bloodstream
  residing in mouth,
  throat, & airways.
  Usually contracted by
  children.
• DPT shots
        WHOPPING COUGH
• Bordetella pertussis
• Invades respiratory tract
• Begins as a hacking
  cough followed by a high
  pitched crowing cough to
  spasms of cough or
  “whooping.”
• DPT shot
• A highly contagious
  childhood disease.
                    TETANUS
• Caused by a neurotoxin
produced by the hardy
spores of the bacterium
Clostridium tetani which
produces painful muscle
spasms.. Get a shot at
least once every 5 years.
• DPT shot
• Spores are found in soil,
dust, and animal waste
       LEPROSY OR HANSEN’S DISEASE
Mycobacterium leprae
treated easily with
antibiotics. Not contagious.

Eradicated in most countries

Social stigma due to severe
disfigurement of hands, feet
and face.

Armadillos carry this
  bacterium.
ACNE
  • Most common skin
    disease treated by
    physicians
  • 85% of adolescents
  • Blackheads = sebum,
    sloughed cells, &
    oxidation of melanin
  • Whiteheads same as
    blackheads but not
    oxidized-small openings
  • Propionibacterium
    bacteria cause infections
               TOOTH DECAY
• The bacteria which are capable
  of causing cavities (streptococci
  and lactobacilli) consume
  sugars as food (glucose,
  sucrose, fructose, lactose, or
  cooked starches).
• The waste products these
  bacteria create from having
  consumed these sugars are
  acids which cause a tooth's
  demineralization.
         FLESH-EATING BACTERIA
Usually results after a
  deep wound or deep
  incision – surgery, tattoo,
  drug users using needles,
   cut injury Strep and
   Staph infections and the
   immune system is
   compromised.
E-COLI
   • Required to make
     vitamins K and
     vitamin B complex.
   • Virulent forms can
     cause illness or death
       Lots of resources such as….
Provides information on
  microorganisms
  associated with food-
  borne illness, colds, flu,
  day care, hospitals,
  travel, pets, home, work
  and those that my be
  used as an agent of
  biological warfare


  By John C. Brown, KU
  Microbiology Professor
     DEMONSTRATION
• What does this
  demo show about
  hand washing?
 To Minimize the Spread of Germs
• Wash hands often in warm water and soap
  for 30 seconds
• Cough or sneeze into elbow
• Keep surface areas dry and clean.
         Viruses vs Bacteria
• Because they are so small, viruses are
  typically measured in nanometers ranging
  in size from 20- 400 nm
              VIRUSES
• Non-living things
• Mostly either DNA or RNA units with some
  proteins
             PARASITES
 The nucleic acid may be single- or double-
  stranded. The simplest viruses contain
  only enough RNA or DNA to encode four
  proteins while some can encode 100 to
  200 proteins.
• Take over the cell’s “machinery”
ANATOMY
      The entire
      infectious virus
      particle, called a
      viriod consists of
      the nucleic acid
      and an outer
      shell of protein.
SHAPES OF VIRUSES
• Shapes of viruses are
  determined by the
  arrangement of
  proteins in their
  capsids.
BACTERIOPHAGE
      • The specificity of
        viruses describes how
        many kinds of
        organisms the viruses
        infect.
      • One example is the
        bacterial viruses
        which only infect
        bacteria. These are
        called bacteriophages
      EITHER BENIGN OR
          VIRULENT


Few viruses are
“beneficial”.
Lytic cycle rapidly kills host
Lysogenic cycle does not immediately kill a host
                   Smallpox
• First vaccine in 1900’s
  milk maids and Jenner
• First disease
   “eradicated”
• Lesions appear-
   contagious stage
• Issue of destroying
   residual smallpox
   strains
• Caused population
   crash
  of the Native Americans
COMMON COLD
     • 200 different viruses
     • 30-50 % rhinoviruses
     • Clear up in less than two
       weeks without complications
     • Leading cause visit to doctor
     • Average person has more
       than 50 colds during a
       lifetime
     • Upper respiratory system
       and allows bacterial
       infections to more likely take
       hold
     • Vitamin C, zinc, …..sleep
POLIO
  • Poliomyelitis which is
     highly contagious affecting the
     CNS
  • Jona Salk- inactivated virus
   given to children in the 1950’s
  • Albert Sabin- live vaccine
  • Global Polio Eradication
      Initiative
  • Post Polio Syndrome strikes
      25% of the polio survivors 10-40
      years later
  • Eradicated in Western
      Hemisphere
  • First life-saving technology
      used
                    MEASLES
• High fever
• Extremely runny nose
• Red, runny eyes
• Cough
• Spots
• Highly contagious- 85%
• Itchy rash starting at head
• Do NOT give children
  aspirin
• Residual effects
GERMAN MEASLES
       • Expectant woman who
         has contracted German
         measles early in the
         pregnancy may produce
         a child who has a higher
         incidence of birth defects
         such as deafness,
         congenital heart defects,
         or mental retardation
MUMPS
  • Can lead to deafness,
    meningitis (infection
    of the brain and spinal
    cord coverings),
    swelling of testicles or
    ovaries, death
  • Cause swollen
    salivary glands,
    headache, and fever
           AIDS Virus- HIV-2
• a class of enveloped
  viruses that have their
  genetic material in the
  form of RNA and use
  the reverse
  transcriptase enzyme
  to translate their RNA
  into DNA in the host
  cell.
               Influenza- “flu”
• Wild ducks- domesticated
  ducks to chickens to pigs
  (mixer) to humans
• Types are based on
  protein composition
• Type A most serious,
  intraspecies causing
  pandemics, small protein
  encoded
• Type B, mostly found in
  humans
• Type C intraspecies
  causing mild respiratory
  infections not epidemics
       Cold                              Influenza
•   Fever uncommon                  • Fever comes on suddenly and
•   Headache uncommon                 last days and is fairly high
•   Mild fatigue and weakness       • Headache prominent
•   Mild general aches and pains    • Extreme weakness and can last
•   Sneezing common                   for weeks
•   Stuffy nose common              • Severe aches and pains common
•   Mild-to-moderate cough          • Sneezing sometimes occurs
•   Sore throat common              • Stuffy nose sometimes occurs
•   Illness can be prevented with   • Cough common and can
    daily hand washing                become severe
                                    • Sore throat sometimes occurs
                                    • Illness can be prevented with
                                      vaccination
                                    • Can have extreme
                                      consequences
               West Nile Virus
• Orthomyxocirus is
  responsible for acute
  upper West Nile Virus
• Transmitted by
  mosquitoes and can
  cause fatal inflammation
  of the spinal cord and
  brain (encephalitis) in
  certain birds, horses, and
  humans
• Nerve damage can be
  permanent or can kill
Avian Flu
     • Usually passed
       through chickens and
       other fowl, however a
       mutant virus can be
       transmitted from
       person to person with
       a mortality rate of
       about 72%.
     • Very high threat
Rabies
   • Transmitted to
     humans by a bite by
     wild mammals
   • Virus lives in the
     saliva of infected
     animals
   • If bitten, the animal is
     quarantined for 15
     days and observed or
     you are given a series
     of shots
               Hanta Virus
• Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
• Only recently recognized
• Transmitted by exposure of wild rodent
  droppings
• Fever and muscle aches appear 1-5 weeks then
  when shortness of breath and coughing need to
  be
• Hospitalized and ventilation within 24 hours
• Viral hemorrhagic fever agent category -
  bioterrorism
Yellow Fever
      •  Tropical disease
      •  Vaccine available
      •  Caused large epidemics
      •  Flavivirus
      •  Two disease phases.
         First like the flu and the
         second
        toxic phase with 50%
         dying
      • Mosquito vector affecting
         humans and other
         primates
                       Ebola Virus
• 50-90% exposed die
• First symptoms like the flu then
  a day or two later blood trickles
  from the eyes, ears, and nose.
  Vomiting of black and blood
  liquid follows as internal blood
  hemorrhages in a few days
  before death.
• Quick death not good for agent
  One of the deadliest viruses
  known to man.
• Ebola causes internal and
  external bleeding. It is spread
  through bodily fluids and kills
  up to 80 percent of those
  infected. There is no treatment
  and no cure for the disease.
               Genital Warts
• Very common sexually-
  transmitted disease
• Condylomata acuminata
  or papovavirus warts
• HPV or Human Papilloma
  virus
• Precancerous, can block
  opening to the urethra,
  vagina, or anus causing
  great discomfort.
Hepatitis
     • Disease of the liver
     • Highly contagious
        transmitted through
        uncooked food, water
        person to person, and
        blood
     • Types A, B, C, D, E, F, G
     • Types B and C are more
       virulent attacking the liver
        causing chronic liver
        problems.
            Herpes Simplex 1
Herpes Simplex Virus 1-
 cold sores-painful
 blisters
 around mouth or face

Caused by mental
 stress, sunlight,diet,
 and extreme cold.
         Herpies Simplex 2
• Herpes Simplex Virus 2- genital herpes-
  blisters occur on or around the penis,
  vagina, anus, or thighs
• Can pass onto child during birth and
  cause difficult birth
• Once take medicine will always have to
  take medication
• Can cause sterility
Chicken Pox
      • Chicken pox virus is a
        childhood disease- under
        the age of 12 causing
        irritating rash
      • Highly contagious
      • Have a vaccine now
      • Shingles is a latent
        chicken pox virus
        migrating deep within the
        nerve ganglion to the skin
        associated with that
        nerve causing blistering
        and inflammation of the
        skin.
Roseola Infantum virus
           • Human herpes virus 6
             and 7
           • Rash on trunk and neck
           • Harmless except fever
           • Typically occurs in
             children under 2 and is
             accompanied by a high
             fever.
             Mononucleosis “Mono”
            Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
•   One of the most common
    human viruses and most people
    become infected with EBV
    sometime during their lives. In
    US, as many as 95% of adults
    between 35 and 40 years. First
    shows up in adolescence or
    young adulthood causing
    infectious mononucleosis 35%
    to 50% of the time.
•   Transmission requires intimate
    contact of an infected person
•   Symptoms: fever, swollen
    lymph glands, fatigue, elevated
    WBC’s
•   Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    (CFS)
               Dengue Fever
• Dengue fever or dengue
  hemorrhagic fever (DHF)
• Four variations
• Transmitted by a day-
  biting mosquito/Aedes
  aegypti
• First time not fatal but
  second time can cause
  fatal hemorrhagic
  disease.
   Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)
• First virus studied

• Still used for genetic
  engineering research

• Causes wilting of
  various plant leaves
  such as on tobacco
  and tomato plants.
             VACCINATION
• Deliberately infecting a person with a weakened
  virus causing an immune response.

• Question about giving vaccinations

• B cells make an antibody with the “memory” B
  cells ready with a rapid response the second
  time a body is infected
  which can live for decades
Additional virus-like particles


    • Viroids
    • Virusoids
    • Prions

				
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