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MID TERM REVIEW OF THE

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MID TERM REVIEW OF THE Powered By Docstoc
					Balochistan Fisheries Development
Study: Options for Balochistan
Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture




           A gillnetter on the beach near Pasni




September 2008
                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture



DISCLAIMER

The CSF‟s experts endeavor, using their best efforts in the time available, to provide
high quality services hereunder and have relied on information provided to them by a
wide range of other sources. However, they do not make any representations or
warranties regarding the completeness or accuracy of the information included this
report.

The information provided in this is report does not necessarily represent the views or
positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development, or the Ministry of
Finance, Government of Pakistan.


About the Competitiveness Support Fund (CSF)

The Competitiveness Support Fund (CSF) is a joint initiative of the Ministry of
Finance (MoF), Government of Pakistan and the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID). The concept of the CSF is based on similar
funds established in other economies (i.e., India, Thailand, Turkey, Ireland and
Finland) and benchmarked against these funds, structured according to the
international best practices and tailored to the current Pakistani economic
environment.

The CSF has been established to support Pakistan‟s goal of a more competitive
economy by providing input into policy decisions, working to improve regulatory and
administrative frameworks and working to enhance public-private partnerships within
the country. The CSF will also provide technical assistance and co-financing for
initiatives related to innovation and competitiveness, the private sector with research
institutes, universities and business incubators that contribute to creating a
knowledge-driven economy.

The report has been prepared by Mr. Robert Lindley on behalf of the
Competitiveness Support Fund.




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture


CONTENTS

1.      Introduction ................................................................................................................1

2.      Priority objectives for the Government ...................................................................2

3.      Balochistan Fisheries – a description .....................................................................4
3.1     Demographics. .............................................................................................................4
3.2     Natural resources and potential of the fishery sector...................................................6
3.3     Catch Statistics.......................................................................................................... 10
3.4     Enforcement and licensing ........................................................................................ 14
3.5     Fishing Methods ........................................................................................................ 16
3.6     Fishing Vessels ......................................................................................................... 17
3.7     Fishing ports & infrastructure .................................................................................... 20
3.8     Processing, marketing and exports ........................................................................... 25
3.9     Facilitating industries ................................................................................................. 27
3.10    Fish demand and consumption ................................................................................. 27
3.11    Fisheries Department ................................................................................................ 28
3.12    Fisheries training and research ................................................................................. 30
3.13    Policy framework ....................................................................................................... 31
3.14    Regulatory Framework .............................................................................................. 34
3.15    Credit and investment in fisheries ............................................................................. 37
3.16    International assistance in fisheries development .................................................... 39
3.17    Gwadar and Pasni –fishing ports of the future ? ....................................................... 39
4.      Overall plan for Balochistan capture fisheries .................................................... 43
4.1     Objective 1: Harvest marine resources of Balochistan in a sustainable manner ..... 44
4.2     Objective 2: Enhance institutional capacity .............................................................. 45
4.3     Objective 3: Develop a sustainable fleet of vessels, capable of exploiting the
        resources in a responsible manner. .......................................................................... 47
4.4     Objective 4: Create an business climate that will lead to investment in the sector .. 48
4.5     Objective 5: Promote post-harvest activities and trade ........................................... 49
5.      Coastal Aquaculture Development........................................................................ 50
5.1     Current Situation ....................................................................................................... 50
5.2     Government and private plans for shrimp farming .................................................... 51
5.3     Future for shrimp culture in Balochistan ................................................................... 53
5.4     Other Aquaculture species ........................................................................................ 54
5.5     Priority Action ............................................................................................................ 55
6.      Appendices: ........................................................................................................... 57
6.1    References ....................................................................................................57
6.2    Significant people met during the assignment.....................................................59




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture


Abbreviations
        AMP             Aquaculture Management Plan
        BCDA            Balochistan Coastal Development Authority
        Beopari         A moneylender and middleman
        BOT             Build, Operate, Transfer
        CA              Competent Authority
        CSF             Competitiveness Support Fund
        DMPA            Development and Management Plan for Aquaculture
        EEZ             Exclusive Economic Zone
        EIA             Environmental Impact Assessment
        EIS             Environmental Impact Statement
        EOI             Expression of Interest
        EU              European Union
        FCS             Fishermen‟s Cooperative Society (based in Karachi Fish Harbour)
        FMP             Fisheries Management Plan
        FO              Fisheries Officer
        GDA             Gwadar Development Authority
        GMP             Good Manufacturing Practice (s)
        GoB             Government of Balochistan
        GoS             Government of Sindh
        Ha              Hectare
        HACCP           Hazard and Critical Control Point
        IQF             Individually Quick Frozen
        KFH             Karachi Fisheries Harbour
        MinFAL          Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (and Fisheries)
        Mole            Similar to a Beopari, but tends to be associated with marketing
                        (in Karachi Fish Harbour, "Official" Moles are registered).
        Mole Holder     A mole by another name
        MoST            Ministry of Science and Technology
        MSY             Maximum Sustainable Yield
        NIO             National Institute of Oceanography
        PFHA            Pasni Fish Harbour Authority
        PKR             Pakistani Rupee
        TORs            Terms of Reference
        US$             US Dollar




Mr. Robert Lindley, the CSF Fisheries Specialist, would like to express his thanks to everyone
who assisted with the study. Mr. Noor Khan, the Director of Fisheries in Quetta, Mr. Maula
Bakhsh, the Assistant Director of Fisheries in Gwadar and Mohammed Ashraf the Fisheries
Officer in Gwadar; all of whom were particularly helpful in making arrangements, and
providing information; the latter two endured periods of hard touring in the Makran district.
Additionally many Fisheries Department employees, processing plant managers, fish buyers
and fishermen willingly provided their time and knowledge during the study, and to these
nameless assistants is owed a debt of gratitude.



Currency
The Pakistani Rupee fluctuated between 72.2PKR/US$ and 76.2PKR/US$ in August 2008




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture




                                 Provinces of Pakistan




                                 Districts of Balochistan




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                                                           Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture




                                        Map of Balochistan Coast showing major
                                           fish landing sites with annual catch
                                         (where known, in brackets x 1000 Tonnes)




                  Note that the spellings of various and                          Table of landings (2005)
                  landing places vary between documents,       Area            Qty Vol (Tonne)    % increase or         %        Rank
                  reports and maps.                                                                  decline      contribution
                  Ex. Khundarwari = Bhunda wari =                               2004      2005       2004-5          2005
                  Bandarwari                                 Gawadar           33,707    29,252       -13%           25%          1
                  Damb = Damports                              Pasni           27,692    24,775       -11%           22%          2
                                                              Ormara           15,876    14,813        -7%           13%          3
                                                               Jiwani          12,714    12,192        -4%            11%         4
                                                               Damb            12,128    11,177        -8%           10%          5
                                                             Surbandar         8,219     7,533         -7%             7%         6
                                                             Pishukan          8,103     7,472         -8%             7%         7
                                                              Gaddani          5,315     5,318        -16%             5%         8
                                                              TOTAL           124,755   112,642       -10%




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture


1. Introduction

The Government of Balochistan requested the Competitiveness Support Fund (CSF)
in early 2008 to investigate the potential of fisheries in the province and to make
recommendations as to the possible development of fisheries at the ports of Gwadar
and Pasni in the West of the province.

The CSF Fisheries Expert visited Balochistan from 27th July to 31 July (Quetta), and
15th August to 20th August (Gwadar, Pasni and Western fish landing sites). The
expert was accompanied during visits by a staff member of the Balochistan
Department of Fisheries. During these visits the Ports of Gwadar and Pasni were
visited as well as other landing sites. Stakeholders at all stations visited were
interviewed in a structured way.

Security considerations precluded visits to Damb, Sonmiani, Gaddani in Lasbela, and
Ormara District.

This report aims to provide an overview of the current status of fisheries resources
and utilization in Balochistan together with a diagnosis of the situation, with
recommendations for future action. The report does not recommend activities that
are not feasible now, and if the situation changes (security, funding, manpower etc)
then the situation will have to be reviewed in the light of changes.

An action plan is presented with overall objectives for the longer term. Achieving
these objectives will require institutional capacity and funding which are not currently
available to the Government of Balochistan. They will be achieved only by allocating
greater emphasis on fisheries and providing extra monetary, planning and human
resources to the sector. Assistance from donor bodies and the Federal Fisheries
department may also be appropriate.

The potential for aquaculture, particularly shrimp farming, is also briefly examined.
Currently there is no coastal aquaculture being practiced in Balochistan, though there
is great interest being shown from a variety of quarters, and the Federal Ministry has
initiated a large programme of development, which includes coastal Balochistan.

Additionally with the opening of Gwadar port in 2008 there has been much interest in
possibilities for fisheries resulting from increased sea and air traffic through the port.

Fisheries in Balochistan have a long recorded history. During the homeward march of
Alexander the Great, his admiral Nearchus led a fleet along the modern Makran
coast and recorded that the area was dry and mountainous, inhabited by the
Ichthyophagoi or “fish eaters” - a Greek rendering of the ancient Persian phrase Mahi
khoran, which has become the modern word Makran (one of the districts of SW
Balochistan).

Traditionally the catch has been preserved dried or salted, and shipped out by camel
or dhow, along the ancient trading routes stretching from India and Sri Lanka in the
East to Dar-e-Salaam on the E African coast. Whilst the fishermen have continued to
catch the fish little is processed by the old traditional methods; the produce is now
normally taken fresh on ice or frozen to Karachi by truck, which has been made much
easier by the opening of the Makran Highway, running along the coast from Karachi
to Gwadar in the West.




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture

Despite the lack of accurate statistics, it is apparent that Balochistan fisheries are
now undergoing a period of pronounced and rapid change in response to a variety of
pressures that are being generated both internally and externally; notably increasing
and mostly uncontrolled fishing activities on coastal fish resources have reduced
catches and productivity in many areas. What little fisheries management efforts
have been to date made are pre-occupied with increasing the amount of the catch,
but have failed to maximise the economic and social benefits from fishing, nor accept
the fragility of the resource base.

A major problem in Balochistan fisheries is the difference between “potential”
(estimated by dubious means) and present production (derived from the unreliable
statistics system). The problem is the concept that the difference between present
fish catches and the potential yield represents a surplus which is available for
harvesting by additional fishing effort. Apart from the obvious problems (poor
statistics to estimate present catches, difficulty in estimating the potential), the
concept is only valid for under-exploited fisheries; in a fishery which is fully or over-
exploited, such as that in Balochistan, additional effort to reach the „potential‟ can
actually result in reduced catches. There are biological, not only technical reasons
for the limits on the size of the industry. Many involved with Balochistan fisheries,
particularly journalists, politicians and civil servants seem to think that introducing
more effort will naturally create a larger industry. Misconceptions such as these
make planning for the future difficult, since natural resource economics and fish
population dynamics are not generally understood by those that are entrusted with
managing the fishery.


2. Priority objectives for the Government
The Government of Balochistan should aim to manage the capture fisheries of the
region in a sustainable and responsible manner. It should aim to:-

      Harvest the marine resources of Balochistan in a sustainable manner
       in accordance with the FAO Precautionary Principle and The
       Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, ensuring that the
       resources remain for the benefit of future generations.
      Enhance institutional capacity so that the Balochistan Government
       and its various bodies can assist and guide the development of the
       fisheries sector.
      Develop a fleet of vessels, capable of exploiting the resources in a
       responsible manner
      With the objective of supporting commercial fisheries create a
       business climate that will lead to investment in both the capture and
       processing sectors
      Promote post-harvest activities and trade, so as to add value to the
       existing catch

Whilst these are admirable long term objectives, given current budgetary and human
resource constraints, there are six priorities for the Government of Balochistan with
regards to the fishery sector that outstrip all others. The Government should take
urgent decisions on these priority issues. It will be impossible to manage and
develop the fishery sector in Balochistan in a sustainable manner if action is not
implemented. The priorities are stated below.




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture

      It should be a priority of the Balochistan Government, and the
       Fisheries Department in particular, to update the fisheries laws of the
       province, and lobby for the introduction of new acts and regulations
       so as to update the federal legislation.
      The Government of Balochistan, though the MinFAL Aquaculture
       Megaproject, should actively solicit a suitable body to assist with the
       preparation of a Development and Management Plan for Aquaculture
       for the province.
      The Government of Balochistan seeks, though the MinFAL,
       assistance from an overseas body or donor to address the fisheries
       training and skills shortage identified in this report.
      The Balochistan Fisheries Department does not issue new vessel
       licenses (it maintains the present number of boats from the 2009/10
       fishing season). This will enable the Department to initiate biological
       work to monitor the demersals fisheries (in particular) and will be in
       compliance with the FAO Precautionary Approach to Fisheries.
      The Balochistan Fisheries Department investigates the possibility of
       obtaining funds from a suitable donor to initiate Community Based
       Management with fishing communities along the Balochistan
       Coastline.
      [The Government of Balochistan, with some urgency, ensures that
       promised funding is made available to the dredging of Pasni
       Harbour].

There is an overarching need for improved security all along the coastal zone,
particularly if overseas investment is to be attracted to the sector. This is not the
responsibility of the Fisheries Department, though it has serious implications for
investment in the sector and its ultimate success.

Other feasible, but not so urgent recommendations, contained in the text include

      Redrawing baselines from which the 12 and 200 miles zones are
       measured so as to include bays and inlets when any review of
       legislation is undertaken.
      The establishment of a centralised statistics bureau for fisheries
      Bringing the distant water fleet of gill netters under control of the
       authorities so that their activities comply with international norms.
      It would be an appropriate activity for one of the senior staff of the
       Fisheries Department to visit the whole coastal zone and write a
       situation report on infrastructure in the coastal zone, as it affects
       fisheries, detailing the different works that are to be carried out, the
       body responsible and the approximate costs. This could then be
       used to appraise needs and solutions.
      It would be a suitable activity for the Fisheries Department to
       undertake a social survey all along the coast. This would have to be
       done in collaboration with a research institution or NGO.
      The Headquarters of Fisheries Department, with the high level staff,
       is in Quetta. This is 732 km from Gwadar. With communications so
       poor, and the distances so large, it is recommended that the transfer
       to the whole Headquarters staff (not including the secretary and
       perhaps one liaison officer) to Gwadar is effected as soon as the
       new office in Surbandar is finished.




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Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture

          The Government of Balochistan should make it clear that after the
           end of the MinFAL aquaculture interventions, when responsibility for
           the model shrimp farms set up under the project is handed to the
           Balochistan Government, all subsidies, direct and indirect, will be
           terminated.
          The Government of Balochistan ensures that their own long term
           plans, and those of the Gwadar Development Authority complement
           each other for the long term future of fisheries in Gwadar and nearby
           landing sites.
          The Government of Balochistan should keep well away from direct
           investment in fishing activities, processing and exporting. These are
           the functions of the private sector and should be left to them to
           develop.


3. Balochistan Fisheries – a description

3.1 Demographics.
The 1998 census found 6.566 million people in Balochistan: 4.96% of the population
of Pakistan which then stood at 132 million.

Population figures for Lasbela and Makran districts of the Balochistan coastline are
not very accurate. The last detailed figures come from the census in 1998. These
give the following:-

For the costal Tehsil of Lasbela District: Sonmiani sub Teshil contained 31,553
people with 11,465 in urban areas (about a third) and the rest rural. Gaddani Sub
Tehsil contained 19,218 of which 11.199 are men and 11,334 live in the environs of
Gaddani Town Council. Hub Tehsil was reported to have 81,751 inhabitants of which
63,757 lived in urban areas.

In Makran District, further West, Omara Tehsil had 18,202 inhabitants, of which
11,005 lived in the town; Pasni Tehsil had 57,712 inhabitants and 27,974 were
reported to be urban. Gwadar, the largest Teshil, had 70,342 inhabitants and
43,850, nearly two thirds, lived in the town areas.

Later figures for Balochistan (2004)1 give the population of Gwadar town as 51,100
and that of Pasni town 32,600, which shows a significant increase in both towns.
Gwadar is also reported to be the 8th most populated town in Balochistan and Pasni
the 13th. Hub, with 74,300 inhabitants, is the 5th most populous place.

On the basis of the 1998 census the coastal areas contained 4.2% of the population
of Balochistan. How many of these were fishermen it has been impossible to
ascertain, though it is obvious from the figures that many of them are urban dwellers.
Urban dwellers in the more remote areas of the Balochistan coast still depend on
fishing since that is the backbone of the economy. Even in Gwadar, the largest
coastal town, the subjective opinion of the local fisheries officers was that 85% of the
employment in the town depended on fisheries, directly or indirectly.




1
    From the Balochistan Government web site




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture

The Balochistan Vision 2020 (2006)2 gives an estimate of 40,000 active fishermen in
Balochistan. The Balochistan Fisheries Presentation (2008)3 suggests 50,000 active
fishermen and locates them in the 8 main fishing towns as below.

                   Jiwani             4612
                   Pishukan           3684
                   Sur (Bunder)       3990
                   Gwadar             8746
                   Pasni              9853
                   Ormara             5844
                   Damb               7333
                   Gaddani            4838

                   Total:             50,000


The Balochistan Coastal Development Authority (BCDA) which is partly responsible
for compiling fisheries statistics gives for 2007 a figure of 43,865 fishermen; 28,398
of these are described as full time, 10,657 as part time and the balance, 4,810, as
occasional fishermen. Respectively they are estimated to earn PKR 187,200
(US$2,600), PKR 124,800 (US$1,733) and PKR 62,400 (US$867) annually. Based
on these figures, income to Balochistan fishermen from fishing would be 5.946 billion
PKR/year.

Numbers of fishermen are derived from the numbers of boats and an estimate of the
number of skippers and crew on the boats. The boats data is derived from licensing
and is quite accurate.

The 32 other minor fishing sites in Balochistan are ignored.

It can be seen that Gwadar and Pasni are the main fishing towns of Mekram district
and Damb the largest in Lasbela.

The Fisheries Department data for 20084 for Gwadar, which is derived from their
work on numbers of fishing vessels, indicates that there are 16,803 full time
fishermen in Gwadar, of which 14,600 are "crews".

Even allowing for recent population growth fishermen make up less than 0.77% of
the Balochistan population.

Fishing activity is 100% male orientated. It is not the norm in the coastal societies for
women to fish. Some very few women do work in the seasonal drying meadows for
sardines destined for fish meal in the East near Hub, and in fish receiving and
processing stations located down the coast. During field visits in the East of the
coastal Area, outside of the processing factories, only one woman was observed
"working in fisheries"; she was retailing fish in a fish market in Gwadar.

The education level amongst some of the coastal villages is very low. WWF (2005)
in the village of Chandi in Kalmat Kor found that5:-


2
  Anon (2006) Vision 2020. Gov of Balochistan, Coastal Development and Fisheries Department
3
  Anon (2008) “Balochistan Fisheries” A Power Point presentation.
4
  Unpublished statistics for 2008, provided by the Assistant Fisheries Director, Gwadar.




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                            Competitiveness Support Fund
Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture

         Literacy ratio in village Chandi is quite low as less than 6 per cent of the
         villagers are able to read and write. The situation of female literacy is even
         worse, as not a single female is literate. However, since last two years few
         girls have been enrolled in the primary school. There are only four youngsters
         in the village who have completed matriculation. In all there are only 50
         villagers who have completed education up to five classes. The primary
         school was established in this village in 1983. At present, 41 students are
         enrolled in the school. The medium of instruction is Urdu.
This is happening in a village of a total of 60 households and a total population of
500, which includes 300 male and 200 female. It does make the casual observer
wonder what the primary school has been doing for the last 25 years.

Despite the relatively low numbers of fishermen compared to the population of
Balochistan as a whole, in the areas where they live, fishing is the only activity
available to the population. It is only recently, with the development of industry in
areas such as Hub and Gwadar that alternative employment is available. With the
poor education prevalent throughout the fisheries sector, other jobs often are not
available to fishermen even if they exist locally.

It is not satisfactory that the demographics and social structure of the coastal belt are
so inadequately covered by the few studies that have been carried out and the
census which was 10 years ago. Populations are mobile and, in Pakistan, growing,
but what is occurring in Lasbela and Makran is but dimly known.

It is recommended therefore that it would be a suitable activity for the Fisheries
Department to undertake a social survey all along the coast from the Hub river in the
East to the Iran border in the West, so as to ascertain what is the true picture
regarding the population of fishing communities and their economic and social status.
This would have to be done in collaboration with a research institution or NGO.


3.2 Natural resources and potential of the fishery sector
The Balochistan coast extends to 770 kilometres from the mouth of Hub River in the
east to the Iranian border in the west. In many areas ancient raised beaches mark
the landward boundary of the Balochistan coastal zone about 20 kilometres from the
present coastline. In places rugged folded terrain prevents access to the coast. A
narrow continental shelf – in much of the area, only 15-50 kilometres wide at the 200-
metre isobaths – defines the extent of the coastal waters.

From here the continental slope dips sharply, delimiting an extensive, deep offshore
zone.

The only large island is Astola, near Pasni. It has an area of 20 square kilometres
and is uninhabited. One smaller island used to lie just off the coast, but it has
disappeared.

Nobody has carried out any stock assessment work in Balochistan for more than 20
years. No records of any port sampling or comprehensive biological work on fish
species in the province can be found, and it is assumed that nothing significant has
been done. The published statistics are known to be inaccurate. This is not a solid

5
 WWF (2005) Study on Knowledge, Attitude, Practices of Fisherfolk communities about Fisheries and Mangrove
Resources. Kalmat Khor [Balochistan]. PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) Final report




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Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture

basis6 for making management decisions. Unfortunately with little data to go on,
management decisions will have to be made using best estimates, and using the
Precautionary Approach advocated by FAO




Hydrography of the Balochistan Coast. Note the width of the 200m isobar in the
Balochistan part of the Pakistan Coast compared to that off Sindh.
The resources of Balochistan are:-
           Shrimps and demersal fish in the zone up to 200m deep (the continental
            shelf) that live on or near the bottom of the sea.
           Small coastal pelagic fish, in Balochistan mostly the Indian Mackerels
            (Rastrelliger spp), but with the Indian Oil sardine important in the East of
            Balochistan and much of this latter is dried and transported to Karachi for
            fishmeal whereas in the West the Mackerel is more important economically
            and this is frozen in blocks and sent to Karachi in containers. Mackerels
            could be canned if there was an operating cannery7, but the Indian Oil sardine
            is not suitable, and is used only for fish meal.
           Offshore resources of (mainly) tunas, which can be used for canning, are
            salted and can be eaten fresh if got to market quickly.
The maximum sustainable yield of these fisheries is unknown. FAO has given the
MSY for the whole of Pakistan to be




6
    The obvious conclusion that something should be done about this situation is addressed later in this report.
7
    One is being built in Karachi and should open in 2009




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Balochistan Fisheries Development Study: Options for Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture

    Small pelagics        350,000 tonnes             This does not include a large figure for
    Large pelagic                                    Mesopelagics which, in any case, was
                           30,000 tonnes
       species                                       unrealistically optimistic.
    Demersal fish         189,000 tonnes
                                             It is unlikely that the shrimp and demersal
       Shrimp              35,000 tonnes     fishery of Balochistan is capable of long
  Cephalopods           5,000 tonnes         term large expansion. The amount of
                                             demersal fish and shrimp is dependent on
     Molluscs             200 tonnes         the amount of habitat, and this is limited by
      Crabs               50 tonnes          the amount of continental shelf, mostly 15-
                                             30 miles wide in the coastal belt. In
     Lobster              150 tonnes         Balochistan the Continental Shelf is
      Total            606,400 tonnes        comparatively narrow (compared to Sindh)
                                             so although Balochistan has a long
coastline, its total continental shelf area is not as big as Sindh‟s, which has the whole
Indus fan area in its zone, out to more than 100 miles from the coast and stretching
to the Indian border at Sir Creek. Comparisons between the catch of Sindh and that
of Balochistan based on coastline length alone are thus specious, though very
common.

During field visits around Gwadar the size and maturity of much of the bottom set
gillnet fish caught in Balochistan was noted to be greater than in the Sindh fishery.
This would indicate that the overfishing problem is less serious in that area than in
Sindh or the areas near to Sindh, and may also reflect the ban on trawling in
Balochistan which would protect the undersized fish.

The fishery however is almost certainly near to MSY or overfished, particularly nearer
Karachi. In Sindh there are several thousand vessels registered, many of which fish
in Balochistan waters. Catches have declined in recent years8. Effort has remained
stable or increased. The combination of declining catches and increased effort is a
good indicator of overfishing.

The Balochistan Fisheries department has produced a Fisheries Presentation9 which
gives the potential catch from Balochistan waters as 300,000 tonnes from a biomass
of 600,000 tonnes. It has not been ascertained where the scientific data comes from
to back up this claim that the MSY is more than twice the present catch. It would
appear to be optimistic.

Elsewhere in the same document a catch of 415,539 tonnes is forecast for the year
2020, nearly three times the existing catch.

The Press is uninformed and continues to peddle even more optimistic views of
potential. Dawn10 a premier news organization of Pakistan, discussing Balochistan:-

          capable of producing over 3-4 million tons table fish against the present
          production of 0.25 million tons fish a year against the domestic supply of one
          kg per person per year in Pakistan and ensure supply of balanced diet of
          animal protein food to the common man.



8
  Peculiarly 2007 was a bumper year for prawn
9
  Anon (2008) “Balochistan Fisheries” A Power Point presentation.
10
   2003




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Already there are reports of serious overfishing along the coast. The WWF during its
field work in Ganz11 (near Jiwani, in the West) found that

         There has been continuous degradation to the marine fisheries in the recent
         years.
WWF recommended that Community Based Management regimes in coastal areas
held out hope for improved management so as to enhance catches and improve the
livelihoods of coastal fisherfolk.

In Sonmiani the WWF found that12:-

         The fisher-folk communities report major decreases in the fish catch. They
         claim that a number of fish species, which were in abundance in the past
         have now become completely extinct.
The World Wildlife Fund, during a survey in the Kalamat Khor area, West of Omara
recorded declines in catches.

Status of Fish Catch per Boat Fishing Trip (2005) Kalmat Khor
(from WWF interview data13)

Fish Species                         10 Years Back                         Present Status (2005)
Paplet                               200 pieces                            10 pieces
Mushka                               300-400 pieces                        40-50 pieces
Chota Mangra                         200 pieces                            20-30 pieces
Ghalo                                200 pieces                            Extinct
Kunn                                 500 pieces                            100 pieces
Sonab                                40-50 pieces                          10 pieces
Kaka Torr                            100-200 pieces                        Extinct
Khir Soota                           10-15 pieces                          Extinct
Patin                                200 pieces                            50 pieces
Pagaas                               6-7 pieces                            Extinct
Gerk                                 20-30 pieces                          Extinct

If these figures are a true reflection of the actual situation prevailing along the
coastline, then the overfishing of the resources is worse than generally accepted.

During the field visits accompanying this investigation there were mixed opinions
provided by fishermen as to whether there was a decline in the catch in recent years.
In Pishukan the local fishermen reported the catch going down, but prices slowly
rising too. Some fish also reported to have disappeared – guitar fish, Hilsa shad, a
shark called Bulando which used to live in shallow water and small King Mackerel
species. Small sharks also.

In other landing sites further east, Ganz and Jiwani, no particular decline was noticed
in recent years, though in Surbandar a decline in general demersals stocks was



11
   WWF (2005) Community Based Fisheries Management. Case Study of fishing practices in Ganz. District Gwadar.
(Balochistan Coast)
12
   WWF (2006) Fish Marketing Chain and Economic Analysis of Indebtedness of Fisher-folk of Sonmiani
[Balochistan]
13
   WWF (2005) Study on Knowledge, Attitude, Practices of Fisherfolk communities about Fisheries and Mangrove
Resources. Kalmat Khor. PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) Final report




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blamed on the Sindhi trawlers who fish illegally and scrape the bottom clean of
habitat and young fish and eggs.

The reality of overfished or fully exploited stocks has yet to sink in to many of the
decision makers and planners. The Government of Balochistan, on its web site14 in
2008 claims that Balochistan has:-

            “a virgin stock of fishery resources in natural bays”.
All of this is most depressing. The major problem faced by the marine fisheries of
Pakistan, both in Balochistan and Sindh is overfishing, caused by too much effort and
no or little monitoring, control or surveillance. An increasing number of fishermen are
fishing in ever more powerful boats with larger more efficient gears in an
unsustainable manner on an ever declining resource. This is a recipe for disaster,
not for optimism about increased catches in the future.

It is recommended therefore that until there is more valid evidence to suppose that
the stocks of demersals resources are capable of higher levels of catches the
Balochistan Fisheries Department does not issue new vessel licenses (maintains the
present number of boats) from the 2009/10 fishing season). This will enable the
Department to initiate biological work to monitor the demersals fisheries (in particular)
and will be in compliance with the FAO Precautionary Approach to Fisheries.

The Balochistan 12 mile zone and 200 mile EEZ are drawn from the coastline, not
from baselines enclosing the numerous bays and inlets on the coast. When a review
of the Federal Legislation is made it may be appropriate to review the basis for
currently zones, and possibly redraw the baselines so as to include these inlets and
bays.


3.3 Catch Statistics
Currently the catch15 for the whole of Pakistan is estimated as about 390,000 tonnes
(MFD 2007) of which about 20,000 tonnes is exported. The Balochistan catch has
been stable for 2006 and 2007 at 140,000 tonnes. Anecdotally the catch is reported
to have fallen in recent years, though this is not borne out by the statistics.

Due to the lack of statistics and the fact that much of the Balochistan catch,
particularly that from the Eastern Cluster of landing sites, ends up in Karachi and
much passes through the Karachi Fish Harbour it is very difficult to put a figure on the
Balochistan part of the Pakistan catch. Attempts to include traceability data for fish
passing through Karachi fish Harbour and the processors clustered around it have
failed.

The Balochistan Vision 2020 plan gives a total current catch of 200,000 tonnes of fin
and shellfish valued at PKR 6.5 billion as the Balochistan annual catch, 20,000
tonnes of this being shrimp. Of this it claims 120,000 tonnes is caught by
Balochistan fishermen and 80,000 tonnes caught and carried away by Sindi
fishermen and deep sea trawlers fishing illegally. How the figures are collected and
collated is unknown. (These figures are at variance with the MFD published figures



14
     http://www.balochistan.gov.pk/
15
     All fisheries statistics in Pakistan must be treated with extreme caution.




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above, and even disagree with the Balochistan Coastal Development Authority
figures produced in 2008 for 2007).

The official figures by landing area in Balochistan in 2004 and 2005 are:-

BALOCHISTAN: FISH CATCH BY LANDING AREA - 2005

Area           Qty Vol (Tonne x 1000)   % Increase or decline   % Contribution   Rank
               2004        2005         2004-5                  2005
Gwadar         33,707      29,252       -13%                    25%              1
Pasni          27,692      24,775       -11%                    22%              2
Ormara         15,876      14,813       -7%                     13%              3
Jiwani         12,714      12,192       -4%                     11%              4
Damb           12,128      11,177       -8%                     10%              5
Surbandar      8,219       7,533        -7%                     7%               5
Pishukan       8,103       7,472        -8%                     7%               7
Gaddani        5,315       5,318        -16%                    5%               8
TOTAL          124,755     112,642      -10%
Data from MinFAL (2007)

The Balochistan Fisheries Presentation gives different figures, based on data
provided by the Coastal Development Corporation. The CDA data is very detailed,
and many of the important tables are repeated in the Fisheries Presentation. This
gives the total catch for 2007 as 135,402 tonnes. This is reported to be worth nearly
7 billion PKR.

By fishing town the catch given for 2007 is

                   Location     Catch (Tonnes)     Value (PKR Millions)
                   Jiwani       14,994             825
                   Pishukan     9,435              444
                   Gwadar       35,029             182
                   Sur Bander   9,357              451
                   Pasni        27,240             1,522
                   Ormara       16,815             806
                   Damb         16,157             787
                   Gadanni      6,371              329
                   Total        135,402            6,988


Other significant features of the catch statistics are:-

          The largest contributor to the catch is Indian Mackerel, of which nearly 26
         thousand tonnes (19.9% of the catch) was worth 992 million PKR (14.2% of
         total value and 39.2PKR/kilo). Hairtail generated 704 million PKR from 15
         thousand tonnes and Pomfrets were the third largest contributor to the catch
         by value (596 million PKR at 314PKR/Kilo)

          476 tonnes of shrimp were worth 186 million PKR (392PKR/Kilo), though
         Kiddi, a small white shrimp are not included in this figure and 341 tonnes of
         these were also caught with a value of 51 million PKR (108PKR/kilo)

          Tuna (10.7 thousand tonnes) and sea catfish (11 thousand tonnes) are
         also significant in the catch.




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            12.7% of the catch is Sardinella species, of which 90% are reduced to
           meal. They are worth 8.78PKR/kilo

              100% of the fisheries products of Balochistan go to Karachi

            32.6% of the fish is chilled, 40.4% is frozen, 12.6% cured (mostly salted)
           and 13.8 reduced. Offal is given as 550 tonnes (All species), which is not
           included in the total of 135,402 tonnes.

Seasonality is given in catch by calendar month through the year for all sites and
species. This shows a strong reduction in catch during the SW monsoon (April –
July) and a peak in December – January.

                              Month          Catch (T)
                              January        15,247
                              February       12,618
                              March          10,641
                              April          8962
                              May            8674
                              June           7534
                              July           6942
                              August         10,984
                              September      11,746
                              October        12,653
                              November       14,178
                              December       15,217
                              Total catch    135,402


Shown graphically the seasonality is very pronounced.

                                                             The detail of the statistics
                   Fish catch Seasonality.                   is impressive at first
               Balochistan (Tonnes by month)                 glance. They cover the
   18000
                                                             main species in the catch,
   16000                                                     and the main landing
   14000                                                     centers. Vessels numbers
   12000                                                     are from the licensing
   10000                                                     system so relatively
    8000                                                     correct.
    6000
    4000
    2000
                                                          Catch statistics are
       0
                                                          obtained by visiting the
         Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec  processing/fish receiving
                                                          stations in the major towns
                                                          and fish landing sites (in
and around the 8 towns listed above) and asking them for their purchasing records
for the month or fortnight passed. These are then collated by Fisheries
Department/CDA and the annual figures published.




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Officials on sites along the coast admitted that there were serious shortcomings in
this data collection system, in that the smaller villages (32 of them) were not included
in the data collection scheme, some of the larger, but remoter sites, such as Kund
Malir and Ganz, where there is no fisheries officer16 neither are included, and neither
are some of the small operators (buyers of fish usually using only ice) included in the
data collected.

Similarly the processors only give to the Fisheries Officers the figures that they wish
and there is no cross-check on their accuracy. All this leads to an underestimate of
the catch that may well be as much as 30% (45,000 tonnes – authors estimate).

This is not a satisfactory situation, and derives from a lack of emphasis being put on
the collection statistics by management, which includes a lack of resources and
training being allocated to statistics collection. Additionally there is no biological data
being collected at all. None of the Fisheries Officers have computers so the easy
collation of the data and analysis of the data is beyond them. This is symptomatic of
the lack of importance placed on fisheries activities by the Government of
Balochistan.

It is easy to state that the Government of Balochistan should put more resources at
the disposal of the Fisheries Department to collect and collate and interpret fisheries
data and statistics: and it most certainly should: however this lack of data collection is
symptomatic of a greater malaise, including a lamentable lack of skills in the sector,
which is reviewed below.

The Federal Government collates the statistics sent by the Balochistan Government
and the other provinces into an annual statistics compendium, and provides these
statistics to the FAO and other bodies. Although there is therefore one central body
which collates the statistics it is a rather ad-hoc affair; and certainly does not check
the data that is received, nor analyze it in a useful manner. It seems appropriate that
some form of strengthening of the MinFAL fisheries statistics section is required, and
perhaps even a central fisheries statistics bureau, with the power and resources to
collect and collate its own statistics would be useful. Certainly there is much doubt
about the veracity many of Pakistan's fisheries statistics.

The contribution to the economy and GDP of fisheries to the overall Balochistan
economy is small. Data from the State Bank of Pakistan (2006) states that, for the
whole of Pakistan:-

             The share of fisheries in GDP is only 0.3 percent while its share in agriculture
            is 1.3 percent during FY05. It also has a 0.9 percent share in total exports
            earnings. The growth in this sector remained almost unchanged –2.1 percent
            during FY05 as compared to 2.0 percent in FY04.
Fisheries is thus not a great contributor to national wealth. In the coastal areas of
Balochistan it is locally important (in Ganz near Jiwani in Makran District, for
instance, there is no other employment). With no comparative data for Balochistan it
is impossible to say more, and with little chance of greatly increased catches it is
unlikely to rise significantly. With poor management the fishery may contribute less
in the future.



16
     There is supposed to be but there is no transport provided by Fisheries department




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3.4 Enforcement and licensing
In theory nobody is allowed to fish in Balochistan waters (inside 12 miles) except
Balochistan registered boats, and then without using seines or trawls. This has been
legislated for. A previous licensing system for Sindhi boats has now lapsed.

The WWF in its 2005 study of Kalmat Khor17 found that

         “The key findings … show that unsustainable methods of fishing (use of
         destructive nets) by the outsiders and increase in number of fishing boats are
         the main reasons for a decline in fish catch. According to them some ten
         years back the fishermen of Gur Sant village had around 80-90 boats of
         various sizes but presently the villagers have around 150-200 boats. This also
         shows that the local pressure on fisheries resources has increased
         manifolds.”
The Secretary of Fisheries for Balochistan admitted during interview that there was
inadequate enforcement of regulations. Many fishermen were using banned gears18
and many trawlers are coming in from Sindh.

The Government of Balochistan does however
have 6 small patrol boats and these are used,
when there is fuel to put in them, to catch Sindhi
trawlers and arrest them. Their catch and nets
are forfeited, and the owners are fined by the
courts (typically ~PKR 100,000). In August
2008 two were caught near Gwadar. This is a
limited, but seeming quite effective way of
frightening away the Sindhi boats, at least from
the Western end of Balochistan.                                        Fisheries Patrol boat in Gwadar

A licensing system for Sindhi trawlers has now broken down. This allowed Sindhi
boats to fish in "green" areas and not in "red" areas.

Balochistan boats are licensed by the Fisheries Department and this system seems
                                      to work.

                                                   For boats from Balochistan there is unfettered
                                                   open access to the resources. Anyone can
                                                   license a boat and buy gear and go fishing as
                                                   long as they do not use banned gears. It
                                                   would seem that fishing effort is increasing at
                                                   about the same rate as the population, about
                                                   3% a year. Many new boats are under
                                                   construction in fishing villages and fiberglass
                                                   boats from Iran and Karachi are increasingly
                                                   entering the fishery.
Sindhi Trawler arrested in Balochistan
  August 2008 (note Sindhi Reg No)


17
   WWF (2005) Study on Knowledge, Attitude, Practices of Fisherfolk communities about Fisheries and Mangrove
Resources. Kalmat Khor. PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) Final report
18
   The Baluchistan Sea Fisheries (Amendment) Act 1986 bans the use of encircling nets and ring nets and bottom
trawls in the enclosed bays of Sonmiani and Kalmut and anywhere in the 12 mile zone. During field visits in August
2008 no banned gears were seen.




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The WWF19 in Ganz in 2005 reported that:-

         Sindh based fishing trawlers illegally intrude into their territory at night and
         throw nets. Regrettably, the Fisheries Department is not taking tangible
         measures to stop this illegal activity. Though, several complaints have been
         lodged with the Department but no action has yet been taken against the law
         breakers.
Ganz is about 520 Km from Sindh by sea. During the field visits in August 2008 the
people of Ganz again complained about the Sindhi trawlers, which come mostly at
night.

All fishermen in Balochistan who were interviewed during field visits blamed Sindhi
trawlers for declines in catches and for destroying the fishing grounds. That their
own fishing activities might cause overfishing was generally rejected as unlikely or
impossible.

Unlike in Sindh, the fishermen do not complain of “foreign” trawlers encroaching on
their fishing grounds: foreign in this case being non-Pakistani. Where there are
extensive prawn grounds offshore in Sindh this is a common complaint.

The MinFAL has put forward a VMS solution, but this was based on satellite
monitoring of licensed foreign fishing vessels, not for the monitoring of locally based
vessels. This VMS system never got off the ground. FFVs are monitored by
observers, or at least are supposed to be.

Generally this lack of enforcement of basic rules and regulations is a serious problem
for Balochistan Fisheries. There appears to be no agency at this time, certainly not
Fisheries Department in its present state, which can implement proper Monitoring,
Control and Surveillance (MCS). The Marine Security Agency does not seem to an
effective body to undertake fisheries surveillance and enforcement. The navy
basically does not wish to do so and has other more pressing priorities. The
Fisheries Department does not have enough            Co-management and various types of
funds to regularly patrol the 12 mile zone,          government decentralization often
though it has its small patrol boats in 6 towns,     occur at the same time because they
which offer some deterrent, and are certainly        both    offer   greater   democracy,
                                                     empowerment, and local capacity
popular with the fishermen and Fisheries Staff,      building and development. Experience
when they catch infringing Sindhi vessels.           seems      to   indicate   that    co-
(They will obtain 2 more small patrol boats          management may be driven top-down,
soon).                                               from the government level, or bottom-
                                                                  up, from the community level. Top-
                                                                  down decentralization of management
An option that has not been investigated by                       will require that communities develop
Fisheries department, though which has been                       more capacity to take up the
suggested by WWF (partly as a result of its work                  management role.
with mangroves) is Community Based                                Likewise, strong movements in
Management; allowing the communities to police                    community        development       and
and manage their own resources. The                               management still require government
communities along this coastline are completely                   support or legitimization of the rights
                                                                  and processes of such local level
reliant on fisheries (there is no agriculture and                 development.
very little industry of any sort). It is in their
                                                                  Source: Pomeroy and Berkes (1997).
interest that the resources are managed in a

19
  WWF (2005) Community Based Fisheries Management. Case Study of fishing practices in Ganz. District Gwadar.
(Balochistan Coast)




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sustainable way, and that the rules and regulations regarding fisheries are observed.
If they could be co-opted to provide some management then it would be in the
interests of both the Fisheries Department and the fishermen.

In Ganz in 2005 the WWF reported that the community was already implementing
some form of CBM: however during the field visits in August 2008 the fishermen of
Ganz denied that they had any CBM initiatives operating in their village. Indeed
there was no sign of any organisation among fishermen, who were fiercely
independent, anywhere in the Western cluster of fishing towns and villages.
Cooperatives had been tried and failed due to internal disputes and many
communities had trouble even electing a leader to speak on their behalf.

If funding could be obtained then an NGO with experience in both fisheries and
Pakistan could be engaged to introduce CBM to coastal communities and integrate
this with the objectives and work of the Fisheries department along the coastline.
Presently this is the only solution that appears at all feasible to provide resource
management along the coastline, given the limited financial and other resources
available to the authorities.

Community Based Management systems require legitimization. The legislation is
silent on the rights of fishermen to manage their own stocks and marine areas. Any
review of the legislation should therefore include a formalization of the rights of
communities to manage their own resources.

It is recommended that the Fisheries Department investigates the possibility of
obtaining funds from a suitable donor to initiate Community Based Management with
fishing communities along the Balochistan Coastline.


3.5 Fishing Methods
Some fishing gears, surround nets and trawls, are banned in Sindh in the enclosed
waters of Kalmat Khor and Somiani and anywhere in the 12 mile zone. In the
Western of the zone the rules are widely respected, though in the East, nearer
Karachi they are more likely to be ignored.

The WWF in Ganz reported bottom set long lines,
cast nets, and gill nets being used. The gill nets were
of a variety of mesh sizes. The “Mahore” net has a 3
inch mesh size of multifilament nylon and catches a
variety of species of bottom living species. The
“Thukri” mesh size is 40mm and catches shrimp and
lobster and some small sardine species. The “Ruch”
gill net has a 6 inch mesh size and catches large
valuable fish like croakers and drums. Silver Pomfret
are caught in a special gill net called a “Makkar”.
Also observed during a field visit to Ganz in August
2008 were very large mesh (20") gill nets for catching
sharks; which by the evidence of a large shark lying
                                                              Large meshed shark net
exposed for sale, seem to work.                                      in Ganz
In Sonmiani the WWF found that fishermen used a small mesh gill net for shrimp
called a “thukree” (probably similar to the “Thukri” of Ganz, a gill net called a
“Makhan” for Indian mackerel and “Katro” a surround net for salmonella species.



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These fishermen were not reported to use trawls but some boats with “influentials” as
owners did use them. By and large the effects of these harmful nets are known to
the local communities.

In Gwadar and surrounding landing sites the fishermen use live bait (Sardinella sp)
on hand lines. The bait is caught using a cast net and kept alive in a wicker basket
towed alongside the boat and when schools of jacks or Spanish mackerel are sighted
the bait fish is hooked on a single hook (size 6) and cast out amongst the target fish.
Several hand lines are used per boat and only one hook per line.

Most boats are multi-purpose, in that they will use gill nets for Indian mackerel, long
lines for demersals fish and hand lines for others, as and when the season and
conditions dictate.

The BCDA statistics are silent on numbers of fishing gears. No estimates seem to
exist.

During field visits in August 2008 the following gears were observed:-

      Gill nets of various mesh sizes, 2" to 20" mesh size.
      Cast net (used to catch bait for long lines, and for human
       consumption)
      Long lines (bottom fish- seasonal)
      Hand lines (from boat for Spanish Mackerel and jacks)
      Hand lines (from shore, usually by children for local consumption)
      Bottom trawls (banned in Balochistan but observed on arrested
       Sindhi trawlers in Gwadar)

Of note is that Lobsters are caught by gill net. This is very damaging to the stocks,
as it is a destructive method with little size selection. With increased penetration of
the remoter areas of the Coastal Zone by buyers form Karachi and for export, this
type of fishing should be discouraged and replaced by traps.


3.6 Fishing Vessels
The numbers of fishing boats in Balochistan is given by the Balochistan Coastal
Development Authority (BCDA) in 2007 as:-

Type of boat         Jiwani Pishukan Gwadar   Sur    Pasni   Omara   Damb    Gaddani Total
Mechanized Boats     171    172      277      141    265     153     113     158       1,450
Motorized Boats      392    258      808      391    957     686     672     392       4,556
Others               -      -        -        -      -       11      56      78        145
Total                563    430      1,085    532    1,222   850     841     628       6,151
Percentage           9%     7%       18%      9%     20%     14%     14%     10%       100%


There is no breakdown of different types of vessel by fishing method, partly because
many of the boats are "multi-purpose". No other detailed figures for the whole of
Balochistan appear to exist.




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WWF (2005) 20 in Ganz (Gwadar District) found "about 100 boats" of 3 types:-

        Fibre Glass boat, made in Iran, is the most sophisticated boat. In
         rough season, this boat is only used for fishing.
        Wooden boat known as Kotial.
        Small horas also known as Katti (equivalent to horas, operational in
         Sindh) – This type of boat is not fitted with outboard engine rather,
         they are sailed by hand. There are about 80 kuttis owned by the
         fisher-folk of the area.

In Somiani (which includes Damb) in 200621 WWF reported:-

                                                                   1998*     2005 (Est.)
               Total Fishing Crafts                                753       865
               Mechanized boats with in board engines              78        90
               6-16Ton                                             29        33
               16 - 25 Ton                                         38        44
               26 ton and above                                    11        13
               Motorized boat without in-board engines             659       757
               Under 1 ton                                         85        98
               1 -6Ton                                             232       266
               6 - 16 Ton                                          243       279
               16 - 25 Ton                                         99        114
               Sail Boats without engine                           99
                                                                   7         7
               Under 1 ton                                         0         0
               1 -6Ton                                             4         4
               6-16Ton                                             3         3
               Life boats fitted with in-board engine              9         10
               Under 1 - 5 Ton                                     9         0
                            (1998 figures from Balochistan Fisheries department)

This shows a 15% increase in 7 years.
                                                              Type of Boat      Number
In Chandi village at Kalmat Khor in 2006                      Mechanized boats/Gillnetter
WWF22 found about 100 boats. Chandi is the                    0.5 tonnes        0
largest of several villages in the area.                      6.15 tonnes       95
                                                              16.2 tonnes       106
The Gwadar Fisheries Department provided
2008 data (unpublished) for the numbers of                    21.25 tonnes      93
boats in Gwadar. These showed:                                26 and above      142
                                                              Subtotal          435
Compared to the figures collected by the CDA                  Motorized boats (small day trippers)
for 2007, this is nearly 70% more vessels.                    1.0 tonnes        995
Subjectively during the field visit to Gwadar
                                                              2.5 tonnes        349
the Fisheries Departments' estimates would
appear to be nearer to the present situation.                 Subtotal          1344
The Fisheries Department includes boats that                  Total all boats   1779
are licensed but not actually active.

20
   WWF (2005) Community Based Fisheries Management. Case Study of fishing practices in Ganz. District Gwadar
(Balochistan Coast)
21
   WWF (2006) Fish Marketing Chain and Economic Analysis of Indebtedness of Fisher-folk of Sonmiani
[Balochistan]
22
   WWF (2005) Study on Knowledge, Attitude, Practices of Fisherfolk communities about Fisheries and Mangrove
Resources. Kalmat Khor [Balochistan]. PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) Final report




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In August 2008 in Jiwani particularly, but throughout the Western cluster of fishing
villages, a fiberglass design of boat from Iran was evident. This is outboard powered
and reported not to be very strong. In Ganz (and only Ganz) Yamaha™ boats, made
in Karachi were common.

Near the ship breaking beaches of Eastern Balochistan there are very many
(possibly 3000) lifeboats in the fleet. These are concentrated at Gaddani, and land to
the harbour there. They are used a day
gillnetters and the catch goes to Karachi.

Some of the larger vessels are travelling far
from Gwadar to areas of Africa (mostly) Sri
Lanka and India. They are supposed to be
fishing outside EEZs in international waters,
though that in effect is interpreted as being
outside of the 12 mile zone. There are 30 of
these vessels in Gwadar and they are being
fitted out with blast freezers and insulated
freezer holds. This is to take advantage of           Iranian built outboard powered
the tuna and other fish that they can catch                   boats at Jiwani
there using 4"gill nets (7 km long). This is a
huge investment for the vessel owners and demonstrates that if the returns are
available then the vessel owners will find the money to make the necessary changes
to their boats. The boats are impressive, and whilst not up to EU standards for a
variety of reasons are quite adequate to provide fish to a cannery in Iran (which is
what they do frequently).

This fishery is unregulated, unrecorded and possibly illegal under international
fisheries arrangements, but nobody seems to care, since it happens outside of
Pakistan's' waters. Any legislative changes in Pakistan fisheries should take this into
account and try to bring these vessels within the control of the authorities.

Of interest is that the fuel in Gwadar and other ports next to Iran comes from Iran. It
is a lot cheaper than in Pakistan (16PKR in Iran), though the Pakistan Government
taxes the imports (to 65PKR). Many vessels fill up in Iran without permission from
anyone to get the lower prices, often when unloading their catch there.

As the electricity from Iran is very cheap, some of the (ice) factories are converting to
electric motors to power the compressors. This is apparently now much cheaper
than direct diesel power.

The smaller boats in Gwadar are outboard powered; Yamaha™ engines. The only
reason that this is still economic is due to the cheap fuel from Iran (people generally
do not pay the tax on fuel). Nowhere in the East of Balochistan are outboards found
to this extent, and a survey in Sindh in 200523 found none at all in the delta area of
the Indus.

To conclude therefore the vessels reported and observed found are:




23
  Asian Development Bank (2006) Technical Assistance Consultant‟s Report. Pakistan: Sindh Coastal and Inland
Community Development Project. Project Number: PAK 37188. December 2005. (& appendices). Prepared by
ANZDEC Limited Consultants.




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      Large inboard offshore wooden drift netters, up to 30m, with freezer
       gear and operating outside Pakistan's 12 mile zone
      Large inboard wooden gillnetters operating within Pakistan's 12 mile
       zone. Trips of up to 20 days but more normally 10 -14 days. Usually
       poor quality fish due to trips being too long and poor handling
       practices. Use ice
      Medium sized inboard wooden gillnetters, which long line and hand
       line as required by the season and fish availability. Seldom use ice.
      Small long – tail powered wooden gillnetters. Fishing close to the
       shore by gill net, long line or hand line. Rarely use ice.
      Small outboard powered wooden gillnetters. Similar to the long-tail
       powered gillnetters but the hull shape adapted to carry an outboard.
       Often target mackerels.
      Converted lifeboats with inboard engines. Common near the ship
       breaking beaches near Gaddani. Mostly gillnetters.
      Yamaha skiffs made in Karachi powered by Yamaha™ outboard
       engines. Usually gillnetters. Provided by Fisheries.
      Fibreglass boats made in Iran, with Yamaha™ outboards. Transport
       and gillnetters
      Some very small sail and paddle powered wooden boats. Fish very
       close in to shore.
      Small fiberglass tenders for gill netters that anchor offshore

Nearly all the fishing vessels require some modification to make them suitable to
deliver the high quality fish required by modern markets. Some would only have to
                                          take ice on short trips in insulated polythene
                                          boxes. Others, the larger ones, will require
                                          major modifications to their holds and
                                          working surfaces. Balochistan should be
                                          very careful and not commit itself to a major
                                          programme of subsidizing these changes.
                                          Most of the fishery in Balochistan is near
                                          coastal with small and medium so
                                          modifications do not need to be substantial,
                                          and should be the responsibility of the
                                          fishermen or buyers. Larger vessel owners
                                          should do the changes themselves or depart
      Deep sea gillnetter. Gwadar
                                          the industry.

All the vessels require safety gear and training in safety at sea for the skippers and
crews. Many lives are lost at sea due to the failure to carry even the most basic
safety equipment. Navigation lights are now more common, though most small
vessels may have no more than a torch.


3.7 Fishing ports & infrastructure
The fishing grounds extend all along the coast, but the vessels tend to be
concentrated where there are suitable harbours and sheltered landing places. Much
of the coastal area is physically hostile to human habitation and settlement, and
consequently is very sparsely populated. People, and fishermen, tend to congregate
where:-




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      There are some communications by road to the rest of the country,
       both to get the catch out and to bring in provisions, water and fuel.
      There is some water, even if brackish
      There is shelter for the boats or at least the boats can be bought
       ashore through the surf and onto the beach.
      The Government has built facilities, though this is usually at a
       preexisting sheltered landing area

For these reasons the fishermen, and thus the recorded catch, is concentrated in
only about 40 villages and towns,10 of them quite large (in Bold in the table)

              Fish Landing sites and harbours of Balochistan.
              (From Balochistan Department of Fisheries data)
              Eastern Cluster   Central Cluster        Western Cluster
              BUNDI WARI        KUND MALIR             CHANDDI
              GADDANI           MEHD BANDAR            KALMAT
              SONMIANI          BALRA                  ISPEHAK
              DAMB              HUDD                   ZARAIN
              BERA              ORMARA EAST I          PASNI
              PORE              ORMARA WEST II         CHUR
              SPATT             TAAK                   SHAMAL BANDAR
              HINGOL            KOHI                   DARAG
                                BALL                   KAPPAR
                                SIKUNI                 SUR BUNDER
                                BASOL SUNT             DHOR
                                MAKOLA                 GWADAR EAST I
                                                       GWADAR WEST II
                                                       SHABI
                                                       PISHUKAN
                                                       GANZ
                                                       ROBAR
                                                       JEWANI
                                                       NBANDARI
                                (Bold = largest)       PANWA


Constructed ports, as such, are only
in Gaddani, Ormara, Gwadar and
Pasni; Jiwani has a breakwater,
which has been damaged by bad
weather. Every other landing site is a
(generally well sheltered) beach
where vessels are anchored offshore
or pulled up over the sand above
high tide when not in use.

The landing sites can be divided into
3 clusters. The Western cluster, near
the Iranian border centred on
Gwadar, the central cluster, centred               Pasni Port (Google Earth image)
on Omara and the Eastern Cluster
around Damb.




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For planning purposes it appears that the Gwadar cluster landing sites in the west
will, if and when the facilities and communications are available, aim to market fish
                                                through Gwadar, as a nucleus fishing
                                                port, since trucking fish to Karachi is
                                                expensive and probably, at least from
                                                the quality aspect for fresh fish,
                                                counterproductive from this distance.

                                                         The central cluster round Omara might
                                                         either develop as its own nucleus port
                                                         if communications develop, or look
                                                         either to Gwadar or Karachi. The
                                                         Eastern cluster, being near to Karachi,
                                                         the largest city in Pakistan, is unlikely
                                                         to develop on its own, and will remain
 Fisheries Staff member by the 10m wide East             dependent on Karachi.
   entrance to Pasni Fish Harbour Aug 2008
Throughout the area there is a need for more landing infrastructure investment in
harbours and jetties. Those seen during field visits were:

        Gwadar24 itself needs some form of landing structure on the West
         side to serve the several hundred boats that moor and unload there.
         Unfortunately in this case it is not obvious where a suitable structure
         (whether a harbour or jetty) could be built due mostly to the lack of
         depth off the long shallow sloping beach. This area is exposed to
         West winds and was devastated during a recent period of bad
         weather when many boats were smashed and many nets lost.
        Gwadar main fish wharf (on the East side of the peninsular) is
         exposed to the East winds when they blow. A breakwater is
         necessary to stop damage to the boats tied up or moored.
        Pasni is silted up a third of the harbour and one entrance (at low tide)
         is un-usable. It urgently needs dredging. The fishermen are
         becoming restless with the lack of action and are also unhappy about
         the harbour fees.
        Jiwani breakwater was damaged in a recent cyclone (May 2007),
         and has not been repaired. A large number of blocks have been
         prepared, but they have not been placed.
        Surbandar and Pishukan both require some form of jetty or
         breakwater.
        Gaddani harbour has silted up and requires both dredging and
         modifications to make it suitable for the small size of boats that
         regularly use it.


It was impossible to visit Kalmat Khor in August 2008, but it is reported that an
improved 40km approach road to Kalmat Khor is required. Whether this can be
justified for the number of people living here, (estimated 2,000 to 3,000 in 6 villages)
is another matter.




24
   The Gwadar Development Authority has plans to move all fishermen away from Gwadar, so any development of
the site will require that the future of the area is resolved.




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An approach road to Ganz would also be desirable. This is being attended to under
existing road building plans but how long before these plans become a reality is
another matter. The existing road is passable except in conditions of flood (very rare
in West Balochistan) and fish traders have no problem in normal circumstances
collecting fish.

All of the infrastructure required is in some plan or another. It has been very difficult
to discover which of the plans will actually be funded in the foreseeable future and
which are mere proposals or wish lists. Even the dredging of Pasni harbour, a vital
and pressing need for the fishermen of the area, is mired in delays and
recriminations.

Currently the responsibility for Infrastructure is divided between the Gwadar
Development Authority (for the area around Gwadar), the Balochistan Coastal
Development Authority (for the area between the water and 30 miles inland), Federal
Ministry of Communications, Ports and Shipping (Gwadar Fisheries Harbour), Pasni
Fisheries Harbour Authority, and Gaddani Harbour, owned by the Balochistan
Provincial Government, and other bodies in the coastal districts. Each has their own,
sometimes conflicting, plans. This is not a recipe for cohesive development planning.

A variety of PC1s 25 have been prepared by various bodies for jetties, feeder roads, a
training centre and a research centre. Others are envisaged for floating jetties,
harbours and other infrastructure. Only the new fisheries office in Surbandar has
progressed, and this is now under construction. There is not enough money for
many of the proposed projects.

It would be an appropriate activity for one of the senior staff of the Fisheries
Department to visit the whole coastal zone and write a situation report on
infrastructure in the coastal zone, as it affects fisheries, detailing the different works
that are to be carried out, the body responsible and the approximate costs. This
could then be used to appraise needs and solutions.




25
  PC1s are applications for funding. The fact that a PC1 has been prepared does not guarantee funding, and even if
a PC1 is passed it can still be difficult to secure the funding.




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             Map of Balochistan Coast showing “Clusters” of Fish landing sites
                                (catches in T x 1000 (2005))


                    Clusters are based round sheltered landing areas and centres of population




                                                            700 Km
                       The Western Cluster will naturally look to Gwadar for export and processing
                       whilst the Eastern Cluster will look to Karachi, even if Gwadar develops its
                       infrastructure. The Central Cluster could use either or both in the future.




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3.8 Processing, marketing and exports
Traditionally the majority of the catch was dried or salted. This has changed over the
years and nearly all the catch is now frozen or iced. The statistics show that 12,614
tonnes of tuna are still dried. Another 95 tonnes of unspecified dried salted fin fish
are sent inland. 146 tonnes of mixed fish are wet salted and 18,826 tonnes are dried
for fish meal. 165 tonnes of Fish Maws are produced and these are presumably
dried & salted also, and sent to Karachi.

The same source states that 14,894 tonnes
(11%) of the catch is consumed locally on
the coast. Everything else is sent to Karachi
either chilled or frozen. This is now more
feasible than before due to the opening of
the coastal highway which makes the trip
from Gwadar to Karachi only 9 hours.

52,678 tonnes of frozen fish is sent to
Karachi (41.8% of the total catch), and          There is no excuse for processing fish
another 26,560 tonnes of fish (19.6% of the       on the floor as in this plant in Gwadar
catch) is sent there fresh; a total of more                     (Aug 2008)
than 8 billion PKR in value. 475 tonnes of
fresh and frozen shrimp, valued at 3.89 billion PKR, make up the second most
valuable section of the catch and 207 tonnes of lobster (value 2.29 billion PKR) is the
third most important of the total.

There are about 20 processing plants scattered along the coast. IN the West there
are 7 in Gwadar, one in Surbandar, one in Pishukan and two in Jiwani. Others are in
Ormara, Damb and Gaddani in the central and western areas. Only those in the
Western cluster were visited in August 2008.

                                           The processing stations might all be better
                                           called receiving stations, because they only
                                           do the most basic of processing (gutting,
                                           heading, defining etc) of the fish, prawns
                                           and lobsters, they chill and freeze it, ready
                                           for transshipment to Karachi. In Karachi it
                                           is delivered either directly to processors or
                                           to the auction at the Karachi Fisheries
                                           Harbour. Some of the processing plants
                                           are extensions of companies in Karachi, but
                                           some are privately owned.
 Donkey carts, such as these in Gwadar
   Fish harbour are not ideal for fish     During the field visit in August 2008 only
                transport                  one of the plants in the Western Cluster of
landing sites was modern and hygienic (in Surbandar). All the rest had serious
failings. Only the one plant in Surbandar would approach EU standards. Most would
be closed down if there was a health and safety inspection service in Balochistan.
Some were really dreadful. No evidence of HACCP enforcement was found. The
skills shortage endemic in fisheries in Balochistan was evident everywhere.

Gwadar deep water port does not now provide any shipping facilities for getting fish
product out in containers, since there are no ships calling there. The airport does not



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accept international flights from large planes. As a result nearly all the fish for export
travels to Karachi from the fish processors and handling stations. An unknown
amount goes to Iran, either by road (some from Karachi) or is unloaded directly by
boats stopping in Iranian landing sites. In Iran the vessels also buy fuel (15PKR/litre)
and other items to return to Pakistan. The border is porous. A very small amount of
fish goes inland from coastal towns.

The distance to Karachi adds about 10% to the total cost of moving fresh mackerel to
Karachi (which includes the ice as a preservation medium) and about 2% to frozen
product moved by 40ft container (the 2% does not include the cost of freezing the
product). If the fish could be moved directly from Gwadar then these costs would
reduce. A 40ft reefer container costs PKR 50,000 to get to Karachi from Gwadar and
there are considerable risks due to breakdown and attacks in the mountainous areas.
A small truck carrying fresh fish will travel to Karachi for PKR10-15,000 depending on
size.

Since the day fishing boats do not use ice the catch is already deteriorated by the
time it reaches the beach (and then the donkey ride) and then the processors.
Whatever the processors do they cannot reverse this spoilage. The longer trip gill
netters do not properly use ice and their vessels do not have clean holds or decking.
They often stay at sea for long periods, up to 20 days (but usually much less). Again
the fish that gets unloaded from these boats, passes through the auction hall and on
to the processors is degraded in quality.

Few of the processors have direct agreements with fishermen, so buy from
middlemen and moles at the harbours. This increases the time and temperature
abuse subjected to the catch.

The processors do not receive top grade fish into their factories and thus it is not top
grade fish that is coming out.

The answer to this problem is for the fishermen on day boats to use ice and insulated
boxes, the medium size boats to box their fish and upgrade their boats to avoid
contamination and ice to be used liberally all along the cold chain. The technological
changes required are not difficult to
implement, nor particularly expensive.
That they are not being implemented
indicates, once again, that the skill level,
of the fishermen, fisheries officers and
processors is below that which is
acceptable.

Of great importance to future exports
are the activities of the Competent
Authority (CA). The CA is responsible
for certifying boats, landing sites,
processing and packing plant as up to
the required standard for export of         Boat builder using a bow drill. West Beach
                                                      Gwadar. August 2008
fisheries products to the EU (the most
valuable market in the world)26. For exports to be made to the EU in the future from
Gwadar it would be advisable for the CA to have a branch office, possibly even with a

26
   The EU, in 2008, delisted all processing plants in Pakistan for serious lapses in HACCP, record keeping,
traceability and GMP.




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basic micro-bacteriology laboratory, in Gwadar. As other countries become more
selective about the quality of fish that they import, this facility will become more
important.


3.9 Facilitating industries
Ice factories are fairly common throughout the coastal region where there are large
numbers of fishermen. If no factory is at a landing site then ice is bought in by fish
merchants.

In Gwadar there are 8 ice plants. Typically they have a 30 – 60 tonne/day capacity of
80 kg blocks, using ammonia plant. In August 2008 4 of the plants were not working
as the price of diesel had gone up, but they were converting to electricity to
overcome this, and it was the low season. Other ice plants in the Western cluster
were 4 in Surbandar, 3 in Jiwani and 1 in Pishukan. Ice is PKR3.15/kilo in Jiwani
which is typical of the area. It is sold in 80 kilo blocks which are transported on the
backs of un-insulated trucks, and crushed, either in crushers or with iron bars, once
delivered. The water from which the ice is made is not up to drinking water standard.
Other ice factories are based in Ormara, Hub, and other Eastern coastal locations.

Fisheries have built a number of workshops to repair engines along the coast. These
are manned, or not, by fisheries staff. They provide subsidised repair of engines for
fishermen. Workshops have been set up at Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani.
There are also Government operated ice plants at Ormara and Pasni. At the time of
the field visit in August 2008 the government ice plant in Pasni was not working.

Boatbuilding is done locally for wooden boats, above high tide on the beaches
adjoining the fishing beaches. The boat builders are skilled and make a robust
serviceable boat with fine lines. Other artisans install engines, repair propellers, fix
outboards and the like. The fishermen and their service industry compatriots are
adaptable and resourceful at keeping their boats, engines and equipment running.

There is however a severe shortage of skilled artisans. Fortunately there is
homegrown support for the fishing industry in that there are skilled (but not trained)
boat builders, engine repair mechanics, turners and lathe operators, wood yards and
the like throughout the area. Their presence owes little to Government largesse or
intervention. There is no technical training institute in the region providing education
or training in these sorts of skills. As fishing and processing becomes more
sophisticated, and the equipment and quality demands of the industry increase this
shortage of skilled technicians may well become critical.


3.10   Fish demand and consumption
Fish consumption in Pakistan is one of the lowest in the world. The population of
Pakistan is increasing rapidly, like other countries in the region. According to FAO in
2001-2002, the population was 142 million and fish production for human
consumption was 413 000 tonne, giving a per capita fish consumption of about 1.8
kg/year. FAO in the same article gives a consumption of 2.9kg/year for 2003 and a
prediction of per capita consumption based on trends for 2011 – 2020 of 3.7kg/year,
which greatly exceeds the MSY of the marine resources, so must presumably include
a large proportion of farmed fish.




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Other projections for the expected future consumption of fish by Pakistan's
population exist, but they universally fail to explain where the fish is to come from to
satisfy the projections.

In Balochistan, particularly away from the coast, goat, sheep, and chicken are very
much the preferred protein sources. The Fisheries Department estimates (2008) that
14,895 tonnes are locally consumed. Spread over the population of Balochistan this
is 2.27kg/person per year. Almost certainly the coastal people eat considerably more
than the interior population.

There are a variety of ways that fish consumption could be enhanced. Improving
overall fish quality and preservation, from catch to retailer, will be an essential
component of improving fish consumption.

To meet protein shortages in the future more emphasis should be made on
management of the resources, so as to ensure future supply. As stated above there
is little prospect of continuing to expand the Balochistan fisheries catch.

Inland aquaculture does not hold out much potential for increase in production in
Balochistan because there is so little water, and coastal aquaculture for producing
low cost protein for local consumption is not yet under consideration.

Shrimp farming is for producing exportable product to earn foreign exchange, not
cheap protein to feed the masses. Fish farming to provide fish for local consumption
will not be economically viable in the short term, since fish from the sea is still cheap
and available.


3.11    Fisheries Department
According to MinFAL27 the Balochistan Fisheries Department, which includes coastal
development has 992 employees, none of whom are women. 140 are under the
Director of Pasni Fish Harbour Authority, another 129 are under the Director of the
Balochistan Coastal Development Authority. The balance, 706 employees are
directly under the Director of Fisheries.

Interestingly the Government of Balochistan claims to only have about 250
employees in the Fisheries Department28, and simultaneously 814, in yet another
document29. The discrepancies are because the Department recently underwent a
surge of recruitment as a result of political interference, (to create jobs), so the
numbers are inflated and do not reflect the number of effectives.

The Balochistan Coastal Development Authority was split off from the Fisheries
Department in 1998. The jurisdiction of the BCDA extends to the coastal areas of
Balochistan and adjoins of upland areas up to 30 km from the high tide water line.
Naturally this is an issue that creates confusion, since the Gwadar Development
Authority also claims jurisdiction of these areas in the area of Gwadar (and to
Surbandar in the East and Pishukan in the West) (though this is in dispute since it
does not own the land), the Pasni Fisheries Harbour Authority is responsible for
Pasni Harbour, which is rapidly silting up, and Ports is responsible for the Gwadar

27
   In one of the Appendices to the National Policy Framework and Strategy for Fisheries and Aquaculture
Development in Pakistan. (2006).
28
   Director of Fisheries, Pers comm
29
   Anon (2008) “Balochistan Fisheries” A Power Point presentation.




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fish harbour and the associated land. Additionally several Federal institutions are
responsible for other activities, such as the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO),
which claims responsibility for research in the EEZ, and of course the MinFAL which
oversees national fisheries and has recently implemented an Aquaculture
Megaproject which envisages interventions in Balochistan.

The Fisheries Department is generally starved of resources and it is difficult to see
what the majority of the "effective" Fisheries Department employees actually do,
though there is some activity in the inland aquaculture sections. In Gwadar for
instance there are 117 employees. It was admitted during interview that only 3 or 4
did any "fisheries work", though this did seem to be an exaggeration, and at least 15
people were observed working at one time or another in Gwadar during field visits in
August 2008.

The department has no telephone, computer, no vehicles, no photocopier or other
equipment. Although a desk is important it is also important to have something to put
on or in the desk. The fisheries officers have motorcycles, but there are occasions
when a vehicle with more than 2 seats is required and many visitors balk at being a
pillion passenger with no crash helmet. During the field visits accompanying this
report the Assistant Fisheries Officer used his own car to show the CSF specialist
round Gwadar and when this was not available a taxi had to be hired. Outside
Gwadar, CSF provided the transport (as arranged with Fisheries Department in
Quetta).

The Balochistan Government is building (2008) a new office for Fisheries Gwadar in
Surbandar. Whether there will be any equipment & furniture to put in it is unknown.
The staff will certainly be inadequately trained as now, since the training centre
planned for Surbandar is as yet just a planned activity for the future.

There is also evidence of a complete lack of communication within the bodies
responsible for fisheries. An instance of this is that the Fisheries Department in
Gwadar did not know of the MinFAL Aquaculture Megaproject's plans for building a
shrimp model farm in Gwadar, together with a hatchery and a new retail market30.
Neither did the FOs in Jiwini nor Pasni know the sites of the proposed model shrimp
farms in their areas. Considering that MinFAL has done site selection for the model
farms, and apparently consulted with the stakeholders extensively, this is a
remarkable oversight.

All communication between the various bodies and offices has to be done by mobile
phone, which all the fisheries officers now own; since the various fisheries offices
(where they exist – Jiwani for instance is run for the FOs accommodation) do not
have phones or other equipment.

The Headquarters of Fisheries Department, with the high level staff, is in Quetta.
This is 732 km from Gwadar. With communications so poor, and the distances so
large, it is recommended that the transfer to the whole Headquarters staff (not
including the secretary and perhaps one liaison officer) to Gwadar is effected, as
soon as the new office in Surbandar is finished.

Overall the Fisheries Department is ineffective. There is plenty of work to be done,
but the staff are inadequately trained, there are too many unproductive staff (most

30
     Abdul Hameed, Gwadar Fisheries, pers comm




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are not even expected to turn up to work) who consume most of the budget, and the
staff that do wish to work do not have the necessary resources. There is little
political will to reduce the numbers of staff, and it is not certain that the financial
resources released by such a move would be retained by the Fisheries Department
for development works.


3.12   Fisheries training and research
Put simply there is currently no effective fisheries training being carried out in
Balochistan. What training courses are attended by staff are ad-hoc (such as recent
prawn farming training) or responses to offers from overseas institutions and
research bodies. No structured training programmes exist.

Even the Fisheries Officers in Balochistan have inadequate training. The fisheries
officers are meant to be passing on modern concepts of engine maintenance, simple
business skills for fishermen, quality control and the control of fish spoilage, but they
themselves do not have the skills necessary, either in training or about the subject
matter. How therefore can they do their extension works among the fishing
communities?

It is essential that the Fisheries Staff are given the skills needed to do the jobs with
which they are entrusted. There is no training centre though there is a plan for one to
be built in Gwadar. (This would probably be best shifted to Surbandar where the new
Fisheries Office is located, and given the GDAs' hostility to fisheries). The staffing of
this centre has not been addressed and the training that the trainers will receive so
that they can effectively utilize the training centre has not been properly assessed, let
alone the training needs of the province.

Even when recruiting new staff there is a dearth of suitably qualified applicants to
recruit, not just at the higher levels of the Department, but also even as junior
fisheries officers or to work in processing units, or to train other staff or fishermen.

This is a scandalous situation for Balochistan. It is imperative that the matter is taken
in hand by the Balochistan Government and addressed properly. Ad-hoc measures,
yet more plans and more unfunded PC1s are an inadequate response to the
problem.

It is a recommendation of this study that the Government of Balochistan seeks,
though the MinFAL, assistance from an overseas body or donor, to address the
fisheries training shortcomings identified in this report.

This assistance would begin with a thorough needs assessment, and would also
cover equipment needed for the proposed training centre and curricula for both
trainers and trainees. It would also have to include "train the trainers" courses so
that the facilities are properly used. A commitment for recurrent funding from the
Balochistan Government is also necessary.

Research is very limited. Research on a number of subjects is desirable, though
there seems to be no way that any research, except for a limited amount of academic
work in the Agriculture, Water and Marine Science University of Lasbela in Uthal,
Balochistan, will be undertaken in the foreseeable future. The University claims that
it will establish MSc and PhD level programmes in the Faculty of Marine Sciences. It
will establish



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      Department of Marine Biology, Fisheries Management and
       Aquaculture.
      Department of Physical Oceanography
      Department of Marine Chemistry and Marine Environment.
      Department of Marine Geology and Geophysics

At the moment there is the only institution offering specific Fisheries courses (a 4
year BSc in Marine Science) and to date nobody has qualified.

The MinFALs' Model Shrimp Farms are the nearest to applied research that is
planned and this is not supposed to be research, since it is presumed that these will
be commercially viable model farms. Similarly the Faculty of Marine Sciences at
Lasbela University is also investigating shrimp farming and has a hatchery and some
facilities.

The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Karachi under the Ministry of Science
and Technology (MoST), Government of Pakistan is doing some research in marine
matters, and has even proposed strengthening its sub-station in Gwadar.

The University of Karachi has some research students working on topics related to
fisheries, but these rarely have any direct relevance to commercial fisheries in
Balochistan.

Whilst there is this dearth of research work being done, and none on the fish stocks,
fishing effort and the effects of fishing on stocks, it is essential that the Government
of Balochistan continues to apply the Precautionary Approach to Fisheries
Management and limits entry to the fishery through a policy of not issuing any more
boat licenses; at least until research indicates the health or otherwise of the stocks.


3.13   Policy framework
As far as the Federal Government is concerned the policies and strategies regarding
fisheries in Pakistan are laid down in the Medium Term Development Framework
2005-10. The policies are very broad and relate to reducing post-harvest losses,
improving vessels and harbours, and emphasizing the private sector as the engine
for growth.

The MTDF 2005-10 gives a list of strategies:-

      Resource surveys and research on stock assessment, migratory
       pattern, biological studies of demersal/small, pelagic/large and
       mesopelagic fisheries will be carried out to develop strategies for
       sustained exploitation;
      The traditional fishing fleet will be modernized by providing high-
       power engines, navigational and communication equipment, and
       improvement of deck facilities, in order to enhance their capability to
       fish in relatively deeper waters;
      Reduction in post harvest losses will be achieved with improvement
       and upgradation of the fish holds of the existing fishing boats,
       installation of ice flake making machines on board fishing vessels,
       and refrigeration system on fishing boats involved in longer fishing
       operations;




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      Shrimp and fin fish aquaculture will be established in coastal areas of
       Sindh and Balochistan by reactivation of shrimp and finfish
       hatcheries of the Marine Fisheries Department and National Institute
       of Oceanography;
      Landing centers will be established at various places along Sindh
       and Balochistan coasts such as Keti Bundar, Shah Bundar, Goth
       Mubbarak and Sonara along Sindh coast and Gaddani, Damb, Kund
       Malir, Ormara, Kalmat, Sur, Gwadar (West Bay), Phushukan, Ganz
       and Jiwani along Balochistan coast;
      The discharge of industrial effluents in the rivers and the sea will be
       checked through legislation and other measures in order to reduce
       the effect of pollution on aquatic life;
      Untapped resources will be exploited through introduction of light
       fishing, jigging for squids, trap fishing for crabs and finfish and
       experimental fishing and utilization of meso-pelagic resources; and
      Improvement in human resource and skill development will be
       achieved through reactivation of the training programme at Fisheries
       Training Center at Karachi and establishment of Fisheries Training
       Centre at Gwadar.

Whilst acknowledging that overfishing is a very serious problem the MTDF goes on to
give a forecast for increased marine capture fish production from the figures of 404
thousand tonnes to 517 thousand tonnes; an increase of 28% over the five years.

The MinFAL strategy for fisheries comments that the Government of Pakistan has set
3 goals

      Increase the contribution of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors to national
       economic growth

      Increase the contribution of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors to poverty
       alleviation

      Increase the contribution of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors to food
       security

It goes on to state that the Government of Pakistan has also committed itself to
respect principles of:

      good governance, transparency in decision-making and finance management,

      fairness and equity,

      respect of international treaties, laws and commitments,

      participation of all groups and stakeholders, including women, in decision-
       making processes,

      sustainable environmental resource use, management and protection.

And it gives 3 strategy axes:-

      Sustainable development of inland and coastal aquaculture production



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           Sustainable increase in inland and marine capture fisheries production

           Resolving post-harvest issues

The document goes on to list an almost exhaustive list of objectives and activities.
The more than 100 page document is all encompassing and unfortunately resultantly
insufficiently focused.

The Vision 2020 of the Balochistan Coastal Development and Fisheries Department
gives the Vision as:-

            “An effective and strong fisheries regime contributing towards sustainable
            development of fisheries for the well being and prosperity of the masses”
The document goes on to give a series of objectives for the Department.

           Sustainable development of marine and inland fish resources
           Capacity building: Human resource development with improved management
            practices
           Institutional strengthening of fisheries department
           Infrastructure development
           Reduction in post harvest losses
           Market facilitation
           Linkages Development for public/private partnership
           Direct exports from Balochistan ports which may result in improvement of
            socio-economic conditions of the fishermen communities.
The document claims that landings are currently 120,000 tonnes/year, and there are
40,000 active fishermen using 6,000 wooden boats.

The Fisheries Department also has a mission statement which is:-

            “increase fish production, make protein available and improve the socio-
            economic conditions of fisherman especially through control of illegal fishing”
The Government of Balochistan, on its web site31 gives as an objective for the
Fisheries Department:-

            “The main function of Fisheries Department, Government of Balochistan is to
            develop the socio-economic condition of fisher folks by maximizing their
            earning.”
Thus the Government of Baluchistan's‟ policy towards coastal fisheries development
is geared towards poverty alleviation amongst the fishing communities of the coast,
though income generating projects. This is in line with the MinFAL Fisheries Strategy
and the MTDF.

Whilst the policy framework is adequate, there are few effective strategies being
implemented by the Government of Balochistan which support these fine words.


31
     http://www.balochistan.gov.pk




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3.14      Regulatory Framework
The regulatory framework for fisheries and aquaculture is very lacking. The MinFAL,
as part of its development of a National Policy and Strategy for Fisheries and
Aquaculture Development in Pakistan has commissioned a study32 on the legislative
base for Fisheries and Aquaculture and comments that –

          the legislation is fragmented, spread over different levels of government and
          different government ministries
The report goes on to comment that despite the lack of legislation this is not an
impediment to the implementation of the Federal Plan but that the legislation

          ….needs to be consolidated at a national level soon, in order to ensure that
          legislative reforms envisioned under the Policy (over the course of the next
          few years) are facilitated. Clearly, these reforms would be substantial,
          essentially covering all aspects of fisheries and particularly aquaculture,
          whether inland, coastal and marine, so that the regulatory and legal regime
          covering this sector is streamlined and available to all.
An ADB report on Sindh33 lists the national and provincial laws and also the
international agreements into which Pakistan (and Balochistan) has entered.

Specific to Balochistan:-

          The major piece of legislation:-

           Balochistan Sea Fisheries Act No. IX, 1971. This law provides authority
          for control of fishing craft, fishing licenses and processing of fish and fishery
          products in the territorial water of Pakistan along the coast of Balochistan.
          Contravention of any provision of the Ordinance is punishable by one month
          imprisonment or PRs 5 000 fine, or both.

          Amendments:-

           Government of Balochistan. The Baluchistan Gazette (1972). Notification.
          The Baluchistan Sea Fisheries (Amendment) Ordinance 1972. This includes
          Trawlers as fishing vessels in the Balochistan Sea fisheries Ordinance 1971
           Government of Balochistan. The Baluchistan Gazette (1986). Notification.
          The Baluchistan Sea Fisheries (Amendment) Act 1986. This forbids the use
          of trawls, ring nets, seines or purse seines in the closed bays of Sonmiani and
          Kalmut, and anywhere in the 12 mile zone.
           Government of Balochistan. The Baluchistan Gazette (1994). Notification.
          The Baluchistan Sea Fisheries (Amendment) Act 1994. Relates to the
          handover of vessels caught poaching to the Tehsildar/Assistant
          Commissioner of the respective area and allows for the auction of the catch.


32
   Ashraf. N (2006) Legal Implications of the National Policy and Strategy for Fisheries and Aquaculture development
in Pakistan. National Policy and Strategy for Fisheries and Aquaculture Development in Pakistan. TCP/PAK/3005.
Part 3.
33
   ADB (2006) Technical Assistance Consultant‟s Report. Pakistan: Sindh Coastal and Inland Community
Development Project. Project Number: PAK 37188. December 2005. (& appendices). Prepared by ANZDEC Limited
Consultants.




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        Government of Baluchistan. (2007) Shrimp Sector Policy. (Produced
       with the assistance of SMEDA). This elucidates the support of the
       government to shrimp farming and allows for free post larvae to be provided
       to shrimp farms from Government hatcheries in the future.

General Federal Pakistan legislation relating to fisheries

        Agriculture Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937. This act provides
       authority and control for the grading and marketing of agricultural produce.
       Dry fish, shellfish and fishmeal are graded under the provision of this act.

        Food and Agriculture Department (No. IV/(5)/17-SOA-VII-F and A/58)
       Rules for the Protection of Fish in the Waters of Shikarpur District (Preceded
       by a Provisional Order, 1957)

          The Pakistan Fisheries Ordinance 1961

          West Pakistan Fisheries Rules, 1965

        Exclusive Fishing Zone (Regulation of Fishing) Act, 1975, as amended
       1993. This extends to the whole of Pakistan and to waters within the
       exclusive fishery zone of Pakistan beyond the territorial waters. It regulates
       the management of fishing in the EEZ of the country. The provisions of the
       law are in accordance with the provisions provided for in the Law of the Sea
       Convention, and cover: Licensing and management of fishing operation in the
       EEZ of the country. Fishing craft subject to navigational regulation. Prohibition
       of illegal, dynamite and poisoning fishing. Closed seasons and prohibited
       areas.

        Pakistan Fish Inspection and Quality Control Act, 1997. This law deals
       with the registration of fish processing plants and fish exporters, and
       constitutions and functions of the inspection committee. The function of the
       committee includes inspection of fish processing plants, fish exporters, and
       handling of fish and fishery products. It also defines the powers, duties and
       functions of fishery officers and penalties for contravention by processors and
       exporters.

        The Pakistan Animal Quarantine (Import and Export of Animal and Animal
       Products) Ordinance, 1979. This law provides for control of the import and
       export of animals and animal products, and the issue of health certificates to
       regulate the trade and to prevent the introduction or spread of diseases. The
       Federal Government, vide Notification No.F.272/FDC/99 dated 6 April 1999,
       in exercise of the power conferred by Section 12 of the Pakistan Animal
       Quarantine Ordinance, exempts the export of fish and fishery products from
       all the provisions. This will be important if Aquaculture is to be encouraged
       since the import of exotic species will come under this act.

        Karachi Fisheries Harbour Authority Ordinance No.11, 1984 This law
       provides the legal basis to carry out efficient operation of harbour facilities
       and for periodic inspection of hygienic conditions of processing plants, ice
       plants, cold storage and other related activities. Much of Baluchistan's fish
       passes through the KFH.




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        Pakistan Fish Inspection and Quality Control Rules, 1998. This law
       provides a detailed description of conditions required for registration of
       processing plants for export, ice factories, fish handling on board fishing
       vessels, landing places, and fish processing establishments. It also provides
       provisions for registration of testing laboratories for seafood products, and
       notification of approved cleaning materials, etc.

        Unknown. Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance No. XXVII. This
       law deals with protection, conservation and improvement of the environment
       for the prevention and control of pollution, including biodiversity, ecosystems,
       effluent, hazardous substance emission and water pollution. It also provides a
       provision to make rules for implementing the provisions of international
       environmental agreements. This will be important if Aquaculture takes off in
       Balochistan.

Various orders, declarations etc

        Conservation of fisheries resources S. R. O. 329(1)/79. In exercise of the
       powers conferred by section 6 of the Exclusive Fishery Zone (Regulation of
       Fishing) Act, 1975 (XXXII of 1975), the Federal Government declared the
       period commencing on 1 June and ending on 31 July to be the period during
       which catching of shrimps shall be prohibited within the entire area of the
       zone. This will reduce fishing pressure on the shrimp resources and provide
       an opportunity for juveniles to grow before becoming subject to fishing.

        S. R. O. 332 (1)/79. This law stipulate that no holder of a license, fishing
       permit or identity card shall engage himself in catching female lobsters loaded
       with eggs (berried lobsters) and lobsters of 15 cm or less, and, if caught, such
       lobsters shall be immediately released back into the sea alive and shall not be
       landed or marketed.

        Notification No.DD-75/98/3342-48 dated 24-07-1999. Federal
       Government prohibition against catching of marine turtle of all types in the
       EEZ beyond 12 n.mi. from the shoreline.

        S. R. O. 739 (1)/98 The Federal Government totally forbids the export and
       domestic consumption of aquatic turtles and tortoises.

In addition to the laws and regulations above Pakistan has entered into a large
number of international agreements. Many of these require Pakistan to follow
international norms and agreements on pollution, sustainable use of natural
resources, the precautionary approach to fisheries, monitoring of fisheries activities,
control of IUU fishing and the like.

Investors in fish and shrimp farming, fish processing or fish capture would naturally
expect their investments to be protected by adequate rules and regulations; which do
not specifically exist, or if they do are spread over other legislation covering
associated areas. There is even some confusion as to whether provincial laws would
apply to coastal aquaculture or federal laws would apply, and in Balochistan whether
it is the responsibility of the Fisheries Department, MinFAL or Balochistan Coastal
Development Authority. The Shrimp Policy does not say.




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Currently the Balochistan fisheries laws, apart from the Shrimp Policy, do not cover
aquaculture. (Areas not covered include pollution, introduction of new species, use
of antibiotics, pesticides and other drugs in feeds, residue levels in harvested
products, harvesting of wild post larvae or broodstock, registration of farmers and
farms, organic waste management, protection of navigation, quarantine and fish
health, notification of diseases, quality of feeds (not an exhaustive list)).

Community based management of natural resources in the coastal zone is another
desirable activity which is not covered in the fisheries legislation.

The Government of Balochistan is currently mulling the distant possibility of taking
over the licensing of FFVs fishing within the 200 EEZ. Currently the Federal
Authorities (MinFAL) are responsible for this activity. Anecdotally this is an opaque
area, and much dissatisfaction is evident, particularly in the Western areas, with the
activities of FFVs. Given the inability of the Balochistan Government to monitor and
control its existing coastal fishery, it would seem unwise, at this stage to transfer the
licensing of FFVs from MinFAL to provincial governments.

The Federal and Provincial Governments are not addressing the problem of illegal,
unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Many Pakistani boats, with some 30 at
least based in Gwadar, and others in Pasni, appear to be fishing without registration
and not monitoring catches in the EEZs of other countries and in international waters.
This type of fishing is not covered by any legislation current in Pakistan. It is
considered to be "out of sight and out of mind" and no business of the Fisheries
Department except in that they vessels are registered in Balochistan and pay their
license fee. They are mainly oceanic drift netters targeting tunas.

To conclude then, the fisheries legislation is inadequate in the long term for the
requirements of the Balochistan Fisheries Department and its stated plans, just as it
is inadequate throughout the country for other provinces and for implementing the
MinFAL National Policy and Strategy for Fisheries and Aquaculture Development in
Pakistan. The latter acknowledges this but the only development project so far to
come out of the Policy and Strategy, is the Aquaculture Megaproject. This project
does not address the shortcomings of the marine sector legislation though the
Federal and Provincial laws on Aquaculture and that of the various provincial
administrations will be ungraded through the employment of international expertise
under the Aquaculture Megaproject (the legislation being updated being a pre-
requisite for expansion of the shrimp industry).

The Fisheries Laws of Balochistan relating to capture fisheries really need completely
rewriting and include Fisheries Management Plans for each of the discrete stocks
being exploited (such as lobster, shrimp, demersal fish, tuna, mackerel etc). It is
unlikely that the Aquaculture Megaproject will do this.

It is thus a Recommendation of this report that it should be a priority of the
Balochistan Government and the Fisheries Department in particular to update the
laws of the province, and lobby for the introduction of new acts and regulations so as
to update the federal legislation.


3.15   Credit and investment in fisheries
There are no formal credit mechanisms in the majority of the coastline.




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Formal credit is available to large investors, such as individuals wishing to establish
processing plants. It is subject to the usual banking rules and preconditions.
Processors seem to find no problem in finding investment money. Although the
usual commercial murkiness surrounds sources of investment, evidence from
Karachi and in Balochistan shows that funds are available to some individuals to
make large investments in processing plant and similar infrastructure. There are
rumours of large amounts of investment into processing coming from the Arabian
Gulf region. It would seem that government should continue to steer clear of trying to
provide investment funds to this segment of the sector.

Fishermen are different, they have no formal lenders. As a result many fishermen
are in debt to middlemen and money lenders. The WWF noted (2006)34 that of the
fishermen in Sonomari, 47% were in debt. The “poor” fishermen were more likely to
be in debt (60%) than the “middle” fishermen (18%) or “rich” fishermen (1%). The
system is seen as iniquitous by many. The WWF calculates that the middlemen
making the loan get an annual return on investment (ROI) of 147%.

Despite that the report comments that

        Having said the above, the life of a fisherman would be very difficult without
        financing options. With little or no alternative sources, little or no savings and
        superfluous spending habits, he would not be able to run his livelihood.
        Fishermen require loans mainly for leasing and operating boats. Without
        loans, they will be left forever in the vicious cycle of poverty.
Since no formal lender will enter into a loan agreement with the fishermen, in that it is
considered to be a very risky business, there seems, in the short term at least, no
alternative to the middlemen as financiers of the artisanal fleet of fishermen.

Even some of the large scale investment in fisheries is similarly shunned by the
banks. Many of the larger vessel owners are also in debt to beoparis or moles in
Karachi Harbour, whose tentacles reach far along the coastline at far as the Iranian
border.

The ADB report on Sindh comments on the moneylenders that:-

        They provide an efficient loan service to fishermen, quickly, without lengthy
        paperwork, where no alternative exists. The loans they make have little
        collateral, are very high risk and are based on a degree of trust that shows a
        benign dispensation toward fishermen not generally acknowledged or
        appreciated by outsiders. The situation is accepted by fishermen and
        administrators alike.
In the absence of any alternative in either the long or short term, the activities of the
moneylenders will continue.

The Government of Balochistan does not currently propose to issue cheap loans to
fishermen or other investors in the fishing industry. This is a wise decision, and the
policy should be maintained. The recent indirect subsidies made to fishermen for
gears and equipment are undesirable and probably contravene the FAO
Precautionary Approach and should not be repeated.


34
   WWF (2006) Fish Marketing Chain and Economic Analysis of Indebtedness of Fisher-folk of Sonmiani
[Balochistan]




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The MinFAL Aquaculture Megaproject does propose to give loans to shrimp farmers
by the way of incentive grants. It will also provide shrimp seedlings to fishermen free
and subsidize shrimp feeds.

It is not the proper business of the Government of Balochistan to subsidise shrimp
farming.

It is recommended that the Government of Balochistan should make it clear that after
the end of the MinFAL interventions, when responsibility for the model farms set up
under the project is handed to the Balochistan Government, these subsidies, direct
and indirect, will be terminated.


3.16   International assistance in fisheries development
There is no international assistance to fisheries in Balochistan at the moment.

ADB Loan-0619 PAK: Balochistan Fisheries Development built and equipped Pasni
Harbour. The project included an ice plant and various other ancillary buildings and
equipment. This harbour is now silting up at a dramatic speed, though the Karachi
Port Trust is supposed to be dredging it.

Some other minor assistance over the years has been provided, mostly in training of
staff. Several staff members have been training in Japan, Korea and the UK, though
this has been in response to requests for applicants rather than a structured training
programme.

There is no indication of any extant requests to international organisations or aid
donors specifically for Balochistan fisheries development. Much is made of meetings
and possible interventions, but there is little achieved and nothing concrete comes of
most of it.


3.17   Gwadar and Pasni – fishing ports of the future?
Gwadar has been put forward as a mega port of the future. It is managed by the
Singapore Ports Authority and closely connected with the Chinese, who see it as a
direct conduit to the Arabian Sea and the associated economies of the Gulf and Iran.
Gwadar Port was inaugurated on 20 March 2007 with the visit of a bulk grain carrier.
No large vessels have visited since.

Direct shipping of fresh fish out of Gwadar by air offers a significant opportunity for
fish exporters. The fish quality from the day boat gill net fleet (sometimes using hand
lines and long lines) is relatively good and if the fishermen could be encouraged to
use ice at sea then would become even better. This fish would find a ready market in
the Gulf States and Gwadar is only an hour and twenty minutes by plane from these
markets. This opportunity relies on:-

          The construction of a new runway at Gwadar
          Frequent flights of aircraft of large enough size to carry
           substantial freight
          Improved quality throughout the cool chain from capture to
           shipment




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The runway is to be extended and this should be ready within 3 years. This
opportunity is the only "groundbreaking" development that the port of Gwadar is likely
to provide to fisheries. Shipping frozen fish in containers out of Gwadar is hardly a
groundbreaking opportunity, though it reduces costs. The massive increases in fish
catch that are envisaged by the more fantasist commentators on the future of
Gwadar are impossible.

Unfortunately in the vision35 for Gwadar there
has been little room left for the Fishing Industry.
Fishing is going to be pushed out to the
neighbouring towns of Pishukan and
Surbandar. Jetties and other supporting
infrastructure will be built there as well as low
cost housing for the fishermen. Large cargo
ships visiting the busy port are presumed to be
incompatible with small fishing craft. The local
fishermen of Gwadar are also presumed to be
from Surbandar and Pishukan,36 and not from
                                                      The new financial hub of Pakistan
Gwadar at all. In this scenario, Gwadar will not
                                                     Gwadar. Jinnah Avenue (Aug 2008)
be a fishing port at all, merely a cargo port.
Naturally containers of fish would pass through, but the fish would not be landed
there. This would reduce freight costs for frozen fish, which is now taken by road, at
a cost of PKR 50,000 for a 40ft container, containing 25 tonnes of fish, to Karachi.
This would be the main benefit of Gwadar port to the fishing industry.

A major "Seafood City" of 1000 acres, is proposed by Fisheries Department at
Gwadar, and would include 8-10 processing establishments all of which supported by
sewage treatment plant, fire fighting and security services is included in the GDA
Special Industrial Zone plan. There is however some doubt as to whether this would
be an appropriate place to put it, and even if it is actually worth doing. The catch
cannot increase greatly, and the existing catch is adequately served by the existing
processing plant. There are already new processing plants being installed all along
the coast that will soak up further expansion in catching capability (which this report
specifically advises against).

There is no local labour, certainly not skilled labour, for the Seafood City and the
GDA is anticipating moving all the fishermen away from the Gwadar area anyway. It
may be best to keep this plan on the shelf for the time being, though since there is no
investment funding it is unlikely to be realized any time soon.

To facilitate the cleansing of Gwadar port of fishermen, fish landing jetties are
planned to be built by the GDA at Surbandar and Pishukan. The Pishukan jetty
would cost PKR691 million, have a capacity of 400 motor boats, be (Phase 1) 479m
in length with Phase II being 300m length. The Approach channel would be 2.5m
deep and be 400m long and 35 m wide. It is apparently "in progress", but little could
be observed on the field visit. In Surbandar the cost is PKR777 million and the total
length will be eventually 700m and it will have a capacity of 400 boats. The approach
channel is the same length and size as in Pishukan and it too is apparently "in
progress". Again little of this progress was evident during field visits in August 2008,
though a small dredger was tied up in Surbandar. Large housing schemes for


35
     kindly provided by the Gwadar Development Authority
36
     Nobody seems to have asked the fishermen, particularly those of west beach Gwadar.




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fishermen are also planned and approved, though again they do not now have any
houses on them.

Interestingly the total boat capacity of 800 proposed at these two harbours is less
than the existing number of boats in Surbandar and Pishukan (960 of all types), let
alone the extra 1000 or so expected to move to the two landing sites from Gwadar.

If the GDA gets it way and fishermen are excluded from Gwadar then this will be
more of a social upheaval than a fisheries one. Fishing will continue, the fish will
continue to be exported from Gwadar, either directly by air or sea, or through
Karachi. The fish will however be caught by the same fishermen from their new
locations, and the processors will similarly move, in time, to the fish producing areas
in neighbouring landing sites and out of Gwadar (where they are presently situated is
zoned for "port area").

This is unlikely to happen soon since the expansion of the port depends on a series
of factors that will take time to eventuate. Currently unloading at Gwadar makes no
sense for importers or trans-shippers. Karachi offers better facilities and
infrastructure, and more importantly transport links north; unloading at Gwadar
merely puts a 700 km road journey on top of any freight costs.

To achieve its potential Gwadar needs the extension of the road system north to the
Central Asian Republics and China and the extension of the railway system towards
Gwadar. Much of these infrastructure developments are dependent on the continued
interest and support of the Chinese who are geo-politically involved in its
development. Development of break-bulk facilities has been proposed to provide
more turnover and as an alternative to the ports of Bandar Abbas in Iran, Salalah in
Oman, and Aden in Yemen, who are all looking at the same markets (the Gulf and
East Africa). The competitive advantage of Gwadar does not seem compelling.

Foreign investment on a very large scale is unlikely with the current security situation;
which precludes travel to Gwadar without permission and then intimidating amounts
of police security.

Pasni harbour has silted up, to such an extent that it will be un-usable within 3 years
(at the present rate of siltation). One of the harbour entrances is unusable except at
high tide. Now (mid-2008) at least 200,000 cubic meters37 of sand will have to the
dredged from the harbour to allow its full use (at 2 meter depth) and, at current
(Karachi) prices for dredging, will cost more than US$2 million. Although there have
been promises, nobody has found the money to do this and the PFHA, CDA,
Fisheries Department and others continue to prevaricate whilst the situation
deteriorates. The Karachi Port Trust has provided a small dredger but another is
required. None can afford the huge cost of dredging this from their current budgets.
Already more than a hundred boats have moved in the off season to Julee Beach, a
desolate and sand swept area a mile or so away, to escape the silting (and the
usurious harbour fees).

Large boats, and those from Sindh that pass though to load with ice and fuel in Pasni
before heading off to fishing grounds in the West nearer Africa no longer base
themselves or call at Pasni. This has caused loss of income to the Harbour
Authorities.


37
     A subjective estimated based on area currently exposed a t low tide.




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As with Gwadar, if the Precautionary Approach to Fisheries Management is applied,
then the promised expansion of fishing activity at Pasni will be muted. Processing
facilities and ice making facilities are adequate, investment is forthcoming from the
private sector, and the main opportunities lie in improving the value of the catch,
rather than increasing the absolute catch quantity.

There is adequate investment coming in to the area for new processing facilities in
Balochistan (as evidenced by the new plants at Surbandar and elsewhere), and the
fishermen do not find it difficult to satisfy their modest investment needs from informal
sources and their own funds. Given the uncertainty surrounding the future of fishing
in Gwadar port & fish harbour it seems that what large investment there is in fisheries
may well drift away from there to surrounding fish landing sites; which is surely not
what is intended in an area crying out for investment in industry.

It is recommended that the Government of Balochistan ensures that their own long
term plans, and those of the Gwadar Development Authority complement each other
for the long term future of fisheries in Gwadar and nearby landing sites.

It is also recommended that the Government of Balochistan, with some urgency,
ensures that promised funding is made available to the dredging of Pasni Harbour.




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4 Overall plan for Balochistan capture fisheries
In the short term the Government of Balochistan must concentrate on what it can
realistically achieve, rather than what it would like to achieve, and it should restrain
its planners from fantasy and delusion in the light of tight budgets, the crippling skills
shortages in the Fisheries Department and the Maximum Sustainable Yield for the
fisheries being reached or exceeded.

There is little money for infrastructure, such as new harbours scattered along the
coast. There is no money for developing an offshore fleet of tuna long liners, and
even if there was the Government should not be involved in financing such a fleet.
There is little money for Seafood City, and there is little justification for the
Government to be involved. There is no money for shrimp farming and again the
Government should not be directly involved. Manufacturing fiberglass boats should
not be a Government activity and neither should establishing a net making plant.
The Government should not be involved in repairing engines and boats or in setting
up processing plants with value adding units. These all appear in various plans and
divert attention from the pressing, immediate requirements. Many of these activities
are not even the responsibility of Fisheries Department.

Some of the larger projects listed do have genuine validity. New harbours and feeder
roads would help the fishermen and a research centre would assist in assessing
MSY and other variables in the fisheries. What however is the likelihood of them
being achieved given the lack of funding and emphasis on fisheries. The best that
can be expected is that some fisheries needs may be satisfied by developments
done by other bodies, such as the GDA, or the BCDA.

Recommendations for short term activities, which are feasible under proposed plans
and current budgets, over and above what the Fisheries Department already
routinely does, are listed in the main text above and in Para 0. Longer term
suggestions for activities that might be realistic are also listed.

Additionally there are some general principles, and specific long term objectives that
the Balochistan Fisheries Department should aspire to.

Balochistan fisheries should aim to:-

        Harvest of the marine resources of Balochistan in a sustainable
       manner in accordance with the FAO Precautionary Principle, and the
       Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, ensuring that the
       resources remain for the benefit of future generations.
        Enhance institutional capacity so that the Balochistan
       Government and its various bodies can assist and guide the
       development of the fisheries sector.
        Develop a fleet of vessels, capable of exploiting the resources in
       a responsible manner
        With the objective of supporting commercial fisheries create an
       business climate that will lead to investment in both the capture and
       processing sectors
        Promote post-harvest activities and trade, so as to add value to
       the existing catch




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The Government of Balochistan must fine tune its approach to fisheries development.
It should not be an implementer; it should be a facilitator, researcher and a provider
of information. Overseas investment wishes to see a stable security situation, in a
location with good infrastructure and communications, and with a supporting
administration. Generally overseas investors will bring with them, or hire locally, the
technical expertise to run and manage their operations. They do not need interfering
government agencies, though a strict fisheries management regime and
comprehensive legislation, particularly on property rights, is desirable, since this
provides security to investments.

The financial situation has precluded the Fisheries Department from doing more than
passively oversee developments over the last few years. There is no capability, due
to funding constraints, and the poor training of the staff excludes then from carrying
out the duties which are implicit in the job. This must change.


4.1 Objective 1: Harvest marine resources of Balochistan in a
   sustainable manner
This objective is so as to use aquatic living resources in a responsible manner,
ensuring that present and future generations may enjoy these resources as a source
of food, employment, income and recreation.

Balochistan must establish a fisheries management regime that is economically
feasible and fits in with current worldwide trends for more stakeholder involvement in
decision making and enforcement processes in the fishery sector. Community-based
fisheries management might be the best option for sustainable coastal fisheries
management in Balochistan since it makes use of the human capacity available at
local level and can achieve effective management at a low cost.

Specific objectives for development in the Balochistan fishery capture sector should
be the following:

        Base fisheries management on scientific evidence and
       knowledge about aquatic living resources and their use. (Use the
       FAO Precautionary Approach to Fisheries to guide all resource use
       decisions)
        Empower local communities and fishers‟ associations to
       participate in collaboration with the Fisheries Department in the
       regulation of access to and user rights and obligations of the
       resources and to reap directly the benefits of these resources.
        Strengthen the legislative base and formulate management plans
       for important stocks of marine fisheries and aquaculture.
        Whilst acknowledging realities regarding funding and equipment
       attempt to establish and implement systems of enforcement of
       regulations, and of monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS),
       possibly through co-ordination with other law enforcement or
       monitoring agencies and community bodies.
        Combat and eliminate illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU)
       fishing by fishing vessels operating out of Balochistan ports.

The Government of Balochistan should keep well away from direct investment in
fishing activities, processing and exporting. These are the functions of the private
sector and should be left to them to develop. The assistance from the Government



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of Balochistan should be merely as a facilitator; ensuring a secure environment,
making up to date legislation, monitoring and management of the fisheries, enforcing
rules and regulations on fisheries and the environment and Fish quality and the like.


4.2 Objective 2: Enhance institutional capacity
Balochistan must enhance institutional capacity in the fishery sector so that
institutions involved with fisheries are able to guide the development of the sector in
an effective and sustainable manner and work towards the achievement of specific
objectives for the future.

There is a crisis in capacity of the institutions responsible for fisheries in Balochistan,
most of all the Fisheries Department. Similarly there is a skills shortage in the
processing sector, and the fishermen themselves need training, in safety at sea,
fisheries management principles and care of the catch, if the fishery is to be
maintained and obtain the full benefits of sales and exports.

Budgetary constraints have almost completely terminated activities in research,
education and improvement of administrative institutions in the fishery sector.
Additionally there has been little or no training of FD staff or fishermen because of
the non-existence of formal fisheries education in Balochistan. There is no Training
Institute in Balochistan (or Sindh) providing training to fishermen, fish processors or
department staff. It is very difficult to recruit young fishery specialists in Balochistan
because of the shortage of formal fisheries and aquaculture education and training
facilities.

The Department of Fisheries functions are inter alia, to:

        formulate fisheries policies and management plans and support
       the implementation of fisheries development projects;
        coordinate, collect, analyse and disseminate data and
       information related to fishery activities;
        issue licences and permits for capture fisheries (and aquaculture
       activities);
        liaise, discuss and make joint decisions with all fishery
       stakeholders;
        liaise and negotiate with those involved in activities that have an
       impact on capture fisheries (BCDA and GDA in particular, but
       including all other interested bodies);
        promote fishery research;
        promote the development of small-scale fisheries
        Promote the improvement of fish quality, export and local
       marketing of fish.

In order to carry out all these functions, the Fisheries Department needs to be staffed
with specialists in fisheries economics and planning, fisheries biology, aquaculture,
fisheries legislation, fisheries inspection, fisheries statistics, fishing engineering,
sociology and public relations. The staff of the Fisheries Department should also be
assisted by appropriately equipped offices in terms of communication and data
processing technologies. The specialists should have access to computerized
techniques and be updated periodically on information technologies, foreign
languages and technical issues concerning their specialties; none of this is now
available. All will have to be planned for, and provided over the next few years.



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A Fisheries Training Centre is planned at either Pasni or Gwadar38, but funding is not
yet approved. This would also have research capabilities. Even if this is built then
the question of who will staff the building does not seem to have been addressed.

Responsible fisheries management and development also require the participation of
institutions representing the interests of stakeholders in the fishery sector. It is
necessary, for instance, to establish and develop strong fisheries associations such
as fishing cooperatives and processor associations, and make them responsible for
defending their members‟ interests. Institutions in neighbouring Provinces, most
particularly Sindh, need to be a source of cooperation and liaison. The Karachi Fish
Harbour (currently where a large proportion of the Balochistan catch ends up), the
Fishermen's Co-operative Society (FCS), universities and centers of learning in
Sindh, and the Sindh Provincial Fisheries Department are all examples of where
liaison could be improved.

An efficient fishery statistics system that is able to provide the data and information
needed to take decisions on fisheries management and development aspects is
important for a Fisheries Department The organization responsible for the collection,
processing and dissemination of statistical data and information in Balochistan is the
Fisheries Department although the CDA is still collating the data collected and
MinFAL collates the country statistics. Nobody has cross checked the validity of the
statistics collected and during the field visits by the CSF specialist in August 2008 it
was evident that a significant amount of the catch was not being counted by the
present system; particularly that which does not pass through the processors or
controlled harbours.

Specific long term objectives for the Balochistan Government regarding improving
institutional capacity should be:-
             Establish a Fisheries Management Body that is capable of
            providing the services and support needed by the Balochistan fishery
            sector and that functions effectively to meet the challenges of a
            twenty-first century economy, rather than a medieval one.
             Establish systems for coordination and linkage with other sectors
            and bodies wherever relevant through the Fisheries Management
            Body. Organizations, associations and fisheries cooperatives should
            be able to cooperate formally with the Fisheries Management Body,
            by being permanent members.
             Develop and implement a joint and coordinated research
            programme of fisheries science and research institutions at
            provincial level (linked to other national institutions), to include all
            aspects of fisheries such as biology, ecology, technology, traditional
            knowledge, environmental science, economics and social and
            nutritional science, in order to use these results as a basis for setting
            management and development objectives, reference points and
            fisheries performance criteria.
             Establish a formal fisheries educational programme to increase
            skills throughout the Fisheries Department and the industry, as well
            as among fishermen. Beginning with the building and staffing of the
            fisheries Training and Research Centre in West Balochistan, this
            should be expanded through other centres of learning in Makran,
            Lasbela and Quetta.

38
     It would possibly be better placed in Surbandar.




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         Enhance the existing extension services delivered through the
        fisheries Officers and Assistant Directors with the financial and
        technical support that they require.
         Establish a statistical collection system that works. Initially
        improve the existing system to ensure that all landings are recorded,
        and then, as capability improves, expand the systems so that other
        important data, including biological, is collected. Ideally this would
        enable a comparison between the fishery sector and other sectors
        on essential indicators and would fulfil international annual status
        reporting requirements. This would be best implemented within a
        national statistics system set up with the cooperation of the
        provinces and MinFAL.


4.3 Objective 3: Develop a sustainable fleet of vessels, capable of
    exploiting the resources in a responsible manner.
The overall objective would be to ensure that the fishing fleet can exploit both
offshore and coastal aquatic living resources in a responsible manner, with
appropriate vessels and supporting infrastructure.

Most of the near-shore fisheries of Balochistan are at or near to MSY. There is
therefore little possibility of greatly expanding the catch of the presently exploited
species.

Opportunities may exist in presently unexploited resources (some say squid) or
offshore for tuna.

The present ban on bottom trawling and seines appears to be sensible, though in the
case of open water seines, not based on hard science. Since these restrictions are
accepted by fishermen, and they readily acknowledge the wisdom of the ban on
trawling, they are best allowed to continue.

In order to exploit the potential of marine fishery resources in Balochistan, the
condition of fishing port facilities, the fishing fleet and the processing infrastructure
needs to be improved.

The most appropriate way to increase income from the present catch is through
better preservation of the catch, both at sea and ashore.

The Balochistan marine fishing fleet is at present geared to exploiting the 12 miles
coastal zone (with some large drift netters operating outside the EEZ in international
waters and other countries EEZs). To exploit the offshore resources of the
Balochistan EEZ fully a completely new fleet, made of up of tuna boats, would have
to be created. It is not the job of the Balochistan Government to do this, though it
may wish to encourage it through appropriate investment policies.

Specific objectives for Balochistan capture fisheries should be:-

         Continue to develop the fleet‟s fish preservation so that the
        quality of the landings is improved and the value of the catch is
        enhanced.
         Examine the possibilities of offshore tuna fishing and exploiting
        underutilised or unused species.



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        Support the GDA and the BCDA in the provision of appropriate
       infrastructure (harbours, jetties, roads) for fisheries all along the
       coast of Balochistan.
        Investment in modern processing and value adding plant should
       be encouraged so as to get the most from the catch.
        Apply the Precautionary Approach to Fisheries Management at
       all times.
        Establish a practical legal and regulatory framework for the
       fishery sector, properly linked with other sectors, which enables the
       sector to grow in a sustainable manner with minimum administrative
       and management costs attached.


4.4 Objective 4: Create an business climate that will lead to investment in
    the sector
The Balochistan investment climate is not good. Together with an unstable political
environment and internal nationalistic problems, rampant corruption is hampering
foreign direct investment in the province, including investment in the fishery sector.
What is true for foreign investors is the same for national investors. Remarkably this
has not completely stopped investment in the fishing industry, and there are
indications, at least in the distant water fleet (gill netters fishing outside the 12 mile
zone and in international waters), and in the processing sector that internal
investment is not a particular problem. However there are problems in that much of
the investment is in plant and equipment that is antiquated (particularly refrigeration
equipment) and not up to modern standards; and the vessels are unable to maximise
value from their catches.

The processing sector should be "modern, competitive, dynamic, socio-economically
viable, and in which companies are led by skilled and competent private
entrepreneurs". This is definitely not occurring in Balochistan.

To establish a healthy fisheries sector it is important that existing and new
entrepreneurs obtain the essential knowledge required to become successful in the
current business environment. The business and management skills of people
entering the sector are not always sufficient. The sectors need to be supported in
obtaining the required skills that are required, both technical and management.

Fishery sector development is also constrained by the current state of the road and
communication network in Balochistan, especially for fresh fishery products, which
are highly perishable, the time between harvest and sale to consumers is crucial for
quality and food safety reasons, so that major improvements to the road and
communication infrastructure network are needed if the processing sector is to
flourish.

The specific objectives of the Government to improve the business climate should be

        Improve the security situation so that potential and existing
       investors do not feel threatened in their day to day activities.
        To create access for enterprises in the fishery sector to capacity
       building, training, fish quality, export regulations and advice on
       business and investment planning and management issues on a
       cost-recovery basis.




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        To improve the legal structure so that the law protects investment
       and encourages legal activities.
        Encourage further investment in communications infrastructure


4.5 Objective 5: Promote post-harvest activities and trade
The post harvest sector should provide both domestic and foreign consumers with
healthy and safe products at a price competitive with the world market.

The industry will have to address hygiene, product handling, product promotion, food
safety, prices, exports, retail, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and
international standards. For export to the European Union and other countries it is
important for any new processing facilities to follow HACCP, international standards
and quality demands from those countries.

Overcapacity in the fish processing industry as in many other countries should not be
allowed to happen in Balochistan, since it will lead to pressure to overexploit the
resources beyond their MSY.

Specific objectives for development in marketing in Balochistan:

        Support the Competent Authority in its efforts to improve the
       quality of all fish retailed in Pakistan and in particular that fish
       exported, or expected to be exported from Gwadar.
        Establishment of a branch office of the Competent Authority in
       Gwadar
        The establishment of a small but efficient wholesale market at
       Gwadar, free from the influence of moles and beopari, with a
       transparent auction system (this is already planned under the
       MinFAL Aquaculture Megaproject)
        Update the fisheries law so as to take account the requirements
       of a modern and export orientated processing industry
        Abolish completely direct government subsidies to the fishery
       sector.




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5 Coastal Aquaculture Development
[This section only covers brackish and marine culture, and concentrates on shrimp
culture, which is currently perceived to hold the most potential for investment in
Balochistan. There is not enough fresh water available for rapid expansion of inland
aquaculture].


5.1 Current Situation
The current situation is that there are no commercial aquaculture developments at all
along the Balochistan coast. Similarly, in Sindh, the other coastal province in
Pakistan, there are no commercial coastal aquaculture developments at all. This is
despite a flurry of interest whipped up by both the private sector and the
Government, who for a variety of reasons wish that shrimp farming be initiated all
along the coast.

Various companies tried in the 1980s to start shrimp farming in Sindh, but they
withdrew for a variety of reasons. They relied on food and post larvae from Malaysia.
Very little information exists on these efforts.

Some work on hatchery techniques is being done at the University at Uthal in
Lasbela. A Provincial hatchery in Sindh still functions. Investors have been attracted
who have bought in outside expertise and promised much, but nothing substantial
has eventuated.

An ADB sponsored effort at stimulating development of shrimp culture in Gharo
(Sindh) in the early 1980s failed due to:-

      inappropriate site selection for a model operation
      The species targeted (Penaeus monodon) were not suitable to the
       wide range of high salinities and temperatures which were
       experienced
      Wild fry did not supply adequate numbers of the correct species, and
       the imported ones were expensive (and of the wrong species)
      No hatchery was provided with the project
      The ponds were raised and porous requiring constant pumping,
       instead of using tidal rises and falls
      There was no locally available food
      Lack of trained manpower

The Government of Sindh now owns a prawn hatchery at Hawkes Bay, next to the
non-operating Federal Government Hatchery. The Sindh Government hatchery
(2005) produced prawn seed of Penaeus indicus for the ponds at Gharo. The
hatchery continues to operate.

The Government of Sindh has also initiated various research projects to grow several
species in the Indus Delta region, in ponds, cages and fenced areas (finished 2006).
Theft of the fish has precluded any meaningful results being produced (indicating a
healthy demand for farmed fish at least).

No coastal aquaculture of other species has been undertaken. There are many other
organisms that could possibly be farmed in Balochistan.



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5.2 Government and private plans for shrimp farming
Aquaculture is hailed by many as the salvation for Pakistan fisheries. It is assumed
that falling returns from overfished wild capture fisheries and degradation of coastal
agricultural lands (particularly in Sindh) can both be resolved by Aquaculture. It is
said that Pakistan is losing out on billions of dollars of revenue by not involving itself
fully in coastal aquaculture.

Both the Federal Governments‟ Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10 and
the existing Balochistan Development plans for fisheries support aquaculture as a
means of increasing fish production. The MTDF does not mention mariculture
specifically though the Balochistan Government is actively promoting shrimp farming,
both as an income earning opportunity and for employment as is the MinFAL. The
MinFAL strategy produced in 2008 has "Sustainable development of Aquaculture
Production (inland and coastal)" as one of its main 3 strategy axes.

A plan39 (2005) to start marine shrimp farming in Balochistan was prepared by the
Balochistan Fisheries Department. The total cost was expected to be PKR28.7
million (US$478,000). This proposed to overcome all the identified failures of the
ADB project in Sindh, starting by using P indicus, the Indian “White” Shrimp, which is
tolerant of high and variable temperatures and salinities and has been successfully
used in Iran, where shrimp production now exceeds 10,000 tonnes40 (2004) annually,
most of it P indicus. The plan was optimistic, amongst other things, in that it
forecasts production of 15 tonnes in the first year from a 10Ha unit. This plan was
never implemented

The MinFAL, as part of its Aquaculture Strategy, is currently implementing a 1.998
billion PKR Aquaculture Megaproject for Pakistan. This covers all Provinces and is
very ambitious. It seeks to:-

        Establishment of four new and rehabilitation and augmentation of
         four existing hatcheries (two shrimp and two trout hatcheries).
        Establishment of eleven Model Fish/shrimp Farms.
        Introduction and promotion of cage culture in the country.
        Setting up of six Modern Fish Markets.
        Promotion of private sector investment in shrimp farming and
         aquaculture activities.
        Creation of a private sector led Fisheries Development Board.
        Provision of On Spot Technical Assistance to shrimp farmers.
        Acquiring latest knowledge on aquaculture and shrimp farming and
         its transmission to fisher folk.
        Development of marine aquaculture for shrimp and finfish culture.
        Creation of enabling environment for the private sector for the
         establishment of shrimp farming in Pakistan.
        Human resource development in fisheries sector for shrimp farming
         and aquaculture.
        Strengthening of federal fisheries set up for promoting aquaculture
         and shrimp farming.



39
    Khan. M. M. (2005) Action plan for immediate start of Shrimp Farming in Balochistan.   Marine Fisheries
Department, Karachi. August 2005.
40
   According to the proposal




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Regarding shrimp farms, and the proposed model shrimp farms in Balochistan the
PC1 claims:-

        “Shrimp farming is very suitable in the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan.
        Model shrimp farms will be established in coastal areas of Sindh and
        Balochistan. Demonstration of new techniques in shrimp farming will be
        conducted on these farms. These farms will also serve as centers for technical
        training to the fish farmers.

In Balochistan 8 model farms will be established

   1.    Ormara
   2.    Pasni
   3.    Kalmat
   4.    Gwadar
   5.    Jawani
   6.    River Dashat
   7.    Marine Hor
   8.    Gawatar Bay

        The provincial government for the establishment of these model shrimp farms
        will provide Land. It will be obligatory for the respective provincial governments
        to effectively implement the long run objectives of the fisheries sector by
        operationalizing these farms as centers for technical training to the shrimp
        farmers.”

A modern fish market is also proposed to be established in Gwadar. The private
sector will be encouraged to invest in aquaculture and finance will be made available
through a low interest credit scheme.

The funding has been approved, and activities are now getting underway.

The Government of Balochistan has now shelved all investment or research in
Shrimp Farming (apart from producing a
policy on shrimp farming). The MinFAL
Megaproject is expected to provide for all
Balochistan's needs in this area and, given
the size and complexity of the project, if it
succeeds it will certainly absolve
Balochistan from the necessity of kick
starting the industry from its own funds.

The essential question of whether shrimp
farming of the Indian White (Peaneus
indicus) in Balochistan is an economically
viable industry has not been fully                  P indicus (white) and P monodon
addressed, and on that basis it is perhaps            (striped). Jiwini August 2008.
appropriate to question the immediate
establishment of 12 demonstration model farms, hatcheries and associated
infrastructure and support facilities in Sindh and Balochistan.

The MinFAL project anticipates significant subsidy to the farmers, including free post
larvae from the hatcheries and subsidised food, this to be carried on by the
Balochistan Government after the Federal project finishes. For an activity hailed as a



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billion dollar industry, the continuing need for subsidy after the end of the federal
project is somewhat ominous.

The development of coastal aquaculture generally in Balochistan is constrained by a
lack of data on its profitability and no obvious comparative advantage of Pakistan
over other possible countries for investment. The major advantage is a considerable
availability of land.

The Government of Balochistan has its own very modest ongoing programme in
aquaculture. This involves building two hatcheries inland for Dera Murad Jamali and
Mirani Dam under the Public Sector Development Programme 2007 – 2008.


5.3 Future for shrimp culture in Balochistan
Given the security situation, where it is difficult to even get a security permit to visit
much of the Balochistan coastline, the likelihood of large scale investment from
overseas seems somewhat remote. It is intimidating for investors to be accompanied
by armed escorts and the media are far from helpful in promoting Balochistan as a
suitable place for investment.

Nobody denies that shrimp can be grown in Balochistan. In Balochistan (or Sindh)
the profitability of the shrimp farming has not been proven. The only recent attempt,
the ADB funded farm in Sindh, failed spectacularly.

There has been little examination of the profitability of shrimp farming. Interest is
concentrated on technical aspects as demonstrated by this comment in the press in
200641 which avoids any comment on profits:-

             PCSIR (Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) scientist, Dr
            Razia Sultana, has said that shrimp farming could not be developed due to
            lack of basic infrastructure facilities and government and institutional support
            to prospective farmers.
The MinFAL megaproject, through its activities will demonstrate the profitability of
shrimp farming in Balochistan, or not, as the case may be. The Government of
Balochistan should not anticipate the success of the MinFAL initiatives.

It is recommended that the Balochistan Government should restrict its activities to
making the coastal area a region attractive to investment in mariculture, rather than
subsidizing shrimp farmers through the supply of seed, food or other incentives, and
certainly should not attempt to start commercial shrimp farming.

There is a danger that any failure of the MinFAL initiatives will lead to further
damaging skepticism among potential investors.

The competitive advantages of starting shrimp farming in Balochistan do not currently
seem to be compelling. There are many logistical and economic problems. Many
can be solved but many of these do not exist in neighboring countries. Even in parts
of Sindh, the neighbouring coastal Pakistani province to the East, there are less
constraints to developing Coastal Aquaculture than in Balochistan, (availability of
fresh water, land, access to supplies of food, utilities and labour, close access to feed


41
     Business Recorder Oct 10th 2006




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                                         suppliers, access to processors, internal and
                                         export market linkages; to name just a few).

                                           There are social-economic implications of
                                           large scale shrimp farming in Balochistan.
                                           Some consider that commercial shrimp
                                           farming for export is just another exploitative
                                           measure on the poor by the rich. The
                                           relatively few inhabitants of the coastal zone
                                           have little fresh water, no agriculture to speak
    The "ADB" shrimp ponds in Sindh
             Not a success!                of, and a seriously poor security situation and
                                           are marginalized, uneducated and generally
disregarded by the main Balochistan populations in the north of the province, notably
Quetta. Are these the shrimp farmers of the future, or will the management, technical
staff labour come from Karachi? Given the present social and economic inequalities
in Balochistan it is unlikely that conditions can be made any worse for the majority of
the coastal people who are likely to be employed in any shrimp farming
developments. It is however unlikely that the "poor" will ultimately be the owners of
any shrimp farms established on the Balochistan coast. They may well end up
working on the farms, but are not going to be equal partners.

Whether shrimp farming is an effective way to provide labouring jobs for coastal
dwellers does not seem to have been considered by anyone during the planning for
shrimp farming. It may be far more effective to provide access to manufacturing work
in the towns that try to set up shrimp enterprises in remote areas.

Until the MinFAL project has proved the culture methods and profitability of shrimp
farming along the coast, and the security situation improves, the development of
Balochistan shrimp farming seems unlikely to be ensured.


5.4 Other Aquaculture species
Shrimp, the potential big money earner, is currently in vogue. This is unlikely to
provide jobs and income (beyond labouring) for the coastal communities who have
no investment funds and no skills, and are
generally poorly educated.

There are however many other organisms that
could be farmed in Balochistan. Amongst
these are beche-de-mer, various sorts of
clams, cage culture of breams and bass as
practiced in the Gulf region, seaweeds, on-
growing of post larvae for the aquarium trade,
and green mussels. Of these the Green
mussel, Mytilis viridis, probably holds out the
most promise, in that it is endemic, there is        Green Mussels. Pasni. Aug 2008
natural spatfall and the techniques to grow the
species are not complex. Local people do not generally eat mussels, but this does
not preclude their production for export of niche markets in the towns.

It is unfortunate that there are inadequate research facilities in Balochistan to
address these possibilities.




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5.5 Priority Action
Whatever the success of the MinFAL shrimp programme, as a pre-requisite to any
large scale aquaculture development Balochistan needs a Development and
Management Plan for Aquaculture (DMPA). This will guide policy towards
Aquaculture in general. Such a plan may also reassure potential investors that
Balochistan is a stable and well regulated environment in which to invest in coastal
aquaculture.

The Balochistan Government already has a “Strategy”42. This addresses shrimp only
and is intended to show that the Government of Balochistan is serious about
attracting investment. The strategy is a legal "notification" by the Government of
Balochistan. This strategy itself needs to be sharpened up and expanded to cover all
types of mariculture, and abandoned when replaced by the DMPA.

The DMPA should contain at least:-

             National Strategy containing sustainable development protocols
            and regulations regarding coastal43 aquaculture;
             The same principles for the development of responsible
            aquaculture that are set down in the FAO Code of Conduct for
            Responsible Fisheries, Article 9.
             Environmental Assessment Policies (EIA, EIS) and a provincial
            framework;
             Environmental management, (monitoring, assessments, and a
            number of guidelines to management and monitor all aquaculture
            projects, Quarantine)
             Aquaculture Management Plans by species (produced as
            required)
             Human capacity building and training plans.

Subsequently the provincial legislation of Balochistan will need to be modified to
include necessary elements of the DMPA. The current fisheries act as amended
does not mention aquaculture, except in the "Strategy", which is in itself inadequate
in the long term.

The Provincial Fisheries Department will then have to ensure that staffing and
training are adequate to implement the DMPA and it will also have to focus on
facilitation and assisting the private sector (see above, Para 0 for comments on
training and skills shortages in Balochistan).

Species specific Aquaculture Management Plans (AMPs) need to be developed as
required to clearly articulate the aquaculture use of resources. Being part of the
DMPA these will have legal standing. In the first instance the Fisheries Department
should produce a Management Plan for coastal shrimp aquaculture (even if the
DMPA is not immediately enacted) since the need for a comprehensive Shrimp
Aquaculture Plan is critical, and this would at least show and acceptance of the need
for appropriate planning and management from the Government of the Province,
over and above that already indicated by the current "Strategy".



42
     Government of Baluchistan. (2007) Shrimp Sector Policy. (Produced with the assistance of SMEDA)
43
     The NDPA need not restrict itself to Coastal Aquaculture only




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Equally important, the aquaculture division must be more proactive with stakeholders
and be seen as a facilitator in that it;

      actively engages stakeholders;
      fosters public private sector partnerships;
      improves public awareness;
      provides accessible and useful advice; and
      actively solicits and addresses stakeholder concerns associated with the
       management and development of coastal aquaculture.

It may well be that the Provincial Government would wish to seek external assistance
to prepare a DMPA. This could possibly be done through the MinFAL Aquaculture
Megaproject.

It is a RECOMMENDATION of this report that, as a priority, the Government of
Balochistan, through the MinFAL Aquaculture Megaproject, actively solicits a
suitable body to assist with the preparation of a Development and Management
Plan for Aquaculture for the province.




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6 Appendices


6.1 Appendix 1: References
Alsopp. M et al. (2008) Challenging the Aquaculture Industry on Sustainability. Greenpeace
    Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, UK.
Anon (2006) Vision 2020. Gov of Balochistan, Coastal Development and Fisheries
   Department
Anon (2006) Meeting regarding matters concerning Fisheries Department/BCDA and PFHA.
   (Provenance unknown)
Anon (2008) Gov of Balochistan, “Balochistan Fisheries” A Power Point presentation.
Ashraf. N (2006) Legal Implications of the National Policy and Strategy for Fisheries and
   Aquaculture development in Pakistan. National Policy and Strategy for Fisheries and
   Aquaculture Development in Pakistan. TCP/PAK/3005. Part 3.
Asian Development Bank (2006) Technical Assistance Consultant‟s Report. Pakistan: Sindh
    Coastal and Inland Community Development Project. Project Number: PAK 37188.
    December 2005. (& appendices). Prepared by ANZDEC Limited Consultants.
CIRSPE (2007) Aquaculture Development in Sistan-Baluchistan 2005-2008 Technical report.
   Shrimp Rearing in Gowater. Complex April – November 2006 . Rome. March 2007
CSF (2007) Action Plan for Fish Quality and Value Adding at Karachi Fisheries Harbour
FAO – Fishbase (2005) Database (Publicly available database of Fisheries Statistics)
FAO (1996) Precautionary approach to capture fisheries and species introductions. FAO
   Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No 2. 54p
FAO (2003) The ecosystems approach to fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for
   Responsible Fisheries. No 4 Supplement 2. 112p
FAO (2005) Fisheries Circular No. 1017/3 FIRI/C1017/3. ISSN 0429-9329 Regional Review
   on Aquaculture Development 3. Asia and the Pacific
FAO (2008). National Aquaculture Overview. Pakistan.
   http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/naso_pakistan
Government of Balochistan (2008) Fisheries Department. Web site.
   http://www.balochistan.gov.pk/New%20Folder/fishries.htm
Government of Balochistan, Balochistan Coastal Development Authority (2008). Fisheries
   Statistical data for the Year 2007.
Government of Balochistan, Fisheries Department (2008) Public Sector Development
   Program 2007 – 2008. Progress Report 01-07-2007 to 30-06-2008
Government of Balochistan, Fisheries Department (2008) PC1 ASDL 11. Provision of fishing
   gears, fiber glass boats, ice boxes, plastic crates and life jackets etc.
Government of Balochistan. (1971) Baluchistan Sea Fisheries Ordinance 1971. Baluchistan
   Ordinance No IX of 1971
Government of Balochistan. (2007) Shrimp Sector Policy. (Produced with the assistance of
   SMEDA)
Government of Balochistan. The Baluchistan Gazette (1972). Notification. The Baluchistan
   Sea Fisheries (Amendment) Ordinance 1972.




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Government of Balochistan. The Baluchistan Gazette (1986). Notification. The Baluchistan
   Sea Fisheries (Amendment) Act 1986.
Government of Balochistan. The Baluchistan Gazette (1994). Notification. The Baluchistan
   Sea Fisheries (Amendment) Act 1994.
Gwadar Development Authority (2008) Presentation on Progress of Development Works in
             st
   Gwadar 21 July 2008. Powerpoint Presentation.
InfoFish Fish Trade Net http://www.infofish.org/marketreports/shmr0207china.html (Chinese
    Shrimp Prices)
Khan S.R ,Ali, F.,and Tanveer. A. (2005) Compliance with International Standards in the
   Marine Fisheries Sector. A Supply ChainAnalysis from Pakistan. Sustainable
   Development Policy Institute (SDPI). December 2005
Khan. M. N. (2005) Action plan for immediate start of Shrimp Farming in Balochistan. Marine
   Fisheries Department, Karachi. August 2005.
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (2006) National Policy Framework and Strategy
    for Fisheries and Aquaculture Development in Pakistan. FAO TCP PAK 3005
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (2007) Pakistan fish catch statistics (available
    from their web site)
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (2007) National Policy and Strategy for Fisheries
    and Aquaculture Development in Pakistan. TCP/PAK/3005. Part 2. Institutional
    Arrangements for overseeing and implementing the National Policy and Strategy for
    Fisheries and Aquaculture development in Pakistan.
Pomeroy, R. S., and F. Berkes. (1997). “Two to Tango: The Role of Government in Fisheries
   Co-Management.” Marine Policy, 21: 465–80.
Samocha T and Ayub (2008) PAKISTAN-US SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
   COOPERATIVE PROGRAM 2006 Development of Biosecure, Sustainable, and Cost-
   Effective Culture Technologies for Edible Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) in
   Pakistan. In the Annual Report 2007
   http://www7.nationalacademies.org/dsc/TAMU_UK_2006.html
Van Anrooy (Ed) et al (2006) Fisheries and Aquaculture in Georgia. Current Status and
   planning. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1007 FIPP/C1007 (En)
World Bank (2004) Report No. 29090-GLB Saving Fish and Fishers. Toward Sustainable and
   Equitable Governance of the Global Fishing Sector. May 2004
WWF ( 2005) Study on value added to the catch of fisherfolk (Fisheries Development for
  Sustainable Livelihood) Final Report. World Wide Fund for Nature, Karachi Pakistan July
  2005
WWF (2005) Community Based Fisheries Management. Case Study of fishing practices in
  Ganz. District Gwadar. (Balochistan Coast)
WWF (2005) Study on Knowledge, Attitude, Practices of Fisherfolk communities about
  Fisheries and Mangrove Resources. Kalmat Khor [Balochistan]. PLA (Participatory
  Learning and Action) Final report
WWF (2006) Fish Marketing Chain and Economic Analysis of Indebtedness of Fisher-folk of
  Sonmiani [Balochistan]
Zuberi, Rabia (1986) Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the bacterial flora of Karachi
   Coastal water Shrimp and the effect thereon of handling and subsequent changes during
   storage. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi. (Extract).




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6.2 Appendix 2 - Significant people met during
assignment

Abdul Khalique - Fisheries Inspector Jiwani.
Abdul Qader – Senior Clerk Pishukan.
Ashiq Ali Hasim – Manager Son of the Sea Pasni.
Aziz Awani – Accountant for Gaba Seafoods.
Dr Mohammad Essazai Assistant Director Admin (GDA)
Hussein Manager - small processing plant, Jiwani.
Inaoi Aitullah – Assistant Director Fisheries Pasni. Numerous fishermen, skippers etc
Ishrat Baloch – Fisheries Department IT, Quetta
Jaweed Bashir – possible counterpart for trip to Coastal Areas
Maula Bukhsh – Assistant Director of Fisheries, Gawadar.
Mohammed Akmal – Fish Trader, Gawadar Fish Harbour
Mohammed Ashraf – Fisheries Officer, Gawadar.
Mohammed Ashraf – Head Fisherman, Surbandar.
Mohammed Ayub – Nazim Pishukan.
Mohammed Aziz – Director Finance Balochistan Coastal Development Authority.
Mohammed Isahmael – Councillor & Fisherman Pishukan.
Mohammed Tahier – Fisheries Officer Pishukin.
Mohammed Iqbal – Assistant Director of Fisheries – Jiwani..
Mohammad Ruhail Baloch – Secretary Fisheries, Government of Balochistan.
Nazeer Baloch – Director Ports & Shipping (IC GFHA).
Noor Khan –Director of Fisheries, Quetta
Peer Jan Baloch - Station Manager PIA Gwadar
Rafiq – Manager. Son of the Sea, Gawadar.
Rafiq Ahmed Baloch – Director Town Planning (GDA)
Syed Zahoor Shah – Assistant Director Fisheries (Pasni)
Zeeshan al-Huq – Planning & Development Division, Quetta


Numerous fishermen, boat builders, processors, moles and vessel owners.




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