New Amsterdam Climate

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Met energie aan de slag

           Summary of plans and
              ongoing projects
New Amsterdam Climate


                                                   In recent years it has become urgently clear
                                                   that we must find an answer to the climate
                                                   problem. The city executive of Amsterdam
                                                   – together with many other parties in our
                                                   city – wants to face this challenge. We have
                                                   committed ourselves to reducing our CO2
                                                   emissions by 40% in 2025 (compared to 1990).

                                                   We are duly aware that this is a major endeavour. But
                                                   we are convinced that it also offers a multiplicity of
                                                   opportunities, for innovation, for new employment,
                                                   for other and better organisations and forms of
                                                   behaviour. In short, it provides opportunities for a
                                                   richer city in many ways. Based on this conviction, we
                                                   have established the Amsterdam Climate Office and
                                 Marijke Vos       have given it the task of getting a movement started
                        Alderman Environment       to utilise these opportunities and – simultaneously – to
                                                   drastically reduce the CO2 emissions.

                                                   During the past year, the Municipality of Amsterdam
                                                   has taken the initiative to knock on many doors,
                                                   almost always with positive results. Often the door
                                                   was already open, as you can read in this report. It
                                                   provides an impressive picture of what is already
                                                   possible and is already being done by many
                                                   individuals and organisations in Amsterdam who have
                                                   seen these opportunities, and want to take the lead in
                                                   their development. We are standing at the beginning
                                                   of a change that will continue for many years. Even
                                                   now we can rightfully say that, together with you, we
                                                   have an outlook on a New Amsterdam Climate!

                                                   Table of Contents


      Introduction New Amsterdam Climate                          4

1.1   Municipal organisation
      To start with, the Municipality itself                     10

1.2   City Districts
      Parts of the solution                                      14

2     Sustainable energy
      New energy for Amsterdam                                   20

3.1   New construction
      The new approach to building                               24

3.2   Existing buildings
      A city to be won                                           28

4.1   Small and mid-sized enterprises
      Business climate                                           32

4.2   ICT
      From data centre to playstation                            36

5.1   Transport
      Alternatives on the Road                                   40

5.2   Port of Amsterdam
      Sustainable mooring                                        46

6     Education
      Learning environment for climate                           50

New Amsterdam Climate


Global warming is one of the greatest problems of this era. Actually,
we should say it is one of the greatest tasks, because the solutions are
known. Amsterdam is familiar with that task and also aims to start taking
advantage of the opportunities it offers by becoming a leader.
If the emissions of greenhouse gases continue to grow           ment. This certainly applies to Amsterdam. Inspiration,
unabated, the climate on our planet will exceed a criti-        sharing expertise, innovating, taking risks, showing
cal point within several decades. At that point, a more         leadership and taking responsibility: these are the keys
or less predictable and liveable climate for people,            to success. A huge number of technologies and mea-
animals and plants will become a thing of the past,             sures can already be applied immediately. And we are
probably for centuries to come.                                 going to invent the rest.
                                                                In concrete terms, this means for example that buil-
Where the solution concerns CO2 reduction, the route            dings and technical installations will be modified or
to a solution is known: energy savings, a drastic reduc-        designed differently; that the transport sector will re-
tion in the use of fossil fuels plus accelerated develop-       new itself; and that we will see rapid developments in
ment and application of sustainable energy sources.             small-scale and large-scale sustainable energy supply.
Everywhere in the world, businesses, institutions,
citizens and governments are tackling the enormous              This will create additional employment in traditional
climate challenge. Amsterdam has a long tradition of            and innovative sectors and will put Amsterdam on the
pioneering energy and climate policy. As an interim             map as a location for sustainable and innovative busi-
step on the road to a low-carbon energy system, in              nesses. The expectation is that the prices of fossil fuels
2007 the city executive set the goal of reducing the            will continue to rise. Therefore, reducing local demand
CO2 emissions within the city limits of Amsterdam by            while simultaneously developing alternative sources
40% in 2025 (compared to 1990).                                 becomes more and more attractive financially.

Revolution in thought and action                                Together in a leading group
In recent decades, the city has already done a great            Obviously, the transition can only be achieved if all
deal in the area of energy savings and the develop-             parties in Amsterdam cooperate. The Municipality
ment of alternative energy sources. Nevertheless, the           of Amsterdam has taken the initiative to establish a
CO2 emissions of Amsterdam have increased signifi-               framework of cooperation for climate. To this end, we
cantly since 1990.                                              have approached many businesses, institutions and
                                                                citizen groups since the summer of 2007. During the
To transform a ‘slowed increase’ to a ‘drastic reduc-           climate conference of 11 December 2007, there was an
tion’, emissions must be reduced more quickly. This             excellent response, which has grown even further since
requires a revolution in thought and action At the pre-         then.
sent time, we are in the midst of this transition phase.
Climate policy also concerns achieving a beneficial              The formal framework of cooperation is now a fact. Its
economic position on a changing playing field. If we do          name: New Amsterdam Climate. To provide the neces-
not take account of these changes – the rapid shifts            sary support, a bureau has been established specifically
in market shares in the automobile industry being an            for this purpose: the Amsterdam Climate Office. New
excellent example – then this can have serious conse-           Amsterdam Climate is made up of citizens, businesses
quences for our competitive positions.                          and institutions who understand the necessity of taking
                                                                measures, who see the opportunities created by these
Moreover, if nature compels us to reinvent our pro-             measures, who take a leading role with their climate
duction and consumption processes, then this offers             policy and who can serve as an example for others. In
terrific opportunities for economic and social develop-          this way, New Amsterdam Climate ultimately aims to

New Amsterdam Climate

                                                                important developments in the framework of coope-
                                                                ration of New Amsterdam Climate, beginning with
                                                                the present edition. This report addresses a number
                                                                of areas for which CO2 reduction programmes are
                                                                planned or are being implemented. In addition to the
                                                                area of the municipal organisation, where the City of
                                                                Amsterdam takes an especially critical look at itself,
                                                                these include areas where the city and many important
                                                                players work together to achieve major reductions by
                                                                collectively accelerating the process.

                                                                This report is structured according to these areas:
                                                                    City organisation
                                                                    Sustainable energy
                                                                    Housing; with a distinction between existing
                                                                    housing and new construction
create a snowball effect in as many levels of the city as           The business community, with attention for small
possible.                                                           and midsize enterprises and the ICT sector, respec-
New Amsterdam Climate is a platform where parties                   Transport and the Port of Amsterdam
can:                                                                Education
   find partners for cooperation;
   inspire and motivate each other;                             This first report contains a snapshot of the situation
   share knowledge;                                             in the fall of 2008. For all areas, this concerns especi-
   detect and remove obstacles;                                 ally the first steps, more or less, that are being taken
   map out resolutions, actions and results;                    as part of relatively new frameworks of cooperation.
   and present annual CO2 reports.                              Therefore this report also looks many years into the
                                                                future – rather lightly under the heading ‘Back from the
New Amsterdam Climate also wants to establish a Cli-            future’ – towards the situation and energy experience
mate Fund to provide financial incentives for promising          in 2025.
initiatives in the areas of energy savings and sustaina-
ble energy.
                                                                Finger on the pulse
Who is not participating?                                       Every year, the City of Amsterdam will monitor the
The government is in the position of enforcing laws             current situation by determining how much CO2
that are only partly or reluctantly complied with.              the city has emitted. It will also collect as much
But this process is distant from the leading group of           information as possible about the CO2 emissions
parties who, based on shared insight and a collective           that have been avoided due to the various
goal, want to accomplish more than is required by law           measures. To this end, a model is being constructed
and want to take advantage of opportunities. Regar-             that will be supplied with information about energy
ding the parties in the area between these two extre-           use in the following sectors: built environment,
mes, New Amsterdam Climate hopes to use its activi-             traffic and transport, businesses and the city
ties to draw these parties towards the leading group.           organisation itself. According to expectations, the
                                                                annual CO2 report for 2007 will be presented at the
Progress reports                                                end of 2008.
The Climate Office will periodically report on the most


Building blocks for reduction
Taking account of the societal concern about the
climate problem, the municipality has formulated the
ambition to achieve a 40% CO2 emission reduction
in the year 2025 for the entire city (compared to
the level in 1990). In addition, the municipality itself
aims to set a good example by operating in a CO2-
neutral fashion by 2015. The municipality has of
course also considered the question of whether these
ambitions are feasible. At the end of 2007, the report
‘Building blocks for the Amsterdam CO2 reduction
programme’ was published. By extrapolating current
developments, this report first determined what the
emission level in 2025 would be without additional
policy. It then addressed the question of which                  This framework of cooperation aims to act as a magnet
measures are available to reduce the CO2 emission                and a podium for positive energy. To all those who are
level. This answer was partly worked out in order                not yet in the starting blocks: we have made the chal-
to serve as a basis for a programme of measures.                 lenge, who will accept it?
The report also contains a proposal to measure the
progress in reducing emissions.                                  Municipal initiative to establish this frame-
                                                                 work of cooperation
Periodic reporting of the most important
developments in New Amsterdam Climate,                           Communication about New Amsterdam
beginning with this addition                                     Climate
                                                                 Communication is essential to everything that is hap-
For that matter, we have roughly calculated what the             pening as part of the New Amsterdam Climate. Am-
savings will be if we succeed in continuing the establis-        sterdam has chosen a focused strategy, where believa-
hed strategies through the years. According to these             bility and realism are paramount. This means suppor-
calculations, we will achieve approximately two-thirds           ting deeds with words. We can do this by making the
of the necessary reduction. For the remaining savings,           general public more familiar with the developments
we can count on a new generation of innovations, new
national and European legislation, reductions in areas           Prevent and adapt
that have not yet been mapped out and – possibly –               New Amsterdam Climate has the goal of greatly
underground CO2 storage (sequestration).                         reducing CO2 emissions and limiting global warming.
                                                                 We are restricting our activities to prevention.
Much more information is available at                            Regardless of how successful the prevention                                    measures everywhere in the world may be, it is
                                                                 now clear that the climate will change and that
To be continued                                                  Amsterdam must also prepare for these changes by
In addition to the efforts described in this report, there       developing and implementing policies concerning
are countless initiatives in the city that contribute to         water storage, hot weather, etc.
the reduction aims. In subsequent editions, from the
viewpoint of New Amsterdam Climate we hope to                    In another context, Amsterdam is working hard on
provide an increasingly complete picture of all parties          these policies.
who are working on a cleaner Amsterdam.

New Amsterdam Climate

and getting them involved, for example by means of
                                                                  Amsterdam Climate Fund
the Climate Table, Climate Cafés and theatre, and edu-
                                                                  A 40% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2025 is a
cation for schools.
                                                                  major challenge.
                                                                  This requires major investments in both the
Or by placing Amsterdam on the map – regionally,
                                                                  adaptation of existing technologies and the
nationally and internationally – as an innovative force.
                                                                  innovation of new ones. Many of these investments
                                                                  will pay for themselves, certainly if energy prices
Climate communication will take the form of a carrier
                                                                  continue to rise. However, start-up capital and
wave with peaks: an undercurrent of messages, sup-
                                                                  venture capital will remain necessary. Financial
plemented with peak moments such as publicity cam-
                                                                  institutions want to help find solutions and will
paigns and larger events that are linked to the various
                                                                  accept their responsibility within the usual limits
climate themes.
                                                                  of risk and profitability. This will not always be
                                                                  enough. New Amsterdam Climate therefore wants
Besides developing strategic press contacts, we will
                                                                  to establish a Climate Fund. This fund can offer
deploy Amsterdam “icons” as deliberate role models
                                                                  financial support to highly promising initiatives in
to get Amsterdam residents involved with the New
                                                                  energy savings and sustainable energy by means of
Amsterdam Climate. There are also many online pos-
                                                                  subordinated loans or surety bonds.
sibilities such as the digital Climate Journal that is sent
monthly to subscribers; or a digital map of Amsterdam,
                                                                  In addition to start-up capital from the City of
which shows exactly who is doing what in terms of CO2
                                                                  Amsterdam, this fund (which is partly revolving)
reduction and sustainability. And there is an extensive
                                                                  could possibly be supplemented if participants in
site – a supplement to this report – which contains a
                                                                  the climate programme invest their carbon offsets
great deal of information:
                                                                  in the fund.

           CO2 emissions (kt) per sector
                                                                                           Traffic and transport



                                -40%                   -50%                   -60%


                      1990                  2006                    2025               Ambition 2025


Prognosis of CO2 emissions in 2025, reduction task and CO2 reduction due to climate programme (kt)




                                                              Total CO2 emissions avoided in climate programme
                                                              Remaining reduction task
                                                              Remaining CO2 emissions

Potential share of climate programme in reduction task (kt)



                                                              Sustainable energy production
                                                              Existing housing association inventory
                                                              New construction

        42                                    26              ICT sector
               271                                            Small and mid-sized enterprises
                                                              Traffic and transport
                                                              Municipal organisation
                                                              Remaining reduction task

To start with, the Municipality itself

Municipal organisation

In 2015, the City of Amsterdam wants to be climate neutral. This means that
buildings, public lighting and the municipal transport facilities must consume less
energy and must make as much use as possible of sustainable energy.
For functions where fossil fuels are still unavoidable, possibilities for carbon set-
offs will be investigated.

MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS                                             This does not take away from the fact that using
To implement its tasks, the Municipality of Amsterdam           existing technologies in older buildings can achieve
uses hundreds of buildings. The municipality owns               major reductions.
some of these buildings and rents others. In addition,
the municipality is also a landlord. The buildings have         Municipality seeks different landlord
many different functions. For example, the buildings            if insufficient investments are made in
can be used as offices, gyms and harbour facilities.             energy efficiency during renovation
They also differ in terms of their structural condition,
the condition of the technical installations and                Making demands as a tenant
therefore in their CO2 emissions.                               The municipality owns only some of the buildings
                                                                that uses. The municipality decides to rent buildings
Planning Brief emphasises CO2 neutrality                        depending on the preparedness of the landlord to
                                                                invest in the energy efficiency of the building during
New construction for the Municipality of                        renovation. If the landlord is not sufficiently prepared
Amsterdam                                                       to make such an investment, the municipality will
In recent years, the municipality has made large                look for an alternative and will cancel the rental
investments in energy-efficient buildings. Much of               contract. As a result, Amsterdam signals landlords that
the new construction is more energy-efficient than               sustainable buildings are the new standard.
required by law. Nevertheless, no single building is
emission-free.                                                  For that matter, the municipality is also subject to the
                                                                same standard when it rents out buildings.
The task is now to design buildings with the highest
possible energy-efficiency, but which no longer use
natural gas for space heating. Although the municipal           Blaming each other
power supply is already ‘green’, in the foreseeable
future there will certainly not be an abundance of                 Residents                      Builders
green energy, so it is important to keep the electricity           “We want more                  “We can build envi-
                                                                   energy efficient                ronmentally-sound
demand as low as possible. With existing technology,               houses, but there              houses, but the
a great deal of electricity can already be saved.                  is so little on the            project developers
                                                                   market”                        do not ask for this”
And with increasing energy prices, energy-saving
measures pay for themselves more and more quickly.
A precondition for successful application of such
measures is that CO2 neutrality is emphasised in the
Planning Brief from the very beginning.                            Investors                      Project developers
                                                                   “We do want to pay             “We prefer sustaina-
                                                                   for sustainable and            ble buildings, but in-
Renovation of the municipality’s own buildings                     efficient buildings,            vestors do not want
It is often impossible to renovate existing buildings at           but there is no de-            to pay for this”
                                                                   mand for this”
an acceptable cost so that they become CO2 neutral.

New Amsterdam Climate

Energy Team                                                    2015, the municipality will make all buildings that it
An Energy Team for municipal buildings is being                owns or rents climate neutral by using the experience
established. This team will advise and assist the              and routines that it has developed in the meantime.
neighbourhoods and the central services during both            This will take place as buildings are scheduled
new construction and renovation. The team will help            for maintenance or new construction. Sports
map out what is required for all municipal buildings to        accommodations and other municipal buildings will
earn an ‘A label’ for energy efficiency.                        then be subjected to the new norms. The first climate-
                                                               neutral City District offices will be delivered.
The team also calculates how much CO2 emission
remains if all measures with a 10-year payback period          PUBLIC LIGHTING
are used. For each of the neighbourhoods and central           Public lighting provides safety and atmosphere in the
services, this forms the basis for an action plan. The         city.
logical occasions to apply the new climate-neutral             By using intelligent light measuring and more efficient
standard are during maintenance activities (minor and          lamps and materials, a great deal of energy can be
major), when moving to a new building and when                 saved. In concrete terms, the municipality sees the
designing new construction.                                    following as the most important possibilities:
The administrators of the city and the neighbour-                  For new installations and replacements, the
hoods, the heads of the central services and the                   municipality is choosing the most energy-efficient
secretaries of the City Districts have committed                   lamps and the most effective armatures. This
themselves to this process. The municipal buildings                means, among other things, replacing older lamps
Energy Team takes the role of advisor and motivator.               with newer types that do not require warm up
                                                                   time (or lamps of a future generation that are even
In a short time, an enormous amount of expertise will              more efficient ) and switching entirely to electronic
be acquired, shared and applied. Between 2011 and                  components (savings potential: nearly 8% energy
                                                                   savings and a longer lifespan for the lamps).
Green Light
In recent years, much attention has focused on ener-           Technology, precision control, dimming
gy savings at the City Hall and Het Muziektheater.             lights when and where this is feasible...
For example, the building was given aquifer thermal            a great deal is possible!
storage, a heat recovery system and an ingenious
building management system that provides smart                    Continue to be critical of the light measurement
control for all technical installations. Among other              system that – depending on the degree of
things, the building management system prevents                   darkness – turns on the public lighting.
the heating and air conditioning from being on at                 Responsible public lighting will continue to be the
the same time. In 2007 the entire City Hall was equi-             motto, but the lamps do not have to burn longer
pped with energy-efficient lamps (45% energy sa-                   than is strictly necessary. A recent refinement
vings compared to the old situation), a project which             of the measurement system resulted in energy
earned the European Green Light Award in 2008.                    savings of 1.5%.
With the aim of achieving complete climate neutra-
lity, the City Hall/Muziektheater works with an an-               Due to the geographical location and urban design
nual CO2 budget. This budget makes the remaining                  of Amsterdam-Noord, it is possible to turn on
CO2 emissions clear and indicates what is required                the public lighting somewhat later in this section
to become completely CO2 neutral. After the neces-                of the city, and to turn it off somewhat sooner.
sary steps are taken, in 2009 the Stopera will be able            Additional differentiation in other parts of the city
to justifiably say that it is climate neutral.                     (WestelijkeTuinsteden, Amsterdam Zuidoost) is
                                                                  being investigated.

                                                                                                Municipal organisation

   Beginning in 2008, experiments will take place
   with dimming public lighting for energy savings              LED lighting
   and to reduce possible light nuisance and light              Partly on the initiative of Philips, a study was con-
   pollution. For example, it is unnecessary to have            ducted this year into which additional technological
   public lighting at ‘full power’ with low traffic              possibilities for energy savings are available, what the
   intensities and clear weather conditions. This type          effect of these would be and what accelerated invest-
   of light dimming on thoroughfares can provide an             ments these technologies require. For example, LED
   energy savings of 7.5%.                                      streetlights developed by Philips were tested at the
                                                                City Hall/Muziektheater. One of the objectives was to
MUNICIPAL VEHICLE FLEET                                         enable Amsterdam residents to become acquainted
The municipal vehicle fleet has approximately 2000               with this new lighting technology. LED streetlights
vehicles. And all those lawnmowers, passenger cars,             can provide energy savings of up to 51%.
vans, sweeping machines and garbage trucks do not
drive themselves.

The Mayor & College of Aldermen have                            Back from the future
decided to only purchase passenger cars                         The team that maintains the Amsterdam street
with and A or B energy label …                                  lighting usually moves around the city on humming
                                                                electric scooters. Tower wagons are needed much
Energy-efficient vehicles                                        less often now that all streetlights are equipped
In 2007, the Mayor & College of Aldermen decided to             with LEDs. They virtually never need replacement.
only purchase passenger cars with an A or B energy              After years of renovation, the municipal buildings
label. A car with an ‘A label’ emits at least 20% less          are among the most energy-efficient in the world.
CO2 than average; with a ‘B label’ this is 10 to 20%            The buildings even supply some of their own energy.
less. This resolution of Mayor & College of Aldermen            The new City District offices are so cleverly designed
is an order to the central services and an urgent               that colleagues from abroad visit the offices to see
request to the City Districts.                                  how they’ve done it.

In addition, a funding scheme from the Air Quality
Programme Bureau will accelerate the replacement of
                                                                     CO2-emissions by the Municipal Organisation
polluting vehicles with clean vehicles.                         50

…or perhaps they will switch to electric
scooters                                                        40

A two-wheel alternative
Electric scooters are potentially a good alternative            30
for cars on short trips with little baggage. Compared
with four-wheel transport, they use little energy.
Moreover, they create less pollution and noise                                                                total
nuisance in the city and they take up less space. A test                                                     buildings
is being conducted to determine if the scooters are
user friendly, reliable and safe, and if the breakdown          10
service for these vehicles can also be properly
arranged. If this pilot project succeeds, a fleet of                                                          municipal
electric scooters may be purchased.                                                                          vehicle fleet
                                                                               2006                       2015

Parts of the solution

City Districts

A better climate is not a project that can be ‘quickly arranged’ from City Hall.
Like-minded partners with shared objectives create the basis for success. The City
Districts play an important role in this process. The following is a selection from a
number of appealing neighbourhood projects.

Online monitoring                                                 Step2Save
This year the ‘Online monitoring of municipal buil-               Step2Save is a cooperative project involving Nuon,
dings’ will be expanded to all locations. This initiative         the Municipality of Amsterdam, eleven City Districts
of ARC gives the building manager insight at all times            and the Far West and Ymere housing associations.
into the energy use of the building. For example, this            Step2Save aims for CO2 reduction, lower energy bills
makes it clear if the technical installations are properly        for tenants and trains unemployed young people to
adjusted, if weekends and holidays have been taken                become energy advisers. Objectives: a CO2 reduction
into account or if there are undesired peaks in energy            of approximately 200 kg per household per year and
use. New instruments in the programme include re-                 annual savings of 70 on energy costs. Of the 10,000
mote energy management, comparing the energy                      targeted households in the subsidised rental sector,
use of buildings and monitoring energy billing. Online            5,000 were successfully approached by the end of
monitoring is an important precondition for active                May. The project will continue until October 2008.
energy management and can lead to energy savings of
5 to 10%. At present, more than 100 municipal offices,             Solar power on your roof is easy
schools, sport complexes and municipal services are               In the summer of 2007, Project Bureau ARC, toge-
taking part in online monitoring.                                 ther with the province of North Holland and Bes-
                                                                  seling Installatie/Kapitein, conducted the ‘Zon op
Energy Survival                                                   je dak’ campaign for the City Districts of Amster-
This year Project Bureau ARC, on behalf of the Net-               dam. The aim of the campaign was to promote
herlands Climate Union (Klimaatverbond Nederland)                 solar energy systems among the owners/residents
is again holding the Energy Survival programme in                 in the city Private owners could obtain a subsidy
Amsterdam. In this programme, children learn about                on the purchase of a solar energy system. Due to
the importance of energy savings and sustainable                  the campaign, 152 photovoltaic systems and 20
energy during an exciting and educational discovery               solar boilers were installed. The CO2 reduction
expedition. The young people emphatically take com-               amounts to 49,000 kg per year During the lifespan
mand to learn more about sustainable energy use. The              of the solar energy systems, this will amount to
programme comprises reading materials, an Energy                  approximately 1000 tonnes of CO2
Survival day and the TV show Energy Survival. In 2007,
seven groups from Amsterdam primary schools took                  Climate Cafés
part. The Watergraafsmeerse School Association ulti-              In 2008, fifteen Climate Cafés will be held by
mately won the Energy Survival day.                               WISE on behalf of the Amsterdam City Districts.
                                                                  This is a simple but very effective concept to
                                                                  reach new target groups. In a pub or coffee
                                                                  house, a discussion about climate topics is held
                                                                  while the participants enjoy a drink.
                                                                  The attendees become involved with the theme
                                                                  by means of an exciting climate quiz, among
                                                                  other methods. The substantive climate discus-
                                                                  sion is alternated with music and/or comedy.

New Amsterdam Climate

 Sustainable energy in urban renewal
 The Institute for Environmental Studies of VU
 University, the General Housing Association
 (Algemene Woningbouwvereniging) and the
 Geuzenveld-Slotermeer City District are jointly
 pursuing a broadly supported package of CO2-
 reducing measures that will be used during
 renovation projects.

 Residents, project managers of City Districts
 and housing associations are working together
 in a dialogue and workshop programme which
 emphasises the importance and feasibility of CO2-
 reducing measures and provides technologies with
 which the reduction will be achieved. The aim is to
 develop a method with which the project leaders
 can get started in concrete terms.

 Heat pump at the Airport Business park
 The Airport Business park Amsterdam-Osdorp
 (formerly Lutkemeer) aims to reduce its energy
 consumption by 40% and to generate 10% of the
 required energy sustainably.

 To this end, the business park is using a                  CENTRUM
 groundwater system with decentral heat pumps               Air curtains
 and is taking advantage of a subsidy scheme to      For busy shops, open doors are more the rule
 realise 10,000 m² of solar panels. Companies at     than the exception. Usually the inside temperature
 the business park are required to connect to the    is maintained by using a warm air curtain at the
 system. Natural gas lines will not be installed –   entrance. This is very costly for the business and is
 therefore no alternative is available.              not very good for the environment. The City District
                                                     Centrum wants to help the shops and the environment
                                               Amsterdam: 24,5%them about replacing the warm air
 Airport Business park Amsterdam-Osdorp (formerly    by talking with
 Lutkemeer) is a joint development of the Osdorp     curtains with alternatives that are at least 50% more
 City District and the Schiphol Area Development     energy efficient.
                                                  buiten beschouwing
                                                     For this purpose, a pilot study has been planned
                                                     where dan 20%
                                                  minder selected shops will use an 25% – < 29%
                                                                                         energy-efficient air
                                                     As                                  attention will be
                                                  20% part of the pilot study, special 29% – < 33%
                                                         – < 25%
                                                     paid to the effect of the environmentally friendly

                                                                                                       City Districts

 European demonstration project                               outer shell of the buildings and by switching from a
 Noord Is working on the sustainable renovation               collective heating system using gas-fired boilers to
 project ‘Plan van Gool’. As part of this project,            2000 m² of solar collectors.
 1,170 houses will be renovated in a sustainable
 fashion. This will be done, among other ways,                The City District Amsterdam-Noord is a partner in this
 by greatly improving the insulation of the                   European demonstration project. It is an excellent
                                                              example of energy savings and the use of sustainable
                                                              energy in existing buildings.

                                                              Sustainable renovation
                                                              In 2006 and 2007, the Far West housing association
                                                              implemented an environmentally friendly housing
                                                              renovation project involving a building complex with
                                                              192 units (blocks of flats with shared entrance halls
                                                              and regular flats) on the Piet Mondriaanstraat and
                                                              surrounding area. Far West commissioned a study
                                                              to determine which environmental measures would
                                                              be most effective and also took affordability into

                                                              The resulted in an ambitious package of renovation

                                                              ■   new draft-window free frames, with integrated
                                                              ■   the most energy-efficient window glass (HR++);
                                                              ■   new well-insulated façades;
                                                              ■   sloped roofs insulated from inside;
                                                              ■   insulation for ceilings of ground floor storage
                                                              ■   new high-efficiency boilers (HR-107);
                                                              ■   shower cubicles with wastewater heat recovery;
                                                              ■   500 m² of solar cells on the roofs (with funding
alternative on the accessibility of the shop, which is            from the province);
an essential aspect for the business. Depending on            ■   recycled brick. The sustainable renovation of an
the results, a plan to apply this sustainable solution            adjacent housing complex is in preparation.
on a larger scale will be developed. Nine other City
Districts have also joined this project.

Partners: DA chemists, Besam, DMB, fire department,
Association of Midsize and Small Businesses, Centrale
Stad, Chamber of Commerce, Centrum and nine other
City Districts.

New Amsterdam Climate

Laan van Spartaan
Where football fields were once located, in
several years 1000 new housing units will be
built, including sports accommodations, a parking
garage and social facilities. All houses will be
connected to district heating provided by the
Waste Energy Company (Afval Energie Bedrijf).
This will achieve a significant reduction in the use
of fossil fuels and prevent the emission of 1,100 kg
of CO2 per house per year.

Cooperating partners: Bouwfonds, Ymere and
Bos en Lommer City District

Sustainable City District office
This year, the new City District office for
Zuideramstel will be completed. The building
complex also contains housing units and a
parking garage. The project location is the Kop
Rivierenbuurt and is part of the Zuidas. Regarding
energy and sustainability, a number of measures
have been taken that have led among other things
to the Energy Performance Coefficient being 33%
better than the legal requirement. These measures
■    Green roof system that serves as a buffer
     during heavy rainfall and provides extra
■    Underground thermal storage. This reduces the
     CO2 emissions by more than 60%
■    Application of all fixed measures and more than
     30% of the variable measures from the National
     Sustainable Building Scheme.                          ZUIDOOST
■    The architectonic design of the building shell is     Energy savings for primary schools
                                                  Amsterdam: 24,5% the province of North Holland, the
     flexible and adaptable so that the building can        Together with
     grow along with changes in the future.                Environmental & Building Department and the
     Use of sustainably produced hardwood and              school administrations
                                                       buiten beschouwing Sirius and Bijzonderwijs,
     softwood.                                             City District Zuidoost has developed an energy
■    Avoiding materials that contaminate the               savings campaign for 24 primary schools. Schools
     rainwater.                                        minder dan 20% consumption were– < 29%
                                                           with a high energy             25% required to
                                                           participate in the energy study.
Partners: Zuideramstel City District, Dura Vermeer     20% – < 25%                        29% – < 33%
Real Estate, Rochdale/Delta Forte, Claus and Kaan          The schools were given a 1,000 subsidy and
architects, OTH interior architects, Zonneveld             assistance in implementing the very practically
engineering bureau.                                        oriented advice.

                                                                                                       City Districts

                                                              Since the first of July 2007, a Turby windmill
                                                              has been proudly turning on the Flevohuis. The
                                                              machine stands 12 m high and supplies enough
                                                              electricity for two households. The installation of
                                                              the wind turbine is a co-production involving the
                                                              City District and the Ymere housing association.
                                                              Each party paid half of the 20,000 cost. As the
                                                              owner of the Flevohuis, Ymere manages the wind
                                                              turbine. City District Zeeburg was responsible for
                                                              the planning and the environmental-legal issues
                                                              involved with the installation.

                                                              City District office
                                                              Oost-Watergraafsmeer is building a new City
                                                              District complex in the Polderweggebied which
                                                              will also house the Centre for Visual Arts,
                                                              Entrepreneurs Centre Oost-Watergraafsmeer and
                                                              de Kraal school.
                                                              The building will be completed this year.

                                                              Environmental measures:
                                                              ■ thermal storage (for the entire area) and heat
                                                              ■ concrete core activation (low temperature);
                                                              ■ high insulating value for the façade, floor and
                                                              ■ additional sealing of cracks against infiltration;
                                                              ■ boiler optimisation;
                                                              ■ speed regulation of fans and pumps;
                                                              ■ high-frequency lighting;
Following the completion of the project, the school           ■ presence detection;
administrations continued with energy management              ■ heat recovery ventilation.
on a no cure, no pay basis. In this way, saving energy
becomes anchored in the organisation.                         As a result of the above measures, the Energy
                                                              Performance Coefficient (EPC) is 50% better than
                                                              required in the National Building Regulations
                                                              This performance can be improved even further if
                                                              wind turbines and solar cells can be installed on the
                                                              roof (currently under study).

New energy for Amsterdam

Sustainable energy

Take 0.01% of the astonishing quantity of sustainable energy in the form of wa-
ter power, wind energy or solar radiation that flows unused every day through
the oceans, rivers and atmosphere. This is enough to supply the entire global
economy with energy. To bring the discussion somewhat closer to home, waste is
also an excellent source of energy, and is partly a source of renewable energy! It
is time for Amsterdam to use this source of energy.

The climate issue, the dependence on fossil fuel im-               A second precondition is therefore that there are
ports, the available and economic opportunities during             parties who install, maintain and manage the solar
the transition to other energy sources....                         installations on a contract basis, and sell the generated
This is why Amsterdam has decided how much sustai-                 energy to a power company. New Amsterdam Climate
nable energy will be generated within the municipality             sees possibilities in the roof area of Amsterdam being
in 2025. This amounts to 20% of the energy requi-                  used by solar power companies.
rements of Amsterdam in 2025, if policy does not
change. If there is a climate policy that results in redu-         At the national level as well, preparations are taking
ced energy demand, the share of sustainable energy                 place for the large-scale rollout of solar photovoltaic
could be as high as 30%. This is a very high percentage            systems in the built environment. Therefore New Am-
in view of the limited availability of space in a city like        sterdam Climate, in cooperation with the Ministry of
Amsterdam.                                                         Economic Affairs, financiers and the energy sector,
                                                                   wants to develop a concept that can be put on the
This potential can become reality by upscaling the                 market in the foreseeable future.
technologies that are already being used in Amster-
dam.                                                               Possibilities to make the roof area of Am-
■ solar energy from solar panels, thin-film PV, solar               sterdam available to solar power compa-
    boilers and solar-oriented buildings                           nies for commercial exploitation
■ wind energy from different types of wind turbines
■ water for cooling                                                Wind energy
■ energy from biomass: waste                                       New wind turbines could be installed at various loca-
■ thermal storage and district heating                             tions in the city. The available space in Amsterdam for
                                                                   large wind turbines is limited, but the new wind loca-
Solar energy                                                       tion map (see page 48) shows the potential and the
According to the latest insights, after 2016 the price             possibilities for initiatives. Installing small wind turbines
per kWh for solar energy will be equal to the price paid           on roofs is an option that requires further study.
by a private party for electricity from the grid. Profita-          This year (2008) Amsterdam will present its vision on
ble exploitation of solar energy is on the horizon. To
achieve this, two preconditions must always be satis-              Sea wind
fied.                                                               Offshore wind turbine parks have become a serious
                                                                   business. In Denmark, sea wind is already providing
First, there must be sufficient space to install solar              20% of the national energy requirements. England
panels, solar boilers or thin-film PV. In Amsterdam, this           and Germany are also harvesting sea wind. In the
is no problem whatsoever: businesses, houses, offices               Netherlands, a permit request for wind turbine parks
(municipal and private) and schools have several million           on the North Sea is currently being evaluated. Near
m² of roof area. There are parties who want to make                IJmuiden, the windpark Amalia (Q7) has been taken
their roofs available without having the ambition of               into use by Eneco.
investing in and managing the solar systems.

New Amsterdam Climate

this possibility. The lack of space within Amsterdam can        Heat and cold
be compensated by participating in wind parks on the            For supplying heat and cold, technologies are available
North Sea. Amsterdam is taking this option into serious         at the household, building complex or district level.
consideration.                                                  At the level of individual households, the solar boiler
                                                                is one possibility. At the project level, at dozens of
Biomass                                                         locations in Amsterdam companies are using a thermal
Amsterdam is already using biomass from municipal               storage installation for heating and cooling. This is
waste and sewage sludge to generate sustainable heat            an efficient technology which has been accepted by
and electricity. The trams and the metro, for example,          the market and will continue to grow significantly. At
operate on this electricity. The electricity generation         the district level, Amsterdam has a growing district
takes place at the Waste and Energy Company (AEB),              heating grid. Ultimately this grid will form a ring with
where slightly more than half of the incinerated waste          an Amsterdam. To achieve this, it is essential that the
from non-fossil origin can be considered to be bio-             new locations of Buiksloterham and Zeeburgereiland
mass.                                                           are connect to the district heating grid.

By expanding the district heating network of AEB                For project developers, thermal storage is often more
and connecting more houses and businesses to this               interesting in financial terms than connecting to district
network, even more benefits can be obtained from                 heating.
biomass (see thermal storage). Increasing the sales of          In order to find a good balance, the municipality will
residual heat is currently being studied. For example           have to start directing this process. To this end, a
the heat could be purchased by Ecoport, a sustainable           theme been established for the programme managers
business park that will be realised in phases. In ad-           in the spatial planning sector.
dition, with the hypermodern High-efficiency Power-
plant, the generation capacity and energy efficiency of          Sustainability is just as important with the delivery of
AEB will increase. At present, the biomass incineration         cold as it is with the delivery of heat. However it is
of AEB is good for a reduction in CO2 emissions of              more difficult to realise this on a large scale, because
approximately 350 kt per year, and this will rise to no         deep water (in this case the source of cold) is not
less than 550 kt per year! Another possibility worth            always available. The Zuidas and the Zuidoostlob are
noting is the combustion (or gassification) of grown             using a cold grid that is fed with deep water from the
biomass, either imported or produced domestically.              Nieuwe Meer and the Ouderkerkerplas. Waternet and
This approach could, for example, increase the share of         NUON are working closely together on this project.
biomass in large-scale energy production. However, we           For Teleport, a study is being conducted about the
are still at the beginning of this development, which           feasibility of a cold grid that will use AEB heat for
is subject to criticism. Food supplies and biodiversity         absorption cooling.
must certainly not suffer in order to produce biomass.
                                                                More and more ‘green’ electricity
Another direction in energy production from biomass             In Amsterdam, 37% of the households are already
has been given attention in a study taking place at the         using ‘ green’ electricity (from sustainable sources).
Sciencepark, where Waternet is working with Aqua-               This is slightly more than the national average of 33%
phyto to explore the possibilities of producing algae           (source: Milieucentraal). An interesting aspect is the
in-house.                                                       growth during the past two years, especially among
                                                                young people. The 40 to 60 age group is lagging
Waste & Energy Company is already a lar-                        behind.
ge producer of sustainable energy, and this                     In 2009 a major campaign is launched in cooperation
will only increase in the future!                               with energy suppliers to encourage private parties as
                                                                well as companies to switch to green electricity.

                                                                                                          Sustainable energy

                                                                 Avoided CO2 emissions in 2025
Process & Partners
To greatly increase the production of sustainable                due to sustainable heat and cold infrastructure, (in kg/
energy, cooperation is essential. This is why the Cli-           m2 GFO)

mate Office and the parties that can make this pos-
sible are coming into contact with each other.
The partners in this endeavour include not only
energy companies, but also businesses that offer
sustainable energy products. Cooperation also me-
ans joint pilot projects and experimental projects to
learn about the obstacles and bottlenecks that we
will encounter along the way. A good example is
the cooperation with City District Noord. This City
District wants to take an integrated approach to the
                                                                      50 or more
local upscaling of wind energy, in close cooperation
                                                                      10 to 50
with the residents, by supporting a citizen initiative
                                                                      1 to 10
in this area.
                                                                      0 to 1
This project is based on a Master Plan, which can
also be used in potential frameworks of cooperation
involving the Climate Office and other City Districts.
Cooperation also means that the Climate Office and
the market join together to look for suitable locati-
ons for test facilities for various types of small wind
turbines. For businesses, this support can enormous-
ly accelerate the step to the professional market. To
find suitable roofs for installing solar panels, a similar
process takes place, but then in cooperation with
housing associations and energy companies.
The perspective for all implementation projects is a
clear growth potential until 2025, a target date that                 Avoided CO2 emissions due to Sustainable Energy
Amsterdam has set for itself. The Climate Office is          1200

the ideal party for facilitating contact between other                                                              total
parties, for example by means of conferences.

In this way, expertise can be shared and initiatives
can be transformed into frameworks of cooperation            800
for implementing projects. In this role, the munici-
pality listens carefully in order to pick up possible        600
signals about obstacles and bottlenecks that it might                                                            district heating
                                                                                                                 and thermal
be able to influence directly, for example by means                                                               storage
of municipal regulations and enforcement.                    400
Partners: housing associations, City Districts, AEB,         200
Port of Amsterdam, Waternet, Nuon, Greenchoice,                                                                     Solar

Eneco, Windvogel, Mijn CO2 Spoor, Meewind, CE
Delft, Enerquest
                                                                                   2006                         2025

The new approach to building

New construction

In recent years, the energy performance norm for newly built houses has been
increased step-by-step. By the year 2020, the national government wants to
achieve ‘zero energy’ houses. This method has been effective: today, a newly
built house uses 70% less gas for heating than the average existing house.
Nevertheless, this step-by-step increase has a major            expansion of the housing inventory is relatively limi-
disadvantage because builders try to satisfy the norms          ted, the cumulative effects are still significant. Accor-
by installing more and more apparatus and equipment             ding to the energy savings rate stipulated by the na-
in the house. By taking this path, we encounter limits:         tional government, natural gas consumption will incre-
structural complications and higher costs. A growing            ase by almost 4.5%, and in new housing the gas meter
group of market parties has indicated that there is             will continue to turn at this rate for the long lifespan of
a much more direct way to advance to very energy-               the buildings! With the accelerated savings proposed
efficient new construction. Amsterdam is giving these            by Amsterdam, the increase in gas consumption would
parties room to act and is thereby setting course to            be cut in half and electricity consumption would de-
a new standard: climate-neutral construction. These             cline by 30%.
houses will be more expensive than standard new
construction, but this additional price is compensated          The new standard for climate-neutral
by lower energy costs. On balance, these houses will            construction will also apply to new
actually be cheaper. Therefore, the municipality does           construction for offices and businesses.
not see any necessity to compensate the extra costs
by reducing the land price (and thereby reducing the
municipal income).                                              Initiatives
                                                                ■   At the Zuidas location, ABN-Amro, together
The entire process of land allocation, de-                          with other parties, developed the Dutch Green
velopment and construction will be based                            Building Council. This concept makes it possible
on this new standard.                                               to achieve a better sustainability score than is
                                                                    prescribed in the legislation.
Beginning in 2010, Amsterdam will build 32,000 hou-             ■   A group of eight market parties is working
sing units at the major locations. In 2010, four out of             on a proposal to make the Buiksloterham
ten newly built houses will be climate neutral. in 2015,            development district as climate neutral as
this will apply to all new houses. Although the annual              possible. In this context, the Noordwaarts
                                                                    Administrative Consultation Committee has
                                                                    decided that the project will be awarded to the
What is climate neutral?                                            developer with the most sustainable plan, and
A climate-neutral house does not use any fossil fuels               not necessarily to the developer with the lowest
for heating; it also uses several installed facilities              price. To compare the plans with each other,
to generate green electricity and to limit electricity              a ‘sustainability meter’ is being used. The first
consumption.                                                        experience with this approach is being acquired
                                                                    in the Buiksloterham. The intention is for many
Influencing the remaining, behaviour-linked energy                   more projects in Amsterdam Noord and other
consumption is outside the reach of the builders.                   parts of the city to start using this method .
This aspect is up to the residents. To the extent that          ■   In the Spaarndammerbuurt, the De Key housing
they do not generate green electricity themselves,                  association is starting to build climate-neutral
it is possible to purchase green electricity and in this            houses and is bringing existing houses to that
way to live in an entirely climate neutral fashion.                 level during renovation.

New Amsterdam Climate

New approach                                                    Back from the future
It won’t happen by itself! The entire process of land           On 1 January 2025, Thomas and Samira receive the
allocation, development and construction must be                key to their new house. The heating and cooling is
based on the new standard. During the development               done with groundwater. The house has its own wind
of areas, an energy strategy must be formulated at the          turbine to operate the household apparatus, and
earliest stage, which indicates what the best measures          solar collectors provide warm water.
are.                                                            The energy that they do not need will be supplied
                                                                back to the grid. When they close the door and
Such measures could include a district heating grid,            turn the key, all the household apparatus turns off,
district cold grid, thermal storage and sustainable             except for the refrigerator. Is this a remarkable
energy generation. In addition, during the design of            house? Not in 2025.
buildings it is important to make beneficial choices
regarding the orientation of houses, insulation, sustai-             Avoided CO2 emissions due
nable energy and installations. This demands a great                 to Climate-neutral New Construction
deal, not only from the municipal spatial planning of-
fice and the municipal development corporation, but

also from developers, contractors and subcontractors.           25

This new approach to building has consequences for
selecting (or preselecting) parties and for awarding

In the future, the parties want to find joint solutions
for the problems that they encounter on the path to             10
climate-neutral construction. To this end, a Leading
Group for New Construction will be established later
this year.

                                                                                2006                  2025

     New construction

A city to be won

Existing buildings

Almost half of the 385,000 housing units in Amsterdam were built before World
War II. This was a time when the energy performance norm (EPN) had not even
been invented. Only 8% of the housing units in Amsterdam have been built since
the EPN was implemented. In old houses, wasted energy is the norm. Insulation,
double glazing, efficient heating installations and good ventilation improve the
energy quality of these houses. And together with the use of sustainable energy,
this reduces CO2 emissions.

In 2006, 34% of the total emissions of CO2 in                   Reduction possibilities
Amsterdam were caused by household use of electri-              If all housing associations perform maintenance and
city, gas and heat. However, a decline of more than             renovation at a robust level until 2018, a CO2 reduc-
1% per year can be seen in the average household gas            tion of 31% is possible. If the housing associations
consumption. This reduction is due to the efforts of            continue these efforts until the target year of 2025,
the housing associations, which have been investing             the savings will rise to 37%. In that case, there will be
for many years in better insulation and high efficiency          no room to make exceptions, for example due to buil-
boilers, and the much better energy performance of              ding regulations. The reduction will be partly achieved
newly built houses.                                             by selling units, tearing down old units and building
                                                                new ones.
However, this effect has been counteracted by an in-
crease in the number of housing units and especially            The first steps have already been taken
by an increase in electricity consumption of 2% annu-           ■   Since February of 2007, the municipality has
ally. In this way, unchanged policy is leading to an in-            headed the leaders alliance in which the housing
crease in the share of household energy consumption                 associations are challenged to achieve the best
to 36%.                                                             performance. As a result, the attention for energy
                                                                    savings in existing housing has increased. In
Working together                                                    addition, the leaders alliance has led to concrete
to change the trend                                                 initiatives such as the Step2Save project (see page
Cooperation                                                     ■   Joint initiatives create a strong network. A good
All parties who have the ambition to accelerate and                 example is the presentation of a joint case study –
expand energy savings in existing housing can change                during the BouwRAI – by the housing associations
this trend by working together. Home owners play an                 Ymere, Het Oosten, De Key and the Climate
important role in this process because they can work                Office. Another example is the Network for Energy
directly on the energy quality of their houses by ma-               Savings, an initiative of the Amsterdam Federation
king decisions about insulation, double glazing, effi-               of Housing Associations. As part of this network, all
cient heating installations, good ventilation or the use            the housing associations exchange expertise about
of sustainable energy.                                              energy savings in existing housing and new housing.
                                                                ■   In the meantime, the first housing associations have
From the perspective of the municipality, the housing               formulated their sustainability policy.
associations are an important group because they own            ■   This year, the municipality and the housing
more than 50% of the housing units in Amsterdam.                    associations will jointly realise three model houses.
During the second phase, private landlords (22%)                    These models houses show what is possible to
and owner/residents (27%) will follow. It goes without              reduce CO2 emissions. The plan is to deliver these
saying that resident and tenant organisations will be               houses to their new residents at the beginning of
involved in this process.                                           2009.

New Amsterdam Climate

 FRANK BIJDENDIJK                                              ■   The Climate Office and a number of financiers
 General Director of Stadgenoot                                    are jointly seeking possibilities to aid owners
 ‘An unbridled rise in the energy bills of our tenants             associations when taking energy saving measures.
 must be brought to a halt. The energy prices are                  This concerns advice, implementing the measures
 rising much faster than the rental prices. As long as             and providing the financing for the measures.
 we are primarily using our limited reserves of gas,
 oil and coal, this trend will continue. As a result,          … there are more steps to take
 the affordability of housing is being increasingly            ■   Every year, the municipal housing service and the
 threatened. Therefore, investing in energy savings is             housing associations make agreements about the
 an absolute priority for Stadgenoot.’                             contributions that each of the associations will
                                                                   make to the aims in the housing policy agreement.
 PIETER DE JONG                                                    Climate will be an important aspect in these agree-
 Member of the Ymere Executive Committee                           ments.
 ‘Ymere attaches a great deal of importance to                 ■   In 2008, the housing associations will assign energy
 sustainability and limiting the energy costs of our               labels to most of their housing inventory. This pro-
 residents. Therefore, in 2008 Ymere will develop an               cess provides a lot of information about the cur-
 integrated sustainability policy. Over the short term,            rent state of affairs and the steps that still need to
 the focus will be on insulating our housing units. For            be taken. It is important to share this new exper-
 this purpose, we will invest many millions of euros in            tise with each other.
 existing housing during the next few years.’                  ■   A number of housing associations need to acquire
                                                                   more understanding of the energy quality of their
 PETER VAN LING                                                    housing and must begin developing a sustainability
 Director of Housing and Real Estate Maintenance                   policy.
 for De Key                                                    ■   All the housing associations together sell ap-
 ‘In 2008 De Key will tackle the housing units in                  proximately 2000 housing units per year Generally
 the Spaarndammerbuurt, which we will make CO2                     speaking, the new owner/resident does not invest
 neutral. In addition, during changes of residents,                in energy saving measures. If a housing association
 every housing unit will be provided with a high                   implemented these measures before the sale, it
 high-efficiency boiler and double glazing. We focus                could include the investment in the sales price, and
 on sustainability not only in our housing units, but              the reduction in CO2 emissions would then be as-
 also in our own organisation. For example, the new                sured.
 building for our maintenance service is being built           ■   Approximately 6% of the households in Amster-
 with a thermal storage system, our leasing policy                 dam are still receiving unmetered heat (central
 will stipulate energy-efficient cars only, and all our             heating and warm water). With a meter and an
 office materials and furniture are FSC certified.’                  individual account, energy and water consumption
                                                                   is reduced by 10 to 15%.
                                                               ■   The demands of the building code hamper far-
Ruined by the energy bill
                                                                   reaching energy savings especially in houses from
In recent years, energy prices have been rising
                                                                   the pre-war era. Due to its role in this process, the
by approximately 7.5% annually, while rents have
                                                                   municipality must find a new balance that does
been rising only 1.5%. The price increases have
                                                                   justice to both the beauty of the city and the ne-
been felt most severely in poorly isolated houses.
                                                                   cessity for energy savings.
These houses are often occupied by people with
lower incomes. Due to the rapidly increasing
                                                               Renovate at a robust level
energy prices, the relatively low rent is no longer an

                                                                                                              Existing buildings

                                                                                              Housing inventory according
                                                                                              to year of construction
Process & Partners                                            200.000
                                                                                    before 1946
The subprogramme Existing Housing Inventory be-
gan unofficially in the spring of 2007 when a number
of parties joined together in the ‘leaders alliance’.
These parties can and will improve their housing
units. A number of sessions of this group led to the
                                                              100.000                     1946-1980
launch of successful initiatives, and in the autumn
the Climate Office expanded the dialogue to include
the entire professional sector. All housing associati-                                            1981-1990
ons have joined the network, and tenants associa-                                                        1991-2000

tions also participate. Parties in real estate and ow-                                                              after 2000

ners associations will join soon. During the second                  0
phase, the subprogramme will primarily expand in
the direction of owners/residents. The Climate Of-                  Distribution of Amsterdam housing ownership
fice, SEGON and the City Districts are currently de-
veloping joint initiatives for approaching this target
group. In addition, Vastgoedbelang and the Climate
Office recently began a consultation with tenants
organisations to arrive at an energy savings agree-
                                                                          private landlord
ment for privately owned housing. The first group
of leaders has brought the entire field into motion.
The focus is now on implementation, maintaining the
leading position and making a climate agreement
with the municipality.

                                                                                          subsidised rental
Partners: Amsterdams steunpunt wonen, Amster-
dam Federation of Housing Associations, Amvest,
Bouwfonds MAB, de Alliantie Amsterdam, Bureau
                                                                     CO2 emissions from housing
Welstand, Dienst Wonen, ECN, Far West, Huurders-
                                                                     association inventory
vereniging Amsterdam, Nuon, SEGON, Stadgenoot,                500

City Districts, Stichting Eigen Haard, Stichting VvE
Belang, Vastgoedbelang, Woningstichting Rochdale,
Woonstichting De Key, Ymere.

Back from the future                                          250
2025 - Amsterdam residents laugh at the exorbitant
prices being charged for fossil fuels. Smart housing
improvements have ensured that they are much less
dependent on energy from the grid. Solar, wind,
biomass and thermal storage provide most of their
energy needs. Due to innovations in energy, they
live comfortably without sky-high energy bills.                 0
                                                                                   2006                                2025

Business climate

Small and mid-sized enterprises

In Amsterdam, there are between 15,000 and 20,000 small and mid-sized
enterprises (SMEs), such as bakeries, production companies, hotels, offices and
many others. The SMEs are an economic motor, a motor that does not pollute.
An SME programme is given shape in a broad framework of cooperation
between parties from government and business.

Energy savings is the first step to CO2 reduction.               parties involved with business park management, sup-
Over the short term, remarkable results can be                  pliers and the municipality all contribute to the realisa-
achieved with efficient apparatus and improved logis-            tion of pilot projects. The successful approaches used
tics. Possibilities for more far-reaching reductions by         by the leaders will be carefully adapted to a solution
means of very energy-efficient new construction and              which will be interesting for a large group of busines-
renovation occur during natural investment moments.             ses.
A framework of cooperation involving businesses,
SME Amsterdam, the Chamber of Commerce, ORAM                    Specific options for specific business
and the City Districts gives shape to the SME pro-              groups
gramme. During the years to come, the partners in
this programme will develop dozens of CO2 reduc-                Hotels
tion packages for specific SME groups. Key concept:              In this sector, CO2 reduction concerns the buildings,
delegating the task of saving energy. Specifically,              the technical installations and the hotel room facilities
smaller companies have little time and insufficient              (water, lighting, television, refrigerator). Here as well,
capacity. This means that the savings measures must             innovative suppliers and Green Key hotels are deve-
be implemented with a minimum of obstacles.                     loping concrete CO2 reduction options that are being
                                                                applied. These options will then be made available to
Delegating the task of saving energy:                           a large group of hotels.
energy savings measures with a minimum
of difficulty and obstacles

For three SME groups, packages of measures are al-              Delegating the task of saving energy
ready being compiled. The strategy here is to bring             In cooperation with several financial institutions and
businesses who are looking for buyers for their sustai-         energy companies, a concept is being developed
nable products into contact with businesses who want            that will make it easier for companies to benefit
to make their operations more sustainable, but don’t            from energy savings. For example, a business that
know exactly how to do this. The programme aims                 requires a new lighting installation will not have
to achieve a snowball effect in cooperation with the            to invest in this installation itself; it will repay the
leading group. For example, suppliers and installers            financed amount from the savings on its energy bill.
in the programme are working on an initiative for ef-           This concept will be tested in the near future and
ficient lighting for businesses.                                 – if successful – will be structurally included in the
                                                                other projects and expanded. SMEs are responsible
Offices, warehouses and manufacturing                            for approximately 25% of total CO2 emissions in
A brief series of business scans brings sustainable sa-         Amsterdam. The size of the accommodation and
vings and benefits into the picture and links these to           the type of activity are good indicators of the CO2
the best investment moments. These investment mo-               emission. Important items are lighting, heating,
ments range from replacing lighting, office equipment            refrigeration, apparatus for kitchens, production and
or technical installations to large-scale renovation and        offices, air-conditioning and climatisation.
new construction. Businesses, business associations,

New Amsterdam Climate

                             Shops and cafés/restaurants/catering
                             For shops, the initial focus concerns the shop facilities:
                             lighting, shop entry and apparatus.
                             Several innovative retailers and suppliers will determine
                             which possibilities are available to reduce CO2 emissions.
                             They will do this, among other ways, by reducing unnee-
                             ded lighting at night.
                             In another project, all businesses in the Utrechtsestraat
                             will be advised about simple measures and supported
                             during their implementation. With the experience ac-
                             quired during the pilot project, street managers can
                             encourage larger groups of shops to implement the solu-
                             tions. Additional expansion will take place in cooperation
                             with the City Districts.

                             The municipality is investigating possibili-
                             ties to reduce the monitoring of busines-
                             ses which have taken ‘demonstrable clima-
                             te measures’. This is already the case with
                             businesses that have a ‘Green Key’.

                              JAN PASTOR
                              Hotel de l’Europe
                              ‘Since December 2007, the first Green Key Certi-
                              ficate has been hanging on our street façade. We
                              had to do a great deal to become certified, such as
                              reducing gas and electricity consumption and repla-
                              cing incandescent lights with compact fluorescents.
                              I had not realised that the cost savings would be
                              noticeable so quickly.’

                              KEES VERHOEVEN
                              SME Amsterdam
                              ‘SME Amsterdam wants there to be a ‘ready to use’
                              line of products from which businesses can choose.
                              We will therefore encourage our members and
                              other businesses to use these products. Besides the
                              fact that they save energy and are sustainable, they
                              also lead to lower costs for the business.’

                                                                                       Small and mid-sized enterprises

                                                                    Gross floor area SME Amsterdam
Process & Partners
The SME was prominently present during the first
Climate Conference (December 2007). Key mes-                                      restaurants
sage: people want to make an active contribution
to the climate aims of the municipality. For the
Climate Office, this is partly the reason that we
                                                                    Shop space
established a separate SME programme, which
                                                                                                and production
was launched in February 2008. To begin with,                                                   facilities
we discussed the proposed course with SME Am-
sterdam, ORAM and the Chamber of Commerce.
The main focus is the development – by and for
the SME – of low threshold climate products with
                                                                               Office space
which businesses can save money and energy. The
basic principle is that businesses can delegate as
much of the energy savings task as possible.
Together with business associations and/or indi-
vidual businesses, the first initiatives are being
taken for low threshold products (and especially
for their application) in cafés/restaurants & retail,
hotels, business parks, offices, warehouses and
production facilities. SME Amsterdam, ORAM
and local business associations are supporting the
various initiatives. The results will be presented at
the annual conference of SME Amsterdam.

Partners: Amsterdamse Innovatie Motor (AIM),
ATCB, Building Enver, De Bakkerswinkel (War-
moesstraat), Eco-Logisch, ElseWear, Energie-
centrum MKB, Etaloid, Fanu, Goede Waar & Co,
GreenHost, HM Architecten, Koreman Lichton-                         CO2 emissions by SME
derhoud, KvK, MKB Amsterdam, NUON, ORAM

industry manager, Philips Lighting, Rabobank Gre-
ater Amsterdam, Search, Stichting Collusie, Trilux,
Triodos, Van Gansewinkel.

Back from the future
Doing business in the Amsterdam of the future is an
amazing experience. The beneficial business climate
of the capital city of the Netherlands has attracted
many innovative businesses. Climate-conscious
businesses not only save money, they also work
in a new environment. Climate-neutral shopping
districts draw visitors from the Netherlands and
abroad, visitors who come not only to shop…
                                                                                   2006                2025

From data centre to playstation


Computers and automation reduce the workload and can replace energy-wasting
processes. But ICT also generates a world of new possibilities and has its own
dynamics which result in a significant energy consumption. Communication
Centre Amsterdam is accepting the challenge to combine the rapid
developments in ICT with energy savings.

The ICT sector plays an important role in the local eco-            The leaders in the Amsterdam ICT sector and the Cli-
nomy. The sector offers direct employment to 9% of                  mate Office are developing the Green-IT programme.
the professional population in Amsterdam. Moreover,                 This initiative aims to reduce the CO2 emissions of ICT
virtually all other economic sectors in Amsterdam have              technology in households and businesses. In addition,
a strong relationship with ICT. For example, consider               Green-IT is looking for possibilities to use ICT else-
the importance of computers and Internet for the cre-               where in the economic system to achieve CO2 reduc-
ative industry, telecom, the financial sector, universities          tion. The programme will gradually comprise initiatives
and research institutes and other businesses and orga-              focusing on various issues, target groups and effects. In
nisations, including the municipality itself. In short, a           2008, the focus will be on reducing the CO2 emissions
healthy and innovative ICT sector is very important for             of data centres: Green DC.
Amsterdam. Attention for the electricity consumption
of the sector is relevant, even more so if its expected             In Green DC
rapid growth is taken into account. The same applies                ■   companies will be provided with knowledge about
to the use of ICT technology in households and offices.                  the necessity of sustainable energy consumption
                                                                        and about the available possibilities (technical and
 ANWAR OSSEYRAN                                                         otherwise);
 Director of Sara and Chair of the Green-IT initiative              ■   together with the sector, it will be determined how
 Sustainability is not only about saving money, it is                   the municipality can help businesses contribute to
 especially about continuity, and later on: growth. Busi-               the municipal CO2 target;
 ness people who embrace sustainability can create                  ■   initiatives of leaders will be put in the spotlight for
 more with less; later on, they will have the market.’                  the sector;
                                                                    ■   data centres and the municipality will make volun-
 NIELS SIJPHEER                                                         tary climate agreements.
 researcher at Energy Research Centre
 of the Netherlands                                                 Other components of Green-IT
 ‘In the ICT sector, there is still a great deal of low-han-        ■   The Climate Office participates in the annual In-
 ging ‘energy fruit’ to be picked, certainly if compared                novation Award ICT & CO2 of Digikring; this award
 with other sectors.’                                                   aims to challenge the ICT sector and the creative
                                                                        SME in Amsterdam to come up with solutions
 BAS BOORSMA                                                            for energy issues. The Office assigns one project
 Head Connected Urban Development, Cisco                                leader and one communications officer to help
 ‘ICT helps to reduce costs and energy consumption                      organise the event and provides the prize money.
 and increases comfort. My advice is to do the same                     Marijke Vos from the municipal executive presents
 thing with information that we have done with water                    the award.
 in our modern societies: bring it to the user, instead             ■   The energy performance of municipal ICT is exa-
 of bringing the user to the information. After all, we                 mined: energy criteria for purchasing; using ICT
 don’t get stuck in a traffic jam to get water at the                    technology to save energy within the municipal
 well?’                                                                 organisation; energy savings in the municipal infra-

New Amsterdam Climate

Growing demand for sustainability                                 During the years to come, more and more Amsterdam
The wishes of clients can also make the sector be-                data centres will become aware of this situation and
come more sustainable. Large companies (with good                 will also understand the possibilities to perform well in
examples in the financial world) and government agen-              this regard.
cies are increasingly placing demands on the sustaina-            For example, during new construction, the centres will
bility of the products and services that they buy. In this        aim for the greatest possible energy efficiency. The
way, the market must also increasingly provide insight            leaders in this area will become apparent, even more
into its energy efficiency and the sustainability of the           so because of the spotlights that shine on them in pro-
energy that is used.                                              jects in which they participate (such as Green DC).

 Data centres and energy costs
 A data centre or data hotel is a commercial buil-                 ICT and energy
 ding where computer servers – for example those                   In 2006 electricity consumption of the Amsterdam
 of Internet providers – operate under controlled                  ICT sector was equivalent to the electricity con-
 climate conditions. In recent years, computer                     sumption of 44,000 average Dutch households.
 technology has become much ‘heavier’ due to the                   Converted to the share in the CO2 emissions of all
 wishes of clients and the rapid technological deve-               Amsterdam businesses, this amounts to 6%; with
 lopment. As a result, the energy consumption has                  respect to Amsterdam as a whole, this is 2%.
 grown sharply, also the energy that is needed for
 the air-conditioning/cooling (approximately 30%                   The expected growth in the ICT sector is ap-
 of the electricity consumption) that the centres                  proximately 8% per year. Viewed from a broader
 require.                                                          perspective, the significant electricity consumption
                                                                   for ICT use in households and offices could also be
 A number of companies perform significantly                        included. Approximately 25% of the household elec-
 better with the aid of innovative cooling systems                 tricity consumption is used by ICT apparatus, and
 and the use of sustainable energy. This provides                  offices consume approximately 27 kWh per m2 per
 environmental benefits and a better competitive                    year for this purpose. It is especially the ICT use in
 position because the energy costs are a steadily                  households that is expected to increase strongly in
 increasing part of the total operational costs.                   the years to come.

            power provision
                                                                                0.1 TWh/

                                                                                0.2 TWh/year        households
                              ICT apparatus                                                       0.3 TWh/year


Connected Urban Development
                                                              Process & Partners
As part of the Clinton Global Initiative, Amsterdam is
                                                              The municipality and ICT businesses from greater
working together with Seoul, San Francisco and Cisco
                                                              Amsterdam are jointly discussing the theme of ICT
on making cities more sustainable (climate-friendly)
                                                              and energy use. For example, the initial meeting of
with the aid of ICT (the ‘Connected Urban Develop-
                                                              the Green DC initiative was attended by representa-
ment’ programme - CUD). ICT plays a role in monito-
                                                              tives of 35 organisations including data centres, ICT
ring and in finding solutions, such as creating green
                                                              multinationals, universities and research institutes,
buildings or smarter transport methods.
                                                              the national government and the sector association.
                                                              In a series of follow-up meetings (partly in parallel)
In principle, the measures developed in the program-
                                                              various programme lines were worked out in greater
me must be reproducible in other cities and countries.
                                                              detail. The Climate Office facilitated this process by
Therefore, in addition to developing, testing and
                                                              paying the organisational costs, commissioning exter-
implementing measures, the dissemination of the ac-
                                                              nal advisors and providing a project leader who was
quired expertise also has a high priority.
                                                              responsible for personal contact with the network of
                                                              businesses and the substantive line of the Green DC
The Amsterdam contribution to the CUD programme is
                                                              initiative. In addition, the deliberately chosen atmosp-
the following: research (conducted by the municipality
                                                              here of creative competition (the Innovation Award)
and the business community) into the potential role of
                                                              encouraged solutions.
Smart Work Centres to control traffic jams; developing
a Personal Transport Assistant; research into methods
                                                              Partners: AIM, ASP4all, BT Nederland N.V., Cisco Sys-
for using modified ICT to reduce the CO2 emissions of
                                                              tems, Colt, DELL, Digikring, ECN, Equinix, EvoSwitch,
offices; the results from Green DC.
                                                              EZ, F-fectis, Getronics – Pinkroccade, Global Switch,
                                                              HP, IBM, ICT-Office, Intel. Interxion, KPN, Level3,
Reducing the CO2 emissions of data cen-
                                                              Microsoft, Pins, Sara/Netherlight, SenterNovem, Serv-
tres is the main focus of Green DC
                                                              icehuis ICT, Sun, Microsystems, TelecityGroup, TNO
                                                              ICT.SenterNovem, Servicehuis ICT, Sun, Microsystems,
                                                              TelecityGroup, TNO ICT.

                                                                    CO2 emissions by ICT infrastructure

Back from the future
In 2025, the retirement home is maintained at a
pleasant temperature thanks to the heat production
of the data hotel around the corner. We no longer
waste energy on cooling and the servers operate                60
on a fraction of the energy that they previously
required. Of course, this energy is sustainable. The
ICT sector has developed smart software with which
the entire city can manage, limit and optimise its
energy consumption.
                                                                              2006                            2025

Alternatives on the Road


New fuels and new legislation are leading to vehicles with reduced emissions and
are reducing the amount of transport. This has improved the quality of the air
and has reduced CO2 emissions. This section provides an overview of measures,
plans and possibilities.

In the years to come, the CO2 emissions from vehicles            port such as City Cargo, Mokum Mariteam, and bicy-
will decline due to more stringent European norms                cle couriers will also make a significant contribution to
and national instruments. In 2012, the average pas-              CO2 reduction.
senger car must not emit more than 130 g of CO2 per
travelled km. Today, this is approximately 200 g. The            The Priority for a Healthy City programme is an ambi-
Netherlands aims to go even further, to 80 g per km in           tious plan to reduce the air pollution caused by traffic
2020. In that year, the transport sector will be required        within the Ring A10. An environmental zone for pas-
to use at least 10% biofuel.                                     senger cars and vans and a maximum speed of 80 kph
                                                                 on the major road network will also make a substantial
More and more automobile manufacturers are deve-                 contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Discussion
loping hybrid or bi-fuel vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have          is still taking place about the implementation of this
both an electrical motor and a petrol motor on board.            measure with the Ministry of Transport, Public Works
One example of a bi-fuel system is a motor that burns            and Water Management.
both natural gas and petrol.
                                                                 The automobile and truck are experien-
Experiments are taking place with other sustainable,             cing healthy competition
low-CO2 or CO2-free fuels such as biogas or hydro-
gen (see below). In the Netherlands, it is expected              Making vehicles more environmentally friendly
that the implementation of road-use pricing will have            Various pilot studies, initiatives and projects will lead to
major environmental benefits. This levy will apply to             cleaner mobility during the years to come. First of all, the
heavy commercial vehicles in 2011 and a year later to            existing means of transport in the city will be made more
passenger cars. The aim is not to tax the possession             sustainable. This means more electric scooters, tuktuks
of a vehicle, but the use of a vehicle, and thereby to           and tour boats operating on hydrogen.
discourage its use. In addition, there are proposals to
replace the private motor vehicle tax with a CO2 tax.            Beginning in 2009, CityCargo will be operating a goods
This taxation would promote the purchase of new, ef-             tram. The municipality is consulting with TCA about the
ficient and low-emission passenger cars.                          possibilities of using cleaner taxis to reduce air pollution
                                                                 and CO2 emissions.
The Action Plan for Goods Transport and the Priority             Waternet recently began generating biogas from waste-
for a Healthy City programme have the objective of               water treatment plants to supply green fuel for the muni-
improving the air quality in Amsterdam. Some of the              cipal vehicle fleet. Over the longer term, Waternet aims
measures that restrict the emissions of particulate mat-         to convert the biogas into hydrogen.
ter and nitrogen dioxide also lead to a reduction in
CO2 emissions. The aim of the Action Plan for Goods              Electrical transport on the path to hydrogen
Transport is to reduce the emissions of heavy commer-            Hydrogen is a ‘third wave’ solution, a fuel for the long
cial vehicles by 15%. An environmental zone for such             term. As an interim step on the path to hydrogen,
heavy vehicles will restrict the most polluting ones.            Amsterdam wants to promote electrical transport.
The implementation of the quality network for goods              Electrical vehicles have zero emissions; this is good
transport and promoting other forms of goods trans-              for the air quality and therefore good for the health of

New Amsterdam Climate

the residents. Electrical transport has many similarities
with hydrogen transport.                                         Back from the future
                                                                 Various local and European measures have not only
Both are driven by an electrical motor, in the first case         resulted in cleaner transport, but also in a reduction in
with a battery and in the second case with a fuel cell.          individual automobile use.

The developments in this area moving fast. More and              Boats and trams have become serious competitors
more manufacturers are producing an electrical or hy-            for trucks. The city has again become accessible.
brid vehicle for the market. In addition, electrical vans
and trucks are going to be driving through the city.             The only vehicles and vessels that still operate in the
                                                                 Amsterdam of 2025 are those which do not harm
And on the canals, there are more and more electri-              the climate or people’s lungs. Hydrogen is the motor
cally powered pleasure boats. Electrical scooters can            of Amsterdam. Half of the intercity transport has
be recharged in the parking stalls. As a result, the
                               1500                              a fuel cell on board. Cleaner air and a spectacular
street landscape is going to soon become quieter and             reduction in CO2 emissions are the rewards for such
cleaner.                                                         technological daring. Boats, buses and cars have
                                                                 hydrogen filling stations to choose from. Goods
Climate benefits from action plans for                            transport and people both benefit.
healthy city air
                                1000                             The knowledge economy, innovative business and
Fewer vehicles                                                   sustainable development feed on hydrogen.
As the municipal parking policy becomes more
stringent, and mobility becomes more expensive,                  Amsterdam is the European leader.
more people will start sharing a car. Greenwheels,
Wheels4All, Connect-Car en Mobility Mixx have alrea-
dy discovered this opportunity. It is known that people
who share cars drive 30 to 50% less than car owners.

Waterways as blue carpets
As a node in the water transport network, the water-                    CO2 emissions from traffic and transport
ways of Amsterdam offer more transport possibilities             2000

that are currently being used. City District Centrum
wants to improve accessibility by utilising these pos-

It plans to encourage and facilitate market parties
with a network of public docking facilities and quays.
Cooperation between the municipality and hotels,                 1500
museums, cafés and restaurants and tour boat opera-
tors appears to be an obvious step. One initiative that
is outstandingly compatible with the plans is Mokum
Mariteam, a framework of cooperation of interested
organisations that focuses on the transport of goods
and the removal of waste using environmentally
friendly vessels on the canals of the inner city.                1000
                                                                                  2006                           2025


New Amsterdam Climate

Important role for hydrogen
Three Amsterdam city buses are already operating on hydrogen. In hybrid cars,
the use of hydrogen improves the efficiency of the motor; and the first Amster-
dam hydrogen boat is waiting to be christened.
Amsterdam is betting on hydrogen, and for that mat-              reduces local emissions of particulate matter and ni-
ter is in good company, because globally the automo-             trogen oxides, which benefits urban air quality. In this
bile industry, large oil companies, energy companies             way, investing in hydrogen is valuable in the battle
and governments see an important role for hydrogen               against emissions of CO2, particulate matter and nitro-
on the way to a sustainable society. Hydrogen is es-             gen oxides.
sentially only an ‘energy carrier’. It must be produced          The biggest obstacle for a broad application of hydro-
by using energy. But as an energy carrier, it is an ideal        gen is currently the infrastructure for this fuel and the
fuel. The reaction with oxygen in a combustion motor             related demand. Without a good distribution system,
or fuel cell results in water as the only waste product.         there will be no demand, and the reverse. This requi-
So this is good news for the air quality of the city.            res frameworks of cooperation and broad coalitions of
And as an energy carrier, hydrogen can form the ideal            private parties who want to play a role in the transition
link between phases such as the combustion motor                 to a hydrogen economy.
and sustainable energy sources such as photovoltaic
solar panels and wind turbines. These sustainable                A leader with hydrogen
sources generate the energy that is required to pro-             Due to the characteristics of Amsterdam, with a com-
duce hydrogen.                                                   pact city centre and a dense traffic network, there are
Even if there is too little sustainable energy available         unique opportunities for goods distribution and public
at this time for large-scale, sustainable hydrogen pro-          transport operating on hydrogen. In this process, Am-
duction, by working on a hydrogen economy we are                 sterdam can build upon experience with fuel cell buses
establishing the infrastructure for a very sustainable           and a light truck operating on hydrogen, and on ex-
future. And, of course, every application of hydrogen            perience that will soon be acquired with the tour boat


that operates on hydrogen. These experiences can help                          Fuel consumption in Europe
launch the transition to large-scale application, whereby                      development until 2050
the city will become a logical location to establish busi-         millions of vehicles
nesses with new hydrogen applications.                             300
By actively working with hydrogen, Amsterdam and the
Netherlands as a whole can acquire a position as one of
the leaders of the hydrogen world.                                 250
To achieve this objective for Amsterdam, intensive coo-
peration between a wide range of parties – local, natio-
nal and international – is required, including producers,
distributors, governmental bodies and end-users. At
the local level, a start can be made with a coalition of
public and private parties. A broadly supported vision
of the future with many applications in the city will serve
as a blueprint for a business case. In this business case,         100
the vision will be converted into a plan of approach for
rolling out the hydrogen economy in the city.
Amsterdam wants to play a leading role in a national                50
hydrogen programme. To this end, in several years a
close framework of cooperation will be established with
other urban regions (such as Rotterdam, Arnhem and
                                                                              2000         2010            2020              2030       2040    2050
Eindhoven). In this framework of cooperation, Amster-
dam will take the role of leader and will be a test site
for large-scale transport applications.

Amsterdam heads the coalition for                                                    Biofuels
acquiring an international leading position                                          CNG
in hydrogen                                                                          LPG

water > hydrogen > water                                                             Hydrogen in fuel cell vehicle
During the combustion of hydrogen (in a special com-
bustion motor, comparable to a motor that operates
on LPG) the process is reversed. During the combus-
tion process, hydrogen reacts with oxygen to create
energy (heat) and pure water. A similar reaction occurs
in a hydrogen fuel cell, but in this case the reaction
generates electricity that can drive an electric motor.
                                                                                                     H2 from solar, wind and
                                                                                                  second-generation biomass         Sustaina-
                                                                                                                                     ble H2
 Process & Partners                                                                   Reforming with CCS and
 AirProducts, Automobiliteit I.O, DMB, Ecofys, Minis-                                  production from biogas        Green
 try of Economic Affairs, Municipality of Amsterdam,

 FuelCellBoat, GVB, Port of Amsterdam, Hytruck,                                                      Fossil
                                                                                                   hydrogen       Natural gas reforming,
 ICON Publishers and Phaff, Chamber of Commerce,                                                                  central and decentral
 Nedstack, NewEnergy-Docks, ORAM, City Hall, City                                   Local
                                                                                 Production        Local electrolysis with
 District Noord, Stadsregio Amsterdam, Waternet.                                                   ‘green electricity’

Sustainable mooring

Port of Amsterdam

The Port of Amsterdam is committed to sustainable development, as shown in its
strategic plan (Havenvisie 2008-2020). This means that wind energy and thermal
storage will be expanded, business clusters will benefit optimally from waste
streams and sustainable biomass will be introduced as a motor for business.
Road transport must be replaced where possible by rail and water transport.
And of course, the Port of Amsterdam will critically examine its own operational
management to reduce CO2 emissions.
THE FIRST WAVE (2008 TO 2010)                                     the Greenmills company. This innovative company pro-
The first wave of sustainability that passes over the Port         duces biodiesel, bioethanol, compost and green electri-
of Amsterdam will bring cleaner transport and a shift to          city. Greenmills operates as a closed system, where the
cleaner energy, among other things.                               residual heat that is generated during the fermentation
                                                                  and composting process is used for the rendering plant.
Cleaner transport                                                 The Westpoortbus operates on biodiesel produced by
Since 2003, the Westpoort Bus has been operating in               Greenmills. The Port of Amsterdam aims to take a lea-
the Port of Amsterdam; this is a private initiative for           ding position in the blending and distribution of ‘green’
collective transport. Every day, between 500 and 600              fuels.
port workers take the bus instead of their cars. Nearly
two-thirds of the containers from ocean vessels are               Amsterdam: homeport of energy
transported during the next phase via rail or inland
waterways. With better transport links, this share can            Port of Amsterdam Fund
be increased even further, thereby reducing the use of            Businesses that want to make sustainable, innovative
more polluting road transport. One innovative example             investments that exceed their direct commercial needs,
is the AMSbarge, a specially designed ship for inland             or which exceed the applicable legal requirements, can
waterways with its own heavy container crane that pro-            apply for financing to a Port of Amsterdam Fund (Ha-
vides a daily pickup and delivery service for companies           venfonds), in formation.
on or near the waterways. A second ship is now on
order. The Port of Amsterdam organisation uses hybrid             To measure is to know
cars. The CO2 emissions of business trips on aeroplanes           The Environmental Policy Plan 2008-2012 calls for a
are compensated with the restoration of 30,000 ha of              baseline measurement of the CO2 emissions of West-
forest in Malaysia. This region in Malaysia is certified by        poort and the Port of Amsterdam. This measurement is
the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).                             necessary to map out the effects of later CO2 reduction
                                                                  measures. Another useful study concerns the possibili-
Three waves that will bring the Port of                           ties for providing electricity to moored ocean shipping
Amsterdam to a sustainable future!                                vessels, thermal storage for offices and distribution
                                                                  centres, and CO2 capture, storage and reuse in the port
Source of energy                                                  area. The Port of Amsterdam also wants to further opti-
At the end of 2008, wind turbines with a capacity of              mise the transport connections to the hinterland.
65 megawatts will be installed at Westpoort, which is
enough to supply 40,000 households with clean elec-               THE SECOND WAVE (2010 TO 2020)
tricity. Moreover the Energy & Waste Company (AEB),               After 2010, the Port of Amsterdam will commit itself
which generates electricity from waste, is also located           to the development of sustainable business clusters in
at Port of Amsterdam. In the years to come, the district          which products such as heat, electricity and CO2 will be
heating grid, which AEB supplies with its residual heat,          used (or reused) by the businesses. The Port of Amster-
will be expanded so that other businesses in Westpoort            dam holds a strong position on the energy market and
can also supply their residual heat to the grid.                  has a great deal of expertise in this area. The applica-
In April 2008, construction began on the new facility for         tion of more sustainable energy is therefore a logical

New Amsterdam Climate

step. This philosophy is compatible with businesses that
                                                                The Port in figures
focus, for example, on hydrogen, sustainable biomass,
                                                                Important goods that are transported through
algae production and wind energy.
                                                                the Port of Amsterdam include coal, oil, grain,
                                                                soya, animal feed, cocoa, sand, gravel and ores.
                                                                In addition, the container sector is growing and
Thanks to the first and second wave, in 2020 the Port
                                                                Amsterdam holds a strong position in the pleasure
of Amsterdam will be a sustainable port in which CO2
                                                                cruise sector. Due to this diversity, the Port is less
emissions are minimised, sustainable energy is genera-
                                                                susceptible to fluctuations in the business cycle.
ted and cycles are closed whenever possible.
                                                                The Port of Amsterdam covers an area of 2,553
                                                                ha. It has more than 900 businesses and total
Taking CO2 to the sea                                           goods transhipments of 65 million tonnes. Every
Rotterdam aims to store CO2 in an empty gas                     year, 5,600 seagoing vessels moor at the Port
field in the North Sea. For Amsterdam, this is also              (figures from 2007).
a possibility. The Climate Office commissioned
an exploratory study concerning the possibilities
of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The most
important conclusions are the following. Between
2010 and 2012, companies that emit pure CO2
(Category 1) can be connected the capture system
because the capture costs are low. When the AEB
qualifies for the Emissions Trading System, it will also
be financially possible for this company to join the
CCS scheme. At the point when about 40 has to be
paid per tonne of emitted CO2 in the Emission Trading
System, CCS will also become a serious option for
Category 2 businesses, for which the capture costs
are somewhat higher. This could mean that between
2012 and 2020, businesses from this category would
be connected to the CO2 network. However, for the
majority of the businesses (Category 3), this will still
not be an option at this point in time. Amsterdam
continues to track the developments.

                            I: 0.7 Mt

                                II: 1.6 Mt
         III: 3.8 Mt

                                                                      660 kilowatt

                                                                     3 megawatt

                                                                                                   Port of Amsterdam

        Process & Partners                                        Back from the future
        To achieve the ambitions from the strategic plan,         In 2025, the Port of Amsterdam has become an in-
        good cooperation with partners in the Amsterdam           ternational node in a clean transport network over
        region is a precondition. The Port of Amsterdam           land and on the river IJ. On the wharves, businesses
        is consulting with the businesses in the port area        use sustainable energy wherever possible or they
        to encourage and facilitate the reduction of CO2          obtain energy from their neighbours who have a
        emissions. Specifically, the cooperation with ORAM,        surplus.
        the Chamber of Commerce, New Energy Docks and
        the Climate Office is being intensified in order to
        realise the Amsterdam climate objective.

Overview of wind turbine locations

Learning environment for climate


The education sector comprises a large group of Amsterdam residents: students,
pupils, parents and teachers. In this way, education provides the opportunity to
inform a large group of people about the climate issue and about the possibi-
lities to contribute to the solution themselves. Addressing this theme becomes
even more ‘natural’ if the school accommodations are also critically examined:
the large number of educational buildings offer many possibilities for improve-
ment, where both energy savings and an improved indoor climate are within

PRIMARY EDUCATION                                                vation programme. The experience in Westerpark will
Amsterdam has 190 primary schools and 28 schools                 cause a snowball effect in the rest of the city. While
for special primary education where approximately                the buildings are being improved, the primary schools
60,000 pupils are given lessons every day. In total,             will be encouraged to anchor the themes of climate,
these schools own nearly 300 buildings and 170 gym-              energy and sustainability in the lesson programme.
nasiums. Based on the condition of many of these
buildings and their technical installations, and conside-        Within a few years, (before 2010), the primary schools
ring the possibilities to manage energy and behaviour,           De Bron, Westerparkschool and Dr. Rijk Kramerschool
it is absolutely clear that the consumption of gas and           will have a both healthy indoor climate and an out-
electricity can be reduced.                                      standing energy performance.
                                                                 During this period, the other schools in Westerpark
City District Westerpark is conducting a pilot project           will implement measures that can be realised quickly,
that allows the schools to largely delegate the impro-           such as fine-tuning the central heating system. The
vements to their buildings and that also introduces              multiyear plan also stipulates when the buildings will
climate education.                                               be renovated for energy savings and when the indoor
                                                                 climate will be improved. The school administrations in
All school administrations in the City District Wester-          Westerpark will publicise their good experiences and
park are supporting the pilot. A unique aspect is the            in this way create support in the rest of the city.
financing construction for the integrated package of
measures for energy savings and improving the indoor             All primary schools in the City District
environment.                                                     Westerpark support the pilot project for
The approach that ultimately emerges from the pilot              building improvement and climate
project will become the standard for a multiyear reno-           education.

                                                                 HIGHER EDUCATION
 DICK JANSEN                                                     VU University, the University of Amsterdam, Amster-
 Alderman for Education, City District Westerpark                dam University of Applied Sciences, InHolland, Am-
 ‘The indoor climate at primary schools is poor,                 sterdam Regional Community College and Amarantis
 and at many schools up to 40% can be saved on                   provide education to more than 150,000 students in
 energy. Therefore, Westerpark is committed to                   approximately 180 buildings. The CO2 emission of
 improving its primary schools. This is good for the             these institutions amounts to 2.5% of the total for
 learning performance of the pupils, leads to less               Amsterdam. We are going to change this situation.
 sickness and absenteeism and is of course also                  These parties endorse the climate of objective of the
 good for the climate.                                           Municipality of Amsterdam and want to contribute to
                                                                 the reduction of urban CO2 emissions.

 New Amsterdam Climate

 As part of multiyear agreements, several higher edu-
 cation institutions have already committed themselves
 to a minimum of 2% energy savings per year. In con-
 nection with the above, agreements have been made
 about energy savings in the buildings (existing and
 new construction) and involving students in the cli-
 mate objectives.

 The municipality and various parties in
 higher education share a far-reaching cli-
 mate objective

 Towards 2010
 In 2010, the institutions for higher education will
 have formulated energy savings plans that are more
 ambitious than the multiyear agreements. Every four
 years, these plans will be renewed with new climate
 initiatives. Every year, it will be determined whether
 the interim results are sufficient for achieving the ul-
 timate targets. At the very least, large-scale energy
 savings measures will be implemented that can pay for
 themselves within five years. All institutions will have
 switched to green electricity. Sustainability will be the
 basic principle for the operational management and
 new construction plans for the institutions.

      CO2 emissions related to education                          Back from the future
100                                                               In 2025 the Westerpark model has lead to healthy,

                                                                  energy-efficient primary schools throughout the
150                                                               Due to the improved indoor climate, the learning
                                                                  performance of the pupils has increased and
                                                                  the absenteeism among pupils and teachers has
                                                                  declined. The improvements have also resulted in
100                                                               energy savings of 30 to 40%. Climate, energy and
                                                                  sustainability have become permanent aspects in
                                                                  the lesson programmes in primary education.
                                                                  In higher education, due to a collective effort
50                                                                and a great deal of knowledge transfer, a CO2
                                                                  reduction of 40% has been achieved. All students
                                                                  are now aware of the climate issue and are
                                           education              personally involved in reducing CO2 emissions.
                 2004                   2025


                                                           Process & Partners
                                                           For the Education subprogramme, the Climate
                                                           Office has decided to focus the first phase
                                                           on primary education and higher education.
                                                           Secondary education will be approached at a
                                                           later stage to work out a subprogramme. For
                                                           primary education, the Climate Office invited the
                                                           City District Westerpark to participate. After the
                                                           school administrations unanimously agreed with
                                                           this request, the staff of the City District and the
                                                           school administrations proceeded to work out the
                                                           details for the pilot project. In the approach to
                                                           higher education, the most important six institutions
                                                           were first defined, followed by consultation at the
                                                           management level (between the Climate Office
                                                           and the institutions). After this or in parallel, the
                                                           ambitions for each institution were formulated,
                                                           which involved the project leader for the education
                                                           sector from the Climate Office and staff from the

                                                           Partners: Primary education: Westerpark primary
                                                           schools . Higher education: VU University, the
                                                           University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam University of
                                                           Applied Sciences, InHolland, Amsterdam Regional
                                                           Community College and Amarantis

‘Youth on Stage’ Switch Now
With the project Switch Now, well known Dutch
rapper Ali B is offering young people in the
Netherlands an opportunity to give a performance
on the climate issue. The Municipality of
Amsterdam believes it is important to also involve
young people in this issue and has therefore
provided funding for the debates in cooperation
with HIER. Ali B: ‘Climate also affects young
people. They have to face the consequences
themselves, or to put it even more strongly, young
people in developing countries already have to deal
with more extreme weather. I have noticed that this
topic is very important to young people. Therefore,
together with the young people, I want to appeal
to everyone in the Netherlands to do something
now about the climate problem, starting with HIER
at school.’

New Amsterdam Climate

 Agreements and plans

 VU University
   will commit itself to the intended CO2 reduction for the period 2009 2012 in an energy efficiency plan
   as part of its climate activities, the university will study the possibilities of involving students in an energy
   campaign, to be organised in cooperation with the Climate Office
   with new construction, sustainability is one of the basic principles in the design
   in its current accommodations, the university will apply energy savings measures that pay for themselves

 University of Amsterdam
   will commit itself to the intended CO2 reduction for the period 2009–2012 in an energy efficiency plan
   will study the possibility of generating sustainable energy at the Science Park;
   will obtain purchased electricity from hydroelectric plants in Norway;
   students – and indirectly their parents – will be involved in implementing climate activities (research, field
   trips, education, work placement, campaigns).

 Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences
   will take energy savings measures for technical installations and computer use;
   is already purchasing 25% green electricity;
   has included a sustainability section in the Planning Brief for the Amstel campus
   students – and indirectly their parents – will be involved in implementing climate activities (research, field
   trips, education, work placement, campaigns).

   in 2012 the institution will trade two Amsterdam locations for a new building at the Zuidas, in cooperation
   with the VU. Sustainability will be the basic principle in this process.

 ROC Amsterdam
   has an ambitious policy for energy, indoor climate and health, materials, water and sustainability.
   Existing buildings: energy-saving measures will be implemented which pay for themselves within 10
   New construction: regarding energy performance, the requirements are 30% more stringent than the
   legal norm.

   following a merger, the energy use in buildings is again mapped out;
   implements energy management and installs submeters to pinpoint energy use;
   formulates an energy savings plan and uses every natural opportunity to take energy savings measures;
   realises sustainable new construction and sets an example with an energy neutral school in Amsterdam

     Met energie aan de slag


     New Amsterdam Climate
     is a publication of
     the Amsterdam Climate Office

     Editing and production
     Maurits Groen Milieu & Communicatie

     v.o.f. Frink Communications
     Millingen a/d Rijn

     Tekst in Vorm


     Photographs and images
     page 1 Martijn Mulder/ Municipality of Amsterdam
     page 14 Martijn Mulder
     page 28 Far West
     page 32/34 Marqt
     page 36 Getronics-Pinkroccade
     page 44 René van den Burg

     Weesperplein 4
     P.O. Box 922
     1000 AX Amsterdam



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