Hydraulics Employer Organization Chart - PowerPoint

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					Construction Crane Safety
    (new requirements 2010)

     September 2, 2010
• Crane accidents killed an average of 78
  people per year between 2003 and 2005
• The new standard is located at
• OSHA expects the final standard to
  prevent 22 fatalities and 175 non-fatal
  injuries each year.
• Intention to develop the rule in July 2002.
• Used negotiated rulemaking committee
  consisting both industry and labor.
• The committee completed its work in 2004.
• Released – July 28, 2010
• Published – August 9, 2010
• Effective – November 8, 2010
• Phased in over four years – August 9, 2014
  – Certification of operators phased in over four years.
    No grandfathering of those past certification.
            Key Hazards
• Four main causes of worker death and
• Electrocution,
• Crushed by parts of the equipment,
• Struck-by the equipment/load, and
• Falls. (See Subpart M 1926.500-503)
             Largest Impact
• Mandatory crane operator certification -
• 200,000 construction crane operators in
  the industry
• OSHA allowing four years to meet the
  certification requirement.
• It will take time for certifying organizations
  to gain enough capacity to cover so many
Other Significant Requirements
• Use of synthetic slings in accordance with
  the manufacturer’s instructions during
  assembly/disassembly work;
• Assessment of ground conditions;
• Procedures for working in the vicinity of
  power lines.
• Pre-erection inspection of tower crane
       OSHA – State - Local
• Employers must comply with local and
  state operator licensing requirements
  which meet the minimum criteria specified
  in § 1926.1427.
• Some state had existing Crane standards
  that exceeded the old standard. In state
  plan states, please see the rules for that
                  Who Pays?
• Employers must pay for certification or
  qualification of their currently uncertified or
  unqualified operators. 1926.1427 (a)(4)

• Reasonable that employees, who have already
  been sufficiently trained in crane operation and
  may have many years' experience, certainly
  need no more than a short preparation to
  successfully pass the crane operator certification
  tests. – FR Preamble
            Crane or Not Crane?
• Functional description
   – Can hoist,
   – Lower and
   – Horizontally move a
     suspended load
• Forklifts configured to hoist
  and lower (by means of a
  winch OR hook) and
  horizontally move a suspended
                                  Forklift with attached
  load are covered                boom. 1926.1400 (c)(8)
• Backhoes are excluded even if
  used like a crane….1926.1400    See 1926.1441 if using
  (c)(2)                          equipment with a rated
                                  hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000
                                  pounds or less
     Operator Qualifications and
      Certifications - 4 Options
  Accredited testing organization
  Employer qualification program
  U.S. military
  State/local gov’t license

     Operator Qualifications and
        Certifications (cont’d)
                          Portable          Valid
  Accredited testing        YES *          5 years
Employer Qualification       NO            5 years
  US Military license       NO *        Set by issuing
  State/local license        NO *       Set by issuing
                          Valid only    entity, not > 5
                          in entity’s       years

    Written Certification Tests
• Administered in any language understood
  by the operator candidate.
• Test must cover:
  – Controls/performance characteristics
  – Calculate capacity (w/ or w/out calculator)
  – Preventing power line contact
  – Ground support
  – Read and locate info in operating manual
  – Appendix Q subjects
        Practical Examination
• Must be well designed and sufficiently
• Must have the demonstrated the skills and
  knowledge needed to operate the equipment
• An operator's ability to handle unusual worksite
  conditions, such as adverse weather or working
  on crowded jobsites, are hazards that are not
  commonly part of this exam.
      1926.1408 Power Lines
• Step 1: Identify Work
  – Work Zone = Marking
    boundaries OR
  – 360 degrees around
    crane up to maximum
    working radius
  – Make the power line
    hazard assessment

                                Could you get within 20
                                  feet of power line?

                      YES                                                 NO

Option #1
Deenergize &
                                                                        No further
Option #2                            Prevention measures
20 foot
clearance                   • Planning meeting
                            • If tag lines used Non-conductive
Option #3                   • Elevated warning lines, barricade
Ask Utility for             or line of signs
Voltage and
Use Table A                      •PLUS (Choose one):
(with minimum
                            • Proximity alarm, spotter, warning
clearance distance)
                            device, range limiter, or insulating link

Table A – Minimum Clearance Distances
Voltage (nominal, kV,       Minimum clearance
 alternating current)         distance (feet)
       up to 50                         10
    over 50 to 200                      15
   over 200 to 350                      20
   over 350 to 500                      25
   over 500 to 750                      35
   over 750 to 1000                     45
      over 1000         (as established by the power line
                        owner/operator or registered
                        professional engineer who is a
                        qualified person with respect to
                        electrical power transmission and
                        distribution)                       16
   Intentionally Working Closer
   Than Table A Zone 1910.1410
• Paragraph (b) requires the employer to consult
  with the utility owner/operator before deciding
  that it infeasible to deenergize and ground the
  lines or relocate them.
• Employer can establish this distance by either
  having the utility owner/operator determine
  the minimum clearance distance that must be
  maintained or by having a registered
  professional engineer who is a qualified
  person with respect to electrical transmission
  and distribution determine the minimum
  clearance distance that must be maintained.
Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone
        Must show:            All of the following are required: 1926.1410
• Staying outside zone
                         1.   PL owner – sets minimum approach
   is infeasible
• Infeasible to
  deenergize and         2.   Planning meeting – procedures
  ground                 3.   Dedicated spotter
                         4.   Elevated warning line or barricade
                         5.   Insulating link/device
                         6.   Non-conductive rigging
                         7.   Range limiter (if equipped)
                         8.   Non-conductive tag line (if used)
                         9.   Barricades - 10 feet from equipment
                         10. Limit access to essential employees
                         11. Ground crane
                         12. Deactivate automatic re-energizer

      Assembly Disassembly
• Employers must use a qualified rigger for
  rigging operations during assembly &
• Two options:
  – Manufacturer procedures or
  – Employer procedures (criteria requirements)
Assembly/Disassembly Supervisor
• Must understand procedures
• Review procedures (unless they’ve used
  them before)
• Check that crew members understand
  their tasks, hazards
• Follow manufacturer’s prohibitions
• When using outriggers - fully extended or
  deployed per the load chart
  Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d)
• A/D supervisor addresses 12 key hazards,
   – Adequate site and ground conditions
   – Sufficient blocking for load and stability
   – Suitable boom and jib pick points
   – Identify center of gravity
   – Stability for pin removal
   – Consider wind speed and weather

    Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d)
•   The suitability of blocking material
•   Verification of the loads for assist cranes
•   Snagging of cables or components
•   Struck by counter weights
•   Boom hoist brake failure
•   Loss of backwards stability

           Qualified Rigger
• 1926.1404 (r)
• Meets the criteria for a qualified person
• Possession of a recognized degree,
  certificate, or professional standing, or
  extensive (rigging) knowledge, training
  and experience
• Successfully demonstrated the ability to
  solve/resolve problems (relating to rigging)
            Tower Cranes
• Employers must perform a pre-erection
  inspection of tower cranes.
• Extensive requirements under 1926.1435
  and other sections.
• Beyond scope of this presentation
• Numerous accidents such as Seattle in
  85, San Francisco in 89, Manhattan in 08,
  Hong Kong in 08, New York in 06,
         Ground Conditions
• 1926.1402 (b)
• Ground conditions must be firm, drained,
  and graded
• Use supporting materials,
• Use equipment manufacturer's
  specifications for adequate support
• Use equipment manufacturer's
  specifications for degree of level of the
            Controlling Entity
• 1926.1402 (c)(3)
• Must ensure that ground preparations are safe
• Must inform the user of the equipment and the
  operator of the location of known hazards
  beneath the equipment set-up area (such as
  voids, tanks, utilities)
• If there is no controlling entity then the employer
  that has authority at the site to make or arrange
  for ground preparations must do so.
• Signal person –              • Signal Types:
  when required:                 – Hand, voice, audible
                                   or “new”
  – Point of operation not       – Only time an operator
    in full view of operator       can use a cell phone is
                                   while lifting as part of a
  – View of direction of           planned procedure
    travel is obstructed
  – Site specific safety
  – 1926.1428 Signal
    person qualifications
              Signals (cont’d.)
• Signal person qualifications

     Qualified how       Documentation   Portable

   3rd party qualified       Yes           Yes
  Employer Qualified         Yes           No

             Signals (cont’d.)
• Qualification
  – Know & understand signals
  – Competent in using signals
  – Basic understanding of crane
  – Verbal or written test +
    practical test

        1926.1412 Inspections
 Type of Inspection:    Who Inspects:

Modified or Repaired/     Qualified
   Post-assembly          Qualified

        Shift            Competent

      Monthly            Competent

       Annual             Qualified
           Inspections (cont’d)
• Shift = visual inspection for apparent

• Monthly = documented shift inspection

• Annual = comprehensive, every 12 months

        Each Shift Inspection
• 1926.1412 (d)           • Levelness of the
• Apparent deficiencies     crane
• Control and Drive       • Operator view
  mechanisms              • All Safety Devices
• Hydraulics              • Operational Aids are
• Hooks                     working
• Wire Rope
• Electrical
• Ground Conditions
• 1926.1417 has many requirements. Some highlights are:
• Must not engage in any activity that diverts his/her
  attention while operating the equipment,
• No cell phones (other than when used for signal
• Must not leave the controls while the load is
  suspended, (four exceptions)
• Must verify that the load is within the rated capacity of
  the equipment (2 methods)
• Must obey a stop (or emergency stop) signal,
  irrespective of who gives it.
• Told of any employee entering the crane work area
          Employer Training
• 1926.1430 Employee   • Must confirm that the
  Training Issues        employee understands
• Powerline safety       the information provided
• Signal persons         in the training
• Operators            • Provide the training at no
                         cost to the employee
• Competent Person
• Qualified Persons
• Crush Pinch point
• Tagout for repair
          Work Area Control
• 1926.1424
• Train each employee assigned to work on
  or near the equipment
• Erect and maintain control lines, warning
  lines, railings or similar barriers to mark
  the boundaries of the hazard area (1
• Cranes and Derricks in Construction Final Rule
    – http://www.osha.gov/cranes-derricks/index.html
• Associated Training Service Network
     – http://www.operator-school.com/
•   National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators
     – http://www.nccco.org/
•   National Association of Heavy Equipment Training Schools
     – http://www.heavy-equipment-school.com/
•   North American Crane Bureau Group
     – http://www.cranesafe.com/history.htm
•   California Crane School
     – http://www.californiacraneschool.com/

•   This ppt was prepared by John Newquist as a preliminary aid for the new
    standard. Please check the OSHA website for Crane Outreach Material that
    will be developed in the coming months.
•   This is not an official OSHA publication. Those will be on the OSHA.gov
•   Newquist.john@dol.gov is my email if you see any errors
•   312-353-5977
•   Brian Sturtecky is our Region V Certified Crane Inspector and has provided
    key assistance on this standard. He can be reached at 312-353-2220.
•   Several slides were obtained from the OSHA Training Institute from their
    Webinar August 30, 2010.
•   Every aspect from inspecting, repairing, operating, rigging and signaling
    these cranes require extensive training. Please take classes with hands on
    training if you are expected to perform any of these activities.
•   I want to thank Brian, Lisa, Tom, Bill, Cathy for all their assistance in
    answering questions and providing issues that are coming from the public.

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