FOOD DETERIORATION AND FOOD SAFETY

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					  FOOD DETERIORATION
   AND FOOD SAFETY

1.CHEMICAL    4. MICROBIOLOGICAL
               A. THE GOOD
2.ENZYMATIC
               B. THE BAD

3.PHYSICAL     C. AND THE UGLY
• FOOD SPOILAGE – PROCESS THAT
  MAKES FOOD INEDIBLE


• FOOD FERMENTATION – PROCESS
  THAT CHANGES THE FOOD’S
  SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS AND
  INCREASES THE SHELF–LIFE OF
  THE ORIGINAL FOOD
• FOOD BORNE ILLNESS –
  INFECTIONS OR POISONING DUE
  TO THESE MICROORGANISMS

• MICROORGANISMS – SMALL
  ORGANISMS INVISIBLE TO THE
  NAKED EYE.
MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH IS
 DEPENDENT UPON SEVERAL
        FACTORS.

 1. pH – MEASURE OF ACIDITY
   ACIDIC < 7.0 > ALKALINE
   GROWTH BETTER NEAR
   NEUTRALITY
2. MOISTURE CONTENT –
  Aw MEASURE OF FREE WATER.
  MORE DRY <1.00(MAX)
  GROW BETTER NEAR 1.00

3. TEMPERATURE –
  MOST ORGANISMS GROW BEST
  AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES
  (600 – 800 F)
4. PRESENCE OR ABSENCE
   OF OXYGEN

 WITH O2 – AEROBIC.
 WITHOUT O2 – ANAEROBIC.
          TYPES
1. BACTERIA – A VARIETY OF
   UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS
   THAT GROW UNDER A VARIETY
   OF CONDITIONS

• TYPICALLY FAST GROWERS
  UNDER THE RIGHT CONDITIONS.
• NOT ALL ARE SPOILAGE AND
  DISEASE ORGANISMS
  i.e. FERMENTATION

• DISEASE PRODUCING ORGANISMS
  TYPICALLY MORE SENSITIVE TO
  ADVERSE GROWTH CONDITIONS
      WIDE VARIETY

1. SOME BACTERIA GROW AT:

• REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURES
  (PSYCHROPHILES) 450 F (7.20 C) TO
  860 F (300 C); PSYCHROTROPHS
SOME BACTERIA GROW AT (cont.):

• ROOM TEMPERATURE
  (MESOPHILES); 680 F (200 C) – 1100 F
  (43.30 C)

• HIGHER TEMPERATURES
  (THERMOPHILES;1130 C – 1550 C)
2. SOME FORM SPORES THAT CAN
   SURVIVE ADVERSE CONDITIONS



3. SOME CAN GROW IN HIGH ACID
   FOODS
   FOOD INFECTIONS


• INGESTED BACTERIA CAUSING
  ILLNESS
     FOOD INFECTIONS
1. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS –
   FORMS SPORES AND ANAEROBIC.
• SYMPTOMS: DIARRHEA,
  ABDOMINAL PAIN, HEADACHE, 8 TO
  24 HRS INCUBATION.
• SOURCES: MEATS AND GRAVIES.
• PREVENTION: PROPER COOLING OF
  FOOD.
2. E.COLI – ALL TYPES OF FOOD.
  AVOID PRACTICES WHICH CAN
  CONTAMINATE FOOD.

• DIARRHEA, VOMITING. 18–24 HRS.
  RENAL FAILURE IN CHILDREN
  (0157:H7).

• PROPER COOKING OF GROUND
  BEEF, APPLE CIDER, PREVENTION
  OF CROSS CONTAMINATION (RAW
  FOOD AND FOOD HANDLERS).
3. SALMONELLA – SALMONELLOSIS

• SYMPTOMS: DIARRHEA,
  ABDOMINAL CRAMPS, VOMITING,
  FEVER. CAN LAST TWO OR THREE
  DAYS. INCUBATION, 12 TO 36 HRS.

• SOURCES: EGGS (2.6–7%) AND
  MEATS (30% POULTRY ESTIMATED).
  MILK. CARRIERS (REMEMBER
  TYPHOID MARY).
• PREVENTION:
  REFRIGERATION, PROPER FOOD
  HANDLING PRACTICES, AVOID FOOD
  CONTACT WITH PESTS. HEATING
  FOODS (POULTRY, STUFFING, ETC.)
  TO AT LEAST 1650 F (65.50 C).
  PASTEURIZE EGGS 1400 F (600 C)
  FOR 3–4 MIN. PRIOR TO FREEZING
  OR DRYING. COOK ALL EGGS
  (WHITES AND YOLKS SHOULD BE
  SOLID: USDA). SALMONELLA–FREE
  PETS. GOOD PERSONAL HYGIENE.
4. LISTERIA – (LISTERIA
  MONOCYTOGENES)

• WIDELY DISTRIBUTED IN
  NATURE. GROWS AT
  REFRIGERATOR
  TEMPERATURES ONLY 100 TO
  1000 CELLS REQUIRED.
(LISTERIA cont.)
• SYMPTOMS:
  WIDE VARIETY OF ILLNESSES, 1
  DAY TO WEEKS AFTER INGESTION.
  MILD FLU–LIKE FOR HEALTHY
  PEOPLE. ELDERLY, PREGNANT
  WOMEN, INFANTS,
  IMMUNOCOMPRIOMISED:
  MENINGITIS, MISCARRIAGE,
  PERINATAL SEPTICEMIA.
(LISTERIA cont.)
• SOURCES:
  COLESLAW, RAW MILK, SOFT
  CHEESE ($66 MILLION), SEAFOOD,
  MEATS.
• PREVENTION:
  ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION,
  PROPER PASTEURIZATION,
  CHLORINATED WATER, CONTROL
  AIRFLOW THROUGH PLANTS. USDA
  INSPECTION/REPORTING
  PROGRAM.
5. CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI.

• SYMPTOMS:
  IN 2–5 DAYS NAUSEA, CRAMS,
  HEADACHE, DIARRHEA FEVER:
  COMPLICATIONS MENINGITIS,
  SYSTEMIC INFECTION
(CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI cont.)

• SOURCES:
  FECAL MATERIAL, RAW MILK, EGGS,
  POULTRY, MEAT, CAKE ICING.

• PREVENTION:
  THROUGH COOKING AND PROPER
  HANDLING OF RAW PRODUCTS.
  CAN'T GROW <300 C
6. YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITIA.
  - GROWS AT REFRIGERATOR
    TEMPERATURES.

• SYMPTOMS:
  1–2 DAYS DIARRHEA, FEVER, and
  SEVERE ABDOMINAL PAIN IN LOWER
  RIGHT QUADRANT (SIMILAR TO
  APPENDICITIS)
SOURCES:
WIDELY DISTRIBUTED IN NATURE.
MILK CONTAMINATED BY
CHOCOLATE SYRUP AFTER
PASTEURIZATION, CONTAMINATED
SPRING WATER, AND MEAT.

PREVENTION:
PASTEURIZATION, WATER
TREATMENT (CHLORINATE),
ACIDIFY FOODS <4.6, SALT>5%.
    FOOD POISONINGS
     (INTOXICATIONS)


• INGESTED TOXIN LEFT IN FOOD BY
  ORGANISM.
1. BOTULISM – CLOSTRIDIUM
   BOTULINUM. FORMS SPORES AND
   ANAEROBIC. TYPE A, B, AND E
   AFFECT HUMANS. TYPE E CAN
   GROW AT REFRIGERATOR
   TEMPERATURES [380 F (3.30 C)]
   ANTITOXIN TREATMENT
   AVAILABLE.
  INFANT BOTULISM NOT
  CONSIDERED A FOODBORNE
  DISEASE.
SYMPTOMS:
 NEUROTOXIN CAUSING MUSCLE
 PARALYSIS AND DEATH. INABILITY
 TO TALK, DIFFICULTY IN
 SWALLOWING, DOUBLE VISION,
 NAUSEA, VOMITING, DIARRHEA,
 CONSTIPATION IN EARLY STAGES.
 SYMPTOMS START 12 – 36 HRS
 AFTER EATING. DEATH IN AROUND
 7 DAYS (20% NOW; TURN OF THE
 CENTURY – 50 TO 60%).
SOURCE:
 SEEN TYPICALLY IN LOW ACID (LOW
 ACID) HOME CANNED FOODS (pH >
 4.5), SALMON, TUNA, MUSHROOMS,
 POTATO SOUP, BEEF STEW,
 UNREFRIGERATED BAKED
 POTATOES, GARLIC IN OIL, AND
 SOME SMOKED FISH.
PREVENTION:
 CAN LOW ACID FOODS PROPERLY
 (HIGH TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE),
 ACIDIFY, COOK SUSPECTED FOODS
 PROPERLY [2120F(1000 C)]. STORE FISH
 BELOW 380 F.
2. STAPHYLOCCOCAL –
  STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

• TOXIN IS HEAT STABLE
  (WITHSTANDS BOILING 20–60
  MINUTES. GROWS 440 F (6.70 C)
  1120 F (44.40 C)
SYMPTOMS:
 VOMITING AND DIARRHEA FROM 1
 TO 6 HRS AFTER EATING.
SOURCES:
 HAM (SALT TOLERANT –10%; HAMS
 USUALLY 2–3% SALT), CREAM OR
 CUSTARD FILLED BAKED
 PRODUCTS, POTATO SALAD,
 HUMANS (40%) NASAL PASSAGES,
 WOUNDS, COWS WITH MASTITIS,
 1989 CHINESE CANNED
 MUSHROOMS.
PREVENTION:
 PROPER HANDLING PRACTICES,
 REFRIGERATION BELOW 40 F
 (4.40 C), ELIMINATE MILK FROM
 COWS WITH MASTITIS FROM
 HUMAN CONSUMPTION.
3. BACILLUS CEREUS – SPORE
  FORMER
 SYMPTOMS: ABDOMINAL CRAMPS,
 WATERY DIARRHEA, SOME VOMITING.
 SOURCES: IMPROPERLY COOLED
 FOODS, HOLDING TEMPERATURES
 AND IMPROPERLY REHEATED FOODS
 (RICE)
 PREVENTION: PROPER COOLING AND
 RE-HEATING [1650 F (73.90 C)].
MISCELLANEOUS OTHERS:

TUBERCULOSIS –
CORYNEBACTERIUM
TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS
(UNDULANT FEVER) RAW MILK.
VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS –
FOUND IN OCEANS. REQUIRES 24%
SALT. WITH OR WITHOUT OXYGEN
OPTIMUM 86–1040 F (30-400 C)
SYMPTOMS:
 15–17 HOURS AFTER INGESTION.
 DURATION 1–2 DAYS ABDOMINAL
 PAIN, NAUSEA, VOMITING WITH
 DIARRHEA, OCCASIONAL BLOOD
 AND MUCUS IN FECES. FEVER (1–20
 F IN 60-70% OF THE CASES).
SOURCES:
 RAW FISH, MOLLUSKS AND
 SHELLFISH.

PREVENTION:
 COOKING, SANITATION, ABSTAIN
 FROM EATING RAW SQUID,
 OCTOPUS, CLAMS AND OYSTERS IN
 JULY, AUGUST, SEPTEMBER OR
 TIMES THAT COASTAL WATERS ARE
 WARM.
 DISEASES FROM OTHER
   MICROORGANISMS
1. TRICHINOSIS – ROUNDWORM
  SYMPTOMS: NAUSEA, VOMITING,
  DIARRHEA IN 1–4 DAYS IF HIGH
  DOSE. IF LOW DOSE NO
  SYMPTOMS UNTIL 7TH DAY.
  LARVAE CAN MIGRATE FROM THE
  INTESTINES INTO MUSCLES
  CAUSING HIGH FEVER [1040 F(400
  C] AND SWELLING.
SOURCE:
 TYPICALLY TRANSMITTED THROUGH
 EATING PORK,(BEAR, PORK/DEER,
 UNDER COOKED SAUSAGE)
PREVENTION:
 COOK PORK TO INTERNAL
 TEMPERATURE OF AT LEAST 137 F (58.30
 C), NO PINK COLOR,(NATIONAL
 LIVESTOCK AND MEAT BOARD – 770 C
 (1700 F), FRESH FROZEN PORK 520 F (–15
 TO 28.90C) FOR A PERIOD OF 6–30 DAYS,
 ETC., CONTROL AND COOK FEED GIVEN
 TO HOGS.
2. HEPATITIS TYPE A – VIRUS.
 CONTROL BY PROPER HANDLING
 PRACTICES.

 NORWALK VIRUS – VOMITING
        YEAST
1. LARGER THAN BACTERIA
2. MORE ADVANCED
   PHYSIOLOGICALLY
3. CAN GROW UNDER MORE
   ADVERSE CONDITIONS
4. TYPICALLY SPOILAGE OR
   FERMENTATIVE ORGANISMS
5. VERY HEAT SENSITIVE
          MOLDS
1. ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGICALLY
   – CAN BE MULTICELLULAR
2. PRODUCE SPORES THAT ARE
  LESS
   HEAT RESISTANT THAN
   BACTERIAL SPORES
3. NEED OXYGEN TO GROW
       MOLDS (cont.)
4. CAN GROW UNDER THE MOST
   ADVERSE CONDITIONS
   – SLOW GROWTH
5. CAN BE SPOILAGE OR PATHOGENIC
   OR DESIRABLE (BLUE CHEESE)
  – TOXIN PRODUCTION
    (MYCOTOXINS)
AFLATOXIN – MOLD POISONING
• PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS
  FLAVUS
• TYPICALLY FOUND ON CEREAL
  GRAINS AT THE PROPER
  MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE
  – CORN
  – PEANUTS
AFLATOXIN (cont.)
• FATAL AT LARGE DOSES,
  TYPICALLY LIVER DAMAGE.
• CARCINOGENIC AT LOW DOSES
• YEAST AND MOLD INHIBITORS
• PROPIONATES, PHOSPHATES,
  SORBATES
MICROBIOLOGICAL
PROCESS CONTROL
1. PERSONNEL STANDARDS
   – HAND WASHING
   – HEALTHY
   – HAIR COVERING, GLOVES
   – CLOTHING
2. INGREDIENT CONTROL
   (SENSITIVE)
   – PRODUCTS FROM ANIMALS
   – SPICES
   – PRODUCTS THAT ARE IN
     CONTACT WITH THE SOIL
3. PLANT CLEANNESS
  CLEAN: REMOVE POTENTIAL
  FOOD AND HIDING PLACES FOR
  MICROORGANISMS AND
 PLACES
  FOR VECTORS
  SANITIZE: KILL MOST OR
  ALL OF THE ORGANISMS
  ON SURFACES
4. PLANT AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN
   – PREVENT POTENTIAL PLACES
    FOR MICROBIAL GROWTH AND
    MICROBIAL VECTORS.

5. FOODS MUST BE PROPERLY
   REFRIGERATED.
6. FOODS MUST BE ADEQUATELY
   PROCESSED AND PROTECTED
   FROM RECONTAMINATION
   (CROSS–CONTAMINATION).

7. THE MANAGEMENT MUST
   STRESS PRODUCT SAFETY
   AND QUALITY.
Potentially Hazardous Foods
           (PHFs)
• Foods that contains in whole or in part of
  the following:
  – Milk or milk products
  – Shell eggs
  – Meats
  – Poultry
  – Fish
Potentially Hazardous Foods
           (PHFs)
– Shellfish
– Edible crustaceans (shrimp, lobster, etc.)
– Baked or boiled potatoes
– Tofu or other soy products including textured
  soy proteins
– Plant foods that have been treated (beans)
Potentially Hazardous Foods
           (PHFs)
 – Raw seed sprouts
 – Sliced melons
 – Unpasteurized fruit juices (apple)
 FOOD SAFETY – YOU DON’T
     WANT A RECALL
• Regulatory agencies can issue public
  warnings.
• Recalls and seizures are not uncommon.
  They occur at a rate of about 400/year.
• It is one of the major responsibilities of all
  food processors to produce safe and
  wholesome food for the consuming public.
    Procedures to Help Reduce
       Food-borne Illnesses
• Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
• Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
• Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures
  (SSOPs)
• Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
  (HACCPs)
• Management Support
   Code of Federal Regulations
        Title 21 Part 110
• Current Good Manufacturing Practice in
  Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or
  Holding Human Food (CGMP or GMP)

• See Appendix 1 for more detailed examples.
    Good Manufacturing Practices
•   Personal Hygiene
•   Quality Raw ingredients
•   Sanitary Storage
•   Processing
•   Packaging Areas
           Outside the Plant

• Parking and roads paved and graded to
  drain.

• Building constructed to prevent pest entry.
                 Receiving
• Truck dock entries constructed to prevent
  bird nests other pests from entering plant.
• Trucks clean inside, good condition, and
  tightly constructed and refrigerated if
  appropriate.
             Processing
• Time-temperature, pH, aw processing
  controls maintained in good condition and
  calibrated regularly with records retained.
• Proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment
  and surrounding areas.
• Cleaning supplies stored in a separate area.
             Packaging
• Good sanitation and housekeeping in the
  area.
• Cleanliness of packaging equipment.
• Packaging materials protected from
  contamination.
• Metal detectors in place.
 FOOD SAFETY – YOU DON’T
     WANT A RECALL
• Regulatory agencies can issue public
  warnings.
• Recalls and seizures are not uncommon.
  They occur at a rate of about 400/year.
• It is one of the major responsibilities of all
  food processors to produce safe and
  wholesome food for the consuming public.
    Procedures to Help Reduce
       Food-borne Illnesses
• Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
• Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
• Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures
  (SSOPs)
• Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
  (HACCPs)
• Management Support
   Code of Federal Regulations
        Title 21 Part 110
• Current Good Manufacturing Practice in
  Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or
  Holding Human Food (CGMP or GMP)

• See Appendix 1 for more detailed examples.
    Good Manufacturing Practices
•   Personal Hygiene
•   Quality Raw ingredients
•   Sanitary Storage
•   Processing
•   Packaging Areas
           Outside the Plant

• Parking and roads paved and graded to
  drain.

• Building constructed to prevent pest entry.
                 Receiving
• Truck dock entries constructed to prevent
  bird nests other pests from entering plant.
• Trucks clean inside, good condition, and
  tightly constructed and refrigerated if
  appropriate.
             Processing
• Time-temperature, pH, aw processing
  controls maintained in good condition and
  calibrated regularly with records retained.
• Proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment
  and surrounding areas.
• Cleaning supplies stored in a separate area.
             Packaging
• Good sanitation and housekeeping in the
  area.
• Cleanliness of packaging equipment.
• Packaging materials protected from
  contamination.
• Metal detectors in place.
        Food Product Storage
• Clean storage area with good housekeeping.
• Rotation control (First In First Out)
• Temperature and humidity control.
• Rodent and insect control.
• Protect food packages against physical,
  chemical and microbial contamination and
  package deterioration.
     Personnel and Training
• A worker with a health problem that could
  contaminate food or food equipment shall be
  excluded from working with food.
• Wash hand thoroughly prior to contact with food
  or sanitized equipment.
• Protect food against contamination from hair,
  perspiration, objects, cosmetics, tobacco,
  chemicals and medicines applied to the skin.
• Appropriate training and evaluation
  Sanitation Standard Operating
       Procedures (SSOPs)
• Sanitation SOPs are important and useful
  for the following reasons:
  •   Outline proper procedures.
  •   Train personnel.
  •   Provide consistency.
  •   Document what is being done.
   HACCP & FOOD SAFETY
• Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
  (HACCP)
  • Prevention Programs
  • Consists of seven steps
  • Application to the Soyfood Industry
    (encouraged)
     • Soymilk
     • Tofu
   HACCP & FOOD SAFETY
• The Basis of Hazard Analysis and Critical
  Control Points (HACCP)
  • Current Good Manufacturing Practices
    (CGMPs)
  • Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs)
  • Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure
    (SSOPs)
  Hazard Analysis & Critical
Control Points Systems (HACCP)
• Assessing the hazards
  – Sensitive ingredients (products from animals,
    spices, products that are in contact with the
    soil)

• Determine the critical control points (CCPs)
  Hazard Analysis & Critical
Control Points Systems (HACCP)
• Establish procedures to monitor CCPS.
• Establish the control limits for each CCP
• Establish corrective action to be taken if a
  deviation is identified at a CCP.
  Hazard Analysis & Critical
Control Points Systems (HACCP)
• Establish effective record-keeping systems
  that document the HACCP plan.

• Establish procedures for verification that the
  HACCP system is working correctly.
      Fitting HACCP into the
       Company QA System
• Specifications - Very complete all safety,
  quality criteria and the CCPs.
• Safety analysis - Hazard Analysis - Basis
  for establishing CCPs
• Purchase requirements - Approved suppliers
  – ingredients and equipment.
H. Bauman
Cereal Foods World 36:42. 1991.
   Application of HACCP to
Soymilk and Tofu Manufacturing
• Raw Materials

• Heat Processes

• Packaging

• Storage
        Application of HACCP
• HACCP systems should focus on particulars
   – Each production line for each product in each plant
• Developing and validating a HACCP plan must be
  at the plant site.
• Generic HACCP systems can not be mandated by
  Federal Agencies and be expected to be effective.
   HACCP & FOOD SAFETY
• Food Safety
  – Recalls and Loss of Consumer Confidence
  – Recent Interest in Food Safety
  – Soyfoods and Food Safety
   HACCP & FOOD SAFETY
• The Basis of Hazard Analysis and Critical
  Control Points (HACCP)
  – Current Good Manufacturing Practices
    (CGMPs)
  – Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs)
  – Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure
    (SSOPs)
   HACCP & FOOD SAFETY
• Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
  (HACCP)
  – What it can or can not do
  – The seven steps (general)
  – Application to the Soyfood Industry
     • Soymilk
     • Tofu
  FOOD SAFETY – YOU DON’T
      WANT A RECALL
• Regulatory agencies can issue public
  warnings.
• Recalls and seizures are not uncommon.
  They occur at a rate of about 400 / year.
• It is one of the major responsibilities of all
  food processors to produce safe and
  wholesome food for the consuming public.
   Code of Federal Regulations
        Title 21 Part 110
• CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN
  MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING
  HUMAN FOOD (CGMP or GMP)
  –   Outside the Plant
  –   Receiving
  –   Storage
  –   Processing
  –   Packaging
  –   Food Product Storage
  –   Personnel and Training
    Good Manufacturing Practices

• Personal Hygiene
• Quality Raw Ingredients
• Sanitary Storage, Processing and Packaging Areas
• Sanitary Processing and Packaging Equipment
• Food Quality Equipment
• Process Control
MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS
       CONTROL
• Personnel Standards
  –   Hand Washing
  –   Healthy
  –   Hair Covering, Gloves
  –   Clothing
• Ingredient Control (Sensitive)
  – Products from the Soil or Animals
  – Spices
  – Geographic Locations
 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS
        CONTROL
• Plant Cleanliness
  – Clean: Remove Potential Food And Hiding
    Places for Microorganisms, and Places for
    Vectors to Hide.
  – Sanitize: Kill Most or All of the Organisms on
    Surfaces.
 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS
        CONTROL
• Plant and Equipment Design
  – Prevent Potential Places for Microbial Growth
    and Microbial Vectors
  – Foods Must Be Properly Refrigerated,
    Temperature, Small Containers
 MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESS
        CONTROL
• Foods Must Be Adequately Processed and
  Protected from Recontamination (Cross-
  Contamination).

• The Management Must Stress Product
  Safety and Quality.
  Sanitation Standard Operating
       Procedures (SSOPs)
• Sanitation SOPs are important and useful
  for the following reasons:
  –   Outline proper procedures.
  –   Train personnel.
  –   Provide consistency.
  –   Document what is being done.
   HAZARD ANALYSIS & CRITICAL
 CONTROL POINTS SYSTEMS (HACCP)

• ASSESSING THE HAZARDS
• DETERMINE THE CRITICAL CONTROL
  POINTS (CCPs)
• ESTABLISH THE CONTROL LIMITS FOR
  EACH CCP.
• ESTABLISH PROCEDURES TO
  MONITOR CCPs
  HAZARD ANALYSIS & CRITICAL
CONTROL POINTS SYSTEMS (HACCP)
• ESTABLISH CORRECTIVE ACTION TO
  BE TAKEN IF A DEVIATION IS
  IDENTIFIED AT A CCP.
• ESTABLISH EFFECTIVE RECORD-
  KEEPING SYSTEMS THAT
  DOCUMENTTHE HACCP PLAN
• ESTABLISH PROCEDURES FOR
  VERIFICATION THAT THE HACCP
  SYSTEM ISWORKING CORRECTLY.
         FITTING HACCP INTO THE
          COMPANY QA SYSTEM
• SPECIFICATIONS - Very complete all
  safety, quality criteria and the CCPs.
• SAFETY ANALYSIS - Hazard Analysis -
  Basis for establishing CCPs
• PURCHASE REQUIREMENTS -Approved
  suppliers – ingredients and equipment.
H. Bauman
Cereal Foods World 36:42. 1991.
    FITTING HACCP INTO THE
     COMPANY QA SYSTEM
• GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES
  (GMPs) - INCORPORATED

• PHYSICAL SYSTEMS HAZARD
  CONTROL (PSHC)

• RECALL SYSTEM
    FITTING HACCP INTO THE
     COMPANY QA SYSTEM
• FACILITY AUDITING - PERIODIC
  BASIS.

• CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS

• INCIDENT REPORTING
   OVERVIEW OF MONITORING
         ACTIVITIES
• LOT TESTING

• PRECERTIFICATION AND SPOT
  TESTING (VERIFICATION)

• CONTINUOUS RECORDING OF
  CRITICAL FACTORS
   OVERVIEW OF MONITORING
         ACTIVITIES

• VISUAL INSPECTION OF CCP'S WHERE
  THIS IS EFFECTIVE

• MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL, OR
  PHYSICAL TESTING FOR DIRECTOR
  INDIRECT MONITORING OF CCP

				
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