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					         Chimney Rock
- 90 meters high
- Carved names in
  rock
- Rises near
  Bayard,Nebraska
- Nearly half a
  million emigrants
  saw Chimney Rock
      Independence Rock
• Many emigrants arrived here on
  the fourth of July.
• Named in 1830 by William
  Sublette
• 700 feet wide, 1900 feet long,
  maximum of 128 feet above the
  Sweetwater Valley floor
          Snake River
• Hundreds of feet deep at some points
  of the river
• Can only be crossed by using three
  islands as stepping stones
• Swallows up many things in its path
• Joins at many waterfalls
           Devil’s Gate
• 5 miles southwest of Independence
  Rock
• Has a 400 feet deep chasm.
• Located on private land
• Is 370 feet deep and 1500 feet long
• Located in Natrona County, Wyoming
Oregon Trail
 Famous People
John C. Fremont
     • John C. Fremont lived
       the years 1813
       through1890.
     • Fremont0 was happily
       married to Jesse Benton.
     • His job was to make the
       West seem attractive and
       worth settling.
     • The U.S. Navy appointed
       Fremont civil governor of
       California.
U.S. Presidents of 1840-1850
• William Henry Harrison won the
  presidential election of 1840
  because of his catchy slogan
  “Tippecanoe & Tyler too”.
• In 1841 Harrison caught a cold
  which turned into a pneumonia
  and died.
• He was the first president to die
  in office.
• When James Polk was in office
  he told congress there was gold
  in California.
              Kit Carson
• On Christmas Eve of
  1806 Kit Carson was
  born.
• His whole name is
  Christopher Houston
  Carson.
• In 1843 he married
  Maria Josefa
  Jaramillo.
• Kit was blessed with
  eight children.
• Carson died on May
  23,1868.
     Dr. Marcus Whitman
• Marcus was born in 1802.
• He was born in Rushville,
  New York.
• He practiced his medical
  training for four years.
• Dr.Whitman helped guide
  the first wagon train of
  emigrants to the Columbia
  River.
  Oregon Trail

Daily Life on the Trail
    Morning Routine
• First, they start the fire.
• Secondly, the women make
  breakfast.
• Then they pack up all
  supplies.
        » Lastly, they head on for the trail.
      Meal Preparation

• If lucky, they would have quail
  or buffalo.
• They usually ate bacon.
• Pioneers cooked their meals
  over an open fire.
Jobs Along the Way
         • Women washed
           clothes.
         • Men hunted, traded,
           and dealt with the
           livestock.
         • Women were the
           family doctors.
         • Men built the cabins.
Animals
    Horses were rejected to
     go on the trail.
    Oxen were the most
     common.
    Mules were the second
     common.
    Horses could not live off
     prairie grass.
Distance Traveled
           • People traveled about
             12-15 miles in one
             day.
           • They traveled 2,000
             miles in total.
           • The people traveled 6
             months in total from
             their starting point to
             their destination.
           • Oxen traveled 2 miles
             an hour.
Evening Routine
        • Build another fire
          to keep them
          warm.
        • Prepare the
          evening meal.
        • Eat our dinner.
        • Write in our
          journal.
        • Sleep and be ready
          to travel in the
Entertainment
       Make Soap or candles.
       Singing around campfire.
       Children wrestled each
         other at school.
       Held spelling bees
       Reading and writing in
         journals.
Oregon Trail
Jobs of the Era
               Doctor
• Provided medical
  treatment.
• Leeches were
  commonly used.
• Served as man-
  midwives.
         Tanner
• Striped hair and fat from animals.
• Another name for a doctor
  Apothecary.
• Tanners make leather goods.
• They could also tan with animals
  brains.
• Tanners always smelled like animal
  hide
              Coopers
• Coopers made
  barrels.
• Made barrels of
  wooden staves.
• Numbered staves in
  case of shipment.
• Put metal hoops
  around the wood to
  keep it together.
          Candle Making
• Candle Making was done
  in fall
• Main ingredient was
  Tallow.
• Tallow was fat from
  cows,sheep,and hogs.
• First tallow was stirred in
  cast iron pots
   Blacksmiths
• They made iron rims for cart
  wheels.
• Blacksmiths worked long hours
  with little pay.
• Often fixed children’s play hoops.
• Shoed horses.
• Soften metal with fire.
Oregon Trail
  Hardships
              Disease
Hardly any real doctors
  traveled along the
  trail to cure diseases.
 People who were sick
  and dead from disease
  along the trail would
  be abandoned on the
  side of the road.
Cholera killed more
  emigrants than
  anything else.
Deaths
   • Pioneers lied saying
     that they knew how to
     drive. They lost control
     and death occurred .
   • Infection caused
     deaths.
   • When people were on
     the wagon and they fell
     under the wheels .
           River Crossings
• The indians helped
  the pioneers cross
  rivers.
• Source of distress
  for pioneers.
• 37people drowned
  in1850 alone trying
  to cross the Green
  River .
Injuries
    • Sometimes there
      weren’t real doctors on
      the trail.
    • Cuts and broken bones
      could become infected.
    • The youngest kids were
      usually the ones to get
      hurt.
Supply and Quality of Water




• At Cherry Creek the water was dried up like
  most other creeks.
• The pioneers had to dig holes in the sand for
  water for people and horses.
• Scarcity of water can lead to intense suffering
  for man and animals on the trail.
          Lack of Food



• Because of the lack of food pioneers
  wouldn’t have energy to move on.
• They might get diseases from lack of
  vitamins.
• In the desert there wasn’t much game
  to hunt.
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