Construction Crane Safety (new requirements 2010) September 2, 2010 Why? • Crane accidents killed an average of 78 people per year between 2003 and 2005 • The new standard is located at http://www.federalregister.gov/articles/201 0/08/09/2010-17818/cranes-and-derricks- in-construction#h-15 • OSHA expects the final standard to prevent 22 fatalities and 175 non-fatal injuries each year. When? • Intention to develop the rule in July 2002. • Used negotiated rulemaking committee consisting both industry and labor. • The committee completed its work in 2004. • Released – July 28, 2010 • Published – August 9, 2010 • Effective – November 8, 2010 • Phased in over four years – August 9, 2014 – Certification of operators phased in over four years. No grandfathering of those past certification. Key Hazards • Four main causes of worker death and injury: • Electrocution, • Crushed by parts of the equipment, • Struck-by the equipment/load, and • Falls. (See Subpart M 1926.500-503) Largest Impact • Mandatory crane operator certification - qualification • 200,000 construction crane operators in the industry • OSHA allowing four years to meet the certification requirement. • It will take time for certifying organizations to gain enough capacity to cover so many operators. Other Significant Requirements • Use of synthetic slings in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions during assembly/disassembly work; • Assessment of ground conditions; • Procedures for working in the vicinity of power lines. • Pre-erection inspection of tower crane parts; OSHA – State - Local • Employers must comply with local and state operator licensing requirements which meet the minimum criteria specified in § 1926.1427. • Some state had existing Crane standards that exceeded the old standard. In state plan states, please see the rules for that state. Who Pays? • Employers must pay for certification or qualification of their currently uncertified or unqualified operators. 1926.1427 (a)(4) • Reasonable that employees, who have already been sufficiently trained in crane operation and may have many years' experience, certainly need no more than a short preparation to successfully pass the crane operator certification tests. – FR Preamble Crane or Not Crane? • Functional description – Can hoist, – Lower and – Horizontally move a suspended load • Forklifts configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch OR hook) and horizontally move a suspended Forklift with attached load are covered boom. 1926.1400 (c)(8) • Backhoes are excluded even if used like a crane….1926.1400 See 1926.1441 if using (c)(2) equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less Operator Qualifications and Certifications - 4 Options • OPTION 1: Accredited testing organization • OPTION 2: Employer qualification program • OPTION 3: U.S. military • OPTION 4: State/local gov’t license 10 Operator Qualifications and Certifications (cont’d) Portable Valid Accredited testing YES * 5 years organization Employer Qualification NO 5 years Program US Military license NO * Set by issuing entity State/local license NO * Set by issuing Valid only entity, not > 5 in entity’s years jurisdiction 11 Written Certification Tests • Administered in any language understood by the operator candidate. • Test must cover: – Controls/performance characteristics – Calculate capacity (w/ or w/out calculator) – Preventing power line contact – Ground support – Read and locate info in operating manual – Appendix Q subjects Practical Examination • Must be well designed and sufficiently comprehensive • Must have the demonstrated the skills and knowledge needed to operate the equipment safely. • An operator's ability to handle unusual worksite conditions, such as adverse weather or working on crowded jobsites, are hazards that are not commonly part of this exam. 1926.1408 Power Lines • Step 1: Identify Work Zone – Work Zone = Marking boundaries OR – 360 degrees around crane up to maximum working radius – Make the power line hazard assessment 14 Could you get within 20 feet of power line? YES NO Option #1 Deenergize & Ground No further Encroachment action Option #2 Prevention measures 20 foot clearance • Planning meeting • If tag lines used Non-conductive Option #3 • Elevated warning lines, barricade Ask Utility for or line of signs Voltage and Use Table A •PLUS (Choose one): (with minimum • Proximity alarm, spotter, warning clearance distance) device, range limiter, or insulating link 15 Table A – Minimum Clearance Distances Voltage (nominal, kV, Minimum clearance alternating current) distance (feet) up to 50 10 over 50 to 200 15 over 200 to 350 20 over 350 to 500 25 over 500 to 750 35 over 750 to 1000 45 over 1000 (as established by the power line owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) 16 Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone 1910.1410 • Paragraph (b) requires the employer to consult with the utility owner/operator before deciding that it infeasible to deenergize and ground the lines or relocate them. • Employer can establish this distance by either having the utility owner/operator determine the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained or by having a registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical transmission and distribution determine the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained. Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone Must show: All of the following are required: 1926.1410 • Staying outside zone 1. PL owner – sets minimum approach is infeasible distance • Infeasible to deenergize and 2. Planning meeting – procedures ground 3. Dedicated spotter 4. Elevated warning line or barricade 5. Insulating link/device 6. Non-conductive rigging 7. Range limiter (if equipped) 8. Non-conductive tag line (if used) 9. Barricades - 10 feet from equipment 10. Limit access to essential employees 11. Ground crane 12. Deactivate automatic re-energizer 18 Assembly Disassembly • Employers must use a qualified rigger for rigging operations during assembly & disassembly • Two options: – Manufacturer procedures or – Employer procedures (criteria requirements) Assembly/Disassembly Supervisor • Must understand procedures • Review procedures (unless they’ve used them before) • Check that crew members understand their tasks, hazards • Follow manufacturer’s prohibitions • When using outriggers - fully extended or deployed per the load chart Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d) • A/D supervisor addresses 12 key hazards, including: – Adequate site and ground conditions – Sufficient blocking for load and stability – Suitable boom and jib pick points – Identify center of gravity – Stability for pin removal – Consider wind speed and weather 21 Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d) • The suitability of blocking material • Verification of the loads for assist cranes • Snagging of cables or components • Struck by counter weights • Boom hoist brake failure • Loss of backwards stability 22 Qualified Rigger • 1926.1404 (r) • Meets the criteria for a qualified person • Possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or extensive (rigging) knowledge, training and experience • Successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems (relating to rigging) Tower Cranes • Employers must perform a pre-erection inspection of tower cranes. • Extensive requirements under 1926.1435 and other sections. • Beyond scope of this presentation • Numerous accidents such as Seattle in 85, San Francisco in 89, Manhattan in 08, Hong Kong in 08, New York in 06, Ground Conditions • 1926.1402 (b) • Ground conditions must be firm, drained, and graded • Use supporting materials, • Use equipment manufacturer's specifications for adequate support • Use equipment manufacturer's specifications for degree of level of the equipment Controlling Entity • 1926.1402 (c)(3) • Must ensure that ground preparations are safe • Must inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of known hazards beneath the equipment set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities) • If there is no controlling entity then the employer that has authority at the site to make or arrange for ground preparations must do so. Signals • Signal person – • Signal Types: when required: – Hand, voice, audible or “new” – Point of operation not – Only time an operator in full view of operator can use a cell phone is while lifting as part of a – View of direction of planned procedure travel is obstructed – Site specific safety concerns – 1926.1428 Signal person qualifications 27 Signals (cont’d.) • Signal person qualifications Qualified how Documentation Portable 3rd party qualified Yes Yes evaluator Employer Qualified Yes No Evaluator 28 Signals (cont’d.) • Qualification Requirements: – Know & understand signals – Competent in using signals – Basic understanding of crane operation – Verbal or written test + practical test 29 1926.1412 Inspections Type of Inspection: Who Inspects: Modified or Repaired/ Qualified adjusted Post-assembly Qualified Shift Competent Monthly Competent Annual Qualified 30 Inspections (cont’d) • Shift = visual inspection for apparent deficiencies • Monthly = documented shift inspection • Annual = comprehensive, every 12 months 31 Each Shift Inspection • 1926.1412 (d) • Levelness of the • Apparent deficiencies crane • Control and Drive • Operator view mechanisms • All Safety Devices • Hydraulics • Operational Aids are • Hooks working • Wire Rope • Electrical • Ground Conditions Operators • 1926.1417 has many requirements. Some highlights are: • Must not engage in any activity that diverts his/her attention while operating the equipment, • No cell phones (other than when used for signal communications) • Must not leave the controls while the load is suspended, (four exceptions) • Must verify that the load is within the rated capacity of the equipment (2 methods) • Must obey a stop (or emergency stop) signal, irrespective of who gives it. • Told of any employee entering the crane work area 1926.1424(a)(3) Employer Training • 1926.1430 Employee • Must confirm that the Training Issues employee understands • Powerline safety the information provided • Signal persons in the training • Operators • Provide the training at no cost to the employee • Competent Person • Qualified Persons • Crush Pinch point hazards • Tagout for repair Work Area Control • 1926.1424 • Train each employee assigned to work on or near the equipment • Erect and maintain control lines, warning lines, railings or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard area (1 Exception) Resources • Cranes and Derricks in Construction Final Rule – http://www.osha.gov/cranes-derricks/index.html • Associated Training Service Network – http://www.operator-school.com/ • National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators – http://www.nccco.org/ • National Association of Heavy Equipment Training Schools – http://www.heavy-equipment-school.com/ • North American Crane Bureau Group – http://www.cranesafe.com/history.htm • California Crane School – http://www.californiacraneschool.com/ 36 Further • This ppt was prepared by John Newquist as a preliminary aid for the new standard. Please check the OSHA website for Crane Outreach Material that will be developed in the coming months. • This is not an official OSHA publication. Those will be on the OSHA.gov website. • Newquist.email@example.com is my email if you see any errors • 312-353-5977 • Brian Sturtecky is our Region V Certified Crane Inspector and has provided key assistance on this standard. He can be reached at 312-353-2220. • Several slides were obtained from the OSHA Training Institute from their Webinar August 30, 2010. • Every aspect from inspecting, repairing, operating, rigging and signaling these cranes require extensive training. Please take classes with hands on training if you are expected to perform any of these activities. • I want to thank Brian, Lisa, Tom, Bill, Cathy for all their assistance in answering questions and providing issues that are coming from the public.