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THE MINISTRY Powered By Docstoc
					THE MINISTRY
OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT




                    Operational Programme

                   INFRASTRUCTURE
                 AND THE ENVIRONMENT




       The National Strategic Reference Framework for the years 2007-2013



       DOCUMENT APPROVED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS




                    Warsaw, 29 November 2006




                                   1
Contents:



INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 3

1. EVALUATION OF THE SITUATION IN PARTICULAR SECTORS ............................. 6
   1.1. The characteristics of the natural environment – basic information _________________ 6
   1.2. The description of the situation in particular sectors _____________________________ 10
   1.3. The analysis and evaluation of previous use of financial support ___________________ 47
   1.4 The SWOT analysis – strong and weak points, opportunities and threats in particular
        sectors. __________________________________________________________________ 53

2. THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY – A SUMMARY ..................................................... 63
   2.1. Programme objectives and their compliance with national programme documents and EU
         regulations _______________________________________________________________ 63
   2.2. Indicators ________________________________________________________________ 73

3. PRIORITY AXES IMPLEMENTED AS PART OF THE OPERATIONAL
PROGRAMME ........................................................................................................................ 76
   Priority Axis I: Water and sewage management ____________________________________ 76
   Priority Axis II: Waste management and the protection of earth ______________________ 78
   Priority Axis III: Resource management and counteracting environmental risks. ________ 81
   Priority Axis IV: Initiatives aimed at adjusting enterprises to the requirements of
        environment protection.____________________________________________________ 84
   Priority Axis V: Environment protection and the promotion of ecological habits. ________ 87
   Priority Axis VI: TEN-T road and air transport network. ____________________________ 90
   Priority Axis VII: Environment-friendly transport. _________________________________ 93
   Priority Axis VIII: Transport safety and national transport networks. _________________ 95
   Priority Axis IX: Road infrastructure in Eastern Poland. ____________________________ 97
   Priority Axis X: Environment-friendly energy infrastructure. ________________________ 98
   Priority Axis XI: Energy security _______________________________________________ 101
   Priority Axis XII: Culture and cultural heritage ___________________________________ 103
   Priority Axis XIII: Health security and improving the efficiency of the healthcare system 106
   Priority Axis XIV: Infrastructure of higher education ______________________________ 108
   Priority Axis XV: Technical Assistance – European Regional Development Fund _______ 110
   Priority Axis XVI: Technical Assistance – Cohesion Fund ___________________________ 113
   Priority Axis XVII: Competitiveness of regions ____________________________________ 115

4. COMPLEMENTARITY WITH INITIATIVES CO-FINANCED FROM THE
EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL FUND FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREA
AND THE EUROPEAN FISHERY FUND ......................................................................... 116


                                                                 2
5. FINANCIAL PLAN .......................................................................................................... 118
   5.1. Financial table for the programme in breakdown into years (in EURO) ____________ 119
   5.2. Financial table for the programme by priority axes and sources of financing (in EURO, in
         current prices) __________________________________________________________ 119
   5.3 Indicative division (according to categories) of the programmed use of funds’ contribution
         (in Euro) _______________________________________________________________ 120
   5.4. Implementation of the Lisbon Strategy under the priority axes ___________________ 121

6. THE SYSTEM OF IMPLEMENTATION ....................................................................... 123

7. PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT BEFORE THE IMPLEMENTATION ....................... 135

8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT .............................................................. 138

9. INFORMATION ON SOCIAL CONSULTATIONS ....................................................... 144
   The course of consultation process for the draft POIiŚ______________________________ 144
   Process of consultations _______________________________________________________ 144

A LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED ................................................................................ 149




INTRODUCTION

Being a member of the European Union seems to be, not only an opportunity, but also a
challenge for Poland. Participation in the common cohesion policy provides a chance for


                                                               3
limiting the development disparities between Poland and the “old” member states of the EU.
Development difficulties are mainly caused by a shortage of infrastructure, which does not
allow for an optimal use of the country‟s resources, and to a large extent, limits the existing
potential. Overcoming the said difficulties seems a necessary requirement to increase
competitiveness and attract investors.

The Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment (POIiŚ) is a response to the
opportunities and challenges connected with the membership in the European Union. The
Programme objective is to improve the country‟s investment attractiveness. The
implementation and the optimal use of the Programme as well as achieving the said objective
requires adequate preparation of public administration and beneficiaries.

In accordance with the Council regulation No. 1083/2006 laying down general provisions on
the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion
Fund1 (general regulation) on 6 October 2006 the Community Strategic Guidelines for
Cohesion (CSGC)2 were adopted and they determined the framework for fund intervention in
the years 2007-2013. On the basis of the CSG, each member state, being a beneficiary of the
funds, shall prepare the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRO). On the basis of
this document operational programmes, constituting primary instruments of implementing the
priorities specified in the NSRO were prepared.

The Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment, in accordance with the draft
of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRO), adopted of by the Council of
Ministers on 1 August 2006, is one of the operational programmes which constitute a basic
instrument to achieve the said objectives by using the funds from the Cohesion Fund and the
European Regional Development Fund. A characteristic feature of the OP Infrastructure and
the Environment is an integral perspective on the basic infrastructure, which includes
technical infrastructure and significant elements of social infrastructure. A starting point for
the programme is the idea to maximise the effects of development, conditioned by a
complementary treatment of the technical and social sphere in one programme and its
implementation. The initiatives carried out as part of the OP Infrastructure and the
Environment are complementary to initiatives implemented as part of 16 regional operational
programmes, as well as other operational programmes prepared for the years 2007-2013,
namely, Innovative Economy, Human Resources, the Development of Eastern Poland and
programmes of the European Territorial Co-operation.



The Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment are also an important
instrument for implementation of the renewed Lisbon Strategy and the expenditures for EU‟s
priority objectives meeting the criteria specified in art. 9 (3) of the Council Regulation No.
1083/2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the
European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No.
1260/19993 make up 66.6% of total expenditures under the Programme. According to the
arrangements made by the European Council in Göteborg another important element of the
programme will be initiatives having a beneficial influence on the environment. These are,
among others, initiatives aimed at reducing climatic changes and increasing the importance of

1
  OJ L 210 as of 31 July 2006, p. 26.
2
  Decision No. 2006/702/EC, Official Journal L of 21 October 2006, p. 11.
3
  OJ L 210 as of 31 July 2006, p. 26.


                                                      4
“green” energy as well as improving and increasing the efficiency and safety of transport
system (among others through supporting the public and railway transport systems).

It should be also noted that, despite the significant allocation of EU funds under the
programme, these funds are not sufficient for Poland to meet the accession obligations in such
fields like environmental protection or power industry. Meeting the obligations is not the
main objective of the Programme, as this is to increase Poland‟s attractiveness for investors.
The accession obligations will be fulfilled also thanks to domestic (public and private) funds,
which according to the EU‟s principle of additionality may be supplemented with EU‟s funds
under regional or sectoral programmes. Because of this the funds within the programme will
supplement, but not replace domestic funds in these fields. Thanks to this the programme will
be one of many (and not the only one) tools helping in meeting these obligations.
Including funds from the Cohesion Fund in priority axes related to investments in the sectors
of transport and power industry, which are beneficial to the environment indicates that
environmental investments not only do not hinder, but also contribute to the implementation
of one of NSRO‟s horizontal objectives – “Increasing competitiveness of Polish regions and
counteracting their social, economic and spatial marginalisation”. This is also reflected by
the amount of support for investments that have a beneficial impact on the environment, since
investments indirectly and directly contributing to environmental protection make up 60% of
this Fund‟s total support.

The Programme structure is based on the Community law, whereas in view of the general
character of operational programmes addressed to the European Commission and for national
purposes, a draft document will be prepared detailing the operational programme‟s provisions
– Detailed description of priority axes of the operational programme (hereinafter referred to
as a detailed description of the operational programme). The requirement to prepare this
document results from the provisions of the act on pursuing development policy (art. 35(3)(1)
of the draft act of 31 August 2006). This document due to detailed information included in it,
will constitute a compendium of information for beneficiaries on the possibilities and methods
concerning implementation of projects within individual operational programmes. By
specifying detailed types of projects, a list of potential beneficiaries and the system of project
selection this document will make it easier for a potential beneficiary to prepare an
application correctly.

This draft operational programme, as opposed to the draft version directionally adopted by the
Council of Ministers on 1 August this year includes elements concerning the operational
programme itself to be submitted to the European Commission. The managing authority will
prepare the final version of the national document, specifying in detail the operational
programme at the earliest possible date from its approval by the European Commission and
based on the guidelines issued by the minister of regional development. The detailed
description will be adopted by the managing authority in the form of guidelines, after
consulting the NSRO Coordinating Institution and competent institutions involved in
programme‟s implementation.

The basis for this project were the provisions of the main part of the draft programme, which
was directionally adopted by the Council of Ministers on 1 August this year. This document
was updated with the provisions resulting from the publication of final versions of most
regulations, adoption by the Council of Ministers of a new NSRO version, as well as from
other decisions made during the last several months.



                                                5
The current version of the programme includes also changes resulting from social
consultations, Environmental Impact Assessment as well as recommendations resulting from
the estimate (ex-ante evaluation).


1. EVALUATION OF THE SITUATION IN PARTICULAR SECTORS

1.1. The characteristics of the natural environment – basic information

The condition of the natural environment, despite constant improvement, requires further
initiatives and significant financial means. The amount of pollution affecting the environment
in Poland has decreased, nevertheless, it still remains higher than the average in other
European Union countries.4 The main causes of pollution are: industry (including the energy
sector, mining, the smelting industry), the public utility sector, transport and agriculture.

Poland is among countries with poor water resources. An indication of the state of water
resources is the average outflow of several years, which in 1999-2003 amounted to 60.1
km3/per year (Central Statistical Office, 2004). The amount of water per inhabitant is on
average 1600m3/per year and is almost three times lower than the European average which is
approx. 4560m3/per year. Water resources per km2: 5.4 1/s/km2 and this is twice as low as the
European average which is 9.6 1/s/km2.

The variability of surface water resources and their uneven location on the territory of Poland
as compared to the needs of the population and economy, results in the fact that the central
part of the country suffers from water shortage. Southern, mountainous regions, which have
richer water resources create potential possibilities of water retention. The total amount of
available water resources stored in artificial water tanks is approx. 4 billion m3, which
constitutes 6.5% of the average annual outflow. It is essential, therefore, to increase water
retention in big multi-functional water tanks.

The quality of water resources is unsatisfactory. In 2004, out of the 131 water quality tests,
there were 106 cases of failure to fulfil the necessary quality requirements of drinking water5.
Despite improvements in sewage-treatment management, the purity of Polish rivers may still
be described as very poor. Class I water (the highest standard of purity) – approx. 7%, class II
(average) – approx. 34%, class III (poor standard) – nearly 40%. 20% of water is excessively
polluted. However, this percentage has been slightly falling. The underground water
resources6 totalled in 2004 16.5 km3. The quality of that water improves and can be evaluated
as good. Ground water and deep groundwater is examined separately. As regards ground
water most water belongs to class IV (31%) and III (29%). Only 7.5% of examined water has
been classified under class I and 8.4% under class V. As regards deep groundwater most
water belongs to class III (44%) and class IV (32.5%). Only 3% has been included in class I
and 6% to class V7.



4
  average in the EU as compared to Polish data
5
  Central Statistical Office/Environmental Protection 2005
6
  http://www.gios.gov.pl/wodypod/podstrony/ocena.html
7
  according to the classification of water in the regulation of the Minister of Environment of 11 February 2004 on
classification for presenting the condition of surface and underground waters, monitoring, interpreting the
results, and presenting the water condition (Journal of Laws No. 32 item 284)


                                                        6
The main anthropogenic causes of air pollution are the energy sector, industrial technologies,
the public utilities sector and transport. The monitoring of air pollution shows that the
concentration of SO2, NOx, CO2 is decreasing. Instances of exceeding the acceptable norms
are not registered, or rarely registered and local in nature. One of the common pollution
factors, with a fairly high concentration frequently exceeding acceptable norms, particularly
in towns and cities, is suspended dust PM10. There is also a high concentration of ozone.
Both pollution factors remain a significant, unsolved problem in most European countries.
The lowest air pollution rates are in the eastern regions of Poland, particularly in the
Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship (province), Podlaskie Voivodeship and Podkarpackie
Voivodeship.




Chart 1. Pollution emission rates in the years 1990-2004 (in thousands of tons)

Pollution     1990          2000          2001          2002          2003          2004
Sulphur       3210          1511          1564          1456          1375          1241
dioxide
Nitrogen      1280          838           805           796           808           804
oxides
Dust          1950          464           491           473           476           453

Data: Central Statistical Office, 2005

Natural environment in Poland is locally varied. There are 485 plant groups in Poland, 76
types of which are endangered according to the European Community scale and require
protection under the European Ecological Network - Nature 2000. The factor which helps to
maintain a variety of nature and landscape is, among others, the uneven industrialisation and
urbanisation of the country, the preservation of traditional, extensive agriculture in vast parts
of Poland and large historically stable forests. Big and consistent forest complexes and river
valleys, which have retained many natural characteristics due to limited regulation procedures
in the past, are a rarity in Europe. 32.5% (10 173.2 thousand ha) of the country‟s surface is
under protection. This includes: 23 national parks, 1368 nature reserves, 120 landscape parks,
448 regions of protected landscape. Apart from the already existing forms of environment
protection, a network of protected regions Nature 2000 is being created. At the end of 2005
there were 265 Nature 2000 regions in Poland, with the total surface of 2,934,437 ha, which
constitutes 9.64% of the land surface of the country.

In Poland there are sanctuaries for 267 species of birds, 46 species of plants and 88 species of
animals, specified in the annexes to the EU‟s Habitat Directive and Birds Directive and
including endangered and rare species in Europe. The threat to flora is quite significant,
however, lower than in Europe, where the threat to trachea plants is estimated as 30-40% of
species, whereas in Poland it is approx. 19%.

Forests play an important role in the protection of biological variety, as they are characterised
by a variety of habitats and are a sanctuary for many types of plants and animals, and shape
the water balance. At the end of 2004 the total surface of forests was 8 973 thousand ha,
which constitutes 28.7% of the country‟ forest rate. Most of the trees in Polish forests are 41-
80 year old, namely the III and IV age class, which constitutes 41.9% of forest surface. The


                                                 7
fact that the majority of forests are coniferous forests (76.7%) and the relatively young age of
mono-cultures, results in diseases, invasion of vermins and a higher risk of trees dying.

The state of recognition of mineral deposits in Poland is relatively advanced. On the basis of
the data included in “The balance of mineral resources and underground water resources in
Poland as of 2004”, the geological balance resources are as follows:

Stable mineral resources in Poland                          - 192.82 billion tons

Including:

Fuels:                                                      - 56.2 billion tons
Crude oil resources                                         - 19.52 million tons)

Natural gas resources                                       - 239.29 billion m3)


In the group of fuel resources in 2003 there was a depletion of the hard bituminous coal and
brown coal resources, however, there was a growth of other mineral resources (crude oil,
natural gas, methane from coal deposits). In the last decade there was a growth of crude oil
resources by approx. 7.5 million tons and natural gas by 8 billion m3.

The functioning of market economy has caused price adjustment (increase) of many types of
ores, particularly coal. Consequently, the output of coal became rationalised. The extraction
of fuel resources in the years 1989-2003 decreased significantly by approx. 100 million tons
per year. Simultaneously, despite the general decrease in the extraction of fuel resources,
there has been a rise in the extraction of hydrocarbons, as compared to the beginning of the
1990‟s (natural gas – approx. 1.1 billion m3, crude oil – approx. 0.33 million tons).
Degenerated areas, which require rehabilitation (eg. Tarnobrzeski Sulphur Region) constitute
a negative effect of long-term output of ores.

Climate. The most significant economic factors which affect the implementation of the
provisions of the United Nations Framework convention concerning climate change and the
Kioto Protocol are as follows: low profitability level of enterprises (which does not allow for
allocating necessary means for technical and technological modernisation) and the dynamic
development of car transport. However, the emission of greenhouse gases in Poland in the
years 1989-2004 has decreased by 30%, and therefore Poland has fulfilled the requirement to
reduce the emission of greenhouse gases8 and has even exceeded the estimates. Such a
significant reduction is a result of system and economic transformation processes initiated at
the beginning the 1990‟s. Initiatives aimed at reducing the emission of greenhouse gases
include the following:
     The improvement of the economy‟s energy efficiency,
     Gradual reduction of market barriers, which hinder the process of reducing the
        emission in economic sectors, including the elimination of subsidies,
     Higher absorption of greenhouse gases due to increased forestation,
     Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture,

  crude oil resources concern the land part of Poland, including the Polish Baltic Economic Zone

   including methane from coal deposits
8
   Poland is obligated to a 6% reduction of greenhouse gases in the years 2008-2012 as compared to 1988
(the basis year for Poland)


                                                     8
        Promotion and introduction of technologies using renewable energy sources and the
         reduction and absorption of greenhouse gases,
        Reduction of emission in transport,
        Reduction of methane emission from waste disposal areas and production processes,
         transport, and energy transformation processes.

Chart 2. Total emission of greenhouse gases according to sources of emission in 2003 (in
gigagrams)



        Type of industry/ Type of                                              Nitrogen
                                  Carbon dioxide                 Methane
                pollution                                                      monoxide
                     energy               182 213.3                   1.8              2.6
           manufacturing and
                                          43 188.9                    3.1              0.9
             construction
                   transport              30 490.2                    4.6              2.0
        fuel combusion emissions
                                 212.7                               749.9             -
                 to air
           industrial processes           11 479.8                   14.0              14.2
                   agriculture                                       442               53
                     waste                29.1                       493.4             2.6

Source: “Environmental protection in 2005”. Central Statistical Office. Warsaw 2005.




Natural hazards and threats caused by serious disasters. The number of registered
dangerous incidences has been systematically growing in Poland. Fires constitute the largest
group of hazards, in particular fires affecting living quarters, crops, farm buildings and
forests. In several hundred cases every year, fires are accompanied by explosions (eg. in 2005
there were 238 gas explosions, 31 dust explosions and 23 explosions of explosive materials).
Other groups are dominated by natural environment hazards – floods, ice jams, hurricanes, as
well as chemical, ecological and technical disasters. Transportation disasters constitute a
significant group of possible dangers, as they frequently cause local ecological threats (fuel
spills, accidents with tankers carrying dangerous materials). Details have been presented in
the chart 3:

Chart 3. Fires and local hazards in Poland in 1998-2005

Type          of                                              YEAR
danger
                    1998         1999      2000       2001           2002     2003         2004     2005
Total               209538       239924    258872     283514         259328   390076       347281   386097
number of
incidences

                                                          9
Fires:
Total            115557 136284 135889 116602 151026 220855 146728 184316
number of
fires
In production 2744          2344      2539       2107     2331     2462     2321      2482
plants
In               1363       1549      1429       1116     1331     1461     1361      1258
warehouses
In agriculture 24028        32152     28484      27655    36982    71102    36574     43702
In forests       6166       9820      12482      4480     10101    17088    7006      12169
Local
hazards:
In total         93981      103640 122983 166912 197491 169221 200553 201781
Strong winds 2064           8068      12502      18032    28855    11080    22414     14915
Increase of 424             2739      2385       5205     6704     4334     1754      11375
water level
Snowfalls        1056       2148      998        1855     3327     1674     3904      5424
Rainfalls        6670       9489      9461       29845    18627    7452     8498      9589
Chemical         934        1048      1245       2298     1309     1155     1143      1116
Ecological       1768       1457      1960       3081     2576     2735     2701      2736
Traffic          29478      23870     28116      33720    38204    37811    44551     47129
Railway          290        333       325        305      273      299      321       278
Air              97         112       155        155      136      104      110       145
Radiological 3              18        6          7        1        4        7         5
Water            1229       1541      1732       2105     2376     2214     2132      2417
Medical          -          1401      1766       1748     2284     2670     3143      4302
Source: statistical charts of rescue actions, data of KGPSP (The Headquarters of the National
Fire Brigade) (not published)


Excessive noise. The condition of acoustic climate in Poland is deteriorating. This a result of
the systematic growth of the automobile industry, a global increase in the number of cars, the
speed of cars and the spread of car traffic into territories with proper acoustic climate. The
group of acoustic hazards includes: traffic noise, railway noise, industrial noise and air noise.

Housing and industrial areas are areas strongly transformed by human activities. They
make up approx. 10% of the country surface. Within administrative borders of cities/towns
over 70% of areas are built-up. Soil in the agglomeration is particularly exposed to pollution
with heavy metals and dangerous organic compounds9.

1.2. The description of the situation in particular sectors

1.2.1 The environment

1.2.1.1 Environment protection infrastructure



9
 ”Environmental Impact Assessment of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment”,
Warsaw, October 2006.


                                                   10
Gradually, the amount of sewage discharged into water or earth is decreasing. According to
the data of the Central Statistical Office, the total amount of discharged sewage in 2004 was
9200hm3, including industrial sewage – 86%, municipal sewage – 14%. 2200 hm3 of sewage
required treatment, 90% of which was purified.

Chart 4. The amount of purified sewage in different years (in hm3)

Specification                1980                        1990             2004
In total                     12010                       11368            9120
Industrial     sewage,       9669                        9055             7826
including       cooling
sewage                       7329                        7254             6985
Municipal sewage             2342                        2314             1294
Sewage        requiring      4681                        4115             2135
treatment, in total
Purified       sewage,       2704                        2772             1943
including:
-mechanical                  1776                        1459             582
-chemical                    216                         218              108
-biological                  712                         1096             586
-with an increased           no info                     no info          669
level of biogenes
removal
Not purified sewage          1978                        1343             192
Source: Central Statistical Office, 2005

Despite a gradual improvement of the quality of water in Poland in the years 1990-2002,
investments in water-sewage infrastructure and improved water-sewage management remain a
priority in order to achieve quicker economic development and to fulfil the requirements of
Community directives (concerning, in particular, agglomerations above 15 thousand PE –
population equivalent).

The gradual improvement of water and sewage management, which has taken place since
1990, is, to a large extent, connected with increased access to basic infrastructure, particularly
the sewage and water supply system. The total length of the sewage system has increased
from 51.1 thousand km in 2000, to 73.9 thousand km in 2004. The water supply system has
also been improved. In 2004 the length of the distribution network increased by approx.12%
as compared to the year 2000 and amounted to 239.2 thousand km. The number of sewage
and water supply systems depends on the region of the country. The eastern and north-eastern
parts of Poland have relatively few systems. The pollution from Polish rivers is discharged
into the Baltic Sea which has a negative effect on the quality of water and the state of
biocoenosis of the coastal area. This effect is enhanced by the pollution caused by rain and
snow water which gets into the Baltic Sea from urbanized areas.

In 2004 there were 1339 industrial sewage treatment plants in Poland, including 53 with a
higher level of biogenes removal and 2875 (in 1990 - 585) municipal sewage treatment plants,
including 689 with a higher level of biogenes removal. According to the estimates of the
Central Statistical Office, 84.5% (in 1990 – 81%) of the population of cities and 18.4% of
village inhabitants use sewage treatment plants. In Western European countries 78% of the
population use sewage treatment plants, in Poland – 59%.


                                                      11
According to the same source, the amounts of municipal sewage loads discharged after
treatment into water or earth were as follows: expressed as BZT5 - 26.8 thousand t/year,
ChZT – 101.1 thousand t/year, suspension – 37.2 thousand t/year, general nitrogen – 30.2
thousand t/year and general phosphorus – 2.9 thousand t/year.

Out of the group of industrial sewage, requiring treatment, discharged directly into water or
earth, 6% is not purified, and nearly 63% is purified only mechanically.

Map 1. The percentage of the population of voivodeships serviced by sewage treatment plants in 2003




                                       45,0 – 50,0
                                       50,1 – 55,0
                                       55,1 – 60,0
                                       60,1 – 65,0
                                       65,1 – 70,0
                                       70,1 – 76,5




Source: the Institute for Eco-development, 2005

The amount of waste produced in 2004 was 133 million tons10. In the year 2000 the total
amount of waste produced in a year per person was 3.6 tons, in Western European countries
the amount was 3.8 tons, and in Eastern and Central Europe it was 4.4 tons. The amount of
waste deposited per person decreased from 311.5 kg in 2000 to 240.8 kg in 2004.


In 2004 there were 9.8 million tons11 of municipal waste collected, which was 256kg/per
person12. In Poland the amount of municipal waste per person is lower than the average in 25
EU countries (518 kg/person in 2001), the countries of EU – 15 (556kg) and the OECD
countries (570kg, according to OECD estimates for 2003). The lowest amount of waste per 1
km2 is produced in the regions of Eastern Poland: warmińsko-mazurskie (24t) and podlaskie
(44t), and the highest – in śląskie voivodeship (3524t) and dolnośląskie (1740t).

In Poland in 2004, 553.9 thousand Mg of biodegradable municipal waste was produced,
approx. 5% of which was biologically transformed, whereas 565 thousand Mg of waste
(which makes up approx. 4.7% of waste produced) was recycled or neutralised (excluding
storage).


10
   Central Statistical Office, 2005
11
   The National Waste Management Plan 2010 – draft, 27 July 2006. Waste Management Department, Ministry
of Environment
12
   ”Environmental protection in 2005”, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2005.


                                                     12
Most of the municipal waste is disposed in waste stockpiles, which do not fulfil technical and
legal requirements. Hence, the need to close down and rehabilitate the said disposal areas. For
comparison, in 2004 only approx. 243 thousand Mg of waste was collected selectively, which
constituted approx. 2% of the amounts of municipal waste or approx. 2.5% of the amounts of
waste collected.13

There are 795 waste stockpiles in Poland (as of 31 December 2005), in which municipal
waste was disposed in 2005. 315 fulfil the technical and organisational requirements specified
in the Council Directive 1999/31/EC14 of 26th April 1999 on the landfill of waste, whereas
480 fail to fulfil the said requirements. In 2005, a total of 623 111.2 Mg of waste was
disposed in municipal waste stockpiles, including:

5 209 994.6 Mg in waste stockpiles fulfilling the requirements of the Council Directive
1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste,
3 413 116.6 Mg in waste stockpiles which do not fulfil the requirements of the Council
Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste15

In the period 2000-2004 a successive decrease in the amount of collected waste was observed;
however this decrease is the result of, among others, inaccurate registration of amounts of
waste disposed in recycling and neutralisation facilities and the decreasing weight by volume
of waste (its volume increases, whereas its weight decreases). In addition, it should be taken
into account that a part of waste produced in households, and most of all biodegradable waste
is used for the households‟ own needs16.

In 2004 1049 stockpiles of other waste than dangerous were functioning in Poland and they
covered the area of 3385 ha and included 83 waste composting plants, 84 mechanical and
manual sorting plants and 1 thermal processing installation.

As regards dangerous waste, 460 recycling and neutralisation facilities and machines were
functioning, as well as 99 facilities for thermal transformation and approx. 70 waste
stockpiles17.

Dangerous waste produced in households, which then gets to municipal waste, constitutes a
serious threat. The said waste should be isolated from municipal waste “at source”, that is by
inhabitants themselves. It should be also stressed that the amount of dangerous waste disposed
in waste stockpiles is rising, which is a disturbing fact. As concerns industrial waste
management there has been observed a slightly smaller dependence of economic growth on
the amount of waste produced, as well as an increase of the amount of recycled waste. This is
mainly the result of economy restructuring processes aimed at developing enterprises
requiring less material consumption, but also of applying cleaner production procedures.




13
   Central Statistical Office, Environmental Protection, 2005.
14
   OJ L as of 16 July 1999, p. 1, as amended
15
   Source: Information on adjusting municipal waste stockpiles to the requirements of the Council Directive
1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste, Ministry of Environment
16
   The National Waste Management Plan 2010 – draft, 27 July 2006. Waste Management Department, Ministry
of Environment
17
   Central Statistical Office/Environmental Protection 2005


                                                    13
Soil is used in agriculture and forestry, in the extraction of mineral resources and in the
building industry, in recreational activities, the storing and disposing of waste. Different ways
and purposes of using soil determine its nature and the scale of its transformation.

The most important factors deteriorating the quality of soil in Poland are: harmful effects of
the mining industry and the effect of dust and gas emission from industry and transport. Such
negative effects are local in character and concern, mainly cities and agglomerations,
industrial plant premises, traffic routes and industrial and municipal waste stockpiles. The
soils in industrial areas are particularly affected by pollution caused by heavy metals and
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentration of waste containing a significant
amount of organic compounds. Moreover, the quality of soil may be affected by non-local
factors, such as acidity resulting from the depositing and washing out of pollution from the
atmosphere. It should be mentioned, that despite reducing the negative effects of mining and
industry on soils, the low pace of the rehabilitation process does not support a quick
improvement of soil quality in Poland.

As regards pollution with heavy metals and dangerous organic compounds, purity of soils
used for agricultural purposes is good. In Poland in the years 2001/2002 1574 thousand tones
of mineral, chemical and calcium fertilisers were used, which makes up 93 kg per 1 ha of
agricultural land18.

 Furthermore, other factors deteriorating soil quality include: erosion, acidity, salinity and
biological degradation. Draughts may constitute another significant hazard, as they seem to
appear more and more frequently in Poland.

The total estimated area of land under degradation exceeds 8000 km2 (800 thousand ha,
approx. 2.6% of the country‟s total area), including industrial degradation: large and very
large land area – 1400 km2 (approx. 0.4% of the country‟s territory), medium and small land
area – nearly 7000 km2 (approx. 2.2% of the country‟s territory). The area endangered by
industrial degradation is estimated as 39 500 km2. It is worth noting, however, that since the
year 1990 the total area of devastated and degraded land requiring rehabilitation, registered
with environment protection authorities, has been gradually decreasing, from 93.7 thousand
ha in 1990 to 70.7 ha in 2003. The surface of degraded areas as compared to the total surface
of the country constitutes only a small percentage of the latter; however at a local/regional
level it may constitute a serious hindrance to development of a given region.

In Poland, similarly to other European and OECD countries, there is a significant problem of
land „deserted‟ after completing economic activities, including industrial areas. The greatest
risk of degradation caused by multiple factors is observed locally in the following regions:
śląskie, dolnośląskie, małopolskie and opolskie. Another cause of land degradation in the said
regions is underground mining, which causes surface deformations resulting in changes of the
water balance, as well as a negative mechanical effect on buildings and infrastructure.

The developing erosion of the sea coastline, which is a result of the increasing sea level
caused by the greenhouse effect, also requires action. The erosion increases the probability of
storm floods. The increase of sea level will result in – still in this century – the coastline
receding by 150-400 metres. Beaches will disappear. 2200 km2 of coastal area will be
endangered by storm floods.19
18
     ”Small statistical yearbook of Poland, 2003” http://www.stat.gov.pl/
19
     See: The Marine Institute in Gdańsk, “The programme for coastline protection”, Gdańsk 2002.


                                                       14
1.2.1.2. Natural hazards and serious disasters

The most important threats to the natural environment include the following:
 Natural hazards, such as floods, fires (eg. forest fires), hurricanes, ice jams,
 Serious disasters, such as chemical or ecological disasters, connected with industrial
   plants, and the transportation of dangerous substances by road or rail.

Every year in Poland, there are from several hundred to several thousand incidences of
increased water level in rivers. In the last few years, 1997 was most definitely the most tragic
year, with the catastrophic flood in the Odra river basin. 500 thousand ha of land was
flooded, with 700 thousand houses and flats and several thousand businesses and institutions.
54 persons lost their lives. According to the data of the Central Statistical Office the total loss
caused by the floods in the years 1997-1998 amounted to 14 billion PLN, and covered an area
with a population of 4.5 million people. 90 towns and cities and 900 villages in 320 gminas
(boroughs) were flooded. 165 thousand people were evacuated. 45 thousand residential
buildings, 3 thousand km of roads, 2 thousand km of railroads, 300 bridges, 600 schools were
destroyed. 620 thousand ha of land and 70 thousand ha of forests were flooded. The damage
of the environment was increased by the flooding of such premises as sewage treatment
plants, warehouses with dangerous substances and cemeteries.

Flood hazards constitute the biggest threat in boarder areas of south and south-eastern
Poland, particularly the rivers in the Odra, Wisła, San and Bug basins. Another cause of the
rising water level is the growing number of negative atmospheric phenomena, such as
intensive rainfalls, particularly in mountainous regions of the said river basins. Although in
most cases this does not constitute a serious threat to large areas of land, it does affect local
areas and may be the reason of local disasters.

The protection of the Żuławy Wiślane area, with a population of a quarter of a million people,
constitutes a significant problem. Its location in depression areas in the Wisła delta makes it
particularly exposed to floods. A high flood risk also appears in other parts of Poland (eg. in
mountainous and hilly areas).

Apart from heavy rainfalls, another cause of floods are ice jams occurring in the period of
melting ice, which is particularly dangerous in the case of large rivers with dams and
numerous bridges.

The total amount of water stored in artificial water tanks is 4 billion m3, which constitutes
6.5% of the average annual outflow. A long-term lack of financial support for water economy,
negligence of proper maintenance of inland surface waters, an insufficient number of water
retention tanks, the deteriorating condition of flood-banks, the building-up of areas potentially
endangered by floods and not using the natural retention capacities of reception basins, result
in higher flood risk. Over 3.9% of existing water appliances which permanently swell water
and 26% of flood-banks – cause or may cause a threat. Over 50% of buildings are over 50
years old, and nearly 70% are older than 25 years. In some country regions, for decades there
have been observed deficits in water needed for utility purposes and supplying the population,
the level of groundwater has decreased, a significant part of the country is exposed to
desertification (Wielkopolska, Kujawy, Lubelskie), droughts are more frequent, which
involves risk of fire in forests, water and mud areas disappear, whereas in spring an during
rainstorms more and more severe floods have been observed.


                                                15
The pollution of the Baltic Sea and the degradation of its coastline constitute a serious
problem. The source of water pollution in the coastal area and pollution of transitional
waters, apart from pollution produced by ships is land pollution, which for example results
from the lack of sanitary sewage system for carrying rain and snow water in coastal
agglomerations, which also involves a decrease in the attractiveness of these areas for tourists
and potential investors.

Most fires affect living quarters, agricultural buildings and areas, and forests. The latter have
a very negative effect on natural environment. The risk of fire in forests and other open spaces
is very high. The scale of fires can be evaluated according to the large figures (included in
chart 3), as well as by looking at individual cases. In case of unfavourable weather conditions
the fire hazard rate in forests may dramatically increase and large fires may become massive
disasters.

There are 341 industrial plants in Poland, which may cause a serious industrial disaster due
to the amount of stored dangerous materials. The risk of a serious industrial disaster is most
common in the southern part of Poland, in the śląskie and dolnośląskie voivodeships and in
the Wisła river basin, which corresponds to the high level of industrialisation of the said
regions.

A potential serious disaster affects a much larger area than just the place where happens. It
directly affects people and the natural environment. Removing the effects of serious disasters
most often requires long-term initiatives concerning environment reconstruction.
According to an analysis of serious industrial disasters in the world the primary sources of
hazard were as follows:

   Fires – 45% of all cases
   The release of toxic substances into the environment – 33%
   Explosions – 22%


1.2.1.3. Monitoring the environment

The National Environment Monitoring (NEM) programme includes research, the preparation
of analyses and evaluation of particular components of the environment (air, underground and
surface water resources, soil, nature, forests) and factors affecting the environment (noise,
electromagnetic radiation, ion radiation), which are specified in long-term programmes of
environment monitoring as sub-systems. The data generated by the NEM programme is an
independent and objective source of information for the evaluation of the effectiveness of
environment initiatives. The tasks included in the NEM programmes are stipulated by Polish
law, international obligations and result from the requirements of the country‟s ecological
policy.

1.2.1.4. Environment protection and ecological education

The growing fragmentation of the landscape in Poland constitutes a serious threat to the
natural environment. Numerous species are endangered due to the insufficiently developed
network of ecological corridors which allow the exchange of genes between different animal
groups.


                                               16
In forest areas a significant threat to tree stands is posed by inappropriate adaptation of tree
species to potential habitat conditions, the influence of industrial and transport pollution and
the threat of draught. Immunity improvement of forest ecosystems requires the enrichment of
the species composition of forests and its proper adjustment to the conditions of the given
habitat by altering tree stands and preventing excessive outflow of water.

Environment protection is also an important factor to consider while implementing new
investment projects, particularly in the transport sector. The 85/337/EEC directive on the
evaluation of the influence of certain public and private initiatives on the environment20
(further amended by the 97/11/EC directive21) and the 92/43/EEC directive (“Habitat”)22, as
well as the 79/409/EEC directive (“Birds”)23, are of great importance here.

The inhabitants in Poland have a low level of ecological awareness. Pro-ecological habits of
Polish people are poor compared to other European nations, eg. in Sweden, Denmark or
Holland. People in Poland seem to lack motivation as concerns pro-ecological initiatives. The
economic factor of pro-ecological attitudes seems neglected, eg. household savings caused by
rational use of water, electricity, heat or waste segregation. Educational and information
programmes concerning the said issues should be one of the principal tools to implement
ecological policy by both state and local government administration24.

Chart 5. The involvement of respondents in environment protection initiatives
No        Have you ever been involved Private entrepreneurs            Total respondents
          in environment protection In percentage rate (%)             In percentage rate (%)
          initiatives?                   N=46                          N=1001
1.        Yes                            17.4                          24.7
2.        No                             82.6                          75.3
          Total                          100.0                         100.0
Source: The Ministry of Environment, public opinion poll conducted by CBM Indicator,
September 2005.

Promoting social attitudes which encourage the protection of natural environment, including
biological variety, should be a significant part of all actions in this sector. The society
presents a lack of awareness concerning the protection of environment, animal and plant
species and their natural habitats.

According to most of the respondents of the public opinion poll conducted by CBM Indicator
in September 2005, the most effective method of environment protection is an ecological
lifestyle. The most common ideas were: applying the principles of environment protection in
everyday life (64%) and education concerning proper ecological habits (60%). Hence, widely
understood ecological education should include complex nation-wide initiatives and
campaigns, as well as initiatives accompanying particular investment projects in order to
increase the awareness of specific social and professional groups concerning the needs and
methods of protecting the environment and landscape.

20
   OJ L 175 as of 5 July 1985, p. 40
21
   OJ L 73 as of 14 March 1997, p. 5
22
   OJ L 206 as of 22 July 1997, p. 7, as amended
23
   OJ L 103 as of 25 April 1979, p. 1, as amended
24
   Source: based on Tadeusz Burger, The Institute of Town Planning and Housing, “Ecological Awareness of the
Polish Society”, Warsaw 2005


                                                    17
1.2.2. Transport

The current condition of the transport system in Poland constitutes a significant barrier for the
development of industry, commerce and services. Moreover, it has a negative effect on the
level of foreign exchange and decreases social mobility. Failing to overcome this barrier,
Poland will never become an economically successful country able to compete on the
European and world markets and effectively use the existing human resources.

The fact that Poland‟s transport accessibility is low, is a result of its peripheral location within
the European Union, as well as poor transport connections.

Creating new efficient transport connections with the rest of Europe should be a priority.
Another challenge is the provision of a cohesive system within the territory of Poland. The
poor quality of inter-regional connections, including connections between the biggest
metropolitan centres and the towns of eastern Poland, as well as the capital, limits the
synergetic influence, and hence does not allow for taking full advantage of the existing
potential, not only in economy, but also in education, science and culture. The lack of
territorial cohesion sustains significant development disparities between particular regions of
the country. Eastern parts of Poland, one of the poorest regions of Europe, have extremely
poor transport connections with the rest of the country.

Due to the transit location of Poland, transport routes may play a significant role in the
international transport network connecting Western Europe and Russia, Ukraine and Central
Asia, and then further on South East Asia, including China. They may also prove important in
the transport network connecting Scandinavian countries and the south of Europe.

The development of transport infrastructure may lead to an excessive increase in mobility.
However, the extent of this phenomenon depends most of all on the economic, agricultural,
housing, tourist, financial and educational policy. That is why planning initiatives should take
account of environmental and social aspects consisting in, among others, promoting the use of
pro-ecological forms of transport as well as in using the urban space efficiently in order to
stop negative town planning processes, which lead to excessive use of private transport. In
particular, integration of transport policy and town and country planning in the institutional
and legal context allows rationalisation of transport processes.

The development of new technologies in the field of transport, including increased
effectiveness of vehicles, reduced emissions of combustion gases and noise, use of natural
environment protection facilities or solutions based on telematics technologies in transport
may visibly contribute to the reduction of the negative influence of transport development on
the natural environment and society. However, it should be stressed that, given the current
knowledge and development of science, the technological solutions alone cannot solve
problems encountered in the field of transport.

1.2.2.1. Road transport

The Transeuropean Transport Network TEN-T covers 4816 km of roads in Poland. These are
the main national roads with a significant traffic load (including transit traffic). Poland is
crossed by roads located in four Paneuropean transport corridors:



                                                18
     -   Corridor I Budzisko - Augustów - Białystok - Ostrów Mazowiecka - Warsaw - 339
         km, (Corridor Ia Grzechotki - Elbląg – Gdańsk – 114 km)

     -   Corridor II Świecko - Poznań - Konin - Łowicz - Warsaw - Siedlce - Terespol - 682
         km,

     -   Corridor III Olszyna / Zgorzelec - Legnica - Bielany Wrocławskie (Wrocław) -
         Gliwice - Katowice - Kraków - Tarnów - Rzeszów - Przemyśl - Medyka. 818 km

     -   Corridor VI Gdynia / Gdańsk - Toruń - Włocławek - Łódź - Piotrków Trybunalski -
         Częstochowa - Katowice - Bielsko-Biała - Żywiec - Zwardoń (Gdańsk - Elbląg -
         Mława - Warszawa - Piotrków Trybunalski); Dolna Grupa (Grudziądz) - Bydgoszcz –
         Poznań; Bielsko-Biała – Cieszyn; 1 447 km

The total length of roads in Poland, as divided into categories is presented in Chart 6, and the
network of the existing high-ways and dual-carriageways is presented in map 2.

Chart 6. The total length of roads in Poland, divided into categories.

No       Road category                                           Km
1.       National roads                                          18 287
2.       Voivodeship (provincial) roads                          28 476
3.       Poviat (regional) roads                                 128 328
4.       Gmina (borough, council) roads                          206 371
         Total                                                   381 463

Source: GDDKiA (the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways)– Studies
Department as of 31st December 2005

Map 2. The network of the existing high-ways and dual-carriageways

The existing sections of high-ways and dual-carriageways and domestic network TEN-T in
Poland




                                               19
Legend:
Istniejące autostrady – existing high-ways
Istniejące drogi eskpresowe – existing dual-carriageways
Sieci drogowe TEN w Polsce – TEN road networks in Poland
Drogi krajowe – national roads
October 2006

Out of 18.43 thousand km of national roads, 1.8 thousand km are roads situated in towns with
powiat rights.

The density of the existing road network (81.2 km/100 km2) may be estimated as satisfactory.
The problem is the growing traffic congestion and the decreasing traffic capacity of the roads.
Another disadvantage are the low technical standards of existing roads, low level of road
maintenance and structural defects of the road system. This constitutes one of the most
significant problems in the development of the country.

The most important drawbacks of the road network in Poland are as follows:

The lack of a cohesive highway and dual-carriageway network. In mid-2006 in Poland
there were 674 km of high-ways and 257 km of dual-carriageways. Highway connections
between the western boarder of the country and Kraków and Warsaw are still incomplete. The
estimated length of the planned high-way network is approx. 2000 km, and dual-carriageways
approx. 5000 km. As concerns the dual-carriageway system the main problems are:
 Lack of connections between main metropolitan centres,
 Lack of or an insufficient system of dual-carriageways in the proximity of metropolitan
    centres,



                                                 20
      Lack of connections between the north and south (including highway connections),
      Lack of efficient connections between the main cities in eastern Poland and Warsaw, as
       well as the rest of the country.

Poor road maintenance. At the end of 2005, more than half of the national roads were in a
poor or unsatisfactory condition (respectively, 25% and 26%), and 49% of roads were
evaluated as being in a good condition.

Hence, more than half of the national roads in Poland require immediate repairs (poor
condition) or repairs planned for the near future (unsatisfactory condition). However, it should
be noted, that despite this negative situation, the process of further deterioration of roads has
been stopped, and since 2003 the situation has been gradually improving.

The roads are not adapted to the load capacity of 115 kN/axle. Most of the roads in Poland
are adjusted to the load capacity standard of 80 kN/axle or 100 kN/axle. Only 2190 km of
roads are adjusted to the load capacity of 115 kN/axle. At the same time, on international
roads (5.5 thousand km) vehicles with the load capacity of 115 kN/axle are accepted, which
results in fast deterioration of roads in this category. In the Accession Treaty, Poland accepted
the requirement to reinforce the roads, planning that in 2011 – 2.5 thousand km of designated
roads will be adjusted to the load capacity of 115 kN/axle.

Directing traffic into built-up areas. A significant problem of the Polish road network is the
high traffic intensity on national roads, including lorry traffic, which is directed into built-up
areas. This problem concerns both bigger and smaller towns, and constitutes both a nuisance
and danger for the residents. At the same time, it limits the traffic capacity of roads and
decreases the speed of transit traffic.

The poor condition of the road infrastructure is accompanied by an increasing number of cars.
In the years 1990-2005 the number of registered cars increased by 134,5%, and the number of
lorries (in the years 1990-2004) by 129%25. The average daily traffic on national roads in
Poland in 1995-2005 increased from 8.5 thousand to 13.5 thousand vehicles.

The estimates to 2020 show a possible increase in the number of cars by 40%-60% and an
increase of load carriage in tonnes by 27%-36%. A fast growth of transport and carriage work
is estimated (in tkm), which will increase by 85%-105% by the year 2020.

The transport market is fully liberal and extremely competitive. From the moment Poland
joined the European Union and abolished the requirement of separate transport licences, the
number of vehicles dealing with international transport of persons and goods increased by
over 50%. Most of the transport work carried out by Polish international carriers concerns the
routes between Western Europe and Russia, Ukraine and the countries of Central Asia.




25
     Including passenger cars officially registered as lorries.


                                                            21
The safety of road traffic. A significant problem of the Polish transport system is a low level
of traffic safety. In 2005, 5 444 persons were killed on Polish roads, and more than 61
thousand people were injured. The number of victims per 100 thousand inhabitants was, in
2005, 14.3, whereas in countries with good safety records it was 6. The mortality rate is very
high – 11.2 victims/100 accidents, whereas the EU average is 2.7/100 accidents.

The improvement of traffic safety requires the redevelopment of particularly dangerous
places, a change in the methods of road designing (the introduction of methods limiting the
intensity of traffic), and other initiatives concerned with infrastructure (eg. the development of
roads with a higher category.)

1.2.2.2. Railway transport

In the 1990‟s there was a slow, but gradual decrease of the amount of goods transported by
rail. This was mainly a result of the low competitiveness of railway transport as compared to,
for example, road transport, the decreasing transport-consumption of the Polish economy and
the falling demand for coal and smelting products. The railway system gradually lost its share
in the transport market for the benefit of road transport. In 1990-2004, the market of
passenger transport suffered a dramatic recession and decreased threefold.

In the past few years, the railway technical infrastructure has significantly deteriorated, which
is mainly a result of the lack of the country‟s financial support. The total length of railroads
currently in use is approx. 20 thousand km. Only 30% of the network is in good condition,
requiring only running maintenance work. The rest of the railway network is in adequate or
poor condition, which means it requires extensive repairs. The failure to carry out the said
repairs shall result in speed limitations, or even eliminate the railroads from use. The
maximum speed on 3.45 thousand km of railway lines (12.5% of the network‟s length) is 40
km/hour. On 8.20 thousand km of lines (29.7%), trains may travel with the speed of up to 80
km/hour. The speed of 120 km/hour may be used on 10.46 thousand km of railway lines
(37.9%) and the speed of 160 km/h may be used on 4.18 thousand of railway lines (15.1%).
Only on 1.31 thousand km of railway lines (4.7%) trains may travel with the speed of 160
km/h26. The poor condition of the railway network negatively affects the quality of rail
services, and hence makes rail travel less competitive as compared to car transport.

The Trans-European Railway Transport Network (TEN-T) has 5 106 km of railway lines in
Poland and constitutes the most significant part of railway infrastructure, which handles 60%
of all transport. Railway lines situated in four Paneuropean transport corridors are located
in Poland:

    Corridor 1: Trakiszki - Białystok –Warsaw – 340 km,
    Corridor 2: Kunowice – Warsaw/Skierniewice – Terespol – 869 km,
    Corridor 3: Zgorzelec – Wrocław – Kraków – Medyka – 732 km,
    Corridor 4: Gdynia – Warsaw/Bydgoszcz – Katowice – Zebrzydowice/Zwardoń – 1 526
     km.




26
  Current maximum speeds for passenger trains on railway lines used in the Time-Table 2006/07, data of PKP
PLK S.A.


                                                    22
Apart from the above, the TEN-T network covers the Szczecin – Wrocław E59/CE 59 line
and the Warsaw – Lublin – Drohusk – country boarder no 7 line, as well as a number of
connecting lines. The AGC network covers 2 940 km of railroads in Poland, and the AGTC
network – 4 160 km, 2000 km of which constitute a joint section. Both the AGC network and
the AGTC network are part of the TEN-T network.

Another important problem is the quality of the regional and urban railway network. This
sector handles most of the passenger transport. The most significant problems are as follows:

   The condition of the technical infrastructure (tracks, the power supply systems, railway
    stations, stops), which is out-dated and fails to fulfil safety requirements. Therefore, in
    metropolitan areas, the comfort and speed of rail travel is low (there are numerous speed
    limitations). This requires immediate support concerning the modernisation of
    infrastructure.
   Out-dated and worn-out carriages. The average age of passenger carriages is 25 years, and
    37% of carriages are faulty. This significantly limits the competitiveness of railway
    services and does not allow for taking advantage of the technical parameters of
    modernised lines.
   Low level of competitiveness concerning passenger transport services, which does not
    improve the quality or service offer for passengers.
   The lack of local self-government co-operation concerning the organisation of urban
    railway transport; one of the reasons for this situation is the lack of appropriate laws.

Despite difficulties concerning the passenger transport market, as well as organisational
problems, the railway system plays a significant role in Poland, particularly as concerns the
transport of goods. Nearly a half of all railway transport calculated in tonnes is the transport
of coal, which is a basic energy mineral in Poland. Other important goods transported by rail
include: metal ores, rocks and stones, gravel, crude oil and other oil products, metals and
metal products, as well as fertilisers.

 In 2005, a total of 269 million tons of cargo was transported by rail, and the transport work
amounted to 50 billion tkm. In the same year, 1080 million tons of cargo was transported by
road, which amounted to 120 billion tkm of transport work.

According to Eurostat data, in 2004 the participation of the railway system inland transport
(in tkm, road transport, railway transport, inland water transport) amounted to 33.5%, as
compared to 17.6% in EU-25 countries and 14% in EU-15 countries.

As concerns passenger transport, a 25% decrease of railway transport is estimated to the year
2020. A similar tendency may be observed in the rural bus transport system (a 18% decrease),
with a simultaneous increase of individual car transport. The railway system may lose its
competition with both individual car transport, as well as air transport. However, the railway
system may continue to play a significant role in urban transportation. The only condition to
maintain its position in this particular market, as well as to reverse the current negative
tendency, is a significant improvement of service quality, including the time of travel,
passenger safety and the comfort of travel.

To the year 2020 a growth in the demand for cargo transport is expected, which is directly
related to the estimated economic growth, as well as a significant rise in the turnover of Polish


                                               23
foreign trade (cargo transport of foreign trade is to rise by 82% by 2020). This also concerns
the railway transport sector, although the estimated rise will be lower than in other sectors.
Although the pace of growth of railway transport will be slower than in other transport
sectors, there is an estimated growth of 13%-17% by 2013, and 28%-36% by 2020.

Therefore, providing support for the modernisation of the railway infrastructure, the change of
railway stock and promoting urban passenger transport, seem particularly significant.

1.2.2.3. Public transport

The public transport system in Polish cities significantly varies. This is a result of the different
size of towns and cities, the level of motorization, the quality of technical infrastructure, the
organisation of public transport, as well as the preparation and implementation of policies and
programmes concerning the development of transport.
Currently, the public transport system operates in 259 towns and cities in Poland. The
provision of local public transport is the responsibility of local gmina (borough, council) self-
governments. Operators usually act as gmina companies (this type of organisational-
ownership legal form is dominant), whereas in a number of towns the function of organiser
and operator has been separated.

The most significant problems are as follows:

   Growing road congestion caused by individual traffic. This results in time loss,
    increasing costs of using the transport system, deterioration of infrastructure and a
    negative effect on the environment (natural environment, historical monuments, etc). It
    also lowers the quality of public transport, as speed limitations (mainly of buses, trolley-
    buses and trams) reduce its competitiveness and efficiency, as well as negatively affect the
    environment (noise, air pollution). Traffic congestion is mainly a problem in big cities and
    metropolitan areas, but it is also beginning to affect medium and smaller towns. The
    dispersion of built-up areas and disintegration of town planning is also visible. This
    increases the need to use cars for travelling.
   Lack of systematic planning concerning transport development and its
    implementation related to town planning, in particular in metropolitan areas. Even in
    cities with approved transport policy based on the principles of sustainable development,
    its implementation is very slow.
   Underestimating the role of public transport. Local self-governments still fail to
    allocate appropriate financial means for local public transport. The range of investments
    and repair works (eg. concerning rail transport) is insufficient, and in some towns there
    are no initiatives of this type. Despite the developed infrastructure, the role of rail
    transport in commuter service and internal transport (including the city rapid railway
    service) is insignificant. Solutions giving priority to trams, trolley-buses and buses (eg.
    special separate lanes, separate streets, traffic lights) are not used very frequently. The
    tram carriages are in a very poor condition – most often out-dated, worn-out and not
    adjusted to passenger needs, including disabled passengers (over 35% of the tram
    carriages are over 25 years old). The speed of rail transport (excluding the underground) is
    low, which makes it difficult for public transport to compete with cars. As a result, in
    most cities, in particular in medium-size towns, the participation of public transport (bus
    transport) in travelling is decreasing. In bigger cities, due to an increasing mobility and
    functioning of rail transport (trams, trains, trolley-buses, the underground), the transport
    system is stabilising.


                                                24
   Poor technical condition of the infrastructure, including road surface and buildings
    (bridges, flyovers), despite carrying out repair and maintenance works. The problem is
    significant and results from two basic factors: inappropriate preparation, implementation
    and supervision of repair works and low financial support for modernisation and new
    investment schemes.
   Transit traffic, including the transport of goods, constitutes a significant problem in
    towns and cities. It results in traffic difficulties, low traffic safety level and constitutes a
    threat to the natural environment. Little attention is paid to organising the transport of
    goods and the development of logistic centres.
   Underestimating the role of new information technologies for the optimal use of the
    existing infrastructure. With some exceptions, there are still no systems of traffic
    management, passenger information systems, chargeable parking systems, etc. Initiatives
    aimed at changing the way of travelling, for example by promoting pedestrian and bicycle
    traffic, connecting individual and public transport (park-and-ride, bike-and-ride, etc) are
    still insignificant, although they are visible in certain cities.

Nevertheless, there also appear to be certain positive aspects. The most important include: the
de-monopolisation of the public transport market, increased participation of public transport
in travelling and effective changes in public transport enterprises.

1.2.2.4. Sea transport

Poland has four ports which are crucial for the country‟s economy: Gdańsk, Gdynia, Szczecin
and Świnoujście. The port in Police also notes high cargo handling (over 2.6 million tonnes in
2005). Cargo handling in all sea ports in 2005 amounted to 59.5 million tonnes, 4.5% more
than in 2004. In the last few years there has been a gradual, positive change in the structure of
cargo handling in sea ports, with an increase in packaged cargo handling, and a systematic
rise in container and ro-ro cargo handling. All the ports are currently implementing and
planning further expansion of their handling and storage potential.


The most significant problems of sea transport are as follows:

Out-dated port infrastructure. The depreciation of fixed assets, concerning in particular
port equipment, ranges from 40% to 70% in given ports. Modernisation and development
investment programmes are necessary, such as setting up new bases and specialist terminals,
or creating new positions for dealing with packaged and container cargo handling.

Inappropriate access to ports. The access to ports is also unsatisfactory, both from sea and
from land. The key initiative to improve access to ports is the construction of the A1 highway,
which shall give road access to the ports in Gdańsk and Gdynia, and the construction of the
S3 dual carriageway connecting the ports in Szczecin and Świnoujście with the southern parts
of Poland. The modernisation of the North-South railway line is also crucial, in particular the
E 65 Warsaw – Gdynia line, and the E 59 line connecting Świnoujście and Szczecin with
Wrocław.

Lack of modern port services. Polish ports have great potential for mass cargo service,
which has not been fully used in the new economic situation. It is necessary to adjust port
infrastructure to the changed transportation needs, in particular the increased demand for
packaged and container cargo transport. As compared to other Baltic ports, Polish ports lag


                                                25
behind in the application of modern technologies, especially concerning unitised cargo
service, ferry transport service, ro-ro technologies, as well as the speed and modern quality of
cargo and ship service.

1.2.2.5. Air transport

Poland has one central airport (Warsaw - Okęcie) and 11 regional airports, 8 of which are in
the TEN-T network. Currently, air transport is the most dynamically developing transport
sector in Poland, which is also a result of the country‟s accession to the European Union and
the liberalisation of laws regulating the access to the market, enabling low-cost carriers to
enter the Polish market. In 2005 the total number of passengers in Polish airports amounted to
over 11.5 million people. The dynamic growth, 28.5% in 2005, is, on the one hand a result of
low air mobility rates of the population, and on the other hand, a result of lowering the prices
of air tickets. Although such high dynamics are usually a temporary tendency, the increase in
passenger numbers should be a steady trend. It is expected that by the year 2020, the number
of passengers in Polish airports shall increase three and a half times In addition, the number of
flights made in the Poland airspace will significantly increase – it is expected that by 2015 it
shall increase nearly two and a half times.27

The most significant problems of the air transport sector are as follows:

The need for significant investments due to the dynamic growth of demand for air
transport. The dynamic increase in the number of passengers and air operations requires
immediate implementation of numerous new infrastructure investment programmes. This
concerns the construction and expansion of passenger terminals, which would handle a higher
number of passengers, as well as the building and alteration of runways and other airport
objects and facilities which would enable the handling of a higher number of air operations.
Investments in navigation infrastructure are also necessary. These investments result from the
dynamic increase in air traffic in the Polish airspace, as well as from the necessity to
implement European programmes regarding air traffic management.

Lack of a quick and efficient road and railway access to airports. Most of the airports in
Poland have a poor transport connection system with nearby urban centres. The lack of
railway connections constitutes a significant problem, as it would enable the connection of
airports with the national railway network, and the city rapid railway system.


The need to develop airports for the Warsaw and Mazowsze region. As the operational
capacity of the Warsaw – Okęcie airport is decreasing, it is essential to work out a concept of
developing airports to handle air traffic for the Warsaw and Mazowsze region, including the
idea of a new central airport. The said issue shall constitute a significant part of “The
programme for the development of airport networks and aviation ground equipment”, which
shall be presented for approval to the Council of Ministers in December 2006.

The requirement to fulfil international and national regulations concerning the safety
and protection of civil aviation. The implementation of the above-mentioned regulations
shall require increased financial means provided by the management of airports, in order to
purchase the necessary equipment and appliances, as well as implementing necessary
investments.
27
     Civil Aviation Office, 2006


                                               26
1.2.2.6. Multimodal transport

Multimodal transport continues to play a marginal role in Poland. As concerns container
transport, railway transport is most significant - in 2005, 2.3 million tonnes of cargo was
transported by rail, which constitutes a little over 1.5 % of the total amount of railway
transport.

Currently, national and international cargo, even on further distances, is mostly transported by
road. With a more active approach on the part of the state, it is possible to transfer part of the
cargo transport to rail and sea transport.

The most significant problem of multimodal transport in Poland is the lack of appropriate
infrastructure, such as a sufficient number of container terminals and logistic centres for
railway lines and in seaports. The unsatisfactory condition of railway infrastructure is also a
significant problem, as it seriously limits the speed of trains and the quality of service.

1.2.2.7. Intelligent Transport Systems

In Poland intelligent transport systems (ITS) are still used on a very small scale, although they
may significantly contribute to traffic safety improvement, a better use of the infrastructure,
increase of transport systems‟ efficiency and reduction of transport‟s negative impact on the
natural environment. ITS may be an alternative to expensive, long lasting infrastructural
investments. ITS solutions may also help increase the transport system integration, from
travellers‟ information systems, multimodal nods management systems, integrated charge
collection systems, delivery van traffic management systems, to information systems on
meteorological conditions.

The interest in intelligent transport systems (ITS) in Poland is very limited, which results in
the slow development of this particular sector, and the fact that the system‟s possibilities are
hardly used. The existing systems are limited to a few uncoordinated databases, providing
both specialist, and passenger information. In Poland there are very few examples of the
system implementation, in particular concerning improvement of public transport (eg. in
Poznań).

Taking the above into account, it is necessary to develop all areas regarding intelligent
transport systems, particularly traffic management systems.

1.2.2.8. Inland water transport

The situation of inland water transport in Poland is difficult. Inland cargo transport has
decreased by over 10 million tonnes as compared to its best results. In 2005 it amounted to
9.6 million tonnes, including national transport – 4.5 million tonnes. In 2005 inland water
transport worked out 0.7% of the total amount of cargo transport. The participation of the
inland water sector in supporting sea ports decreased four times, despite a growing demand
for this particular means of transport, for example on the Szczecin – Berlin route (the distance
between Berlin and Szczecin is twice as short as the distance between Berlin and Hamburg).
Combined sea and river transport is incidental, whereas container transport is not carried out
at all, although the first attempts to introduce such technology on the Odra river were made in
the 1970‟s.



                                               27
The main difficulties for the development of water transport in Poland result from the
condition of water routes infrastructure and the difficult financial situation of ship-owners,
which prevents the possibility to renew the river fleet. Statistical data shows that in Poland
there are more than 3.6 thousand km of navigable routes, however, the length of actually used
water routes has dramatically decreased and their condition following floods, particularly the
floods of 1997 and 1998, significantly affects inland sailing. Only 206 km of the network has
any international significance.

1.2.3. The energy sector

1.2.3.1. Basic data on the energy sector in Poland
The structure of primary and final energy consumption in Poland is strictly connected with the
existing energy resources: hard coal and lignite, as well as natural gas resources. As compared
to other EU countries, significant differences occur in the sub-sector of power generation, as
in 94.5 % the production is based on hard and lignite.

According to the documents approved of by the Council of Ministers on 4th January 2005
“The Energy Policy in Poland until 2025”, the demand for energy supply systems will be
growing. It is estimated that in this period the economic growth will reach nearly 5% of NGP
per year and the rise in the demand for primary energy is estimated as nearly 40%, including
electricity – approx. 80%.

There are the following infrastructure enterprises in the energy sector: dealing with electricity,
district heating, natural gas and crude oil. In 2004 there were 55928 entities in the energy
sector which dealt with the production, transfer and distribution of fuels and energy, storing
gas and liquid fuels, liquefying and re-gasification of liquefied natural gas, trading in fuels
and energy. The sales of this sector amounted to 67.85 billion PLN, and the average level of
employment was 167.2 thousand people29.

1.2.3.2. The condition of the infrastructure of the energy markets and the safety of fuel
and power supplies.

The power sector sub-sector

The development of electricity transmission systems, including crossborder connections is
one of the necessary requirement for functioning of the Community market in electricity and
improving safety of energy supplies for consumers. The rate of implementing new
investments on commercial conditions is insufficient in relation to the schedule concerning
the introduction of the Community market in energy specified in the Directive 2003/54/EC
and to the rate at which the demand for energy increases. Thus, the issue of stimulating grid
investments by the state is reflected in many national and EU strategic documents. Directive
2005/89/EC concerning measures to safeguard security of electricity supply and infrastructure
investment obligates Member States to provide investment signals for network system
operators to develop their networks in order to meet foreseeable demand from the market. In
addition, Decision 2003/1229/EC laying down a series of guidelines for trans-European
energy networks provides a possibility to create more favourable conditions for the
development of crossborder networks and connections, which would be of key importance for
28
     Enterprises employing more than 49 persons, for which the energy business is the main business activity
29
     Source: CSO‟s Statistical Yearbook, 2005


                                                         28
the market development in the EU, and specifies a list of projects of priority importance for
the Community. These projects include a connection Poland – Lithuania and the high voltage
connection east – west (Germany – Poland – Lithuania – Belarus - Russia).

The total length of the electricity lines is 750 thousand km. The electricity transmission
system consists of networks of 750, 400 and 200 kV30. The total length of these grids amounts
to approx. 13 thousand km. The transmission of electricity in Poland is also carried out by the
110 kV grid, which should basically perform the task of a distribution network. The length of
the 110 kV grid is approx. 32.5 thousand km. The distribution system – the total length of the
medium and low voltage grid amounts to approx. 705 thousand km31.

The total transmission capacity between the Polish electricity system and EU countries
(Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Sweden) amounts to 2000-3000 MW32, depending
on the configuration of the system work and is limited by the transmission capacity of the
national system. The current trans-boarder connection capacity fulfils the recommendation of
the European Council determined in Barcelona, according to which crossborder connections
should constitute by 2005 a minimum of 10% of transmission transfer capacity in each
Member State. In EU countries this level is varied, ranging from 90% in Luxembourg to 3%
in Great Britain, Estonia, Slovenia and Lithuania33. Despite the fact that Poland fulfils the
supplies security requirement, mentioned above, due to the size of our country and the
configuration of the electricity network, the current level of cross-border connections does not
ensure an effective functioning of the electricity market. The lack of connections with
Lithuania and indirect connections with Latvia and Estonia does not allow construction of a
common European electricity market with these countries. Moreover, the limited connections
with Ukraine as well as the lack of connections with the Kaliningrad Oblast significantly
reduce opportunities for the creation of a regional electricity market. Due to its location
within three electricity systems – namely the Western European system (UCTE), the Eastern
European system (the Commonwealth of Independent States/Baltic countries) and the
Scandinavian system (Nordel) – Poland may participate in the process of integrating Baltic
countries with European markets, at the same time improving the interconnection grid on its
western boarder with Germany.

The natural gas sub-sector

The length of the natural gas transfer network amounts to approx. 18.6 thousand km, the
distribution network – approx. 123 thousand km34. Large areas of the country are not supplied
with gas. Approximately one third of gminas are not connected to the gas grid and most of the
existing gas distribution systems are working in island mode (supplied from one direction)35.
As concerns all conventional energy sources, the demand for natural gas is growing fastest,
and according to the forecast of the European Commission the world demand for gas up to the
year 2030 will increase two-fold36.

30
   The 750 kV grid connects the Polish electricity system with the Ukrainian system; currently the line is not
used.
31
   Source: Agencja Rynku Energii S.A.
32
   Source: PSE-Operator S.A.
33
   Source: Annual report of the European Commission on the introduction of the internal market in gas and
electricity, COM(2004) 863.
34
   Source: Gaz-System Sp. z o.o. (a limited liability company) – a transfer network operator
35
   Source: PGNiG S.A. (a joint stock company).
36
   European Energy and Transport Trends to 2030, January 2003, the Office for Official Publications of the
European Communities, 2003.


                                                        29
According to the forecast of the European Commission the use of gas in the EU will increase
by the year 2010 by 50%, as compared to the present situation. In order to increase energy
safety and economic competitiveness, investments in the gas sector are necessary.

Energy safety through diversification

Poland is, to a large extent, dependent on natural gas supply from one direction only. Such a
situation constitutes a threat to the country‟s energy safety in case of power failure, natural
disasters or other incidents affecting the continuity of natural gas supply to our country.

The country‟s natural gas consumption in 2005 amounted to 13.9 billion m3, of which 4.3
billion m3 comes from national resources37. Import constitutes approx. 70% of the gas used in
Poland (import from Russia constitutes 65.5% of the total amount of imported gas, 26%
comes from Central Asia, 5% from Norway, and approx. 3.5% from Germany38). Due to the
fact that most of the import of natural gas comes from the East (approx. 91.5%), it is
necessary to diversify gas supply to Poland and achieve access to a third (after the eastern
source and national production) stable and independent source of gas.
Moreover, the national natural gas transfer system is oriented on the East-West line, which
means that Poland also depends on gas supply from the East.

Map: Gas import – 2005




37
     Source: PGNiG S.A.
38
     Source: PGNiG S.A.


                                              30
Source: Gaz-System Sp. z o.o. (a limited liability company)

The most significant projects which would enable the diversification of natural gas supplies
are: the construction of a liquefied gas terminal (LNG terminal) and a direct connection to
Norwegian deposits (the so-called Norwegian direction). It is worth noting, that both projects
may be an element of diversifying gas supply to the European Union, in particular to Poland.

Map: Gas import forecast – 2010




Source: Gaz-System Sp. z o.o.


Energy safety through the provision of continuous supplies.

The highest natural gas transfer in 2005 was 60.7 million m3/day39. In order to actually realise
this amount of gas transfer, in certain parts of the system a maximum or nearly maximum
transfer capacity of the pipeline was used.

The disruptions in gas supply to Poland, which took place at the beginning of 2006, caused
OGP Gaz-System Sp. z o.o. (a limited liability company) – the pipeline system operator – to
introduce, on 26th January 2006, limitations in natural gas consumption by industrial
consumers (10th degree of power supply/feed).




39
     Source: PGNiG S.A.


                                              31
Map: The national transfer system




Source: Gaz-System Sp. z o.o.
In order to provide reliable supplies of natural gas and sufficient amounts of reserves
necessary to satisfy the country‟s demand for gas in the periods of highest demand, further
expansion of gas storage capacity and the expansion and modernisation of the transfer and
distribution system is necessary.

Map: The projects of expanding the transfer system




                                            32
Source: Gaz-System Sp. z o.o

The total capacity of underground natural gas storages in Poland is approx. 1.6 billion m3, and
the maximum capacity of transferring gas into the system is 32 million m3 /day40. In order to
fulfil consumer needs in periods of the highest demand for gas, as well as to provide the
possibility of supplementing gas shortage in the system in case of emergency or disruptions in
supplies, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity by 1.2 billion m3 and the maximum
capacity of transferring gas into the system by 16 million m3/ day41.

Without necessary investments in the expansion and modernisation of the transfer system, as
well as the expansion of the capacity of underground natural gas storages, it may appear, as
early as 2010, that the provision of continuous gas supplies to Polish consumers is not
possible. According to the forecasts concerning the demand for natural gas in Poland, in 2010
gas consumption will amount to 18.8 billion m3.42 Taking the above into account, the transfer
system, due to the lack of capacity reserves, will not be able to provide gas to all consumers.
The power transferring gas into the system (particularly in the period of highest consumption
during the winter) will also prove insufficient.




40
     Source: PGNiG S.A.
41
     Forecast of PGNiG S.A.
42
     Energy Policy in Poland to 2025.


                                              33
In order to provide continuous supplies of natural gas to Poland by the transit gas pipeline in
emergency situations (decreased pressure on the eastern boarder, random incidents, and other
accidents), a reverse project is considered concerning the Jamal – Europe pipeline, which
shall allow for the transfer of natural gas from west to east.

The crude oil sub-sector

The country‟s crude oil consumption in 2004 amounted to approx. 18 million tons43. The
infrastructure of crude oil and oil derivatives transportation in Poland is not well developed.
Due to the strategic location of Poland in the centre of Europe, the main supply routes for the
EU delivering crude oil from former USSR states, including the northern section of the
“Friendship” crude oil pipeline, cross the territory of Poland. The most significant task
concerning the crude oil sub-sector, the implementation of which may bring mutual benefits
(both for Poland and the entire European Union) is the expansion of infrastructure for the
transfer of crude oil through the territory of Poland to other countries of the EU. Further
development of infrastructure necessary to transport oil shall provide a possibility to increase
its supply to the European market, at a time when the deposits of the biggest European
producers will be exhausted.

Another chance for diversifying crude oil supplies to Poland and the European Union is the
project to build the Brody – Plock pipeline, possibly extended to Gdańsk and further on to the
Wilhelmshaven port in Germany, which would transfer oil from high quality oil deposits in
the Caspian Sea region to consumers in Central and Western Europe.



1.2.3.3. Energy efficiency in the energy sector and the public sector

The efficiency of energy consumption in the economy

In the past few years in Poland, progress has been noted in decreasing energy consumption in
economy. To a large extent, it is a result of a significant decrease in the number of energy-
consuming sectors in the production of the GDP. Energy efficiency of the Polish economy,
which is measured as the relationship of final energy consumption to the GDP, is nearly three
times lower than that in the most developed countries and approximately two times lower than
the average in member states of EU-15.

According to statistical data for 2004, energy consumption of the GDP in Poland amounted to
0.27 toe/1000 euro44, in the EU-15 countries it was 0.18 toe/ 1000 euro.
According to EUROSTAT data, in 2004 in Poland primary energy consumption per capita
amounted to 2.31 toe/ inhabitant, in EU-15 countries it was 3.78 toe/ inhabitant. This means,
that primary energy consumption in Poland as compared to the number of population is nearly
40% lower than in EU-15 countries.




43
     The Fuel and Energy Management in 2003 and 2004; The Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2005.
44
     toe – ton of oil equivalent


                                                      34
Although, there has been significant progress concerning the improvement of energy
efficiency of economy, the existing potential remains very high. Forecasts concerning the
demand for energy to 2025, prepared within work on “Poland‟s energy policy by 2025” show
that it is necessary and possible to further decrease energy- consumption of the GDP to
approximately 50% of the present level. This would bring Poland closer to energy
consumption standards achieved in well-developed countries.

The European Parliament and Council directive 2006/32/EC as of 5th April 200645 on energy
end-use efficiency and of final energy consumption and energy services, provides for taking
administrative actions in order to provide mechanisms, incentives and institutional frames,
both financial and legal, for the elimination of existing barriers in efficient energy
consumption. The said directive provides member states with an indication of energy saving
rates at the level of 9% by 2016. The public sector should become a role model for decreasing
energy consumption. According to the estimates of the Polish National Energy Conservation
Agency S.A. (a joint stock company), Poland has a significant (min. 18 TWh per year)
potential for energy-saving investments in the public sector. The possibilities of taking
advantage of the said potential in the current situation, mainly due to economic efficiency,
amount to 9 TWh per year, which creates the chance of CO2 reduction at the level of 1.33
million tons.

According to the data of the Central Statistical Office, the amount of final direct energy
consumption in Poland in 2004 was 56.20 Mtoe that is 653.7 TWh. In order to fulfil the
minimum requirements of the directive at least 59 TWh of final energy should be saved
within the nine years of its application. Limiting the consumption shall require the
implementation of a number of investment programmes improving the production,
transmission and distribution of fuels and energy, as well as better energy consumption habits
of consumers.

The efficiency of power generation.

The Polish power generation sector requires the implementation of necessary programmes for
modernising and reconstructing its capacity. It is estimated, that with the existing 35 thousand
MWe of production capacities and technological installation lifetime of 30-35 years, every
year 800-1000 MWe of new generation capacities should be created – only to substitute the
work of decommissioned installations. A 63% usage of production assets results in relatively
low energy efficiency of production equipment, at the level of 36%-38%, which affects the
economic efficiency of producers. In the last six years, only three, not particularly successful,
initiatives were taken to construct new production units with a total generation capacity of
1700 MWe. Due to the country‟s regression concerning the construction of new production
capacities, in 5-7 years there may be a lack of production capacities to satisfy the demand for
electricity46. In 2004 in the entire power sector, the amount of electricity from cogeneration
(CHP-combined heat and power) in total electricity generation account for 17%, and the
energy efficiency of cogeneration units (CHP)are twice as high as in the case of condensation
units47.




45
   OJ L 114 as of 27 April 2006
46
   Source: “Programme for the power industry” adopted by the Council of Ministers on 27 March 2006
47
   Source: Agencja Rynku Energii S.A.”


                                                    35
Grid losses

Losses and balance differences of electricity constitute nearly 10% of the gross energy
production. The absolute value of the losses in 2004 amounted to 14 264 GWh of electricity48,
which equals the constant work of a 1600 MW power station with power achieved during the
whole year. The reduction of grid losses, by increasing the efficiency of energy transfer and
distribution, will result in substantial fuels savings and decreased environment pollution.

Due to continuing development processes, which result in an increased demand for electricity
and its higher quality, it is necessary to implement immediate modernisation and extension of
distribution networks in order to ensure energy security on a local level, including attracting
new investment initiatives. The value of the line‟s assets is depreciated in 70%, whereas the
station‟s assets in approx. 80%, and the depreciation of the grid has increased in the past few
years. The differences in the depreciation of distribution assets range from 64%-87%
depending on the region49.

Raising financial resources for the expansion and modernisation of the grid is very difficult.
The needs concerning the expansion or modernisation of the electricity grid exceed the
financial possibilities of distribution utilities. In many regions investments in grid
development are not profitable from the point of view of energy companies, which are the
owners of the network. The return of expenditure on the said investments has been estimated
for the period of several decades. At the same time, gminas (boroughs, councils) are
interested in the investments, as in accordance with the Act of 10th April 1997 “Energy
Law”50, gminas are responsible for the planning and organisation of electricity supplies within
their territories. However, local self-governments find it impossible to finance the investments
in grid development from their own means, as the implementation of the said initiatives
exceeds their financial possibilities.

In the network heat distribution subsector transmission losses in Poland make up approx. 8%.
The length of the heat distribution network is approx. 20 thousand km. The vast majority of
centralised heat distribution networks require modification in order to reduce losses. The
amount of heat produced in 2004 was 442 549.5 TJ. The average profitability of activity in
the heat distribution sector amounts to below 1%.


1.2.3.4. The development of energy using renewable energy sources (RES)

The development of renewable energy has been planned in “The strategy of renewable energy
development”, approved by the Sejm (Parliament) on 23rd August 2001. In the documents:
“Energy Policy of Poland to 2025” (a document approved of by the Council of Ministers on
4th January 2005) and “The Programme for Power Sector” (a document approved of by the
Council of Ministers on 28th March 2006), the plans of using renewable energy resources
have been described as priority initiatives. One of the most significant objectives of the Polish
energy policy is to ensure continuous energy supplies, which would fulfil the requirements of
environment protection, with simultaneous economic growth. The strategic objective of the


48
   Source: Agencja Rynku Energii S.A.”
49
   Source: Polish Power Transmission and Distribution Association
50
   Polish Journal of Laws of 2006, No. 89, item 625.


                                                     36
country‟s policy is to increase the use of renewable energy resources and obtain a 7.5% share
of electricity from RES in the primary energy balance in 2010 and 14% share by 2020.
In the Accession Treaty Poland accepted the requirement indicating the amount of electricity
generated from renewable sources in the national gross consumption of electricity energy in
2010 at the level of 7.5%.


In order to achieve the said objective concerning electricity energy in 2010, it is necessary to
increase the installed RES generation capacities – in 2005, 2.6% of electricity was produced
from these sources in the national gross consumption of electricity. The dynamics of using
renewable resources indicate the need to intensify actions aimed at supporting the
development of this sector. The market failure is one of the main barriers preventing the
development of the renewable energy sector. In order to improve competitiveness, including
the improvement of the economic relationship of renewable energy within the entire energy
sector, it is necessary to provide additional financial support for RES investments. Promoting
increased use of renewable energy resources should constitute one of the pillars of the
country‟s energy policy.
Taking the above into account, a pro-market support mechanism has been implemented, a
system of transferable certificates of electricity generated from renewable energy sources, the
so-called green certificates. Energy enterprises dealing with the sale of electricity to final
consumers are obliged to present certificates of electrical energy from RES for redemption, as
compared to the amount of electricity sold to final consumers. The above-mentioned
obligation should be fulfilled according to the following plan: 3.6% in 2006, 4.8% in 2007,
6.0% in 2008, 7.5% in 2009 and 9.0% in the years 2010-2014.
In order to ensure such development possibilities it is necessary to provide financial support
for investments in new renewable sources and infrastructure, which would enable the
connection of the said sources to the electricity grid.

Furthermore, Poland is required to implement directive 2003/30/EC of the European
Parliament and Council as of 8th May 2003 on the promotion of bio-fuels and other renewable
fuels in transport51, which would lead to a 5.75% share of bio-components in the market of
fuels used in transport. Poland does not have an established position concerning the use of
bio-fuels, which resulted in a worse starting point as compared to countries where the market
of bio-components and bio-fuels has been dynamically developing for several years. The
share of bio-components in the market of fuels used in transport amounted, in 2004, to only
0.3%. European funds shall support the development of the market, enabling the fulfilment of
the 2003/30/EC directive and increasing the amount of the said fuels to the required level in
2010, by implementing new investments in bio-components production – bio-ethanol and
esters, as well as initiating the production of second generation bio-fuels.

1.2.4. Culture

The sphere of culture can be conventionally divided into two basic components: cultural
heritage and cultural activity expressed by activities of institutional network (cultural
institutions) and by activities of NGOs and private entities. Poland has a vast range of cultural
heritage resources, despite the fact that 70% of the cultural heritage was destroyed in World
War II. The existence of this variety is confirmed by the fact that in Poland there are many


51
     OJ L 123 as of 17 May 2003, p. 42


                                               37
objects entered in the Unesco Heritage Site and many have also been recognized by the
President of the Republic of Poland as Historical Monuments52.
The basic form of monument protection remains the decision of the voivodship guard of
monument protection concerning entry in the voivodship register of monuments. According to
the data as of the end of 2005, the register of monuments includes the following: approx. 61.5
thousand unmoveable monuments, approx. 180 thousand moveable monuments and 6
thousand archaeological monuments. Objects listed in the monument register vary to a large
extent in material, historical and symbolic value. In the years 1999-2004 the total number of
monuments listed in the register of monuments increased and in 2004 it was 4% higher than
in 1999. The document “The report on the condition of unmoveable monuments listed in the
register of monuments” which was drafted in 2004, shows that the condition of the said
monuments is in many cases unsatisfactory. 42% of monuments listed in the register require
conservation work or major renovation.




Map 8: Monuments listed in the register of monuments in 2004




Number of moveable monuments in 2004
Number of unmoveable monuments in 2004

Source: Original study based on the data of the National Center for Historical Monument
Studies and Documentation

A necessary element of complex protection and preservation of the cultural heritage is also
the conservation of moveable monuments. Moveable monuments include: museum artefacts,
archive materials, antique books, book collections or film collections. Institutions which have
moveable monuments in their collections require particular support concerning the

52
  List of monuments included in the UNESCO list and recognised by the President of the Republic of Poland as
Historical Monuments is available (among others) on the website of the National Center for Historical
Monument Studies and Documentation, http://www.kobiz.pl


                                                     38
improvement of the conditions of their preservation (providing appropriate climate
conditions, packaging, fire protection and anti-theft protection) and conservation (providing
conservation studios with the necessary equipment).

Apart from the deteriorating condition of monuments, another significant problem is the
unequal access to cultural infrastructure and its poor condition, as well as low public spending
on culture in Poland, which according to the data for 2004 amounts to 26 Euro per person and
is one of the lowest in the European Union. According to the data for 2002, the highest level
of public spending on culture, amounting to 234 Euro, was achieved in Austria. The average
European level of public spending on culture is in Italy and amounts to approx. 118 Euro per
person.53

In Poland there are approx. 13 thousand cultural institutions run by local self-governments
(including 6.5 thousand independent institutions). At the end of 2005, the register of the
Minister of Culture and National Heritage Protection included 37 national cultural institutions
and 10 institutions co-governed by local self-governments, whereas the local governments
register included 11 institutions co-governed by the Minister of Culture and National Heritage
Protection.

According to the data of the Central Statistical Office, the number of artistic institutions in
Poland, including theatres and musical institutions: operas, operettas, philharmonics and
orchestras decreased in the years 1998-2004. As compared to 2003, also the number of
performances and concerts organised by these institutions decreased in 2004 (by 651). So did
the number of audience members (by 197.7 thousand). Theatres and musical institutions
organised in 2004 45.5 thousand performances and concerts, in which 9.3 million spectators
participated, 2.1% less than in 2003.

The number of libraries has also been gradually falling (in 2004 the number of libraries
decreased by 74, as compared to the year 2003). In 2004 there were 8 653 libraries, including
library branches. The majority of readers were children and adolescents up to the age of 19
(47.0% of the number of readers) and persons aged 25-44 constituted 20.7%.

The cultural institutions network includes a significant number of culture centres, clubs and
youth clubs (the latter tend to dominate in rural areas). According to the data for 2003, there
were 3716 such institutions in Poland.

Recently there has been a growing tendency to develop a network of museums. In 2004 there
were 668 museums in Poland (including museum branches), 476 of which (including 133
museum branches) were museums run by local self-governments. 57 museums (including 31
branches) were run by government administration units – 44 of which (and 29 branches) were
governed by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage Protection. Furthermore, there
were also102 museums (including 7 branches) in the private and non-government sector,
including among others 36 museums run by social and political organisations, 26 museums
run by churches and religious groups, 11 museums run by foundations and 11 run by natural
persons. In 2004 the number of exhibitions also increased. 668 museums organised 4171
exhibitions (in 2003 – 4083). 17 505 thousand people visited museums and exhibitions (3.7%
more than in 2003). In Poland there are no basically institutions known as “modern
museums”, which present their heritage, including cultural heritage, in an innovative and
interactive manner, all around the world, and their significant function is to educate visitors in
53
     Source: www.culturalpolicies.net


                                               39
many different ways and provide the possibility of selecting the range of the presented
information, as well as combine recreation and other forms of leisure.

A network of art. schools and institutions of higher education is a significant element of
cultural infrastructure. The said institutions, not only provide cultural education, but also
perform an active role in providing the society with culture goods and services. The Minister
of Culture and National Heritage governs or supervises 596 art schools and 18 public art.
institutions of higher education. In 2005 there were nearly 80 thousand pupils in art. schools
and over 14 thousand students in colleges. Due to a high level of teaching, Polish art.
colleges, are becoming increasingly popular among foreign students.

The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in culture is also an important
task. It particularly concerns the development of digital technologies in library and archival
resources, as well as introducing virtual museums. This would, to a large extent, improve the
quality of cultural services, increase their availability and allow for a more effective use of the
most valuable cultural resources. The advancement level of public services development in
the EU-25 countries is 68%, in Poland it is 35%. The level of full on-line interaction
concerning public services is 40%, in Poland – 9% (3rd position from the end).

On the basis of the observed demographic trends, the increasing level of education and better
material situation of European societies, it may be expected that there will be an increase in
cultural tourism, which shall have a direct effect on the number of domestic travels of
Poland‟s inhabitants, as well as foreign tourists visiting Poland

Culture is presently an important factor of development that makes the country more
attractive for residents, investors and tourists. Poland has a vast tourist potential, however, the
economic effects of the tourist industry are disproportionately low. Therefore, it seems
necessary to vary the tourist offer in order to include cultural attractions, and to undertake
initiatives aimed at cultural heritage protection, as well as the development of cultural
infrastructure. According to the available data nearly 9.3 million tourists visited the
Małopolskie voivodship in 2004 and spent approx. 3.3. billion PLN. According to the data of
the World Tourist Organisation (WTO), cultural tourism constitutes 20% of all travels to
Europe and for 60% of tourists it is one of the reasons for visiting Europe.

Basing on the National Strategy for Culture Development and its Complement, which has
been adopted by the Council of Ministers the following problems, challenges and threats for
culture can be indicated: the lack of modern infrastructure of cultural institutions, great
diversity as regards access to culture, lack of documentation concerning stocktaking of
historical objects, poorly developed studies in the field of created culture and deficits
concerning collecting and accessibility of works of contemporary art, growing degradation of
culture, decreased participation in culture, a bad infrastructural condition of art schools and
universities, decreased level of cultural institutions‟ computerisation as well as poor
accessibility of on-line cultural resources.


1.2.5. Health security

1.2.5.1. The demographic structure and state of health of the society




                                                40
In the last few years in Poland there has been a negative birth rate, a growing number of
persons beyond retirement age and persons in the immobile productive age (men aged 45-64
and women aged 45-59)54. The population forecasts to 2030 indicate: a gradual decrease of
the total number of population, an increase in the number of persons beyond retirement age,
and from 2010 a decreasing number of persons in the economically productive age (men aged
18-64 and women aged 18-59)55.

The main reasons of work incapacity in 2004 were: cardiovascular diseases (20.7%), mental
disorders (15.5%), cancer (13.8%), bone and joint system diseases (13.5%) and nervous
system diseases (8.4%). Industrial accidents constituted 4.3% and occupational diseases 1.4%.


In the year 2004 there were fewer cases of health improvement (a lower number of persons
recognised as capable of work )56.

The mortality rate in Poland is higher than the average in EU contries57 in all age groups with
the exception of young women (15-29). The worst situation is in the group of men aged 30-59
and children below the age of 15, where the risk factor is 10% higher than in the case of their
peers in other EU countries. It is estimated that, currently, the inhabitants of Poland live 4.4
years shorter than the inhabitants of other EU countries. As compared to the top countries of
the EU, the life expectancy of women in Poland is 3.5 years shorter and the life expectancy of
men is 8 years shorter. (Chart 7)
In 2004 the main cause of death in the group of persons in the economically productive age
were cardiovascular diseases58 and the mortality rate is 80% higher in Poland than the average
in the EU. External causes of death, such as accidents, are also a high risk factor as compared
to other EU countries.

Chart 7. Estimated life expectancy in particular countries in 2004
                                Women                            Men
Poland                          79.2                             70.0
The Czech Republic              79.0                             72.6
Hungary                         76.9                             68.6
Denmark                         79.9                             75.2
Greece                          81.4                             76.6
Germany                         81.4                             75.7
Holland                         81.1                             76.4
Sweden                          82.7                             78.4
Source: The document of CSIOZ (the Centre of Healthcare Information Systems) based on
Eurostat

1.2.5.2. Medical rescue in Poland

In 2005 in Poland there were:


54
   Source: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland, 2005.
55
   Ibidem
56
    Source: Medical certificates of work incapacity in 2004. Social Insurance Institution 2005.
57
   Source: WHO data base, HFA data base (Regional Office of WHO in Copenhagen), Poland: document of PZH
(the National Hygiene Centre).
58
   Source: Data of the Central Statistical Office for 2004 (Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 2005)


                                                   41
    48100 car accidents, in which 5444 people died, and over 61191 were injured59; 11.3
     persons died on average in 100 accidents, the average rate in the European Union is
     2.7/10060.
    84402 persons injured in industrial accidents, including 470 fatal accidents, 960 persons
     injured in serious accidents61,
    132 construction disasters in which 16 persons died and 54 were injured62

Currently in Poland there are 1410 medical rescue teams equipped with van ambulances 63.
The condition of the roads in Poland and the high number of calls64 result in a shorter usage
time of the said means of transport as compared to that of other European Union countries.
According to the data of voivodeship (provincial) governors for 2006, medical rescue teams
are using over 300 vehicles which absolutely require to be substituted due to significant usage
(mileage of over 300 thousand km, date of production – 2000 and earlier). The cost of one
type “W” ambulance with medical equipment is at least 300 thousand PLN. In order for the
system to operate efficiently 600 new vehicles should be purchased in the period 2007-2013.

An important element necessary for efficient operation of medical rescue is transport with the
use of helicopters. It is necessary to modernize bases of air ambulance service and to build or
modernize landing fields for the helicopters – in the direct vicinity of hospital rescue wards.

The medical rescue system also requires the introduction of a network of hospital rescue
wards and adjusting the existing wards to the requirements of the regulation of the Minister of
Health as of 10th May 2002 concerning hospital rescue wards65. A certain number of the
already functioning rescue wards (249)66 need to be further equipped and adjusted to the
requirements of relevant laws. About 100 hospital rescue wards need to be thoroughly
extended or modernized. The act of 8 September 2006 on State Medical Rescue67 states that
units of the medical rescue system are hospital rescue wards and that the system cooperates
with organisational units of hospitals specialising in providing health services necessary for
medical rescue, included in the voivodship plan of system functioning. All the services in
rescue wards are provided without the need for a referral to all persons in a sudden life or
health-threatening situation, who came to the hospital or were brought by an ambulance. In
order that the integrated system of medical rescue could function efficiently it is necessary to
support operations of notifying rescue services on sudden situations. The act of 8 September
2006 on the State Medical Rescue provides for establishing for these purposes voivodeship
centres of emergency notification systems whose tasks will include receiving calls from the
emergency number (112) and their referral to a competent body of the Police, State Fire
Service and the first aid station, according to the requirements specified in the applicable
provisions of law.


59
   Source: Data of the Central Statistical Office for 2005 (Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 2006)
60
    Source: Data for the year 2005 (CARE – European Car Accidents Database, European Commission DG
TREN).
61
   Source: Data of the Central Statistical Office for 2005 (Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 2006)
62
   Source: Data of the General Office of Building Control (Construction disasters in 2005 and analysis of the
disasters in the years 1995-2005).
63
    Source: the National Health Fund 2006.
64
   In 2004 there were on average 75.1 calls/1000 persons. Source: Data of the Central Statistical Office for 2004
(Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland, 2005).
65
   Polish Journal of Laws, No. 74, item 687, as amended.
66
   ZOZ (Healthcare Centres) register (data from April 2006), CSIOZ.
67
   Polish Journal of Laws, No. 191, item 1410.


                                                       42
1.2.5.3. Healthcare infrastructure ensuring provision of highly specialist medical
services

In 2005 there were 790 hospitals in Poland, including 147 non-public hospitals. The number
of hospital beds in non-public hospitals constitutes 4.2% of the total number of hospital beds
in Poland68.
The average age of buildings used by research hospitals and institutes is 48 years – 21.7% of
the buildings were constructed before World War I, 14.9% in the inter-war period, 21.2% in
the years 1940-1969, 28.8% in 1970-1989 and 12.2% after 1990 (Chart 8). 12.5% of the said
buildings are under the supervision of a restorer, and in the case of 6.3% of the buildings it is
not possible to carry out modernisation work in order to adjust the buildings to relevant
laws69,70.

Chart 8: Research hospitals, institutes (the average age of the buildings – 48 years)

ZOZ(Healthcare Centres)               No of buildings                       %
buildings
17th century                          3                                     0.5%
18th century                          1                                     0.2%
1st half of 19th century              4                                     0.7%
2nd half of 19th century              56                                    9.5%
1900-1909                             43                                    7.3%
1910-1919                             22                                    3.7%
1920-1929                             35                                    5.9%

1930-1939                      52                                           8.8%
1940-1949                      13                                           2.2%
1950-1959                      40                                           6.8%
1960-1969                      72                                           12.2%
1970-1979                      78                                           13.2%
1980-1989                      92                                           15.6%
1990-1999                      50                                           8.5%
2000-2006                      22                                           3.7%
No info                        8                                            1.4%
Total                          591                                          100%
Source: The Ministry of Health

Technical infrastructure of the healthcare system includes not only buildings, but also
technical and medical equipment. Good quality (good technical condition) and proper
functioning of technical infrastructure is a necessary requirement of an efficient healthcare
system. The analysis of the number and condition of medical apparatus which is used in
public healthcare centres, shows that the demand for medical equipment is satisfied to a
various extent in different parts of the country and most of the equipment is out-dated. The
worst situation concerns x-ray diagnostic equipment: according to the data from 30th
November 2004, stationary x-ray machines in Poland were on average 16 years old, portable
68
   Source: Statistical Bulletin of the Ministry of Health 2006, CSIOZ, www.csioz.gov.pl/biuletyn.htm
69
   Source: The Ministry of Health 2006
70
   Source: The regulation of the Minister of Health as of 22 June 2005 concerning the professional and sanitary
requirements which should be fulfilled by healthcare premises and equipment (Polish Journal of Laws, No. 116,
item 985, as amended).


                                                      43
x-rays were 13 years old. A similar problem affects sterilising equipment – the average age is
12 years. The newest equipment includes magnetic resonance apparatus (the average age is 5
years), which is a result of a relatively recent introduction of the said diagnostic technology
(Chart 9).

Chart 9. Medical equipment in Poland (as of 30th November 2004)

The equipment                      Amount of equipment           Average equipment age (in
                                                                 years)
Line accelerators                  120                           7
Analysers,              research   6543                          10
chemistry, automatic multi-
parameter diagnostic bio-
chemical machines
X-ray equipment (stationary)       4606                          16
X-ray equipment (portable)         1294                          13
Remote after-loading systems       56                            9
Echocardiographs                   1571                          10
(cardiological        ultrasound
scanners)
Gamma-cameras                      106                           11
Lithotripters                      113                           8
Mammographs                        508                           8
Equipment for haemo-dialysis       2839                          7
Magnetic resonance                 78                            5
Air (gas) sterilisers              9771                          12
CAT scanners                       264                           7
Angiography equipment              153                           8

Source: Ministry of Health

1.2.6 Infrastructure of higher education institutions

The infrastructure of Polish higher schools is, due to huge negligence in the past and reduced
possibilities for supporting its extension and modernisation by public bodies in the recent
years, undeveloped and fails to meet the contemporary requirements in the field of education.
The growing needs in this field are strongly determined by the rapid increase in the number of
students. In the academic year 2005/2006 1953.8 thousand students (of which 10092
foreigners) studied in all types of higher education institutions; as compared to the academic
year 1990/1991 the number of students increased by 1550 thousand (384%). During the last
15 years the gross enrolment rate increased nearly four times from 12.9 in the academic year
1990/1991 to 48.9 in the academic year 2005/2006.

The growing aspirations of the society in the field of education were not accompanied in the
past years by a sufficiently fast development of educational infrastructure, including
construction of new, appropriately equipped teaching rooms and the development of IT
infrastructure. The deficits in the infrastructure of public education institutions relate to all
specialisations of education; however most of them is observed in science. Some disciplines
(most of all social sciences, business and law) provide the universities with more
opportunities for independent acquisition of funds. Moreover, specialisations which involve


                                               44
relatively small infrastructural outlays develop dynamically within private higher education
sector. The worst situation, despite their strategic importance for the country is that of
technical universities and specialisations. The costs of modernisation and investment are in
this field so large that they are beyond the capabilities of the universities themselves. They
also discourage the private sector from involving in establishment of this type of schools.
Apart from infrastructural negligence the key problem of higher education institutions is the
insufficient financing of the teaching procedures, and most of all too low wages and salaries
of academics. This results in outflow of the staff to other sectors of the economy as well as
employment of these workers on a permanent basis in many places, which negatively
influences the quality of student education. The construction of infrastructure must take place
parallel to improvement of the total financial situation of universities so that competitiveness
of the Polish higher education in Europe could increase.

Since the academic year 1999/2000 the number of students studying engineering and
technical specialisations has been growing. Currently the share of persons studying these
specialisations amounts to 7.9% (years 2005/2006). In the academic year 2004/2005 the
graduates of economic and administrative specialisations made up 31.3%, of pedagogical
specialisations – 15.6%, of social specialisations – 14.5%, of the humanities – 7.1% and of
engineering and technical studies – 5.7% of total graduates.71 This educational structure
influences unemployment of young people. This unemployment is more and more related to
the specialisation of completed studies and results from the maladjustment of the educational
offer of higher education institutions to the requirements of the labour market. A feature that
distinguishes Poland from the majority of EU countries is lower (in 2004 21.5% as compared
to 25.8%, on average in the EU) share of persons studying mathematics, sciences and
technical specialisations. Consequently, meeting the requirements of the renewed Lisbon
strategy as regards supporting innovativeness of the economy and increasing investment
attractiveness is often hindered by the lack of highly educated staff who may work in modern
technology sectors.

Table 10. Students and graduates of sciences and technical specialisations in Poland and Europe
             Students of sciences and            Graduates of sciences and              Graduates of sciences and
             technical specialisations as a      technical specialisations as a         technical specialisations per
             percentage of all students in       percentage of all graduates in         1000 persons aged 20-29 in
             2004                                2004                                   2004
             %                                   %                                      Persons
EU25         25.8                                23.6                                   12.7
EU15         26.9                                25.4                                   13.6
Poland       21.5                                14.9                                   9.4
Finland      38.3                                39.1 (2003)                            17.4 (2003)
Ireland      28.7                                28.3                                   23.1
Source: EUROSTAT

According to the assumptions of the Programme Education and Training 2010, specifying
objectives of the Lisbon strategy in the field of education and training, the increase by 15% of
the total number of graduates of mathematics, natural sciences and technology in EU
countries has been considered to be the main indicator constituting a “benchmark”. The
number of graduates from these specialisations increased in Poland from 39.2 thousand in
2000 to 55.2 thousand in 2003.



71
     Higher schools and their finance in 2005, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2006.


                                                            45
The investment deficiencies of universities also relate to the infrastructure of information
society, mainly information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the teaching
process. It seems that this partly results from the total insufficient investment in ICT in
Poland. In 2004 the level of investment in ICT per capita in Poland amounted to 100, as
compared to the Czech Republic (238), Hungary (189) and 732 for Western Europe countries.
According to the statistical data, only 30% of households had access to the Internet.

Very few universities in Poland have a separate, officially adopted strategy for ICT
development. Also, new technologies are being implemented in the teaching process in no
more than 5% of Polish universities.72 The current level of Polish universities‟
computerisation is determined by the lack of systematic conception of including higher
education in the process of building an information society, domination of domain solutions
that are insufficiently mutually integrated and a low level of supporting the basic processes
implemented in the universities (teaching and scientific and research activity) with IT
solutions. ICT as a tool for efficient teaching is also insufficiently used. Consequently, the
teaching process is not carried out optimally, taking into account needs concerning the
cooperation with economic environment and building competitive advantage of universities
on the educational market. So far, Polish universities have not yet become a motor for major
changes in the economy.

1.2.7 Situation of the public administration responsible for the use of funds from the Cohesion
Fund and structural funds

Since 90. in Poland assistance programmes initially financed from pre-accession funds (like
Phare, ISPA) have been implemented. After Poland‟s accession to the European Union
implementation of structural funds in the form of operational programmes and Community
Initiatives started. The funds from the Community budget were designated for regional
development and increase of the country‟s competitiveness on the European scale. The
intervention included among others construction of the technical infrastructure. It was just
technical assistance that mainly aimed at supporting institutions in the field of
implementation, control, monitoring, evaluation and information as well as promotion of the
programmes. That‟s why we can say that since the 90. the Polish administration has been
gaining precious experience in the field of implementing EU assistance programmes.

In 2003 a sudden breakthrough took place related to the start of the process of implementing
structural funds and Cohesion Fund. The emergence of the new implementation rules was for
the insufficiently prepared public administration, apart from some exceptions, a completely
new experience and challenge. Another factor that hindered the correct implementation of the
programmes was the pressure to use the total structural assistance. This situation raised
concerns as to the efficiency and implementation quality of EU assistance. Therefore, some
initiatives were necessary, which were aimed at the possible best preparation of
administration staff for managing the structural instruments in the years 2004-2006.

Within individual operational programmes earlier planned training and educational activities
were implemented, aimed at increasing the level of education and occupational qualifications
of employees in charge of structural funds implementation. Projects were implemented meant
for increasing the level of and improving the quality of technical equipment, as well as

72
  M. Dąbrowski “Uczelnie wobec rozwoju technologii społeczeństwa wiedzy” (Schools and their attitude
towards development of knowledge society‟s technologies), www.fundacja.edu.pl/ /organizacja/_referaty/41.pdf



                                                     46
projects under which systems for control and coordination of particular programmes‟
implementation were created and improved. The process of gradual extension of the structural
fund system resulted in a significant increase in the number of officials involved in the
operations related to implementation of structural programmes for 2004-2006 in Poland. On
the other hand, a significant turnover of the existing staff was observed.

Basing on the existing experiences in implementation of structural funds the following
problems related to staff management can be indicated:

          a large turnover of lower and middle rank employees,
          the lack of long-term strategies of staff management,
          insufficient experience in implementing structural funds among newly hired
           employees,
          a high value of knowledge and experience of persons implementing the structural
           funds, which results in a large turnover of staff and intensive outflow of staff to the
           private sector.

The problems mentioned above cause that the potential of persons in charge of implementing
structural funds has not been fully used so far and a similar situation may occur when
implementing EU programmes.


1.3. The analysis and evaluation of previous use of financial support

1.3.1. The Cohesion Fund (including projects approved of in the years 2000-2003 as part of
       the ISPA pre-accession fund)

1.3.1.1 Projects implemented with the support of the Cohesion Fund73

The allocation available for Poland from the Cohesion Fund in 2006 amounted to EURO 1
602 210 323. These funds will be partially used for obligations regarding projects approved of
by the European Commission in the years 2000-2005. The remaining amount of the
allocation, approx. 72 million EURO will be designated for new projects to be financed from
the Cohesion Fund in 2006.

In the environment protection sector in the years 2000-2005, the European Commission
approved of 79 water and sewage projects, 8 waste management projects and 1 project
concerning the protection of fresh air, to be financed from the Cohesion Fund.




73
     As of the first quarter of 2006, Source: Ministry of Regional Development


                                                        47
                 Environment sector

             0,5%    2%

            4%                      water and sewage
                                    waste management
                                    technical assistance
                    94%             protection of air




Chart 1. The division of means provided by the Cohesion Fund for the environment protection
sector according to particular sub-sectors in compliance with the decisions of the European
Commission, as of the first quarter of 2006. Source: Ministry of Regional Development

In 2006 16 projects from the environment sector were proposed for co-financing from the
Cohesion Fund, for the total amount of EURO 492 million. The estimated allocation for the
environment sector totals 50 million EURO. Given the above not all projects will be able to
obtain support from the Cohesion Fund in 2006.

In the transport sector, the European Commission approved in the years 2000-2005 of 7
projects concerning the construction and modernisation of highways and dual-carriageways, 7
projects concerning the modernisation of national roads and 8 projects concerning the
modernisation of railway lines.


                     Transport sector
                                                           construction and modernisation
                                                           of highways and dual-carriage
                                                           ways
                          3%
                                                           modernisation of national roads
      34%
                                                49%
                                                           modernisation of railway lines


                                                           technical assistance
                    14%



Chart 2. The division of means provided by the Cohesion Fund for the transport sector
according to particular sub-sectors in compliance with the decisions of the European
Commission as of the first quarter of 2006. Source: Ministry of Regional Development.

In 2006 the Ministry of Transport proposed 7 projects for the total amount of CF co-financing
of approx. 930 million EURO. The estimate allocation in 2006 for the transport sector totals
approx. 310 million EURO. Depending on the state of preparations of new projects two
scenarios are possible. Given that all the indicated projects are submitted on time and that the
European Commission approves them, it is expected that the total allocation will be used.
However, if not all the indicated projects are submitted on time, there is a risk that the
allocation will not be used.




                                                  48
1.3.1.2. The use of means from the Cohesion Fund74

The amount of payments received from the European Commission is as follows:

Total amount of payments (means received from the European Commission)/total amount of
financial support from the Cohesion Fund: in total – 1.1 billion EURO, transport – 782.6
million EURO, environment – 331.1 million EURO.


1.3.2. The Sector Operational Programme Transport

1.3.2.1 Projects implemented as part of the SOP Transport75

By the end of October 2006, a total number of 95 agreements on financial support within the
Sectoral Operational Programme Transport had been signed for the total amount of over 3.5
billion PLN and constitutes 75.86% of allocation available for the Programme:
.
      Within Priority 1 Balanced development of different transport modes the total 18
        agreements for financial support for the total value of PLN 1.39 billion were signed
      Within Priority 2 Safer road infrastructure 58 agreements for financial support for the
        total value of PLN 2.09 billion were signed.
      Within Priority 3 Technical Assistance 19 agreements for financial support for the
        total value of PLN 0.26 billion were signed.




                                                                           0,51%
                                                                                    0,22%
                                                                      3,00%
                                                                                                                             25,94%


                       34,41%




                                                                                                                                      13,72%

                                                                                                                     0,00%
                                                                           22,19%




                                Działanie 1.1 Modernizacja linii kolejowych w relacjach między aglomeracjami miejskimi i w aglomeracjach
                                Działanie 1.2 Poprawa infrastruktury dostępu do portów morskich
                                Działanie 1.3 Rozwój systemów intermodalnych
                                Działanie 2.1 Budowa i przebudowa dróg krajowych
                                Działanie 2.2 Usprawnienie przejazdu drogami krajowymi przez miasta na prawach powiatu
                                Działanie 2.3 Wdrażanie i monitoring środków poprawy bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego
                                Działanie 3.1 Wsparcie efektywnego zarządzania SPOT
                                Działanie 3.2 Informacja i promocja SPOT




74
     As of 31 March 2006, Source: Ministry of Regional Development
75
     As of 31 October 2006, Source: Ministry of Regional Development


                                                                         49
Chart 3. The division for particular means within the Sectoral Operational Programme
Transport according to the number of signed agreements for financial support. As of 31
October 2006. Source: Ministry of Regional Development.

1.3.2.2. The use of means76

The funds allocated to the SOP Transport amount to 1.16 billion Euro, the payments made as
of the end of December 2006 amount to 404.31 million PLN which constitutes approx. 8.75
% of the above allocation.


1.3.3. Sectoral Operational Programme "Improvement of the Competitiveness of
       Enterprises"


1.3.3.1 Projects of the SOP "Improvement of the Competitiveness of Enterprises" 77

By October 2006, agreements to implement 88 projects were signed, as part of the 2.4
Measure “Support for investments adapting entreprises to environmental protection
standards”, for a total value of financing amounting to 257.4 million PLN


1.3.3.2. The use of funds78

The allocation for the 2.4 Measure of the SOP “Growing Competitiveness of Enterprises”
amounts to 794.8 million PLN, whereas the payments made amount to 14.45 million PLN
which constitutes 1.8 % of the available allocation.


1.3.4. The Integrated Regional Development Operational Programme (ZPORR)


1.3.4.1. Projects of the ZPORR79

The Integrated Regional Development Operational Programme supports, among other things,
projects concerning transport, environment protection, culture and the preservation of national
heritage, and healthcare.

As part of the 1.1 Measure “The Modernisation and Expansion of the Regional Transport
System” of the ZPORR, agreements on financial support for projects have been signed, with a
total value of financing amounting to 2.73 billion PLN.

As part of the 1.6 Measure “Public Transport Development in the Agglomerations” of the
ZPORR, agreements have been signed, with a total value of financing amounting to 614
million PLN.


76
   As of 31 October 2006, Source: Ministry of Regional Development
77
   As of October 2006, Source: NFOŚiGW (National Environment Protection and Water Management Fund)
78
   As of October 2006, Source: NFOŚiGW (National Environment Protection and Water Management Fund)
79
   As of 31 October 2006, Source: Ministry of Regional Development


                                                 50
As part of the 1.2 Measure “Environmental protection infrastructure” of the ZPORR,
agreements on financial support have been signed, with a total value of 1.09 billion PLN.

As part of the 1.3. Measure “Regional social infrastructure” of the ZPORR, agreements on
financial support have been signed, with a total amount of 949.2 million PLN, of which:

1.3.1 “Regional educational infrastructure” – 559 million PLN,

1.3.2 “Regional health-care infrastructure” – 390 million PLN.

As part of the 3.1 Measure “Rural Areas” of the ZPORR, agreements on financial support
have been signed, with a total value of 1.27 billion PLN.

As part of the 3.2 Measure “Areas undergoing restructuring” of the ZPORR, agreements on
financial support have been signed, with a total value of 360.67 million PLN.

As part of the 1.4 Measure “The Development of Tourism and Culture” of the ZPORR,
agreements on financial support have been signed, with a total value of 669.69 million PLN.

As part of the 3.5.2 Sub-measure “Local health-care infrastructure” of the ZPORR,
agreements on financial support have been signed, with a total value of 170.41 million PLN.


1.3.4.2. The use of funds80

For the 1.1 Measure “The Modernisation and Expansion of the Regional Transport System”
included in the ZPORR, the available allocation of funds amounts to 2.9 billion PLN, and the
payments made amount to 938.38 million PLN which constitutes 32.12 % of the allocation.

For the 1.6 Measure “Public Transport Development in the Agglomerations” of the ZPORR,
the available allocation of funds amounts to 656.1 million PLN, and the payments made
amount to 70.44 million PLN, which constitutes 10.78 % of the allocation.

For the 1.2 Measure “Environmental protection infrastructure” of the ZPORR, the available
allocation of funds amounts to 1.2 billion PLN, and the payments made amount to 453.27
million PLN which constitutes 37.9 % of the allocation.

For the 1.3 Measure “Regional social infrastructure” of the ZPORR, the available allocation
amounts to 949.6 million PLN, and the payments made amount to 472.8 million PLN, which
constitutes 49.79% of the allocation.

For the 3.1 Measure “Rural Areas” of the ZPORR, the available allocation of funds amounts
to 1.4 billion PLN, and the payments made amount to 651.81 million PLN, which constitutes
47.78% of the allocation.

The initiative supports projects concerning local transport, environment protection and
culture.

80
     As of 31 October 2006, Source: Ministry of Regional Development


                                                      51
For the 3.2 Measure “Areas undergoing restructuring” of the ZPORR, the available
allocation of funds amounts to 422.2 million PLN, and the payments made amount to 150.94
million PLN, which constitutes 36.62 % of the allocation. The initiative, as in the case of the
3.1 Initiative, supports projects concerning local transport, environment protection and
culture.

For the 1.4 Measure “ The Development of Tourism and Culture” of the ZPORR, the
available allocation of funds amounts to 748.4 million PLN, and the payments made amount
to 114.72 million PLN, which constitutes 14.9 % of the allocation.

For the 3.5.2. Measure “Local health-care infrastructure” of the ZPORR, the available
allocation of funds amounts to 197.0 million PLN, and the payments made amount to 74.28
million PLN, which constitutes 37.70 % of the allocation.

1.3.5. Previous financial support for the energy sector

The previous support for the energy sector consisted mainly of financial support provided by
public means for investments concerning the protection of fresh air. The main objective was
the preferential treatment of investments concerning new burning techniques and
technologies, and the modernisation of boiler houses and thermal power stations.

The support was implemented with the use of subsidies from the state budget (central and
local self-governments), preferential loans and subsidies from ecological funds (the National
Environment Protection and Water Management Fund, Eco-funds).

In the last few years the following investments were implemented:
 Investments concerning fresh air protection amounting to approx. 4.1 billion PLN in the
    years 1990-1995, and approx. 22.1 billion PLN in 1996-2002,
 Investments concerning new burning techniques and technologies and the modernisation
    of boiler houses and thermal power stations amounting to approx. 7.6 billion PLN in the
    years 1996-2002.

Approximately 23% of the funds were provided from the budget and ecological funds.

Public funds were used to support the following investments which had significant effect on
the improvement of the natural environment:

    The construction of an energy block with the power of 400 MW in the Power Station in
     Łagisz – a loan amounting to 352 million PLN,
    The extension of the Heat and Power Station in Rzeszów to include a steam and gas
     block - a loan amounting to 146 million PLN,
    desulphurization of flue gases in the Power Station in Bełchatów – a loan amounting to
     125 million PLN,
    the construction of a wind power station farm - a loan amounting to 52 million PLN
     granted to Energia-Eco sp.z o.o. (a joint-stock company)81.



81
 Policy programme concerning state aid for the years 2005-2010, adopted by the Council of Ministers on 29
March 2005.


                                                    52
As a result of the above mentioned investments the amount of natural gas and liquid fuels
used in professional and non-professional thermal power stations increased in the years 1995-
2003 from 1.5% to 9.5%, and the average capacity of generating heat increased from 71% to
76%.

1.3.6 The conclusions drawn from previous support granted to sectors included in the OP
      Infrastructure and the Environment.

The conclusions which may be drawn from implementing previous infrastructure projects
show that the project‟s level of advancement plays a significant role in the process of
implementing the investments. Most of the problems that occur during the implementation of
the projects are a result of poor preparation, in particular the lack of land, co-financing,
technical, environmental or tender documentation.

Other problems which occur during the implementation of the projects include the following:

   Numerous objections and appeals concerning public tenders, which result in delays or the
    necessity to repeat the procedures,
   Problems with conducting procedures evaluating the effects on the environment, if the
    procedures were not conducted during the preparation phase and the European
    Commission deemed them necessary.

Taking the above into consideration, the Ministry of Regional Development prepared a
remedial programme in order to increase the efficiency of fund use in the years 2004-2006.
The drawn conclusions also allow for a better preparation of the implementation of
operational programmes in 2007-2013. The above-mentioned Programme results in increased
absorption of funds. The amount of payments from programme accounts to the benefit of the
beneficiaries amounts to 1.4 billion PLN as of the end of October 2005, which constitutes
4.3% of means granted to Poland for the period 2004-2006, whereas the value of payments
made in favour of the beneficiaries as of the end of September 2006 exceeded 7.6 billion
PLN, which constitutes almost 23%.


1.4 The SWOT analysis – strong and weak points, opportunities and threats in particular
sectors.

SWOT analysis for environmental protection sector

Strong points                                          Weak points
       Variety of natural resources, a great                  Poor quality of surface water
        diversity of species, ecosystems and                   Insufficient waste water treatment system
        landscapes                                               in relation to the water use intensity
                                                               Insufficient system of protection against
       A large surface of regions valuable from
                                                            natural disasters, in particular floods and
        the environmental point of view
                                                            draughts
       A great diversity of genes, species,                   Low reclamation and development rate of
        ecosystems and landscapes                           degraded, devastated and polluted land
                                                               Bad functioning and often the lack of
       A great share of forests in the structure of
                                                            integrated waste management systems
        exploitation
                                                               Inefficient system of forecasting and
       A good identification of natural resources          reacting to natural disasters and of
                                                            counteracting serious industrial failures



                                                       53
          Pursuing a sustainable economy                        Too long waiting period of various level of
                                                              administration for data on the environmental
          Insignificant pressure on the                      condition and their assessment, necessary for
           environment in a large part of the country         environmental protection from the time of
          Systematic improvement of water quality            measurements
                                                                 Small economic motivation to
          Fast implementation of technological               proecological activities
           changes (cleaner production)                          Insufficient identification of natural values
                                                              in regions where conflicts may occur between
                                                              investment projects and requirements of
                                                              environmental protection
                                                                 Lack of hierarchic spatial development
                                                              system
                                                                 Reduced capabilities of self-governments
                                                              to co-finance costly investments in the field of
                                                              municipal infrastructure of environmental
                                                              protection
                                                                 Reduced capabilities and will of the
                                                              citizens to bear full costs of environmental
                                                              protection in municipal economy
                                                                 Insufficient efficiency of planning
                                                              instruments and verification of feasibility of
                                                              projects, which hinders optimal spending of
                                                              funds for environmental protection
                                                                 Poorly developed social dialogue
                                                              mechanisms
                                                                 Insufficient number of staff in charge of
                                                              environmental protection and its large turnover
                                                              in public administration
                                                                 Lack of efficient protection of sea costs
                                                              from erosion

Opportunities                                            Threats
        Access to EU funds, allowing fundamental            Increased pressure on natural and human
         reconstruction of technical infrastructure in        environment and living conditions related to
         Poland                                               economic development and development of
                                                              transport (particularly road transport), as well
        Fast development of innovativeness leading           as promoted model of consumption
         to decrease in material consumption rate
                                                             Strict and still extended requirements of EU
        Operations of market mechanisms resulting            environmental protection laws, particularly
         in increased cost-effectiveness of waste             those included in the Accession Treaty
         recycling
                                                             The increase in the number and intensity of
        Growing importance of environmental issues           abnormal weather conditions causing floods,
         (in the development concept)                         draughts and fires
        Taking into o account the principle of              The risk for the Baltic Sea caused by the
         sustainable development in town and country          possibility of failures and sea pollution
         planning
        Existence of a well-developed and
         dynamically operating movement of non-
         governmental organisations in the field of
         ecology




                                                         54
SWOT analysis of the transport sector


Strong points                                         Weak points
     A well-developed railway network with a                 Insufficient number of transport connections
      relatively equal spatial arrangement                     in the main transport corridors (TEN-T)
     A high share of railway in transport of goods           Poor condition of the railway infrastructure
                                                               negatively influencing the speed and
     A fully liberalized, competitive market in               travelling convenience, as well as
      road transport                                           attractiveness of commodity transport
     A dynamic development of the air transport              Worn out and obsolete railway stock
      market                                                   reducing the competitiveness of railway
     An increasing handling capacity of sea ports             services and the use of technical parameters
                                                               of modernised lines
                                                              A lack of connection of highways and dual
                                                               carriageways with the main centres of
                                                               economic life, including in particular in
                                                               Eastern Poland
                                                              Decreasing traffic capacity of roads and
                                                               their growing congestion
                                                              Low technical standards of the existing
                                                               roads (failing to comply with the standard of
                                                               115 kN/axle carrying capacity, a low level
                                                               of maintenance of roads)
                                                              A lack of or insufficient systems of high
                                                               class road in the vicinity of urban centres
                                                              Conducting traffic through built up areas
                                                              A lack of integrated public transport systems
                                                               in urban areas, insufficient use of modern
                                                               technical and organisational solutions
                                                               (traffic management, systems of dynamic
                                                               information, tariff systems)
                                                              A low level of road safety
                                                              A low quality of railway services and
                                                               difficulties with its financing
                                                              Insufficient air transport infrastructure as
                                                               compared to the growing demand
                                                              A lack of fast and efficient road and railway
                                                               access to airports
                                                              Insufficient access to sea ports, both from
                                                               land and sea
                                                              Obsolete port infrastructure
                                                              A lack of modern port services
                                                              A lack of multimodal transport
                                                               infrastructure in ports and near railway lines
                                                              The deteriorating condition of inland water
                                                               routes
                                                              Poorly-developed urban functions of the
                                                               biggest Polish cities



                                                      55
Strong points                                         Weak points




Opportunities                                         Threats
       Improved transport connection between                 An incomplete process of restructuring the
        Poland and other EU countries thanks to                railway system
        the use of EU funds
                                                              Underestimating the role of public transport
       The use of transit location of Poland
                                                              A low level of competitiveness, which
       The increasing role of Polish sea ports in             influences the quality of services and
        the transit of cargo from Scandinavian                 involves drawbacks of transport services
        countries to Mediterranean countries                   offered by railway and road transport units
       Improving inter-regional transport                    Unequal and insufficient development of
        connections, including connections                     metropolitan functions
        between the biggest urban centres thanks to
        the use of EU funds




                                                      56
SWOT analysis for energy sector


                      Strong points                                            Weak points
         High production potential of the energy                  A low share of renewable energy in energy
          sector in economy                                         balance
         The existence of domestic natural gas                    Still non-used potential of energy-saving
          resources the output of which currently                   investments in the public sector
          covers approx. 35% of the domestic demand
                                                                   Large losses in transmission and balance
         The use of energy growth potential in Poland              differences of electricity
          resulting from trends in changes in the sector
                                                                   A low share of combined electricity
          structure and the transfer of technology and
                                                                    production
          innovative techniques
                                                                   A bad quality of electricity distribution
         The existence of several financial instruments
                                                                    network
          for investments meant to improve efficiency,
          among others, thermo-modernisation fund                  A poor efficiency of production facilities in
                                                                    electrical power engineering
                                                                   A lack of inter-system connections of
                                                                    transmission electrical power engineering
                                                                    networks for ensuring the functioning of
                                                                    the regional market in electricity in Baltic
                                                                    countries
                                                                   A too low diversification of natural gas
                                                                    supplies
                                                                   A too low storage capacity of gas
                                                                    containers
                                                                   Insufficiently developed infrastructure of
                                                                    rock oil and rock oil products


                      Opportunities                                              Threats
           Increase of energy efficiency increasing               Lack of diversification of energy carriers
            the cost-effectiveness and a negative                   supplies
            influence of the sector on the environment
                                                                   Difficulties related to restructuring energy
           Rationalisation and decreasing public                   saving branches of industry
            spending on energy, which is also a
                                                                   Increase in prices of energy
            beneficial model from the social point of
            view                                                   Supply barriers in gaining biomass
           Taking advantage of the transit location of            Uncertainty of market reactions
            Poland as regards transmission of fuels and
            energy
           Decreasing costs of top capacity of
            pipelines thanks to increased storage
            capacity of gas and capacity of gas/oil
            networks




                                                           57
SWOT analysis for the sector of culture and cultural heritage


Strong points                                             Weak points
       A strong regional differentiation of culture          A deteriorating condition of monuments
        having a large synergic influence on
        attractiveness of Poland                              Documentation gaps in the field of stocktaking
                                                               of monuments
       Cultural heritage of global and
        international significance                            A strong differentiation concerning access to
                                                               culture – unequal geographic location of the
       Recognised artists in the field of culture             network of cultural institutions
        and their output
                                                              A bad technical condition of cultural
                                                               institutions‟ infrastructure
                                                              A low share of ICT technology use in cultural
                                                               institutions, which reduces access to the
                                                               cultural offer
                                                              Weak infrastructure of art schools and
                                                               universities
                                                              Poorly developed research in the field of
                                                               culture
                                                              Deficits concerning collection and providing
                                                               access to contemporary works of art
                                                              Reduced knowledge on culture and reduced
                                                               capabilities of its reception




Opportunities                                             Threats


        Growing individualisation of needs of                Decrease in cultural attractiveness of the
    culture recipients, increase in the quality of life        country and reduction in the inflow of tourists,
    and leisure time                                           resulting from the lack of infrastructure
                                                               necessary for providing service of the tourist
        Development of the culture industry and               movement and access to the culture
    increase in the role of culture in creation of
    GDP and jobs                                              Decreased awareness of nationality and
                                                               civilisation decline resulting from decrease in
       Development of social capital                          cultural competences of the society
       Increase in attractiveness of Poland as a
    place for recreation, investments, residence and
    work




                                                          58
SWOT analysis for health care sector


Strong points                                           Weaknesses


       Highly qualified medical, scientific and            Low level of health care financing
        teaching staff
                                                            Decapitalisation of the health protection
       High efficiency of the sector, in relation to        infrastructure, sanitary transport and
        the available funds                                  diagnostic and therapeutic equipment, which
                                                             threatens the health of patients
       Existence of national health insurance
                                                            Allocation of health care resources
       A high absorption potential of modern                disproportionate to health care needs
        technologies
                                                            A lack of integrated information system in the
                                                             health sector
                                                            Unspecified standards in the scope of
                                                             accessibility of services


Opportunities                                           Threats

       Increased financing of health care from                  Failures in reforming the health care
        public and private funds related to the                   sector
        economic growth and increasing social                    Deterioration of the health safety of
        awareness                                                 citizens
       Better concentration of funds through                    Outflow of young and well qualified
        creation of a network of hospitals                        medical staff abroad
       Improvement of early detection of
        occupational and civilisation illnesses
        through modernisation of a diagnostic base
        and improving the qualifications of
        medical staff
       Entry into force of the act on the State
        Medical Rescue Services at the beginning
        of 2007
       Creating a basket of guaranteed services
       Privatisation of the medical services sector




                                                        59
SWOT analysis for higher education sector


Strong points                                       Weak points
       High demand on education and large                   A bad condition of infrastructure of public
        awareness of values among young people                 universities with a stress on technical
                                                               specialisations
       A large involvement of private capital in
        the development of higher education                  Insufficient financing of teaching process
                                                               in the higher education public sector
                                                             A lack of private sector‟s involvement in
                                                               technical education
                                                             A lack of mechanisms meant for promoting
                                                               quality in teaching and in the research and
                                                               scientific activity
                                                             A very poor cooperation among
                                                               universities in Poland
                                                             A poorly developed IT infrastructure of
                                                               higher education institutions


Opportunities                                       Threats
       Effective use of funds within structural             A large turnover of academics and
        funds                                                 potential future employees in the field of
                                                              higher education
       Universities being more receptive to
        international programmes, requiring                  A slower increase in the number of
        compliance with EU standards                          academics with the best qualifications in
                                                              relation to the rate of increase in the
                                                              number of students
                                                             Too low outlays from the state budget for
                                                              the development of higher education




                                                    60
SWOT for technical assistance


Strong points                                          Weak points


     Increasing quality of public services,               Turnover of staff in charge of structural funds
                                                            and the resulting necessity of ongoing
     Easy access to specialised training and               implementing and increasing qualifications of
      education institutions, allowing the use of           new employees,
      specialised training, courses and postgraduate
      studies,                                             Occurrence in the implementation system of
                                                            institutions without sufficient experience in
     Experience in implementing funds in other             implementing EU assistance programmes,
      EU member states, acquired during training
      abroad, meetings, placement and conferences          Small attractiveness of work in administration
      etc.                                                  for experienced and qualified specialists,
     Efficient use of available financial means in        Small flexibility as regards pursuing personal
      order to implement projects supporting the            policy in public administration,
      implementation and management of
      structural funds.                                    Low innovativeness of public administration
                                                            as regards introducing changes in managing
                                                            and organisational changes,
                                                           A high level of complicity of procedures and
                                                            the principles concerning implementation and
                                                            managing structural funds,
                                                           Insufficient use of the possibility of
                                                            introducing technical changes such as:
                                                            purchase of equipment, creation of specialist
                                                            IT solutions,
                                                           Delayed implementation of IT monitoring and
                                                            control system resulting in the use of little
                                                            effective IT solutions,
                                                           A great level of detail concerning legal
                                                            regulations resulting in a small flexibility of
                                                            solutions the aim of which is efficient
                                                            implementation and management of structural
                                                            funds.




Opportunities                                          Threats




                                                       61
   A possibility to use experiences gained           High attractiveness of persons dealing in
    when implementing structural funds within          structural funds on the labour market –
    programmes for the years 2004-2006 and             outflow of employees in charge of POIiŚ to
    experience from preparations of the                better paid jobs in commercial companies
    previous operational programmes
                                                      Implementation of similar or excluding each
   Increase in the knowledge and social               other activities (particularly in the field of
    awareness of structural funds facilitating         promotion and information) by various
    activities aimed at informing on and               entities in charge of technical assistance in
    promoting funds and access to new social           particular institutions implementing
    groups                                             structural funds
   A better exchange of information and              Overly developed and incoherent legal
    knowledge among employees of all                   framework of the system of structural funds
    departments responsible for                        implementation
    implementation of particular operational
    programmes
   Creation of a data base of good practice
    and experiences and the most efficient
    solutions so far used – which will decrease
    outflow of knowledge from the
    implementation system
   Creation of a base of experts – specialists
    in the field of structural funds, who would
    transfer their experience and knowledge to
    new employees
   Implementation of modern solutions in the
    field of human resources management
   Professionalisation of training and
    education institutions – preparation of
    education programmes that would better
    correspond to the training needs of persons
    employed in institutions managing and
    implementing structural funds
   Use of the technical and organisational
    potential at the stage of all implementing
    and managing institutions for promotion
    and information activities
   Full implementation of the IT monitoring
    and control system will improve the system
    of monitoring, recording and controlling
    expenditures.




                                                  62
2. THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY – A SUMMARY

2.1. Programme objectives and their compliance with national programme documents and EU
regulations

The SWOT analysis of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment shows
that one of the most significant barriers preventing the economic development of Poland and
its regions is a lack of proper and efficient technical and social infrastructure. This situation
results in a low number of significant foreign investments which would create new work
places. This statement could be confirmed by opinions of foreign entrepreneurs interested in
investing in Poland82. In order to create proper conditions for locating such investments in
Poland it is necessary to provide well-developed and efficient communication. Other
important factors are development of the other basic technical and social infrastructure,
improving the quality of natural environment, appropriate healthcare conditions, as well as
increasing the level of skills and education of technical staff ensuring also opportunities for
active recreation (cultural attractions).

The implementation of investments concerning basic infrastructure in the years 2007-2013 is
a prerequisite to achieve all the objectives specified in the National Strategic Reference
Framework for the years 2007-2013 supporting economic growth and employment, which
determines the success of the other areas of intervention: human resources development and
the increase of innovation initiatives. Besides, according to the NSRO assumptions, as
concerns regional development, significant investment schemes implemented as part of the
Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment are to form a framework for the
implementation of investments of 16 Regional Operational Programmes and the Operational
Programme The Development of Eastern Poland.

Therefore, taking into account the assumptions of NSRO and the results of SWOT analysis
the most significant Programme objective is:

Increasing the investment attractiveness of Poland and its regions by developing
technical infrastructure, and simultaneously protecting and improving the condition of
the natural environment, health, preserving cultural identity and developing territorial
cohesion.

The main Programme objective will be to implement of two horizontal objectives mentioned
in the NSRO, that is:

          “The construction and modernisation of technical infrastructure, which has significant
           effect on increasing the competitiveness of Poland and its regions”.
           “Increasing competitiveness of Polish regions and counteracting their social,
           economic and spatial marginalisation”.

The first horizontal objective of NSRF will be supported through creation of technical and
social infrastructure as regards sectors of transport, environment, energy, culture, higher
education and health protection. This will be mainly large investments of key importance for
economic development of the country, whereas the second objective will be most of all
supported by a priority axis isolated in the programme, which aims at including the biggest

82
     See for example: ”Rzeczpospolita”, No. 244 of 18 October 2006, p. B1.


                                                       63
urban centres of eastern Poland in the country‟s transport system. This is a complement of
initiatives implemented as part of the Operational Programme Development of Eastern
Poland. Designation of a separate priority axis aimed at transport connection of the most
important urban centres of eastern Poland shall prevent further discrepancies between the
poorest regions of the EU and well-developing regions of both Poland and the European
Union. A specific regional (and not sectoral) priority axis will serve this purpose. Under this
priority axis key infrastructural investments will be supported whose implementation under
regional operational programmes requires a special support due to the scope of socio-
economic problems and challenges. aimed at including the biggest urban centres of eastern
Poland into the national transport system. It shall also enable a more sustainable development
of all the regions, hence increasing territorial cohesion. Besides, this objective will be
indirectly supported by investments in sectors where the programme will intervene.

NSRO is an instrument for implementation of the National Development Strategy for years
2007-2015, a document that is superior to other national strategic documents. According to
the main objectives of NDS, that is “Increasing the standard and quality of life of the
inhabitants of Poland: individual citizens and families”, as well as the strategic objective of
the NSRO – “Creating the conditions for increased economic competitiveness of Poland
based on knowledge and enterprise initiatives leading to higher employment and a higher
level of social, economic and spatial cohesion of Poland, within the country and the European
Union”, the OP Infrastructure and the Environment will be the most significant element of
implementing Priority 2 of the National Development Strategy – “Improving the conditions of
basic infrastructure: technical and social infrastructure”.

The OP Infrastructure and the Environment is also an important tool of implementing the new
Lisbon Strategy, and the spending on priority objectives of the EU which fulfil the
requirements specified in Art. 9 (3) of the Regulation No. 1083/2006 laying down general
provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the
Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/199983 constitute 66.6% of total
expenditures. A table specifying the contribution of individual priority axes in the
implementation of the Lisbon Strategy is given in Chapter 5.4.

In accordance with the arrangements of the European Council in Göteborg, an important
programme element will also be initiatives having a beneficial influence on the environment.
These are among others activities contributing to reduction of climatic changes and increase
in the significance of “green” energy, improving and increasing effectiveness and safety of
transport system (among others through support of public and railway transport).

The Environmental Impact Assessment has shown that, apart from initiatives having a
beneficial influence on the environment, conflicts are possible between the development of
transport system and nature protection. An issue that should be evaluated is the volume and
efficiency of initiatives reducing the negative effects. However, as indicated in the
Environmental Impact Assessment, these conflicts should not significantly influence the
functionality of the existing nature protection system (they will not be very popular) and their
influence on biodiversity on a national level seems to be insignificant84



83
  OJ L 210 as of 31 July 2006, p. 25
84
  The relevant provisions describing the (positive and negative) environmental impact are included in the
Environmental Impact Assessment.


                                                      64
It should be stressed that despite the significant allocation of EU funds for the programme
these funds are not sufficient to meet the accession obligations of Poland in such fields like
environmental protection or power industry. Implementation of the national obligations is not
the main objective of the programme, as this is increasing the country‟s attractiveness for
investors and achievement of two horizontal objectives of the NSRO. The accession
obligations will also be implemented through domestic (public and private) funds, which
according to the EU principle of additionality may be complemented with EU funds under
regional or sectoral programmes. In consideration of the above, funds within the Programme
will supplement and not replace domestic funds in these fields. Thanks to this the programme
will constitute one (and not the only) of many instruments helping fulfil these obligations.

According to the main objective of the programme the selection of priority axes corresponds
to areas that are of basic importance for increasing the attractiveness of Poland and its
regions.
In accordance with the main programme objective, the selection of priority axes corresponds
to those regions, which are of significant importance for increasing the attractiveness of
Poland and its regions. The combination of all the programme priority axes in one document
is a result of their mutual complementarity. It also contribute to a better and more efficient
programme management, which ensures in particular:

          harmonisation and introduction of identical standards of management and control
           systems,
          a possibility of more flexible reactions to necessary changes during the
           implementation of programmes (for example reallocation of amounts within priority
           axes),
          ensuring a strategic selection of projects and abandoning a narrow, sectoral strategy in
           favour of a common development policy,
          ensuring a coherent approach and proper use of EU horizontal policies, in particular in
           the field of environmental impact assessment,
          using the potential created in the years 2004-2006 as regards the Cohesion Fund and
           ERDF to the new areas of support.

In order to increase the number of foreign investments, territorial cohesion and regional
attractiveness, it is not enough to build a proper and efficient transport infrastructure, as this
will not encourage potential investors to create new work places. In order to create proper
conditions for employing highly qualified specialists in particular regions, investments in the
transport and energy sector should be accompanied with investments in the protection of the
natural environment, culture and health.

As part the EU cohesion strategy the OP Infrastructure and the Environment implements
initiatives increasing the attractiveness of Poland as a Member State of the European Union
by increasing its accessibility, providing a good quality and appropriate level of services and
protecting the potential of the natural environment – one of the basic priorities specified in the
Community Strategic Guidelines for cohesion for the years 2007-201385.

The priority axes financed from the Cohesion Fund comply with the fund‟s objectives
determined in the Treaty, and the projects implemented as part of the trans-European transport


85
     Decision No. 2006/702/EC OJ L 291 of 21 October 2006, p. 11


                                                      65
network are in compliance with the regulations concerning the Cohesion Fund86. In the
environment sector the priority axes correspond to the 6th Programme for the Protection of the
Natural Environment87.

Pursuant to the provisions of art. 6 of the Treaty (TEC) and art. 17 of the Council Regulation
(EC) No. 1083/2006 the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment will
implement the principle of the sustainable development through supporting investments
directly and indirectly related to the environmental protection:

     -   initiatives directly associated with environmental protection: projects from the scope
         of water sewage management, waste management and waste dump rehabilitation,
         initiatives related to increasing ecologic safety, initiatives aimed at adjusting Polish
         entrepreneurs to the environmental protection requirements, initiatives concerning
         protection of biodiversity, protected land, developing social approaches contributing
         to environmental protection etc. Under the projects also initiatives will be
         implemented regarding the use and development of environmental technologies
         (ETAP) according to VI Action Plan for the Environment.
     -   initiatives indirectly related to the environmental protection: supporting activities and
         projects related to the so-called environmental protection transport – railway transport,
         sea transport, urban transport in metropolitan areas, development of multimodal
         transport, improvement of the condition of inland sea ways; also initiatives related to
         road transport safety and development of intelligent transport systems will be
         supported. As regards the energy sector financing projects improving energy saving
         levels and reducing energy consumption as well as production of energy from
         renewable sources are planned.

It is also worthy of note that according to the final version of the Environmental Impact
Assessment the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment will contribute to
the implementation by Poland of objectives specified in the community policies of
environmental protection, as well as by national strategies and policies. Implementation of the
Programme will also contribute to meeting the decoupling principle, that is separating the
dependence on the emission or energy demand volumes on economic development.

As regards investments that may have a negative influence on the environment, as part of
projects mitigation and compensation activities will be implemented meant for reducing this
impact through:

     -   correct technical protection of the equipment and building site, in particular in places
         where external impacts may result in irreversible changes of habitat conditions in the
         local ecosystem;
     -   the use of proper technologies, materials and construction solutions,
     -   adjusting deadlines of work to the periods of animals‟ hatching/reproduction;
     -   hiding elements that disturb the harmony of the landscape;
     -   reconstruction of destroyed habitats in replacement places;
     -   artificial increase of weakened populations of animals;


86
   Council Regulation (EC) No. 1084/2006 of 11 July 2006 establishing a Cohesion Fund and repealing
Regulation (EC) No. 1164/94 OJ L 210 as of 31 July 2006, p. 79.
87
   Decision No. 1600/2002/EC as of 22 July 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action
Programme OJ L 242 as of 10 September 2002, p. 1.


                                                   66
     -   creation of alternative natural connections and migration routes of animals, birds and
         amphibians.

According to the Council regulation (EC) No. 1084/2006 of 11 July 2006 establishing a
Cohesion Fund support is provided for the development of transeuropean transport networks
TEN-T and initiatives in the scope of environment. In this context the Fund may also provide
support in areas related to sustainable development, which ensure obvious advantages in
environmental aspect, that is of energy efficiency and renewable energy, and in the transport
sector, apart from transeuropean networks, railway, river and sea transport, multimodal
systems, transport systems and their cooperation, management of road, sea and air transport,
ecologic urban transport and public transport88. In consideration of the above, as part of the
programme three priority axes have been isolated which have a beneficial influence on the
environment and which will obtain support from the Cohesion Fund. Inclusion of the funds
from the Cohesion Fund in priority axes related to investments in the transport and energy
which are beneficial to the environment indicates that investments in the field of
environmental protection contribute to implementation of one of NSRO horizontal objectives
- “Increasing competitiveness of Polish regions and counteracting their social, economic and
spatial marginalisation”. This is also confirmed by the amount of support for investments
having a positive influence on the environment, as investments contributing directly or
indirectly to environmental protection constitute 60% of the total support of this Fund (see
Chart No. 1)

Chart No. 1

The division of means provided by the Cohesion Fund among the sector of transport and
environment according to the Regulation No. 1084/2006 of 11 July 2006 establishing a
Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1164/94, Official Journal L 210 of 31
July 2006 with article 2(1)(b).




                                        40%                               60%




                              Environment
                              Transport
The allocation of funds proposed in the programme is beneficial for the environment sector,
88
  Art. 2 (1) (b) of the Council Regulation (EC) No. 1084/2006 of 11 July 2006 establishing a Cohesion Fund
and repealing Regulation (EC) No. 1164/94 OJ L 210 as of 31 July 2006.


                                                     67
as the provisions also provide for a horizontal understanding of environmental protection
understood not only as investments sensu stricto in this sector (for example waste water
treatment plants etc.) but also in other ones (for example related to renewable energy or
development of ecologic branches of transport).

The Programme has an advantage consisting in the fact that it is complementary to the
initiatives of the 16 Regional Operational Programmes. Interregional infrastructure
investments shall receive support from the programme. Programme support concentrates on
significant projects which have an important effect on the development of individual regions.

The initiatives included in the programme have been evaluated in order to determine if they
are ready to be implemented in the required time limit and decrease the distance between
Poland and the EU average, as well as fulfil financial requirements (n+3/n+2 principle). Only
the areas with the highest value added, which do not constitute a threat to the implementation
deadline, have been included in the programme.

According to the above principles and the results of the diagnosis, increasing the
attractiveness of Poland and its regions shall be achieved by implementing investment
programmes in six sectors – transport, environment, energy, culture, healthcare and higher
education – by implementing the following specific Programme objectives:

1. The development of infrastructure which would allow for the economic development of
   Poland, while preserving and improving the condition of the natural environment.
2. Increasing the accessibility of the main economic centres in Poland by connecting them to
   a network of highways and dual-carriageways and other modes of transport alternative to
   road transport.
3. Ensuring Poland‟s long-term energy safety by diversifying supplies, lowering energy-
   consumption of the economy and the development of renewable sources of energy.
4. Taking advantage of Poland‟s cultural potential and cultural heritage of world-wide and
   European significance in order to increase Poland‟s attractiveness.
5. Supporting the efforts to maintain the labour resources in good health.
6. Development of modern university centres, including those educating specialists in the
   field of modern technologies.

In the environment sector, due to investments implemented as part of the Operational
Programme Infrastructure and the Environment, attractive conditions for enterprises and their
highly-qualified employees will be created, among others by contributing to implementation
of accession requirements. Achieving proper standards is not merely a legal requirement, but,
due to the “polluter pays” principle, it shall also lead to an effective use of resources, which
will take into account environment costs and the costs concerning the quality of life of the
inhabitants of Poland. Economically effective public support for investments should also
lower environment costs, and hence increase Poland‟s investment attractiveness. Initiatives in
this sector are specified in the objectives of the National Environment Protection Strategies,
the Ecological Policy of Poland for the years 2003-2006, taking into account the forecast for
the years 2007-2010 and its updated versions, and the document “Poland 2025. A Long-term
Strategy of Balanced and Sustainable Development”.

The main programme objective shall be implemented in the environment sector by
supporting the following investment initiatives:



                                              68
      As concerns water and sewage management, support will be given to investments
       decreasing the amount of pollution discharged into water and land, as well as those
       comprehensively implemented with them and aimed at providing an appropriate quality of
       drinking water in urban areas, in accordance with the National Programme of Municipal
       Sewage Treatment and the Water Management Strategy.
      As concerns waste management, support will be given to initiatives preventing or limiting
       the production of municipal waste, introducing recycling technologies and technologies
       for neutralising municipal waste, as well as eliminating the dangers of waste disposal, in
       accordance with national and regional waste management plans, as well as initiatives in
       the field of rehabilitation of post-industrial and post-military land and strengthening of sea
       coasts,
      In order to limit the risk of ecological hazards, where appropriate, support shall be given
       to reconstruction and modernisation of hydrotechnical buildings, in particular in the case
       of multifunctional buildings. In addition, projects will be prioritized concerning
       renaturalisation, restoring natural functionality, decreasing the outflow of water,
       increasing the natural retention and flood control, particularly in situations when this has
       no negative influence on the navigability of rivers. In addition, projects will be supported
       increasing the amount of available water resources, as well as programmes preventing and
       counteracting serious accidents and monitoring the environment.

      Complementarily to the initiatives of the 16 regional operational programmes which are to
       reduce the effects of existing industrial activities on the environment and adjust the
       enterprises to Community laws, support shall be given to the projects of big enterprises
       which reduce the amount of pollution emitted into the atmosphere, discharged with
       sewage, and limit the amount of waste, as well as increase the amount of recyclable
       waste, in particular investments specified in the Accession Treaty. Support shall also be
       given to the implementation of investments in accordance with the requirements of
       reference documents of the Best Available Techniques (BAT).
      Initiatives of environment protection in protected areas of Poland reducing the
       degradation of the environment and losses in biological variety will also be supported, in
       accordance with the National Strategy of Protection and Moderate Use of Biological
       Variety including its operational programme, and the Forest Policy of Poland, including
       the National Programme of Increasing Forest Areas to 2020 with a forecast to 2025.
       Moreover, elements of the initiatives specified in the National Ecological Education
       Strategy “Sustainable development through education” will also be implemented.

In the transport sector, investments resulting from the objectives of the Transport
Development Strategy 2007-2013 and the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-
2013 will be implemented, which have the following priority objectives:

      Increased transport accessibility of Poland and improved inter-regional connections within
       the TEN-T network, by developing the road and air TEN-T network, including priority
       investments specified in the Parliament and Council decision of 23 July 1996 on
       Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network
       (1692/96/EC89) and connecting the main economic centres in Poland to a highway and
       dual-carriageway network.



89
     OJ L 228 as of 9 September 1996, p. 1 as amended


                                                        69
     Connecting the biggest urban centres in Eastern Poland with the capital city of the
     country and taking advantage of their development potential resulting from their location
     on the eastern boarder of the EU.

    The development of transport modes alternative to road transport, by extending the TEN-
     T railway network, including priority projects specified in the Parliament and Council
     decision 1692/96/EC90 as well as infrastructure of sea ports, investments in multimodal
     transport and increasing the amount of public transport in transport services provided to
     the residents of urban areas will be implemented by supporting ecological public transport
     systems,
    The improvement of the transport safety level and the state of inter-regional connections,
     by implementing investments increasing the level of safety and flow of the traffic (in
     particular, by using intelligent transport systems), as well as developing a road network
     and sea and river corridors which would supplement the investments implemented within
     the TEN-T network.


The investments in the energy sector will support the Energy Policy of Poland to 202591, and
their main objective will be to provide long-term energy safety for Poland by diversifying
supplies of energy carriers, reducing energy-consumption and energy losses, improving
energy efficiency and developing renewable sources of energy, as follows:

    The funds from the Cohesion Fund shall support investment programmes concerning
     renewable sources of energy in accordance with the Strategy for the Development of
     Renewable Energy in Poland92, which will help achieving in 2010 the amount of
     renewable energy in total energy production as required by the European Union, and the
     production of bio-components and bio-fuels. Where market mechanisms fail to provide
     the following, support shall also be given to investments decreasing grid losses by
     modernising transmission and distribution networks, increasing the efficiency of energy
     production, in particular in combined and heat units (CHP), as well as support for energy
     efficiency of public utility premises (thermo-modernisation).
    Financial resources from the European Regional Development Fund will be mainly used
     to support the development of the natural gas and crude oil transmission system, the
     infrastructure providing diversification of energy supplies and increasing the natural gas
     storage capacity, as well as the development of transfer systems and cross-border
     electricity connections to the extent they cannot be guaranteed by market mechanisms. In
     addition, projects will be supported concerning the construction of natural gas distribution
     systems in areas where gas is not supplied and modernisation of the existing distribution
     networks.

The development of the energy sector is of vital importance for implementation of the main
Programme objective. A high level of energy safety, seen from the angle of the quality of
fuels and energy supplies, existence or technical condition of energy infrastructure in certain
areas, the level of energy efficiency of energy production and the impact of energy on the
environment, is of significant importance for increasing investment attractiveness of our
country.

90
   OJ L 228 as of 9 September 1996, p. 1 as amended
91
   A document approved of by the Council of Ministers as of 4 January 2005.
92
   A document approved of by the Sejm as of 23 August 2001.


                                                    70
In the culture and the protection of cultural heritage sector investments will be
implemented which will support the achievement of objectives specified in the National
Culture Development Strategy for the years 2004-2020. As part of the OP Infrastructure and
the Environment, projects concerning support of the expansion and modernisation of cultural
infrastructure and the protection of cultural heritage of European and world-wide significance,
in particular historical monuments included in the UNESCO World List of Cultural and
Natural Heritage and the President of the Republic of Poland‟s List of Historical Monuments,
complementary to the 16 regional operational programmes. These investments will be
supplementary to the other sectors. Thanks to them Poland‟s cultural offer will be diversified,
which will contribute to increase in the number of foreign tourists and make Poland more
attractive for investors.

Support for investments in the healthcare sector is complementary in nature in relation to
Programme support in other sectors as well as initiatives of the 16 regional operational
programmes and the Operational Programme Human Resources. Investments of the OP
Infrastructure and the Environment shall mainly concern those elements of the Healthcare
Development Strategy for Poland in the years 2007-2013, which are related to creating
comprehensive medical rescue services, which is a response to the development of transport
sector, and increasing the accessibility and quality of inter-regional healthcare infrastructure,
which will guarantee the provision of highly specialised medical services. This support will
have direct effect on increasing the active participation of healthy persons on the job market
and increasing the competitiveness of the Polish economy.

Support of investments in the sector of higher education infrastructure will implement the
objectives of the Strategy for Poland’s computerisation development by 2013 and the long-
term forecast concerning transformation of the information society by 2020. Besides, the
support will be complementary to initiatives in favour of development of knowledge based
development within the Operational Programme Innovative Economy, 16 regional operational
programmes and the Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland.

These initiatives will aim at extending the teaching base of higher schools that offer education
in specialisations strategic from the point of view of country development, in particular
maths, sciences and technical directions. In order to support the teaching system initiatives
will be implemented in the field of using information and communication technologies in
teaching/education. According to the programme “Education and Training 2010”, a
document specifying the main objectives to achieve the Lisbon Strategy, these investments
will be particularly aimed at developing education in fields related to the cutting edge
technologies and support areas of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the
Environment. The extension of a higher education base will create proper conditions for
implementation of an education model compliant with the assumptions of the Bologna
Declaration and the Lisbon Strategy. This will directly contribute to the increase in foreign
investors‟ interest as regards location of their enterprises and increasing competitiveness of
the Polish economy.

In all priority axes, where applicable, issues of equal opportunities will be taken into account
and in particular equal treatment of women and men and the principle of non-discrimination
of disabled persons. The necessity to ensure proper conditions for disabled people will be
important in all priority axes, within which infrastructural objects will be created, however it
will be particularly important in priority axes regarding the transport sector, most of all public
transport, and mainly at the stage of projects‟ assessment and selection.


                                               71
Also, the provision of equal opportunities of women and men will be a horizontal principle,
taken into account when selecting projects. Due to the infrastructural nature of the project, in
most cases, directly adaptation of the investments to women‟s needs will not be the main
element of the investments. Therefore it is not necessary to break down the programme
indicators by sex. However, in cases where this element is particularly important from the
view of EU strategies, for example as regards ensuring a greater share of women among
students of maths, sciences and technical specialisations, it will be taken into account when
selecting projects to be supported.

The implementation of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment is
closely connected with the National Reform Programme (KPR) for the years 2005-2008 and
significantly contributes to the implementation of priority IV of the NRP - Development and
modernisation of infrastructure and guaranteeing conditions for competitiveness in network
sectors and contributing to the implementation of priority III of the National Reform Plan –
Growth of innovativeness of Polish enterprises. The table below specifies the connection
among individual areas in the National Reform Programme and the Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment:

Table10. Priorities of the National Reform Programme in the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment
1.   Priority area in the Scope and results of initiatives within               the Priority           axes
     National    Reform Operational Programme Infrastructure and                the implementing a given
     Programme            Environment                                               scope indicated in the
                                                                                    National        Reform
                                                                                    Programme
Priority IV of the National Reform Programme – Development and modernisation of the infrastructure and
guaranteeing conditions for competition in network sectors
4.1. Creation of a modern Implementation of road and railway projects, VI, VII, VIII, IX,
transport network          infrastructure providing access to seaports, financed XVII
(roads, local public       from EU funds and projects regarding complex systems
transport, railways,       of public transport, which will result in increasing
airports, sea ports)       coherence of the national transport system with the
                           European system, decreasing costs of transport and
                           exploitation of the stock (especially rolling stock),
                           improving the quality and increasing the number of
                           commodity and passenger conveyances and increasing
                           the negative influence on the environment.
4.3. Support for the       Extension and modernisation of transmission and X, XI
creation and               distribution networks, cross-border connections, storage
modernisation of energy infrastructure and technical equipment for improving
infrastructure             energy safety and efficient functioning of market in
                           fuels and energy, which will result in increasing
                           transmission capacity in the country and of cross-border
                           connections, increasing efficiency for production,
                           transmission and use of renewable resources,
                           rationalisation of the use of energy resources and
                           reduced emissions of pollution as well as decreasing
                           social costs.
4.4. Support for the       Support will be given to the use of biomass, water and X
development of             wind power industry and increase in the share of
renewable energy sources biocomponents on the market in liquid fuels, whereas
                           the implementation of projects will decrease the
                           emissions of pollutions, in particular of greenhouse
                           gases and will lead to a more rational use of natural
                           resources.




                                                          72
1.   Priority area in the Scope and results of initiatives within            the Priority            axes
     National    Reform Operational Programme Infrastructure and             the implementing a given
     Programme            Environment                                             scope indicated in the
                                                                                  National        Reform
                                                                                  Programme
4.5. Better availability of Supporting initiatives in the field of providing the I, II
dwellings for citizens and population with a proper quality of water, waste water
construction and            treatment and guaranteeing conditions for recreation
modernisation of            safe from the sanitary point of view, which as a
rehabilitation              consequence will improve the living conditions of
infrastructure              families and spatial mobility of the population.

Priority III of the National Reform Programme – Growth of innovativeness of enterprises
3. 5. Easier use of         Initiatives leading to increase in competitiveness of IV, X
ecotechnologies,            enterprises through increasing the level of
supporting the energy       innovativeness, including a transfer of proecologic
efficiency and              technological, product-related and organisational
cogeneration                solutions, introducing into use products that are most
                            efficient from the point of view of energy, support for
                            the development of local heat distribution systems,
                            resulting in reducing the negative influence of economy
                            on the environment.



2.2. Indicators

The main indicators of monitoring the implementation of the OP Infrastructure and the
Environment in particular areas have been presented in chart 11 and correspond to specific
programme objectives. In order to emphasise the common objective of the investments in all
presented sectors it is necessary to identify a measurable indicator of the main Programme
objective, that is increasing the attractiveness of Poland and its regions. The proposed
indicator is the index of the World Competitiveness Scoreboard which is prepared annually
by the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) in Lozanne. As opposed to
several indexes presenting competitiveness and investment attractiveness, this index, as one
of the elements of evaluating particular countries, perceives infrastructure, including
environment infrastructure, separately. It also includes other factors, in which the contribution
of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment will not have a significant
influence; however, this seems unavoidable when using synthetic economy measure rates, and
the construction of the indicator minimises the effect of seasonal factors and factors on which
the country has no influence, which make it difficult to use such measure rates as the growth
of the GDP or the size of direct foreign investments.

In consideration of the above, an indicator of the main objective will be Poland‟s position
achieved as regards the condition of infrastructure in IMD ranking. In this area the following
factors are assessed: basic infrastructure, technological infrastructure, scientific infrastructure,
health, natural environment and education.

In 2005, in the field of infrastructure Poland was situated on the 50th position in IMD ranking
out of 60 classified countries. Narrowing the distance between Poland and the United States,
as well as other countries of the European Union, constitutes the basic objective of the Lisbon
Strategy, the cohesion policy of the European Union and the National Strategic Reference
Framework. One of the most significant objectives of the OP “Infrastructure and the
Environment” is to significantly improve Poland‟s position as regards the above.



                                                    73
Chart 11. The main indicators of monitoring the implementation of the OP Infrastructure and
the Environment.

Programme                 Indicators       The value of The estimated           Frequency Source of data
objectives                                 the indicator in value of the        of
                                           the base year93 indicator in the     measures
                                                            target year94
The main objective: Poland‟s                    50 (2005) 45                    Annually      IMD             World
Increasing          the position in the                                                       Competitiveness
investment              IMD ranking                                                           Yearbook
attractiveness       of
Poland and its regions
by          developing
technical
infrastructure, while
protecting         and
improving           the
condition     of    the
natural environment
and         healthcare,
preserving     cultural
identity           and
developing territorial
cohesion


Specific objectives
1.The development of      Increase in the 0                    318              Every two Report of the National
infrastructure which      number       of                                       years     Programme          for
would allow for the       agglomerations                                                  Municipal     Sewage
economic                  meeting     the                                                 Treatment
development          of   requirements of
Poland,          while    Directive
preserving         and    91/271/EEC
improving           the
condition     of    the
natural environment.
2. Increasing the         Dual-           799                  2676             annually      GDDKiA (the General
accessibility of the      carriageways                                                        Management       of
main         economic     and highways                                                        National Roads and
centres in Poland by      in the TEN-T                                                        Highways)
connecting them to a      network (km)
highway and dual-         Passenger       4150                 4225             Annually      Central        statistical
carriageway network       transport                                                           Office
and      means       of   realized     by
transport alternative     municipal
to road transport.        means        of
                          transport
                          (millions    of
                          passengers)




93
   Due to the availability of statistical data, the year 2004 is the base year. Should a different base year be
indicated, it is given in brackets.
94
   The year 2013 is the target year.


                                                          74
                           The length of      538              1248        Annually    PKP PLK S.A.
                           railway lines
                           adjusted to the
                           speed 160 km/h
                           and more
                           Large      urban   696              18          Annually    Monitoring       of      the
                           centres95          (2005)                                   Programme
                           included in the
                           network       of
                           highways      or
                           dual carriage
                           ways
                           The volume of      0                10.8        Annually    Sea                    ports
                           cargo handling                                              administration
                           in commercial                                               authorities
                           sea ports (in %)

3. Providing long-         The rate of        1.99             7.5         Annually    GIOŚ      (the        Head
term energy security       energy     from                                             Inspectorate            of
in      Poland     by      renewable                                                   Environment
diversifying supplies,     sources in total                                            Protection)
reducing the energy-       energy
consumption                consumption
level of the economy       (%)
and        developing      Final    energy    0.27             0.22        annually    Central       Statistical
renewable sources of       consumption of                                              Office
energy.                    GDP (koe/euro,
                           in fixed prices
                           of 2000)
                           Active capacity    1621             2800        Annually    Programme monitoring
                           of underground
                           natural      gas
                           stores (millions
                           of m3)
4.Taking advantage         Increase      in   0                3.6         Annually    Institute of Tourism
of      the     cultural   expenses      of
potential and cultural     foreign tourists
heritage of world-         in Poland (in
wide and European          million USD)
significance in order
to increase Poland‟s
attractiveness.
5.          Supporting     Number        of 14.3 (2005)        7.4         Annually    The Central           Police
initiatives aimed at       fatalities    in                                            Headquarters
maintaining the work       road accidents
force in good health.      (per         100
                           thousand      of
                           inhabitants)




95
   Large urban considered understood as voivodeship centres, that is capitals of voivodeships (Bydgoszcz and
Toruń as well as Gorzów and Zielona Góra are considered separately),
96
   Large urban centres already included in the network of dual carriage-ways or highways: Katowice, Kraków,
Łódź, Opole, Poznań, Wrocław).


                                                          75
6. Development of        Graduates      of 14.7 (academic 19          annually    Central   statistical
modern      university   universities of year 2004/05)                            Office
centres,     including   maths, natural
those       educating    sciences     and
specialists in the       technical
scope of modern          specialisations
technologies             (% of       total
                         graduates      of
                         higher schools)

3. PRIORITY              AXES    IMPLEMENTED              AS   PART   OF    THE     OPERATIONAL
PROGRAMME

The following 17 priority axes shall be implemented as part of the Programme:

1. The water and sewage management.
2. Waste management and the protection of earth.
3. Resource management and counteracting environmental risks.
4. Initiatives aimed at adjusting enterprises to the requirements of environment protection.
5. Environment protection and the promotion of ecological habits.
6. TEN-T road and air transport network.
7. Environment-friendly transport.
8. Transport safety and national transport networks.
9. Road infrastructure in Eastern Poland.
10. Environment-friendly energy infrastructure.
11. Energy security.
12. Culture and cultural heritage.
13. Health security and the improvement of the efficiency of the healthcare system.
14. Infrastructure of higher education.
15. Technical assistance – The European Regional Development Fund
16. Technical assistance – Cohesion Fund.
17. Competitiveness of regions



Priority Axis I: Water and sewage management

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Providing agglomerations above 15 thousand PE (population equivalent) with sewage
systems and sewage treatment plants (by the end of 2015).


The description and justification of the Priority Axis

One of the most significant conditions of economic development is the provision of widely-
understood basic technical infrastructure, including environment protection, which may result
in a long-term stability of economic growth, lowering of external environmental costs and the
creation of new work places. Furthermore, the development of water and sewage
infrastructure shall, indirectly, affect the implementation of the following environment
directives of the EU:



                                                     76
    The 91/271/EEC directive97 – by implementing the National Programme of Municipal
     Sewage Treatment /NPMST/,
    The 76/464/EEC directive98 – by implementing initiatives aimed at reducing the discharge
     of dangerous substances into water, including the programme for the reduction of
     dangerous substances from list II of the directive,
    The 2000/60/EC directive99 – Framework Water Directive.

In accordance with the objectives of the National Programme of Municipal Sewage
Treatment, Poland should construct, expand or modernise sewage treatment plants in 318
agglomerations above 15,000 PE. The expansion or modernisation of the sanitary sewage
system network in 459 agglomerations, having a total length of 20 thousand km, is also
necessary. Furthermore, in accordance with the objectives of the National Programme of
Municipal Sewage Treatment, Poland should build, expand or modernise sewage treatment
plants in agglomerations above 2000 PE. The above objective shall be fulfilled by
implementing individual projects with the support of the ERDF as part of the 16 regional
operational programmes.

Taking into account the above, under the water and sewage management priority axis support
will be granted to initiatives aimed at providing efficient and effective systems of municipal
sewage collection and treatment in agglomerations above 15,000 PE. As regards projects with
only one beneficiary of funds and referring to a comprehensive solution to water and sewage
management in this area, inclusion of initiatives implemented in agglomerations between
2,000 and 15,000 PE is taken into account.

These projects will also concern the elimination of certain dangerous substances constituting
a direct life and health hazard for the population, and maintaining safe emission rates
concerning other substances constituting a threat to the water ecosystem.


 As regards implementation of complex projects, it is possible to include in the project
activities regarding water supply and construction of a rain drain system, provided it
contributes to the implementation of directive 91/271/EEC. However, co-financing of
individual projects concerning water supply or construction of a rain drain system is not
planned. Under the priority axis support will be provided also for preparation of
documentation necessary for submitting applications and performance of the project
(technical documentation for the projects).

Under the priority axis and pursuant to the principles specified in art. 5 (2) of Council
Regulation (EC) No. 1084/2006 of 11 July 2006 establishing a Cohesion Fund and repealing
Regulation (EC) No. 1164/94 also projects recorded by the European Commission and
submitted under the Cohesion Fund in the environment sector based on the Strategy regarding
the use of the Cohesion Fund for the years 2004-2006100, will be supported, which due to the
using up of the funds could not obtain a decision in the programming period 2004-2006.
97
    Directive 91/271/EEC as of 21 May 1991 on municipal waste treatment (OJ L 135 as of 30 May 1991, as
amended).
98
   Directive 1976/464/EEC as of 4 May 1976 on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged
into the water environment (OJ L 129 as of 18 May 1976, as further amended)
99
   Directive as of 23 October 2000 providing the framework of community actions concerning water policy, OJ
L 327 as of 22 December 2000, page 1).
100
    Regulation of the Minister of Economy and Labour as of 30 July 2004 on adoption of the strategy regarding
the use of the Cohesion Fund for the years 2004-2006 (Polish Journal of Laws No. 176, item 1827).


                                                     77
Under the priority axis support will be provided for large investments from the indicative list
and investments in the agglomerations included in KPOŚK, which will contribute to
fulfilment of accession obligations.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis will most of all be: units of local self-government
and their associations, as well as enterprises providing water and sewage services as part of
the duties of gminas (councils, boroughs).

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

   The reduction of external environmental costs for the economy,
   The provision of proper municipal sewage treatment,
   Increased access to sewage systems,



Indicators:

PRIORITY            Name          of Value in the base Estimated value Source of data/
AXIS I              indicator        year              in the target year frequency      of
                                                                          measures
Product indicator Number          of 955               1273               KPOŚK Report
                  built/extended/m                                        from          the
                  odernised waste                                         implementation
                  water treatment                                         (every two years)
                  plants (numbers)
                  Increase in the 0                    20                 KPOŚK Report
                  length          of                                      from          the
                  built/modernised                                        implementation
                  network         of                                      (every two years)
                  collective sewage
                  system (km)
Result indicator Increase in the 0                     318                KPOŚK Report
                  number          of                                      from          the
                  agglomerations                                          implementation
                  meeting        the                                      (every two years)
                  requirements of
                  directive
                  91/271/EEC
                  (numbers)

Priority Axis II: Waste management and the protection of earth

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Increasing economic benefits by reducing the amount of municipal waste disposal and
rehabilitating degraded areas and the protection of sea coasts.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:



                                                 78
   Reducing the amount of municipal waste disposal and increasing the amount of municipal
    waste which has been recycled or neutralised with other methods than disposal and
    elimination of risks resulting from storage of waste according to the national and
    voivodeship waste management plans.
   Increasing the surface of areas restored to proper condition by rehabilitating degraded
    land, protecting landslides and sea coasts from erosion.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

As concerns waste management, support shall be given to investments related to the
prevention and reduction of municipal waste production, the introduction of recycling
technologies and technologies of final neutralisation of municipal waste, the elimination of
hazards resulting from waste disposal and the rehabilitation of degraded areas.

The following community regulations shall be implemented as part of the priority axis:

   Council Directive 1991/689/EEC as of 12th December 1991 on dangerous waste (Official
    Journal L 377 of 31.12.1991, p.20, as amended),
   Directive of the European Parliament and Council 1994/62/EC as of 20th December 1994
    on packaging and packaging waste (Official Journal L 365 as of 31.12.1009, p. 10 as
    amended),
   Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Official Journal
    L 183 of 16.07.1999, p. 1, as amended),
   Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/76/EC as of 4th December 2000
    on waste burning (Official Journal L 332 as of 28.12.2000, p.91)
   Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2006/12/EC of 5 April 2006 on waste
    (Offical Journal L 114 as of 27.04.2006, p.9)

In accordance with the requirements specified in the diagnosis, the aim of the priority axis is
to introduce modern recycling technologies and technologies neutralising municipal waste,
including thermal waste processing and intensifying recycled material, as well as the
processes of waste recycling and waste neutralisation other than waste disposal, as well as
elimination of risks resulting from waste disposal according to the national and voivodeship
waste management plans. As a result, the priority will enable the implementation of accession
requirements concerning waste management.

Initiatives aimed at land rehabilitation will include the restoration of natural land features of
the area and/or providing the land or soil with substances corresponding to the required
standards. Under the priority axis only large area projects in nonurbanized areas and only in
situations when the current land owner is not responsible for the occurrence of pollution or
degradation of the environment.

The undertaken initiatives should provide for strengthening of social roles, among other of
providing access to rehabilitated areas in unlimited way and:

    -   maintenance (or improvement) of ecological functions of the area or,
    -   maintenance (or restoration) of biodiversity or the traditional landscape.

As part of these initiatives it will be possible to provide support for initiatives concerning
protection of landslides. As part of complex land rehabilitation – it includes clearing post-


                                               79
military training grounds of mines and eliminating ground pollution. Furthermore, support
will be given to projects concerning the preservation of the sea coastline, the protection of sea
coasts and beaches. Under this priority axis support will be also given to preparation of
documentation necessary for submission of applications and implementation of the projects
(including technical documentation for the projects).

The priority axis will implement significant investments included in the indicative list,
investments related to municipal waste management concerning the installations and systems
servicing a minimum of 150 thousand inhabitants, investments with a minimum value of 5
million Euro related to the rehabilitation of land, protection of seacoasts and landslides. Under
the priority axis and pursuant to the principles specified in art. 5 (2) of Council Regulation
(EC) No 1084/2006 of 11 July 2006 establishing a Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation
(EC) No 1164/94 of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1084/2006 of 11 July 2006, also projects
recorded by the European Commission and submitted under the Cohesion Fund in the
environment sector based on the Strategy regarding the use of the Cohesion Fund for the
years 2004-2006, which due to the using up of the funds could not obtain a decision in the
programming period 2004-2006.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis will include: units of local self-government and
their associations, as well as the army101, voivodeship governors, the National Forests
Enterprise and its organisational units (concerning land rehabilitation), marine offices and
enterprises responsible for implementing the tasks specified in the indicative list.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

     Reducing external environmental costs for the economy,
     Introducing modern recycling technologies and technologies municipal waste
      management,
     A complex solution to the problem of neutralising dangerous waste,
     Reducing health hazards and improving the quality of life of the population.



Indicators:

Priority Axis II       Name            of Value in the base Estimated value Source of data/
                       indicator          year              in the target year frequency  of
                                                                               measures
Product                Number          of 0                 25                 Programme
indicators             projects that have                                      monitoring
                       obtained support                                        (annually)
                       Number of new 0                      10                 Programme
                       transregional                                           monitoring
                       waste                                                   (annually)
                       neutralisation
                       facilities
                       (numbers)

101
   organizational units subordinate to the Minister of National Defence and those for which the said Minister is
the founding or supervising body.


                                                       80
                  Number           of         0                      14                      Programme
                  modernised                                                                 monitoring
                  waste                                                                      (annually)
                  neutralisation
                  facilities
                  (numbers)
                  Surface of post-            0                      15 000                  Programme
                  military      areas                                                        monitoring
                  and        previous                                                        (annually)
                  military training
                  grounds which
                  have           been
                  rehabilitated (ha)
                  Number           of         0                      10                      Programme
                  completed                                                                  monitoring
                  projects related                                                           (annually)
                  to             land
                  rehabilitation or
                  protected land
Result indicators Share            of         95.3                   85                      KPGO, CSO/OŚ
                  municipal waste
                  disposed         in
                  relation to waste
                  produced (%)
                  Level of waste              79.1%                  50%                     Voivodeship data
                  disposal (%)                                                               bases (annually)


Priority Axis III: Resource management and counteracting environmental risks.

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Providing an appropriate amount of water resources satisfying the needs of the population and
the country‟s economy and minimising the negative effects of natural disasters and serious
accidents, ensuring a good condition of coastal waters102, as well as improvement of decision
making processes through provision of reliable information on the environment condition.

Specific Priority Axis objectives

     Increasing the amount of readily-available water resources necessary to satisfy the needs
      of the population and the country‟s economy, as well as improving the flood control
      system and preventing the negative effects of droughts,
     Increasing the natural retention of river valleys, while preserving their good ecological
      condition,
     Increasing the protection against the negative effects of natural hazards and the prevention
      of serious accidents, eliminating their effects and restoring the environment to a proper

102
   Art. 9 (1) (23) of the act of 18 July 2001 Water Law (Polish Journal of Laws of 2005 No. 239, item 2019, as
amended) – surface waters are meant here that are situated 1 nautical mile from the basic line of the territorial
sea, along with internal waters of the Gdańsk Bay.


                                                       81
    condition, as well as strengthening particular elements of the environment management
    system,
   Increasing the efficiency of environmental monitoring and better access to information.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

The diagnosis of the environment sector shows an insufficient level of water retention as
compared to its potential, a high risk level concerning the poor condition of technical
premises related to water retention and anti-flood protection. In consideration of the above
priority will be given to levelling and slowing down outflow of water from the country area
through proper water management in systems the majority of which requires renovation and
modernisation aimed at improving retention function, through restoration of devastated small
retention facilities, construction of new small retention facilities and increasing natural
retention in river valleys and marshy areas. The analyses carried out indicate also
deterioration of coastal water quality. This results from discharge into sea basins polluted rain
and snow water coming from urbanized areas, including large volumes of pollutants. This
situation hinders fulfilment of provisions contained in Directive 2006/7/EC and has a negative
crossborder influence.

Wherever applicable, funds will be allocated for reconstruction and modernisation of
hydrotechnical facilities, in particular when it fulfils many functions. Also, in justified cases
and under the priority axis projects will be supported related to building multifunctional water
tanks and water steps as well as other equipment used for temporary water swelling. Besides,
priority will be given to projects related to renaturalisation, restore environmental
functionality, related to water outflow, increase natural retention and anti-flood protection,
particularly in cases when it does not have a negative impact on navigability. In addition,
projects will be supported that lead to increase in available water resources, as well as
regarding prevention of and counteracting serious failures and environmental condition
monitoring.

The priority axis objective shall be implemented in the following manner:

   Water retention in order to increase the amount of readily-available water resources,
   Preventing excessive erosion and accumulation of rivers and streams by appropriate
    shaping of the river channels, in accordance with relevant procedures, taking into account
    both technical and ecological requirements,
   Increasing natural retention of river valleys while preserving the balance of the ecological
    and technical condition of rivers;
   The construction and proper maintenance of existing flood banks, polders and the so-
    called dry anti-flood tanks,
   Improving technical safety of the existing water tanks and water steps as well as other
    equipment used for temporary water swelling;
   Construction and modernisation of infrastructure used for purifying and discharging rain
    and snow water into sea basins,
   Increasing protection against the negative effects of natural hazards, the prevention of
    serious accidents, eliminating their negative effects and restoring the environment to its
    proper state, as well as strengthening particular elements of the environment management
    system,
   Improving the environment monitoring system by providing information for environment
    management and decision-making processes concerning environment protection,


                                               82
   Drafting planning documents supporting the preparation and implementation of priority
    axis initiatives, including programmes of environment management concerning the
    prevention of serious accidents and eliminating the negative effects of extraordinary
    environment hazards within the country‟s territory and in boarder and trans-boarder areas.

Also initiatives will be implemented related to improvement of sanitary condition of coastal
waters, including initiatives related to construction and modernisation of systems used for
discharging rain and snow water into sea basins and consisting in construction and
modernisation of rain drain system, pre-treatment plants and retention and sedimentation
facilities in urbanised areas situated near the Baltic Sea. Support under the priority axis will
be given to preparation of documentation necessary for submitting applications and
implementation of the project (including technical documentation for the projects).

Furthermore, support shall be given to projects concerning the construction and modernisation
of stations for analysing and forecasting natural hazards and threats constituted by serious
accidents, including: the provision of professional equipment, the purchase of specialist
equipment necessary for rescue actions and eliminating the negative effects of natural hazards
and serious accidents as well as technical support of the national crises management system
including the rescue and fire-fighting system concerning ecological and chemical rescue. As
regards monitoring repeatable projects will be supported. These projects will be implemented
by means of standard methods, tools and technologies.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis shall include: the Regional Water Management
Boards, the Voivodeship (Provincial) Melioration and Water Equipment Boards, marine
offices, the Marine Search and Rescue Service, Institute of Meteorology and Water
Management, units of local self-government and their associations, the National Forests
Enterprise and its organisational units, the Central Police Station and voivodeship
(provincial) stations of the National Fire Brigade Headquarters, the Head Inspector of
Environment Protection and the Voivodeship Inspectorates of Environment Protection.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

   Reducing the risk for conducting business activity on areas included in the investment
    programme,
   Lowering the economic and social costs of floods, droughts and serious accidents,
   Increasing the scope of and improving quality of information necessary for planning
    protection initiatives and assessing their efficiency,
   Ensuring a safe level of water resources and improving quality of coastal waters which
    would satisfy the needs of the population and economic development.
Indicators:

Priority Axis III   Name           of Value in the base Estimated value Source of data/
                    indicator         year              in the target year frequency of
                                                                           measures




                                              83
Product            Number           of 0                 6                   Programme
indicators         created          or                                       Monitoring
                   modernised                                                (annually)
                   facilities used for
                   water
                   management
                   (numbers)
                   Number of new 0                       170                 GIOŚ (The Head
                   or     modernised                                         Inspectorate of
                   measurement                                               environmental
                   posts or other                                            Protection)
                   environmental                                             (annually)
                   monitoring
                   instruments
                   (numbers)

                   Number of newly 0                     400                 Programme
                   built      small                                          Monitoring
                   retention                                                 (annually)
                   facilities
                   (numbers)

                  Number of posts 2                      494                 Annual    report
                  and      specialist                                        KGPSP       and
                  equipment used                                             GIOŚ (annually)
                  for       analysis,
                  forecasting and
                  effective
                  emergency
                  response
                  (numbers)
Result indicators Volume           of 0                  450                 Implementing
                  retained water as                                          entity (regional
                  part of small and                                          water
                  large     retention                                        management
                  [million m3 ]                                              authorities)
                                                                             (annually)

                   Time           of 6                   3                   Annual     report
                   identification of                                         KGPSP
                   and response to                                           (annually)
                   risks on the
                   national level


Priority Axis IV: Initiatives aimed at adjusting enterprises to the requirements of environment
protection.

The main objective of the Priority Axis



                                              84
Reducing the negative effects of existing industrial activities on the environment and
adjusting enterprises to the requirements of Community law.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

   Promoting certified environment management systems,
   The rationalisation of natural resources and waste management, including reducing the
    amount of generated waste other than municipal waste and increasing the level of waste
    reclamation and recycling,
   Preventing and reducing the pollution of various components of the environment by
    adjusting the existing installations to the requirements of the Best Available Techniques
    (BAT),
   Reducing the amount of pollution (in particular dangerous substances) discharged into
    water by industry and reducing the amount of not purified industrial sewage discharged
    into water or land,
   Improving the quality of fresh air by reducing the emission of polluting substances from
    fuel burning plants with a power exceeding 50MW,
   Increasing the amount of post-utility and dangerous waste which is reclaimed

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

Under the Priority Axis, support will be granted to projects of big enterprises which reduce
the amount of pollution emitted into the atmosphere or discharged with sewage and the
amount of produced waste and which increase the amount of reclaimed (particularly
recyclable) waste. Under the priority axis support will also be provided to projects concerning
environment management systems (excluding investments), the preparation of necessary
audits in order to achieve certificates, projects to achieve eco-signs for products, projects
aimed at rationalising waste management in enterprises, projects supporting enterprises in the
introduction of the Best Available Techniques (BAT), investments aimed at reducing the
amount of dangerous substances discharged with sewage or the amount of sewage, initiatives
aimed at the protection of fresh air concerning the existing installations with a power
exceeding 50 MW, reducing the emission of dust, SO2 or NOx. As concerns the protection of
fresh air, investments specified in the Accession Treaty shall be prioritised. Additional points
shall also be given to investments implemented in accordance with the requirements of the
reference documents of the Best Available Techniques, reducing water consumption, taking
advantage of alternative or renewable sources of energy.

According to the diagnosis concerning the state of environment, industry is one of the main
sources of pollution in Poland. In accordance with the idea of sustainable development,
economic growth should not have a negative effect on the natural environment. Although new
investments have to fulfil both severe EU and domestic requirements concerning the above,
there are numerous already existing installations, which need to be adjusted to severe
environment requirements, and given the economic and social factors of sustainable
development they should not be eliminated. The said problem is reflected in the regulations of
the Accession Treaty by establishing transitional periods for Poland in the following areas:
environment and competition policy, in order to implement particular environment directives
concerning industry. Limited means for environment protection initiatives continue to be one
of the factors which hinder economic development, both on the regional level and in the
whole country.



                                               85
As concerns the enterprise sector, significant investments shall be necessary in order to fulfil
the required standards, specified in particular in the following EC laws:
- the 1996/61/EC directive as of 24th September 1996 on the integrated system of
    prevention and control of pollution103,
- the 1976/464/EEC directive as of 4th May 1976 on pollution caused by certain dangerous
    substances discharged into the water environment104 and „daughter‟ directives
- the 2001/80/EC directive as of 23rd October 2001 on reducing the emission of particular
    types of pollution from large energy burning plants into the air105,
- the 1975/442/EEC directive as of 15th July 1975 concerning waste106, the so-called
    Framework Directive,
- the 1991/689/EEC directive as of 12th December 1991 on dangerous waste107,
- the 1994/62/EC directive as of 20th December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste108,
- the 2000/76/EC directive as of 4th December 2000 on waste burning109,
- the 2002/96/EC directive as of 27th January 2003 on used electric and electronic
    equipment110,
- the 2000/53/EC directive as of 18th September 2000 on vehicles withdrawn from use111.

The beneficiaries of the Priority Axis shall include: big enterprises, and in the case of
initiatives concerning the protection of fresh air - the entities included on the list of exceptions
from the 2001/80/EC directive, included in Annex XII of the Treaty on the Accession of the
Republic of Poland to the European Union.


The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

         the introduction of modern environment-friendly technologies, and hence reducing
          pollution emission.

Indicators:

Priority Axis IV     Name          of Value in the base Estimated value Source of data/
                     indicator        year              in the target year frequency  of
                                                                           measures
Product              Number of new 0                    50                 Programme
indicators           or    modernised                                      monitoring
                     environmental                                         (annually)
                     protection
                     equipment




103
    OJ L 257 as of 10 October 1996.
104
    OJ L 129 as of 18 May 1976.
105
    OJ L 309 as of 27 November 2001.
106
    OJ L 194 as of 25 July 1975.
107
    OJ L 377 as of 31 December 1991
108
    OJ L 365 as of 31 December 1994.
109
    OJ L 332 as of 28 December 2000.
110
    OJ L 37 as of 13 February 2003.
111
    OJ L 269 as of 21 October 2000.


                                                86
Result indicators Decreasing
                  emissions of the
                  main sources of
                  air      pollution
                  coming        from                                         CSO/OŚ
                  particularly          845.9             358                (annually)
                  harmful sources       308.0             239
                  of             fuel   98.6              50
                  combustion
                  (thousand
                  tonnes):
                  Sulphur dioxide
                  Nitric oxides
                  Dusts
                  Decreasing the
                  amount           of
                  industrial waste      841.3             675                CSO/OŚ
                  water that need       790.8             660                (annually)
                  purification (hm3):
                   -of which purified
                   one
                   Decreasing the
                   amount of waste
                   (other        than                                        CSO/OŚ
                   municipal)                                                (annually)
                   (thousand                              110 000.0
                   tonnes):           124 029.5           99 000.0
                   - produced in 97 414.7
                       total          22 578.3            49 500.0
                   - of        which
                       recycled
                   - of        which
                       neutralised


Priority Axis V: Environment protection and the promotion of ecological habits.

The main objective of the Priority Axis

The reduction of natural environment degradation, losses of its resources and deterioration of
biological variety.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

   Restoring the proper conditions of natural habitats (ecosystems) and sanctuaries for
    species on protected areas, preserving endangered species and the genetic variety of flora,
    fauna and fungi.
   Restoring ecological corridors to a passable condition in order to enable the movement of
    animals and proper functioning of the population in the scale of the country.
   Supporting the process of drafting protection plans for protected areas.


                                                87
      Increasing awareness concerning the need for and methods of environment protection and
       the conservation of nature and landscape.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

The priority axis shall implement initiatives of active environment protection on protected
areas in Poland, which will lead to reduction of natural environment degradation ands losses
of biological diversity, according to the Natural Strategy of Protection and Moderate Use of
Biological Diversity along with the programme of this strategy‟s initiatives and the National
Forest Policy. Support will be given to repeatable initiatives – implemented by means of
standard methods and instruments. Support shall be given to initiatives aimed at preserving
endangered species and the genetic variety of flora, fauna and fungi, as well as restoring
ecological corridors to a passable condition in order to enable the proper functioning of the
Nature 2000 network. The priority axis will also include initiatives concerning the promotion
of social habits supporting environment protection and the conservation of nature, including
preserving biological variety and landscape conservation, as well as developing pro-
ecological habits through widely understood ecological education.

The proper implementation of protection initiatives on territories protected by Polish law,
such as: nature reserves, national parks, landscape parks and regions included in the Nature
2000 programme, requires the preparation of protection plans for a period of 20 years and
programmes protecting particular species or natural habitats. It is also necessary to restore the
proper conditions of natural habitats of ecosystems and sanctuaries on territories protected by
Polish law, including in regions covered by the Nature 2000 programme, in accordance with
the 79/409/EEC directive (the “Bird” Directive) and the 92/43/EEC directive (the “Habitat”
Directive). The priority is to preserve 76 types of endangered habitats in the scale of European
Community and reduce the growing anthropologic pressure. Furthermore, it is necessary to
organise and control tourist activities on protected areas by developing appropriate
infrastructure.

The justification of the Priority Axis implementation results directly from the requirements
specified in the diagnosis. Due to the development of civilisation and the economy, the
resources of biological and landscape variety which constitute the significant natural heritage
of Poland are endangered by growing degradation. In the long term the process may affect the
natural balance of human environment. Poland‟s unique natural qualities directly affect, both
human health, as well as various branches of the economy (eg. the development of tourism).
Priority axis initiatives correspond to the regulations specified in strategic documents of the
biological variety convention112, drawn in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992, the National
Ecological Policy, the National Cohesion Strategy, which provide for protection initiatives,
particularly in areas with high natural qualities – protected areas, including those of the
Nature 2000 programme.

It is necessary to protect Poland‟s natural resources, as well as increase their accessibility.
Particular attention should be given to the rational use of natural environment resources,
taking into account future generations.

Furthermore, the society‟s awareness of the influence of human activities on natural
environment continues to be insufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to promote ecological
awareness , pro-ecological habits and positive attitudes concerning the natural environment.
112
      Polish Journal of Laws of 2002 No. 184, item 1532.


                                                           88
     The priority axis shall support initiatives concerning among other things reconstruction of
      degraded (water and other than forest) habitats, the reconstruction of degraded forest
      habitats through adjusting species composition of tree stands to potential habitat
      conditions, restoration of a proper water balance of water and mud habitats, purchase of
      land of key significance for nature conservation and re-naturalisation, construction or
      modernisation of small infrastructure which would make protected areas available to
      tourists, as well as construction of animal passages, situated above and under the existing
      roads and railway lines113.

     Support will be also given to initiatives concerning ex situ and in situ protection of
      genetically endangered and protected species, re-introduction of species, construction of
      CITES centres for keeping species and centres for animal rehabilitation and construction
      and expansion of premises for animals and plants in zoological or botanical gardens – as
      part of the national programmes for the protection of species.

     Funds will also be designated for preparation of technical and environmental
      documentation of the projects covered by this priority axis (among other things protection
      plans of species and habitats, environmental stocktaking, description of the existing
      situation along with an analysis of needs and opportunities), development of nature
      protection plans for the Natura 2000 areas and national parks, nation-wide and trans-
      regional training projects or programmes of active education for particular social and
      professional groups, aimed at increasing qualifications and promoting awareness
      concerning sustainable development, information and promotional campaigns concerning
      particular areas of environment protection taking advantage of the mass media,
      community ecological organisations and other organisations, as well as opinion polls,
      building a partnership network for environment protection, moderating social dialogue as
      an element integrating the society, in particular community organisations in the decision
      making process.

Within the 10% limit specified in Art. 33, Paragraph 2 of regulation No. 1083/2006114 which
provides for financial support from the European Regional Development Fund for initiatives
qualified as part of the European Social Fund, a training programme will be financed to the
amount of 10% of the total eligible costs, as part of the Priority Axis.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis shall be, most of all: national parks, entities
managing protected areas, landscape parks, forest inspectorates, non-government
organisations and research institutions.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

         providing protection for the most significant ecological areas as concerns economic
          development,

113
    Moreover, the funds under priority axis V will be designated for the construction of passageways foe animals
and improvement of ecological corridors that are in conflict with the existing road and railway infrastructure.
According to the “polluter pays” principle the investor of the new investment ensures proper condition of being
passable of ecological corridors in the places where such conflicts occur.
114
    Regulation No. 1083/2006 as of 11 July 2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional
Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and repealing Regulation (EC) No.
1260/1999 (JO L 210 as of 31 July 2006, p. 25).


                                                      89
        increasing ecological awareness, in particular concerning protected areas,
        proper use of Poland‟s unique natural qualities in order to increase the country‟s
         attractiveness.

Indicators:

Priority Axis 5      Name of indicator     Value in the base Estimated value in Source of    data/
                                           year              the target year    frequency       of
                                                                                measures
Product indicators   Number             of 0                 60                 Programme
                     completed   projects                                       monitoring
                     in the    field of                                         (annually)
                     education          or
                     promotion          of
                     ecological  attitudes
                     (numbers)
                     Number             of 0                150                Programme
                     completed projects                                        monitoring
                     aimed at protection                                       (annually)
                     of habitats, plant
                     communities       and
                     species (numbers)
                     Number of persons 0                    400 thousand       Programme
                     participating in mass                                     monitoring
                     events                                                    (annually)
Result indicators    Total surface of 0                     7 000              Programme
                     areas     in    which                                     monitoring
                     protection of the                                         (annually)
                     proper condition of
                     ecosystems has been
                     restored           or
                     guaranteed (ha)
                     Number of species 0                    15                 Programme
                     covered            by                                     monitoring
                     protection         or                                     (annually)
                     reintroduction
                     programme
                     (numbers)
                     Number             of 0                100                Programme
                     developed protection                                      monitoring
                     programmes                                                (annually)
                     (numbers)


Priority Axis VI: TEN-T road and air transport network.

The main objective of the Priority Axis:

Increasing Poland‟s transport accessibility and improving interregional connections by
developing the road and air TEN-T network.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

   improving traffic flow and safety, carrying capacity and quality of roads in TEN-T
    network in transit transport, connections between the country‟s big cities and transfers
    through towns,


                                                90
     increasing the capacity of airports included in the TEN-T network and of Polish air space
      as well as providing a high standard of services provided by these airports.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

The Priority Axis shall implement the construction of sections of the A1, A2 A4 and A18
highways, sections of dual-carriageways connecting the biggest agglomerations, the
construction of ring-roads and the redevelopment of sections of other national roads included
in TEN-T network, including sections in poviat cities.

The priority axis shall also support initiatives aimed at expanding the infrastructure115 of
airports included in the TEN-T network, passenger terminals, airport investments and
preparing the construction of a second central airport in Poland.

Under the priority axis initiatives will be supported related to preparation of technical
documentation of investments compliant with the priority axis objectives.

As a result of the said initiatives, a road network will be created with parameters higher than
the present ones, including a network of roads with high traffic capacity which will constitute
a system of connections between the biggest economic centres of the country. Hence, traffic
congestion in the areas of big cities will be reduced and the time of travel between particular
cities - significantly shorter. It shall also allow for a better traffic flow of transit transport in
Poland.

The investments planned in the civil aviation sector provide for the adjustment of big Polish
airports included in the TEN-T network to the growing transport demands and adjustment of
the air traffic infrastructure to the dynamically growing traffic in the Polish air space.

Eliminating development barriers in Poland by developing road networks and airports shall
allow for taking advantage of Poland‟s geographical location and the size of the market. It
shall also improve the trade balance with European Union countries and other neighbouring
countries. The expansion of the existing road system shall allow for the proper development
of industry and services and improve the quality of passenger transport. It shall also allow for
taking benefit from the expansion of the Common Market, as well as create new possibilities
for attracting foreign capital and increase the mobility of people at working age.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis shall be most of all: entities responsible for the
management of national roads and airports included in the TEN-T network.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

     creating an efficient network of transport connections, which will result in intensified
      trade exchange within the Common Market,
     regional economic development and increased accessibility of the main agglomerations,
     increasing the transport safety level, which will limit the high social and economic costs
      of road accidents.

Indicators
115
   Currently the TEN-T network included airports in Warsaw, Poznań, Szczecin, Wrocław, Gdańsk, Rzeszów,
Cracow and Katowice.


                                                   91
Priority Axis VI   Name         of Value in the base Estimated value Source of data/
                   indicator       year              in the target year frequency     of
                                                     2013 (2015)        measures
Product            Highways                                             GDDKiA
indicators         (built) (km)    0                 477 (636)          (the     General
                                                                        Directorate for
                                                                        National Roads
                                                                        and Motorways)
                   Dual-           0                 1132 (1310)
                   carriageways                                         GDDKiA
                   (built) (km)                                         (the     General
                                                                        Directorate for
                                                                        National Roads
                                                                        and Motorways)

                   Roads           0                  375 (500)
                   redeveloped for                                     GDDKiA
                   the 115kN/axle                                      (the     General
                   capacity                                            Directorate for
                                                                       National Roads
                                                                       and Motorways)

                   Airports          0                8
                   (redeveloped)                                       Enterprises   and
                   (numbers)                                           companies
                                                                       managing      the
                                                                       airports




Result indicators Shortening the 0                    273 (364)        GDDKiA
                  time of travel of                                    (the     General
                  passenger    cars                                    Directorate for
                  modernised                                           National Roads
                  sections (min.)                                      and Motorways)
                                                                       (annually)
                   Increased traffic 7.1              25.2             Enterprises and
                   capacity       of                                   companies
                   airports in the                                     managing     the
                   TEN-T network                                       airports
                   (million
                   passengers)




                                           92
                       Increasing    the
                       capacity       of
                       airports included
                       in the TEN-T
                       network


Priority Axis VII: Environment-friendly transport.

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Increasing the rate of ecological transport in total passenger and cargo transport.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

     improving the condition of the railway connections system included in the TEN-T
      network, and particular sections of the system which are not included in the network, as
      well as improving passenger service in the international and inter-regional railway
      transport system,
     increasing the competitiveness of Polish sea ports in the Baltic Sea region,
     increasing the amount of ecological public transport in urban areas116,
     increasing the amount of multimodal transport in total cargo transport,
     improving navigation conditions on inland water sailing water-ways.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

The priority axis shall support the following means of transport:
 railway transport,
 sea transport,
 municipal public transport in urban areas,
 multimodal transport,
 inland water transport.

The implementation of the priority axis shall increase the rate of alternative means of
transport in total passenger and cargo transport (railway transport, sea transport, public
transport in urban areas, multimodal transport, inland water transport), which shall result in a
better balance of the transport system, decrease the negative effects of transport on the
environment and limit traffic congestion. The priority axis shall implement mainly projects
concerning modernisation of railway lines included in the TEN-T network along with
purchase of modern rolling stock and projects concerning sea transport, including sea
highways. Support in the field of sea transport will be given to four sea ports significant for
the country‟s economy (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Szczecin and Świnoujście), included in the TEN-T
network, and four ports which are not included in the network (Police, Elbląg, Darłowo and
Kołobrzeg). In the field of public transport support will be mainly given to projects

116
   Currently urban areas that may obtain support under this priority axis include the following regions:
warszawski, katowicki, wrocławski, łódzki, trójmiejski, krakowski, poznański, bydgosko-toruński and
szczeciński.


                                                       93
concerning extension of the railway network (fast city train, tramway lines, subway) and
trolleybus lines along with the purchase of rolling stock, construction and reconstruction of
change stations and points and telematics systems improving operations of public transport.
The priority axis also provides for investments concerning construction of container terminals
and logistic centres and sailing on the upper Odra River.

This priority axis also provides for projects, which will include the construction and
modernisation of infrastructure, purchase of necessary equipment and rolling stock for
purposes of the modernised infrastructure.

Under this priority axis support will also be given to projects regarding preparation of
technical infrastructure of investments compliant with the priority axis objectives.

In order to create a balanced transport system in Poland the following is necessary:

   sustaining the high rate of railway transport in total cargo transport. This requires
    significant investments in railway lines and initiatives aimed at modernising train
    carriages,
   increasing the rate of sea transport in international trade exchange, in particular in the
    Baltic Sea region,
   in urban areas, supporting means of transport alternative to individual transport,
   supporting the development of multimodal transport,
   decreasing the regress of inland sailing.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis shall be: entities responsible for the management
of railway lines, sea ports, logistic centres, inland water routes, units of territorial self-
government and institutions responsible for public transport in the following metropolitan
areas: Warsaw, Katowice, Wrocław, Łódź, Kraków, Poznań, Bydgoszcz-Toruń, Szczecin and
Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

   increasing the rate of transport alternative to road transport in the passenger and cargo
    transport (railway transport, sea transport, multimodal transport, inland water transport,
    public transport rail in urban areas),
   better balance of the transport system,
   decreasing the negative effects of transport on the environment,
   decreasing traffic congestion.


Indicators:

Priority Axis VII Name           of Value in the base Estimated value        Source of data/
                  indicator         year              in the target year     frequency    of
                                                      2013 (2015)            measures
Product            Modernised       0                 1248 (1566)            PKP PJL S.A.
indicators         railway    lines                                          (annually)
                   (km)




                                              94
                  Built           and   0                6.6 (8.9)          Seaports
                  modernised port                                           authorities
                  shores (km)                                               (annually)
                  Built           and   0                410 (550)          Self-government
                  modernised                                                authorities
                  railway         and                                       (annually)
                  trolleybus
                  transport     lines
                  (km)
                  Built           and   0                3(5)               Operators     of
                  extended logistic                                         logistic centres
                  centres         and                                       (annually)
                  container
                  terminals
                  (numbers)
                  Modernised            0                270(370)           RZGW
                  waterways (km)                                            (annually)
Result indicators Shortening time       0                525 (700)          Time-table     of
                  of        transport                                       trains
                  through
                  modernised
                  sections         of
                  railways (km)
                  Increase         of   0                10.8(14.4)         Sea         ports
                  handling capacity                                         authorities
                  of ports (%)                                              (annually)
                  Transport             4150             4225 (4250)        CSO (annually)
                  performed        by
                  means of urban
                  transport (million
                  of passengers)


Priority Axis VIII: Transport safety and national transport networks.

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Increasing the safety level as well as Poland‟s transport accessibility and improving national
interregional connections not included in the TEN-T network.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

   increasing the safety of road traffic,
   improving the condition of national roads not included in the TEN-T network,
   improving the efficiency of traffic management,
   increasing the safety of air transport,
   extension of the national system of sea and river transport

The description and justification of the Priority Axis



                                               95
The priority axis shall support the following projects:

   increasing the safety of road traffic. Improving the safety level of roads included, on the
    one hand, improving the infrastructure of national roads by providing equipment
    increasing traffic safety, on the other hand, changing the attitude and behaviour of all
    persons involved in road traffic,
   improving the condition of national roads not included in the TEN-T network. Increasing
    the standard of national roads will improve their traffic capacity, safety and shorten
    passage time, which leads to reduction of car transport costs
   the development of Intelligent Transport Systems, in particular traffic management
    systems,
   providing necessary safety standards in air transport in accordance with international and
    domestic regulations,
   construction and modernisation of sea and river inland water-ways along with extension
    of the existing infrastructure of inland waterways not included in the TEN-T network.

The selection of this particular priority axis is a result of the requirement to develop national
transport infrastructure not included in the TEN-T network. Furthermore, it is related to the
need to immediately increase the safety of road and air traffic, as well as the application of
modern information technologies in the transport system.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis shall be most of all: entities responsible for the
management of national roads and airports, entities responsible for road and air traffic safety,
units of self-government, entities providing services to passengers and managing public
transport, marine authorities and sea ports authorities.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

   increasing the safety level of road traffic,
   improving the efficiency of the inter-regional connection system,
   increased application of Intelligent Transport Systems,
   increasing the safety level of air transport.

Indicators:

Priority      Axis Name           of Value in the base Estimated value Source of data/
VIII               indicator         year              in the target year frequency  of
                                                                          measures
Product            Built        and 0                  512 (669)          GDDKiA
indicators         modernised dual                                        (annually)
                   carriage    ways
                   (km)
                   National roads 0                    225 (300)          GDDKiA
                   reconstructed to                                       (annually)
                   comply       with
                   carrying capacity
                   of 115 kN/axle
                   (km)




                                               96
                   Number           of   0                 15 (20)            GDDKiA,
                   reconstructed                                              KRBRD
                   dangerous places                                           (annually)
                   Number           of   0                 11                 Entities
                   airports                                                   managing
                   converted        in                                        airports
                   terms            of                                        (annually)
                   protection     and
                   safety
Result indicator   Shortening travel     0                 18 (24)            GDDKiA
                   time of passenger                                          (annually)
                   cars       through
                   modernised roads
                   (minutes)
                   Shortening travel     0                 40 (54)            GDDKiA
                   time of lorries                                            (annually)
                   through
                   modernised roads
                   (minutes)
                   Number           of   14.3              8.5 (7.4)          KGP (annually)
                   fatalities in road    5444              2800
                   accidents      (per
                   100       thousand
                   inhabitants and
                   in         absolute
                   numbers)


Priority Axis IX: Road infrastructure in Eastern Poland.

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Improving transport connections between the main cities of eastern Poland and other parts of
the country by developing the road network in the eastern regions.


The description and justification of the Priority Axis

The eastern regions of Poland are characterised by low transport accessibility; therefore, it is
necessary to create efficient transport connections with the rest of Poland and other countries.
The lack of territorial cohesion in the east of Poland sustains development discrepancies
between particular parts of the country and the European Union.

Due to the transit location of eastern Poland, the main transport routes in the eastern regions
may play a significant role in the handling of international transport between Western and
Eastern Europe.

Due to the fact, that the TEN-T network includes corridors which run through the two biggest
cities of eastern Poland: Białystok and Lublin, the priority axis shall support most of all the



                                                97
modernization of the national roads connecting those two centres with Warsaw into dual-
carriageways (the S8 and S17 roads).

As a result of implementing the priority axis, the connection between the two biggest cities of
eastern Poland and Warsaw will be improved, which shall increase the economic
development of eastern Poland, the poorest areas of the country.

Under the priority axis support will be given to initiatives concerning preparation of technical
documentation of investments that comply with the objectives of the priority axis.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis shall be: entities responsible for the management
of national roads included in the TEN-T network.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis:

   increasing the transport accessibility of eastern Poland,
   increasing the attractiveness of the two biggest cities of eastern Poland for locating
    production investments.

Indicators:

Priority Axis IX   Name            of Value in the base Estimated value       Source of data/
                   indicator          year              in the target year    frequency       of
                                                        2013 (2015)           measures
Product            Dual-              0                 (268)                 GDDKiA (the
indicators         carriageways                                               General
                   built        and                                           Directorate for
                   modernised (km)                                            National Roads
                                                                              and Motorways)
                                                                              (annually)
Result indicators Shortening travel 0                      55 (55)            GDDKiA
                  time of passenger                                           (annually)
                  cars            on
                  modernised road
                  sections (min.)
                                     0                     122 (122)          GDDKiA
                  Shortening travel                                           (annually)
                  time of lorries on
                  modernised road
                  sections (min.)




Priority Axis X: Environment-friendly energy infrastructure.

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Increasing the country‟s energy safety concerning the impact of the energy sector on the
environment.


                                              98
Specific Priority Axis objectives:

          Increasing the efficiency of energy production, transmission, distribution and use.
           Increasing the amount of energy produced from renewable sources, including bio-
           fuels.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

Under the Priority Axis, support will be granted for initiatives aimed at increasing the share of
primary energy use in the energy sector and decreasing energy consumption of the public
sector, as well as increasing the amount of energy produced from renewable sources,
including bio-fuels. Moreover, support will be given to preparation of technical
documentation concerning investments compliant with the priority axis objectives.

 As concerns increasing the energy efficiency of the energy sector, support shall be given to
improve the efficiency of electricity generation, in particular energy from combined heat and
power production (CHP) and reducing electrical energy and heat losses during transmission
and distribution. The support for dispersed energy generation, as well the construction of
local, small generation units generation units which would produce electricity and heat for
local needs, without having to be dispatched for long distances, are the priority of the strategy
to reduce energy-consumption in energy generation and energy transmission. Initiatives of
this type fulfil the requirements of the European Parliament and Council directive 2004/8/EC
as of 11th February 2004 on promoting co-generation based on a useful heat demand in the
internal energy market117.

In heat engineering a priority is improving efficiency of heat distribution to recipients. In the
electric energy sector the reduction of grid losses shall be achieved by the process of
modernising, exchange and construction of new electric energy distribution networks.

The objective to save energy in the public sector shall include support for
thermomodernisation of public utility premises, including changing their infrastructure to
include equipment of the highest, economically justified, energy efficiency.

In order to increase the use of renewable energy resources, it is necessary to implement
initiatives aimed at increasing the amount of electricity and heat produced from renewable
energy sources. Higher use of renewable energy sources shall be implemented through
implementation of investments concerning construction or modernisation of entities
producing:


          electricity, and using biomass, biogas, energy of wind and water,
          heat, with the use of biomass, geothermal and solar energy,
          combined heat and power from renewable energy sources,
          biodiesel fuel and other fuels, excluding agricultural products specified in Annex I to
           the Treaty establishing the European Communities



117
      OJ L 52 as of 21 February 2004


                                                 99
To support the objective, that is increased use of renewable energy sources, it is also planned
to use co-financing from the Cohesion Fund for investments of enterprises producing
equipment for OZE and implementation of investments related to construction and
modernisation of the power networks which make it possible to connect new entities
producing electricity to OZE.

It is expected that the support under this priority axis will significantly meet the local needs
concerning increase of energy efficiency. The public funds support as regards electricity
distribution networks will be mainly addressed to areas of eastern Poland. Modernisation of
heat distribution networks will have a significant influence on increasing energy efficiency in
large urban agglomerations. Investments in the field of energy and fuel production from
renewable energy sources will contribute to economic mobilisation of regions rich in
renewable energy sources; as a result of implementation of the priority axis development in
the industrial sector as well as in the agricultural one is expected.

The main beneficiaries under the Priority Axis shall be: entrepreneurs, entities of territorial
self-government and their associations, entities of government administration, state higher
schools, churches and religious associations, non-governmental organisations, associations
and other public institutions.

The estimated effects of implementing the Priority Axis

   reducing the consumption of primary energy and the emission of CO2 and other
    greenhouse gases,
   increased use of renewable energy sources.

Indicators:

Priority Axis X    Name            of Value in the base Estimated value Source            of
                   indicator          year              in the target year data/frequency of
                                                                           measures
Product           Number           of 0                 29                 Programme
indicators        implemented                                              monitoring/annu
                  projects                                                 ally
                  (numbers)
                  Value            of 0                   5 493.2 million    Programme
                  implemented                                                monitoring/annu
                  projects (in PLN)                                          ally
Result indicators Amount           of 0                   1 570 000          Programme
                  energy saved as a                                          monitoring/annu
                  result of projects‟                                        ally
                  implementation
                  (MWh)




                                              100
                   Amount         of 0                   260                 Programme
                   energy produced                                           monitoring/annu
                   from renewable                                            ally
                   energy sources as
                   a     result   of
                   projects‟
                   implementation
                   (GWh/year)
                   Annual            0                   929                 Programme
                   production     of                                         monitoring/annu
                   bio-components                                            ally
                   (in thousands of
                   tons)


Priority Axis XI: Energy security

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Increasing the country‟s energy safety level by creating new transmission and transport
capacities of electricity, natural gas and crude oil, as well as by expanding underground
storage areas of natural gas, providing access to gas grid in areas not supplied with gas and
modernising the existing distribution networks.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

      Development of transmission systems of electricity, natural gas and crude oil and
       construction and expansion of underground storage areas of natural gas,
      Construction of distribution systems of natural gas in areas that are not supplied with
       gas and modernisation of the existing distribution networks.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

Under the Priority, support will be granted to initiatives aimed at developing transfer and
distribution systems of electricity, natural gas and crude oil, as well as the construction and
expansion of underground storage areas for natural gas. Financial support under the priority
axis will be also given to construction of natural gas distribution networks in areas not
supplied with gas. Moreover, support will be given to preparation of technical documentation
concerning investments compliant with the priority axis objectives.

As part of its constitutional obligations, government administration is responsible for the
country‟s energy policy aimed at ensuring energy safety. The state is responsible for creating
appropriate conditions for investments in energy infrastructure, including the expansion of
transfer and distribution networks and natural gas storage areas. Poland, as a member of the
European Union, implements energy policy which takes into account other member states. By
implementing projects which increase the safety of fuel and power supplies to the internal
market, Poland strengthens the safety level of the entire community and fulfils its
requirements concerning the creation of a uniform, competitive fuel and energy market of the
EU.



                                              101
The present condition of network infrastructure in Poland does not allow for an efficient
functioning of the electricity and natural gas market. The high depreciation level of fixed
assets in the energy sector, the poor technical condition of natural gas transfer and distribution
networks and their uneven development, require immediate intervention of enterprises,
government administration and the European Communities. The European Commission
seems to share the above view, which is reflected, among others, in the Community strategic
guidelines for 2007-2013 and the integrated guidelines for development and employment for
2005-2008. The said documents emphasise the fact, that in order to increase the
competitiveness, attractiveness and employment level of particular regions and the entire
Community, investments in the energy sector are necessary. The 2004/67/EC directive
concerning the means to ensure the safety of natural gas supplies118, states that the
Community is vitally interested in the continuity of investments in the gas supplies structure.

Difficulties, even temporary in nature, which reduce the supply of energy may significantly
affect the economic activities of particular member states, as well as the entire Community.
However, the projects for the expansion or modernisation of energy infrastructure are
expensive, time-consuming and frequently difficult to implement on a commercial basis.
Therefore, any decisions concerning investments in the energy sector should be taken well in
advance and take into account the forecasted future demand for fuels and energy.

Projects concerning energy lines (electricity and natural gas lines) of particular significance
for the European Union in creating the energy market and the security of supplies, as well as
environment protection, constitute part of the European Commission trans-European energy
network (TEN-T) programme. The list of projects which are of particular interest to the EU,
including priority projects, is specified the 1364/2006/EC decision of the European
Parliament and Council as of 6th September 2003, which introduces guidelines for trans-
European energy networks and repeals decision No. 96/391/EC and 1229/2003/EC119. The
said projects support sustainable and steady development and significantly affect the
functioning of a competitive European internal market, as well as increase the security of
energy supplies to the EU.

The “Energy Security” Priority Axis implements the objectives of the Polish Energy Policy to
2025 as concerns the country‟s energy safety level, by increasing the diversification of
supplies, improving the transport, transmission and distribution of fuels and energy and
providing a level of fuel reserves which would allow for continuous supply to consumers120.


The main beneficiaries of the priority Axis programme will include: entrepreneurs and trading
enterprises, as well as operators of electricity, natural gas and crude oil transfer and
distribution systems.

The estimated results of implementing the Priority Axis:
 reducing technical barriers affecting the competition on fuel and energy markets,
   providing continuous supplies and security of natural gas and power supplies, increasing
   the diversification of natural gas and crude oil supply sources,
 increasing the efficiency of transmission and distribution systems,
 increasing the capacity of underground natural gas storage areas.
118
    OJ L 127 as of 29 April 2004, p. 92
119
    OJ L 262 as of 22 September 2006, p. 1
120
    “Poland’s energy policy by 2025”, a document approved of by the Council of Ministers on 4 January 2005.


                                                    102
Indicators:

Priority Axis XI     Name of indicator      Value in the base Estimated value in Source of data/
                                            year              the target year    frequency         of
                                                                                 measures
Product indicators   The length of newly 0                    3.4 thousand       Programme
                     built gas pipelines of                                      monitoring
                     the transfer and                                            (annually)
                     distribution system
                     (km)
                     Length of newly 0                        556                Programme
                     built oil pipelines                                         monitoring
                     (km)                                                        (annually)
                     Length     of built 0                    600                Programme
                     power transmission                                          monitoring
                     grids (km)                                                  (annually)
Result indicators    Number of powiats 0                      43                 Programme
                     where a natural gas                                         monitoring
                     distribution network                                        (annually)
                     has been built or
                     extended
                     Annual      capacities 0                 3                  Programme
                     concerning reception                                        monitoring/annually
                     of condensed gas
                     supplied by sea
                     (billion m3)
                     Active capacity of 1 621.73              2800               Programme
                     underground natural                                         monitoring
                     gas storage areas                                           (annually)
                     (million m3)

                     Annual amount of 0                      25                   Programme
                     crude oil transported                                        monitoring
                     with      new      oil                                       (annually)
                     pipelines through the
                     borders of Poland
                     (million tonnes)
                     Electricity            0                700                  Programme
                     transmission                                                 monitoring
                     capacity of trans-                                           (annually)
                     boarder connections
                     with        Lithuania
                     (MW)


Priority Axis XII: Culture and cultural heritage

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Taking advantage of the cultural potential and cultural heritage of worldwide and European
significance in order to increase Poland‟s attractiveness.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

   the protection, preservation and efficient use of trans-regional cultural heritage



                                                103
   improving the condition of cultural infrastructure of trans-regional significance and
    increasing the access to culture,
   developing the infrastructure of art schools.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

Achieving the specific objectives of the Priority Axis requires the implementation of
transregional projects concerning protection of cultural heritage, development, extension and
conversion of trans-regional cultural infrastructure.
Under the Priority Axis, support will be granted to projects concerning the protection and
preservation of immovable monuments of trans-regional significance, including those
contained in the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List or those declared to be
Historical Monuments by the President of the Republic of Poland. Support will also be given
to projects concerning the protection and preservation of movable monuments of cultural
heritage, as well as projects concerning the development of digital resources of libraries and
archives and the virtual resources of museums. Moreover, support will be given to preparation
of technical documentation concerning investments compliant with the priority axis
objectives. The Priority Axis will also implement projects concerning the development and
improvement of cultural infrastructure, such as art schools. Investments regarding art
education have a direct influence on improving the quality of education and help develop
highly qualified staff. This in consequence may improve the quality of the cultural offer
(among others of concert halls, operas, theatres) and of cultural products created by cultural
sectors (such as among others music or film industry), which at the same time improves the
good image of the country and increases its attractiveness for tourists or investors. A broadly
available and attractive cultural offer also improves the quality of life and increases cultural
competences of the society.

Cultural heritage is one of the most significant factors affecting Poland‟s attractiveness.
Culture and the Polish cultural heritage constitute one of the crucial elements creating a
positive image of Poland, identifying and promoting the country‟s image in other European
countries and around the world. Furthermore, culture also constitutes a strategic advantage in
the process of defining Poland‟s place and position within the European Union. It also
performs a significant role in social life, as it integrates and builds regional and national
identity. Moreover, it is a universal instrument of developing international co-operation and
creating a common, European social and cultural identity. Poland has cultural resources of
significant value and variety, and a particularly rich cultural heritage which is the result of
complicated civilisation processes, multiculturalism, Polish tolerance of national, ethnic and
religious minorities and the country‟s thousand-year history. Therefore, numerous Polish
monuments have been included in the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List, as
well as the list of Monuments of the President of Poland. A significant part of the country‟s
cultural heritage includes works of art. and archive and library resources gathered throughout
the ages, as well as modern culture represented by artists recognised world wide and in
Europe.

It is worth noting, that supporting investments in culture and cultural initiatives further affects
the culture industry, as it creates work places for highly-qualified staff and generates a
significant part of the gross national product. Investments concerning the development of
cultural infrastructure and the protection of cultural heritage affect the country‟s development
in the following manner:



                                               104
      economic development, as an important factor affecting the country‟s development by
       participating in generating the GDP , creating new work places and increasing the quality
       of life,
      social development (creating a society based on knowledge and social capital)

The main beneficiaries of the priority axis in the field of cultural heritage protection and
preservation will be: cultural institutions (state, self-government and co-governed by the
Minister of Culture and National Heritage Protection), art schools for which the managing
authority is the minister of culture and national heritage protection or self-government
entities, art schools supervised by the minister of culture and national heritage protection,
units of territorial self-government, churches and religious associations, cultural non-
governmental organisations operating in the public interest, state archives and also – as
regards digitalisation of historical collections, maintenance of moveable monuments and their
protection from theft and destruction – public schools. Also, not-profit state enterprises121
which implement projects regarding objects included in the UNESCO World Cultural and
Natural Heritage List or list of Monuments of the President of Poland have been accepted. As
regards investments that are aimed at developing and improving the condition of transregional
cultural infrastructure beneficiaries will be cultural institutions (state, self-government or co-
governed with the Minister of Culture and National Heritage Protection), cultural non-
governmental organisations operating in the public interest, churches and religious
associations, state archives and non-government organisations.

Support of projects concerning developing the infrastructure of art schools could be given to
art schools where the managing body is the minister of culture and national heritage
protection or entities of territorial self-governments, as well as art schools supervised by the
ministry of culture and national heritage protection.

The estimated results of implementing the Priority Axis:

      improving the condition of immovable monuments,
       improving the condition of movable monuments,
      improving the condition of historical monuments, particularly monuments included in the
      the development and improvement of the condition of cultural infrastructure of trans-
       regional significance,
      increasing the country‟s attractiveness for its inhabitants, tourists and investors,
      improving the condition of educational infrastructure of art schools and universities.

Indicators:

Priority Axis XII         Name of indicator    Value in the base Estimated value in Source of    data/
                                               year              the target year    frequency       of
                                                                                    measures
Product indicators        Number of restored 0                   25                 Monitoring
                          and        renovated                                      (annually)
                          historical buildings
                          (number)




121
      Refers only to entities whose activities concern natural heritage protection.


                                                          105
                    A higher number of       0            18                Monitoring
                    new/modernised                                          (annually)
                    cultural institutions
                    (museums, galleries,
                    theatres and music
                    institutions)
                    (number)
                    A higher number of       0            20                Monitoring
                    new/modernised art                                      (annually)
                    education
                    establishments
                    (number)
Result indicators   A higher number of       18488 000    19 000 000        GUS (annually)
                    persons       visiting
                    museums (persons)
                    A higher number of       9 609 000    10 000 000        GUS (annually)
                    audience (persons)



Priority Axis XIII: Health security and improving the efficiency of the healthcare system

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Supporting initiatives which are aimed at maintaining the labour resources in good health.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

   reducing the mortality rate and consequences of complications caused by accidents and
    other sudden health and life-threatening situations
   increasing the access to specialised and highly specialised medical services

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

Improvement of society‟s health condition is aimed at activation and better use of its basic
capabilities, which leads to an increase in the number of economically active persons in the
labour market. A significant element of increasing health security of the labour resources in
Poland is the development of healthcare infrastructure, standards concerning furnishing with
medical equipment and improving the efficiency of rescue actions in health-threatening
situations. This function is to be performed by an integrated medical rescue system including
all rescue system entities which would have a common communications network, rescue
procedures and medical equipment, in order to maintain the “golden hour” principle and
dislocate medical rescue teams.

The development of an integrated medical rescue system will be one of the crucial factors
reducing the mortality and disability rate, in particular caused by road accidents, building
disasters, fires, natural disasters as well as deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases among
persons in the economically productive age group and will also maintain people at working in
a good health condition. One of the expected support results, which will decrease the number
of complications caused by sudden situations, is a quick return to professional activity.
Initiatives aimed at increasing the inhabitants‟ safety level in sudden health-threatening
situations shall be supported from 2007 by new legal regulations (the law of 8 September




                                                    106
2006 on the State Medical Rescue122), which shall establish a uniform framework for the
medical rescue system operation.

In order to increase the quality and accessibility of the medical rescue system in Poland, the
Priority Axis will support projects aimed at the provision of high quality medical services
based on European Union standards (pre-hospital rescue procedures and highly specialised
hospital wards). In order to provide appropriate dislocation of medical rescue teams (which
would allow the teams to reach a person in a life-threatening situation in a time no longer than
8 minutes in urban centres and 15 minutes in rural areas) equipped with proper means of
transport, it is necessary to purchase additional means of sanitary transport of high quality.
Support will be also given to projects concerning modernisation of air ambulance service
bases and adaptation of landing grounds for helicopters, located in the direct vicinity of
hospital rescue wards. Furthermore, the Priority Axis will support projects concerning the
purchase of additional equipment for healthcare institutions to adjust them to the needs of the
medical rescue system, as well as the purchase of medical devices necessary for diagnosis and
treatment of persons.

Support will also be given to enterprises consisting in the construction and equipment of
voivodeship emergency notification systems, so as to enable them to efficiently receive
notifications from 112 emergency number and refer them to the competent entity of the
Police, State Fire Brigade and the rescue service, according to the requirements specified in
the binding provisions of law.

Furthermore, in order to improve the health security of the labour resources and increase the
efficiency of the healthcare system, under the Priority Axis, support will be granted to
projects concerning investments in trans-regional healthcare infrastructure, concerning
provision of specialised123 and highly specialised124 medical services. The Priority Axis will
support projects aimed at increasing the quality of medical services, including diagnosis and
early detection of occupational diseases. Investments in trans-regional healthcare
infrastructure will include the extension, conversion, repair and equipment of healthcare
centres with medical devices.

This will increase the quality of medical services, in particular highly specialised services,
and expand the diagnosis and treatment possibilities.

Under the priority axis support will be also given to projects concerning preparation of
technical documentation for investments corresponding to the priority axis objectives.

The main beneficiaries of the Priority Axis will be, among others: non-public and public
healthcare institutions providing medical services concerning the medical rescue system,
which have the following founding bodies: units of local self-government, government
administration authorities, groups of sanitary transport, public trans-regional healthcare
centres providing specialised medical services, established by the minister or a central
122
    Polish Journal of Laws No. 191, item 1410
123
    Specialised services – healthcare services in all medical branches excluding services provided in the field of
basic healthcare. The law as of 27t August 2004 on Healthcare services financed from public funds (Polish
Journal of Laws, No. 210, item 2135 as amended).
124
    Highly specialised services – healthcare services or medical procedures which fulfill the following criteria: a)
the service provided requires technical advancement of the service provider and advanced skills of persons
performing the service; b) the unit cost of the service is high. The law as of 27 August 2004 on Healthcare
services financed from public funds (Polish Journal of Laws, No. 210, item 2135 as amended).


                                                        107
government administration authority, public medical academies or other public institutions of
higher education conducting educational and research activities concerning medical science.

The estimated results of implementing the Priority Axis:

   providing persons in a health-threatening situation with the possibility of immediate
    arrival of relevant rescue services to the place of accident,
   ensuring immediate transfer to the nearest healthcare centre which provides relevant
    medical services,
   maintaining the “golden hour” principle and the proper dislocation of medical rescue
    teams,
   improving the infrastructural condition of health care establishments providing specialised
    and highly specialised health services.

Indicators:

Priority Axis XIII   Name of indicator    Value in the base Estimated value in Source of data/
                                          year              the target year    frequency          of
                                                                               measures
Product indicators   Number of projects 0                   500                The Ministry of
                                                                               Health (annually)
                     Number            of 0                 600                The Ministry of
                     ambulances                                                Health (annually)
                     purchased for the
                     needs of medical
                     rescue as result of
                     Programme support
Result indicators    Average age of 16                      10                 The Ministry of
                     stationary    X-ray                                       Health (annually)
                     equipment
                     Number            of 54                200                The     Centre    for
                     accredited    health                                      Quality Monitoring
                     care entities                                             in    Health    Care
                                                                               (annually)

Priority Axis XIV: Infrastructure of higher education

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Development of modern university centres that mainly educate specialists in modern
technologies.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

        development of highest quality university centres educating mainly specialists in
         modern technologies.
        Improving quality of education through the use of ICT

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

The decrease in the number of students of sciences (maths, technology and natural science)
leads to decrease in resources of specialists in new technologies and also reduces possibilities
for development of spheres determining competitiveness of the economy and country‟s


                                                108
attractiveness for investors. Therefore, it is necessary to support universities offering
education in specialisations strategic from the point of view of country‟s development, which
will determine competitiveness of the economy, that is most of all sciences. These
specialisations include (among others): physics, chemistry, biotechnology, molecular biology,
electronics and telecommunications, IT, IT and econometrics, maths, biomedical engineering,
chemical and process engineering, materials engineering, automation and robotics. Focusing
the support in the field of higher education mainly on initiatives concerning cutting edge
technologies results from high costs of providing modern equipment on the one side, and a
large potential for the use of high skills acquired during the studies. The priority given to the
international character of supported projects will ensure highest quality education acquired
under selected projects and will also contribute to the creation of a European contact network
among specialists in these fields.

Support would be mainly given to universities providing education in the field of modern
technologies supported under Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment:
transport, environmental engineering, power industry and health protection. To a limited
extent, including up to 25% of the total funds for the priority axis support will be given to
other specialisations of education and accompanying infrastructure (such as sports and
recreation), used by students. Priority will be given to these projects of higher schools thanks
to which it will be possible to organise studies of international character.

In addition, under the priority axis support will be given most of all to complex infrastructural
projects concerning development of ITC, which will be used for teaching purposes in higher
education. An important issue requiring support will be networking of projects – that is
promotion of projects based on cooperation of universities in a given project. Support for
information society infrastructure of higher universities will result in modernisation of and
increasing efficiency of education process, irrespective of the specialisation. It will also help
universities react quicker to changes caused by internal needs and the environment, mainly
economic one and contribute to a better use of education results in the labour market. Support
for areas obtaining co-financing under the programme will make it possible to train specialists
necessary for the maintenance and further modernisation of the created infrastructure,
ensuring at the same time permanence and efficiency of investments implemented under the
investment programmes.

Irrespective of the study specialisation support will be provided to infrastructural projects
concerning IT infrastructure and aimed at full use of ICT potential in teaching/education.

Under the priority axis support will be also given to projects concerning the preparation of
technical documentation for investments corresponding to the priority axis objectives.

The estimated results if implementing the Priority Axis:

      Increasing quality of education in the field of modern technologies,
      Providing better access of students to modern IT instruments and technologies,
       including most of all broadband Internet.
      Creating conditions for increasing the share of universities in implementing European
       education and research projects.

Indicators



                                              109
Priority Axis XIV          Name of indicator                Value in the   Estimated value      Source of data/
                                                             base year       in the target       frequency of
                                                                                 year              measures

                   Number of implemented projects                                            Programme
                   aimed at improving didactic         0                   20                monitoring
                   infrastructure in sciences                                                (annually)
Product indicators
                   Number of implemented ICT                                                 Programme
                   projects concerning universities    0                   30                monitoring
                                                                                             (annually)
                    Number of persons studying                                               GUS (Central
Result indicators   maths, sciences and technical      397.9125            462.7             Statistical Office)
                    specialisations (thousand)                                               (annually)



Priority Axis XV: Technical Assistance – European Regional Development Fund

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Efficient and effective use of means from the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the
Environment.

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

      support for programme management;
      promoting the information;
      programme evaluation and monitoring

The description and justification of the Priority Axis

In the new financial perspective for the years 2007-2013 Poland has a chance to obtain
approx. 27.8 billion EURO from structural funds and the Cohesion Fund for the development
of infrastructure under POIiŚ. This amount would be two and a half times larger than amounts
in the operational programmes implemented so far. The spending and certification of such big
amounts in limited time will be a great burden for the administration and will require high
administrating capacities and thus efficient operation of all institutions involved in POIiŚ
implementation.

In the programming period 2007-2013, for the purposes of POIiŚ management a multi-stage
institutional system will be created, consisting in at least 22 institutions (managing,
intermediate, second stage managing and certifying institutions). The expected difficulty is
the presence of new intermediate bodies in the implementation system, which have not
performed such a role before. A quick and efficient preparation of such institutions for the
fulfilment of new obligations will be a new challenge for the whole system of POiŚ
implementation. Under the priority axis support will be given to initiatives supporting
institutional capacities as well as initiatives aimed at permanent and efficient increase of
professional qualification of staff in institutions participating in implementing priority axis
co-financed from the Cohesion Fund.

Another factor that hinders the implementation is the need to reorganise the institutional
system of the administration. Another training for the staff managing so far the SWW
125
      in 2003.


                                                      110
implementation is needed as well as training for new employees, hired for the purposes of
implementing the new financial perspective 2007-2013. One of the characteristics of the
planned systems of NSRO implementation, including PoiŚ is its significant simplification as
compared to the system used in the years 2004-2006. Changes of the legal environment ( such
as the amendment of the Public Procurement Law) will allow a more effective and more
efficient managing and optimal use of structural assistance. However, the process of
absorbing the funds of support funds under POIiŚ will be expensive. Therefore, a part of
funds allocated under the priority axes for technical assistance will be designated for
financing initiatives aimed at increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of POIiŚ
implementation.

Another condition for the efficient implementation of POIiŚ will be provision of highly
qualified staff and modern staff policy. In the funds implementation period 2004-2006 the
staff management process is one of the crucial system elements. A very important problem of
implementing institutions is the large turnover of employees, which mainly results from very
small wages and salaries. In addition, lower and middle rank employees are persons with a
little professional experience. This problem results from the small attractiveness of work in
public administration for highly qualified specialists. It could be solved by introduction of a
nee human capital management system, including proper training programmes and increase of
wages and salaries in administration responsible for managing POIiŚ as well as the other
operational programmes. Thanks to this, just in the programming perspective for the years
2007-2013 concerning POIiŚ it will be possible to reduce staff turnover while increasing
efficiency and effectiveness of work.

Another problem is also the insufficient level of computerisation. Thus, initiatives related to
provision of the proper technical facilities will be continued under POIiŚ.

In consideration of the above implementation of projects is planned, which in particular refer
to:

      financial support instruments for employment and support in terms of staff of
       institutions performing tasks related to preparation, selection, assessment, monitoring
       of projects and programmes as well as verification of payments, supervision and
       conducting information and promotion initiatives – as regards priority axes co-
       financed from the Cohesion Fund,
      provision of necessary human resources and ongoing increase of their quality and
       creation of administration capacities of institutions participating in the programme
       implementation, among others through strengthening and financing employment,
      supporting the process of evaluation and selection of projects regarding priority axes
       co-financed from the Cohesion Fund,
      organisation and providing services of the Monitoring Committee and Monitoring
       Subcommittees, working groups and teams as well as analysis of data for the needs of
       monitoring and implementation of the programme,
      provision of funds for conducting research and preparation of expert opinions,
       analyses, studies an conceptions oriented at supporting the process management
       process,
      long-term comprehensive consulting services and other external services,
      hire of premises (among others of offices, archives), repair of premises and
       preparation of workplaces for the Managing Authority and other institutions
       participating in management of priority axes,


                                             111
       purchase and installation of office, computer, audio-visual, telecommunication, IT and
        teleinformations equipment as well as other equipment by entities involved in
        implementation of priority axes co-financed from the Cohesion Fund,
       covering the costs of operating equipment and purchase of necessary licences and IT
        software as well as purchase of telecommunication and teleinformation services for
        the purposes of efficient programme implementation,
       preparation of analysis, studies and reports for implementation of the programme as
        regards priority axis financed from the Cohesion Fund,
       archiving documents in electronic and paper form and costs of its submission to the
        European Commission,
       ongoing increase of qualifications of staff involved in managing and implementing
        priority axes co-financed from the Cohesion Fund, among others through training,
        seminars, workshops, courses, studies and continuation of education as well as
        traineeship, practice and study visits in other countries participating in implementation
        of EU cohesion policy,
       evaluation regarding assessment of priority axes financed from the Cohesion Fund
       implementation of Communication Plan as well as information and promotion
        initiatives,
       running information points and current administration and office services provided for
        the information process,
       financing costs of programming future structural assistance under a new budget
        perspective of the European Union.

The main beneficiaries of the priority axis will be the institution managing the programme
and institutions participating in managing priority axes financed from the Cohesion Fund and
beneficiaries implementing projects with a total value exceeding 500 million Euro.

The estimated results of implementing the Priority Axis:

       strengthening the system of implementing priority axis co-financed from the Cohesion
        Fund;
       elimination of the risk of a significant turnover of staff caused by a low level of wages
        and salaries while maintaining a proper level of employment,
       motivating staff through the possibility of a permanent increase of professional
        qualifications.

Indicators


Priority Axis XV            Name of indicator               Value in the   Estimated value     Source of data/
                                                             base year       in the target      frequency of
                                                                                 year             measures

                                                                                             Information
                     Number of training and workshops                                        obtained from
Product indicators                                      0                  400               particular
                                                                                             institutions
                                                                                             (annually)




                                                    112
Priority Axis XV            Name of indicator                 Value in the   Estimated value     Source of data/
                                                               base year       in the target      frequency of
                                                                                   year             measures

                                                                                               Information
                    Volume of published texts, leaflets                                        obtained from
                    and brochures promoting POIiŚ       0                    2 100 000         particular
                                                                                               institutions
                                                                                               (annually)
                                                                                               Information
                    Number of completed evaluation                                             obtained from
                    studies, analyses and expert         0                   116               particular
                    opinions                                                                   institutions
                                                                                               (annually)
                                                                                               Programme
                    Average time of funds paid on the
                                                         4 months            1 month           monitoring
                    basis of payment applications
                                                                                               (annually)
Result indicators                                                                              Information
                    Average level of staff turnover                                            obtained from
                    (outflow)                            0                   < 20%             particular
                                                                                               institutions
                                                                                               (annually)


Priority Axis XVI: Technical Assistance – Cohesion Fund

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Efficient and effective use of funds under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the
Environment

Specific Priority Axis objectives:

       support for programme management process;
       promotion and information;
       programme monitoring and evaluation.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis:

Under the Priority Axis support will be given to initiatives including support for institutional
capacities as well as initiatives aimed at a stable and effective improvement of professional
qualification of staff in institutions participating in implementation of priority axes co-
financed from the Cohesion Fund.

One of the main problems in the programming period 2004-2006 as regards projects co-
financed from Cohesion Fund, stressed by the European Commission were difficulties of
institutions participating in implementing projects, resulting from a small number of
employees with adequate qualifications and a high turnover of staff in individual posts. These
difficulties result from the wages and salaries that are low and not competitive as compared to
the private one. The failure to provide institutions participating in implementation of the
Programme from the Cohesion Fund of a proper level and quality of employment will prevent
efficient implementation of Programme assumptions, which as a consequence may lead to the
non-use of funds available within the whole Programme.


                                                        113
In consideration of the above implementation of projects is planned, which in particular refer
to:

      financial support instruments for employment and support in terms of staff of
       institutions performing tasks related to preparation, selection, assessment, monitoring
       of projects and programmes as well as verification of payments, supervision and
       conducting information and promotion initiatives – as regards priority axes co-
       financed from the Cohesion Fund,
      provision of necessary human resources and ongoing increase of their quality and
       creation of administration capacities of institutions participating in the programme
       implementation, among others through strengthening and financing employment,
      supporting the process of evaluation and selection of projects regarding priority axes
       co-financed from the Cohesion Fund,
      organisation and providing services of the Monitoring Committee and Monitoring
       Subcommittees, working groups and teams as well as analysis of data for the needs of
       monitoring and implementation of the programme,
      provision of funds for conducting research and preparation of expert opinions,
       analyses, studies an conceptions oriented at supporting the process management
       process,
      long-term comprehensive consulting services and other external services,
      hire of premises (among others of offices, archives), repair of premises and
       preparation of workplaces for the Managing Authority and other institutions
       participating in management of priority axes,
      purchase and installation of office, computer, audio-visual, telecommunication, IT and
       teleinformations equipment as well as other equipment by entities involved in
       implementation of priority axes co-financed from the Cohesion Fund,
      covering the costs of operating equipment and purchase of necessary licences and IT
       software as well as purchase of telecommunication and teleinformation services for
       the purposes of efficient programme implementation,
      preparation of analysis, studies and reports for implementation of the programme as
       regards priority axis financed from the Cohesion Fund,
      archiving documents in electronic and paper form and costs of its submission to the
       European Commission,
      ongoing increase of qualifications of staff involved in managing and implementing
       priority axes co-financed from the Cohesion Fund, among others through training,
       seminars, workshops, courses, studies and continuation of education as well as
       traineeship, practice and study visits in other countries participating in implementation
       of EU cohesion policy,
      evaluation regarding assessment of priority axes financed from the Cohesion Fund
      implementation of Communication Plan as well as information and promotion
       initiatives,
      running information points and current administration and office services provided for
       the information process,
      financing costs of programming future structural assistance under a new budget
       perspective of the European Union.




                                             114
The main beneficiaries of the priority axis will be the institution managing the programme
and institutions participating in managing priority axes financed from the Cohesion Fund and
beneficiaries implementing projects with a total value exceeding 500 million Euro.

The estimated results of implementing the Priority Axis:

       strengthening the system of implementing priority axis co-financed from the Cohesion
        Fund;
       elimination of the risk of a significant turnover of staff caused by a low level of wages
        and salaries while maintaining a proper level of employment,
       motivating staff through the possibility of a permanent increase of professional
        qualifications.

Indicators

Priority Axis XVI           Name of indicator                 Value in the   Estimated value     Source of data/
                                                               base year       in the target      frequency of
                                                                                   year             measures

                                                                                               Information
                    Number of training and workshops                                           obtained from
                                                         0                   800               particular
                                                                                               institutions
                                                                                               (annually)
                                                                                               Information
                   Volume of published texts, leaflets                                         obtained from
Product indicators and brochures promoting POIiŚ       0                     2 100 000         particular
                                                                                               institutions
                                                                                               (annually)
                                                                                               Information
                    Number of completed evaluation                                             obtained from
                    studies, analyses and expert         0                   135               particular
                    opinions                                                                   institutions
                                                                                               (annually)
                                                                                               Programme
                    Average time of funds paid on the
                                                         4 months            1 month           monitoring
                    basis of payment applications
                                                                                               (annually)
Result indicators                                                                              Information
                    Average level of staff turnover                                            obtained from
                    (outflow)                            0                   < 20%             particular
                                                                                               institutions
                                                                                               (annually)




Priority Axis XVII: Competitiveness of regions

The main objective of the Priority Axis

Increasing competitiveness of regions through implementation of key infrastructural
investments.

The description and justification of the Priority Axis


                                                        115
Under the priority axis support will be given to key regional projects, which due to the
significance of social and economic programmes in particular regions fall outside the scope of
implementation of programmes managed by regional self-governments. In particular support
will be given to projects that contribute to the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy,
including those concerning transport networks (road, railway and public transport itself) as
well as in the field of social infrastructure.

Under the priority axis large investments will be implemented according to the indicative list.
It has been assumed that the share of institutions that contribute to the implementation of the
Lisbon Strategy should be the same as in the case of the other priority axes of the Programme.

The main beneficiaries of the priority axis will be territorial self-government units but support
may be also given to other entities, depending on the scope and type of the project.

The estimated results of implementing the priority axis:

        increase of transport accessibility in regions,
        increase of competitiveness of regions thanks to implementation of investments that
         increase their attractiveness of investments.

Indicators

  Priority Axis      Name of indicator                       Value in the      Estimated value        Source of data/
      XVII                                                    base year       in the target year       frequency of
                                                                                                         measures
                                                                                                   Programme
                     Number of projects that have
Product indicators
                     obtained support (number)                               300                  monitoring
                                                                                                   (annually)
                     Share of support for projects that
                                                                                                   Programme
                     implement the Lisbon Strategy in
Result indicators                                           0                67.3%                 monitoring
                     total expenses of the priority axis
                                                                                                   (annually)
                     (%)




4. COMPLEMENTARITY WITH INITIATIVES CO-FINANCED FROM THE
EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL FUND FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL
AREA AND THE EUROPEAN FISHERY FUND

The Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment provides for the following
complementarity of initiatives with the Programme for Rural Development in the years 2007-
2013:

Priority Axis I: Water and sewage economy

Under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment implementation of the
above-mentioned projects financed from the Cohesion Fund is planned in agglomerations
from 15 000 PE. In the case of projects with only one beneficiary, which refer to a complex
solution of water and sewage economy problems in a given area, initiatives implemented in
agglomerations between 2000-15,000 PE can be included in the scope of the project.


                                                           116
As part of the 3.2 initiative “Basic services for rural economy and people” of the PDRA 2007-
2013, projects related to water supply and sewage management in towns below 2000 PE will
also be implemented.

Priority II: Waste management and the protection of earth

Under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment implementation of
projects concerning waste management and financed from the Cohesion Fund in
agglomerations above 150 000 inhabitants. As part of the 3.2 initiative “Basic services for
rural economy and people” of the PROW 2007-2013, the above-mentioned projects will be
implemented in towns of up to 5 000 inhabitants. As part of PROW 2007-2013 concerning
creating a system of collection, segregation and disposal of municipal waste projects will be
implemented in towns with up to 5 000 inhabitants, belonging to rural or urban-rural gminas.
The projects will provide support for one or more gmina towns with no more than 5 000
inhabitants – the project does not refer to waste dumps.

Priority V: Natural environment protection and the promotion of ecological habits

Initiatives concerning preparation of protection plans are complementary to PROW, under
which the subsidies to the following will be financed: arable land in the areas of Natura 2000
network, forestation of agricultural land, decrease of fragmentation of forests complexes with
account taken of ecological corridors, activities concerning restoring forest production
potential and introduction of proper prevention instruments.

Priority X: Environment-friendly energy infrastructure

The PROW supports initiatives concerning local electricity distribution networks, which are
eligible under EFRROW. These will be projects concerning low voltage grids implemented in
towns of up to 5000 inhabitants in rural or urban-rural gminas and in cities of up to 5000
inhabitants. Under POIiŚ complex projects in the field of extension or modernisation of high,
medium and low distribution grid, which are not eligible under PROW and which exceed 5
million Euro and aim at reducing grid losses and breaks in supplying electivity to recipients
and which can partially cover towns with up to 5000 inhabitants.

Moreover, under PROW projects will be eligible that concern production, transmission and
distribution of energy from renewable energy sources. These projects can cover one or more
towns with no more than 5000 inhabitants, whereas under the Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment projects are planned for implementation which are not
eligible under PROW and which exceed 5 million Euro. The same threshold applies in the
case of investments concerning construction of new and modernisation of the existing heat
distribution networks and construction of small and middle units producing combined heat
and electricity. As concerns bio-fuels, the Priority Axis shall support investments concerning
the production of bio-diesel and other bio-fuels, with the exception of agricultural products
specified in Annex I of the Treaty on the Establishment of the European Community, which
shall be supported by the Programme for Rural Development.




                                             117
Priority XII: Culture and cultural heritage

Under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment implementation of
transregional projects is planned in the following areas: the preservation and protection of
cultural heritage, culture infrastructure and in the scope of art school infrastructure
development, whereas as part of PROW 2007-2013 local projects will be implemented as part
of 3.3 initiative “The Revival and Development of Rural Areas”:
- in rural gmina towns, or in rural and urban gmina towns, excluding towns with a
    population exceeding 5,000 inhabitants, or
- in towns with a population below 5,000 inhabitants.


Initiatives implemented under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and Development
are not directly connected with the initiatives supported from the Funds of the European
Fisheries Fund and relate to other support areas.


5. FINANCIAL PLAN

The total amount of 36 385 320 777 Euro (in current prices) will be involved in the
implementation of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment 2007-
2013, of which 34 464 497 836 Euro will be public contribution. The public contribution will
consist of funds from the European Union – 27 848 273 161 Euro (the contribution from the
Cohesion Fund– 21 511 063 161 Euro and the contribution from the European Regional
Development Fund – 6 337 210 000 Euro), the national public funds – 6 616 224 675 Euro.

Apart from public funds, private funds will also be involved in the implementation of the OP
IE– support for enterprises will be based on the principles of competition. The total amount of
private funds is estimated at the level of 1 920 822 941 Euro.

In consideration of the provisions of the Council Regulation (EC) No. 1082/2006 laying down
general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund
and the Cohesion Fund, it is possible to include private funds to the national financial
contribution under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment.

According to the requirements of the EC Regulation 082/2006 laying down general provisions
on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion
Fund the below financial tables have been included in the Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment:


   1. financial table presenting annual division of the total funds from the Cohesion Funs
      and the European Regional Development Fund – item 5.1,
   2. financial table presenting the amount of total funds constituting EU contribution,
      national contributions and funds‟ contribution indicators in breakdown into priority
      axes – item 5.2.,
   3. financial table presenting indicative division (according to categories) of the
      programmed use of funds‟ contribution – item 5.3.




                                              118
          5.1. Financial table for the programme in breakdown into years (in EURO)



                               European Regional
                                                                   Cohesion Fund                           Total
                               Development Fund

                                       1                                   2                               3=1+2
              2007                           861 954 370                    1 938 978 659                      2 800 933 029
              2008                           882 205 277                    2 318 609 151                      3 200 814 428
              2009                           902 312 477                    2 712 541 835                      3 614 854 312
              2010                           889 871 312                    3 010 320 516                      3 900 191 828
              2011                           911 347 428                    3 426 415 423                      4 337 762 851
              2012                           933 357 588                    3 838 872 085                      4 772 229 673
              2013                           956 161 548                    4 265 325 493                      5 221 487 041
            2007-2013                      6 337 210 000                   21 511 063 161                     27 848 273 161



          5.2. Financial table for the programme by priority axes and sources of financing (in EURO, in
          current prices)



                                                   National contribution                                               For information
                                                                                                         EU funds
                        Community
    Priority Axis                                        National                          Total        contributio
                        contribution                                    Private                                         Loans    Other
                                           Total          public                                        n indicator
                                                                      contribution                                    from EIB financing
                                                       contribution
                              1           2=3+4            3                   4           5=1+2          6=1/5          7         8
Priority Axis I          2 725 000 000 480 882 353 480 882 353                          3 205 882 353         0.85
Priority Axis II         1 190 000 000 210 000 000 210 000 000                          1 400 000 000         0.85
Priority Axis III          545 000 000    96 176 471    96 176 471                        641 176 471         0.85
Priority Axis IV           200 000 000 467 000 000      67 000 000     400 000 000        667 000 000         0.30
Priority Axis V             89 800 000    15 847 059    15 847 059                        105 647 059         0.85
Priority Axis VI         7 626 000 000 1 545 764 706 1 345 764 706     200 000 000      9 171 764 706         0.83
Priority Axis VII        7 513 500 000 3 239 100 000 3 039 100 000     200 000 000     10 752 600 000         0.70
Priority Axis VIII       2 945 490 000 529 792 353 519 792 353          10 000 000      3 475 282 353         0.85
Priority Axis IX           990 000 000 174 705 882 174 705 882                          1 164 705 882         0.85
Priority Axis X            732 200 000 641 141 176      86 141 176     555 000 000      1 373 341 176         0.53
Priority Axis XI           974 280 000 718 931 765 171 931 765         547 000 000      1 693 211 765         0.58
Priority Axis XII          489 970 000    86 465 294    86 465 294                        576 435 294         0.85
Priority Axis XIII         349 990 000    70 585 882    61 762 941         8 822 941      420 575 882         0.83
Priority Axis XIV          500 000 000    88 235 294    88 235 294                        588 235 294         0.85
Priority Axis XV           187 800 000    33 141 176    33 141 176                        220 941 176         0.85
Priority Axis XVI          189 363 161    33 417 028    33 417 028                        222 780 189         0.85
Priority Axis XVII         599 880 000 105 861 176 105 861 176                            705 741 176         0.85
Total                   27 848 273 161 8 537 047 616 6 616 224 675 1 920 822 941 36 385 320 777               0.77




                                                                119
5.3 Indicative division (according to categories) of the programmed use of funds‟ contribution
(in Euro)

          Priority issues                    Form of financing                   Territory

   Code             Amount            Code             Amount             Code         Amount
    02                225 000 000      01              27 848 273 161      PL          27 848 273 161
    10                150 000 000   Total              27 848 273 161   Total          27 848 273 161
    16                553 808 000
    17              3 819 880 000
    19                476 000 000
    20              1 880 032 500
    21              7 542 000 000
    22              1 891 921 500
    27                108 900 000
    28                100 000 000
    29                396 000 000
    30                479 800 000
    31                 95 200 000
    34                213 948 000
    35                395 828 000
    36                206 024 000
    37                158 480 000
    39                166 960 000
    40                 12 522 000
    41                196 178 000
    42                 41 740 000
    43                314 800 000
    44              1 001 500 000
    45                272 500 000
    46              2 502 500 000
    47                 50 000 000
    48                 30 000 000
    50                198 800 000
    51                 89 800 000
    52              2 139 366 400
    53                594 700 000
    54                 10 000 000
    58                171 489 500
    59                295 466 100
    61                 59 988 000
    75                279 988 000
    76                349 990 000
    85                346 663 161
   86                  30 500 000
  Total            27 848 273 161




                                                 120
5.4. Implementation of the Lisbon Strategy under the priority axes

Breakdown into categories of intervention is only an estimation and does not determine the
share of support into particular categories under programme priority axes




                                                                                        between categories
                                                                                        Estimated division
category number




                                                                                                               Community




                                                                     Lisbon category
  Intervention




                                                                                                             contribution (in




                                                                                                                                “Lisbon”
                                                                                                                                expenses
                                                                                                              million Euro)




                                                                          (y/n)
                                     Priority Axes
                                Intervention categories
                                                                                                             ERDF       CF

PI                Water and sewage management
 45               Drinking water (management and distribution)           N              10%                           2 725,0
 46               Water treatment (waste water)                          N              90%
P II              Waste management and the protection of earth
   44 Management of household and industrial waste          N                           79%
      Rehabilitation of industrial sites and contaminated                                                             1 190,0
 50                                                         N                           17%
      land
 53 Risk prevention                                       –                            N 4%
      Resource management and counteracting
P III
      environmental risks                                                                                              545,0
 53 Risk prevention                                         N                          100%
      Initiatives aimed at adjusting enterprises to
P IV
      environment protection requirements
 44 Management of household and industrial waste            N                           30%
 46 Water treatment (waste water)                           N                           25%
                                                                                                             200,0
 47 Air quality                                             N                           25%
 48 Integrated prevention and pollution control             N                           15%
      Other measures to preserve the environment and
 54                                                         N                             5%
      prevent risk
      Natural environment protection and the promotion
PV
      of ecological habits
                                                                                                             89,8
      Promotion of biodiversity and nature protection
 51                                                         N                          100%
      (including Natura 2000)
                  TEN-T Trans-European transport
P VI
                  networks
 21               Highways126 (TEN-T)                                    T              86%                           7 626,0   6 898,0
 22               National roads                                 –                     N10%
 29               Airports                                               T               4%
P VII             Environment-friendly transport
 16               Railways                                               T               7%
 17               Railways(TEN-T)                                        T              51%
 19               Railway stocks (TEN-T networks)                        N               6%
 22               National roads                                 –                     N 2%                           7 513,5   6 809,8
 27               Multimodal transport (TEN-)                            T               1%
 30               Ports                                                  T               6%
 31               Inland waterways (TEN-T)                               T               1%
 52               Promotion of clean urban transport                     T              26%


126
       Categories 20 and 21 also include dual carriageways


                                                          121
                                                                                              between categories
                                                                                              Estimated division
  category number                                                                                                    Community




                                                                            Lisbon category
    Intervention
                                                                                                                   contribution (in




                                                                                                                                      “Lisbon”
                                                                                                                                      expenses
                                                                                                                    million Euro)




                                                                                 (y/n)
                                        Priority Axes
                                   Intervention categories
                                                                                                                   ERDF       CF

 P VIII             Transport safety and national transport networks
   20               Highways                                                    T              58%
   22               National roads                                      –                     N34%
   28               Intelligent transport systems                               T               3%
–                   2                                                                                              2 945,5            1 914,1
                    Airports                                                    T               2%
   9
–                   3
   0
                    Ports                                                      T                2%
   31               Inland waterways                                            T               1%
  P IX              Road infrastructure in Eastern Poland
                                                                                                                             990,0    990,0
   21               TEN-T highways                                              T             100%
  PX  Environment-friendly energy infrastructure
  39  Renewable energy: wind                                                    T             23%
  40  Renewable energy: sun                                                     T              2%
  41  Renewable energy: biomass                                                 T             27%                            732,2    732,2
      Renewable energy: hydroelectric, geothermal and
  42                                                                            T               5%
      other
      Energy efficiency, co-generation, energy
  43                                                                            T             43%
      management
 P XI Energy safety
     34             Electricity (TEN-E)                                        T               22%
     35 Natural gas                                           –                               N41%                 974,3              420,0
     36 Natural gas (TEN-E)                                                     T              21%
     37 Petroleum products                                                      N              16%
  P XII Culture and cultural heritage
   58 Protection and preservation of the cultural heritage                      N             35%                  490,0
   59 Development of cultural infrastructure                                    N             46%
   75 Educational infrastructure                                                N             19%
        Health security and the improvement of the efficiency
 P XIII
        of the healthcare system                                                                                   350,0
   76 Healthcare infrastructure                                                 N             100%
 P XIV Infrastructure of higher education
        Infrastructure related to technological research and
–       0
        development and competence centres in the field of                      T             45%
    2                                                                                                              500,0              375,0
        specific technologies
        Telecommunication infrastructure (including
   10                                                                           T             30%
        broadband connection)
   75 Education infrastructructure                                              N             25%
        Technical assistance –European Regional
  P XV
        Development Fund
        Preparation, implementation, monitoring and
   85                                                                           N             92%                  187,8
        inspection
        Evaluation and studies, information and
   86                                                                           N               8%
        communication
        Technical assistance –European Regional Development
 P XVI                                                                                                                       189,4
        Fund



                                                                  122
                                                                                         between categories
                                                                                         Estimated division
    category number                                                                                             Community




                                                                       Lisbon category
      Intervention
                                                                                                              contribution (in




                                                                                                                                    “Lisbon”
                                                                                                                                    expenses
                                                                                                               million Euro)




                                                                            (y/n)
                                    Priority Axes
                               Intervention categories
                                                                                                              ERDF        CF

–       8
        Preparation, implementation, monitoring and
                                                                   –                     N92%
        5
        inspection
–       8
        Evaluation and studies, information and
                                                                           N               8%
    6   communication
 P XVII Competitiveness of regions
   16 Railways                                                             T             10%
   20 Highways                                                             T             30%
   52 Promotion of clean urban infrastructure                              T             28%                  599,9                 407,9
   59 Development of cultural infrastructure                               N             12%
        Integrated projects in favour of revival of urban and
   61                                                                      N             10%
        rural areas
   75 Education infrasttructure                                            N             10%
                      127
Total allocation            2007-2013                                                                         6 337,2   21 511,1

Including: costs implementing the Lisbon strategy                               66,6%                         3 117,0   15 430,0   18 547,0



    6. THE SYSTEM OF IMPLEMENTATION

    6.1. General remarks

    The system of management and implementation of the Operational Programme Infrastructure
    and the Environment is regulated by Council regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006.as of 11 July
    2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the
    European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund, as well as European Commission regulation
    no… setting out rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006
    laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European
    Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund and of Regulation (EC) N …/…o 1080/2006 of the
    European Parliament and of the Council on the European Regional Development Fund and
    the European Parliament regulation no 1080/2006 concerning the European Regional
    Development Fund.

    This chapter presents the arrangements concerning the management and control system of
    implementing the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment in accordance
    with the requirements specified in Art. 58 of Council Regulation no 1083/2006 as of 11 July
    2006. General information concerning the functions of the institution managing the NSRF,
    institution managing the Programme, Certifying Institutions, Intermediate Bodies, second
    stage intermediate bodies, the Audit Institution, and the relationships between particular
    institutions, is included in the National Strategic Reference Framework for 2007-2013.

    6.2. The competence of institutions involved in the management of the Operational
    Programme “Infrastructure and the Environment”.

    127
       The difference between the amounts in the row and the sums for individual priority axes results from
    approximation.


                                                         123
6.2.1. The Managing Authority, hereinafter referred to as MA

In accordance with Art. 60 of Council regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 as of 11 July 2006
determining the general provisions concerning the European Regional Development Fund, the
European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund, the M.A. is responsible for efficient, effective
and proper management and implementation of the operational programme.

The M.Z. of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment shall be the
Minister of Regional Development.

The M.A. may delegate part of its duties to intermediate bodies (hereinafter referred to as
I.B.), that is competent ministers, who shall implement the tasks specified in sub-chapter
6.2.2.

In accordance with Council regulation no............ , the M.A. is responsible for the following:

a) ensuring that initiatives selected to be financed comply with the criteria of the operational
   programme and with Community and national rules during the entire process of
   implementation,
b) controlling the supply of products and the provision of co-financed services, as well as
   controlling the fact that the declared expenses have been incurred in relation to
   implementing the initiatives and are in compliance with Community and national rules,
c) ensuring a computerised register and storing system of detailed accounting data of each
   operation within operational programme, as well as gathering data necessary for
   implementation, financial management, monitoring, control and evaluation,
d) ensuring that beneficiaries and other bodies involved in the implementation of initiatives
   have either a separate accounting system or apply special accounting codes to all
   transactions related to particular operations,
e) ensuring that the evaluation of operational programmes, specified in Art. 47 of Council
   regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006 is conducted in accordance with the provisions of the said
   regulation,
f) ensuring that the operations are in compliance with the requirements concerning
   information and promotion, specified in Art. 69 of Council regulation (EC) No.
   1083/2006
g) providing the European Commission with data enabling the assessment of major projects,
h) establishing procedures ensuring that all documents concerning expenses and audits,
   necessary for proper audit procedures, are stored in accordance with Art. 90 of Council
   regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006,
i) ensuring that the certifying institution receives all necessary information concerning
   procedures and verifications conducted in relation to expenses, for the purposes of
   certification,
j) supervising the work of the Monitoring Committee of the operational programme and
   providing all necessary documents which enable the monitoring of the OP as to its
   purposes,
k) preparing and providing the European Commission with annual and final reports,
   approved by the Monitoring Committee, concerning the progress of implementing the
   programme,
l) preparing a description of the system determining the organisation and procedures applied
   in managing, certifying and intermediate authorities, as well as audit authority and other


                                               124
   institutions responsible for audit procedures on behalf of audit authority (in accordance
   with Art. 71.1 of the Council regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006)
m) providing to the European Commission with an annual forecast of programme expenses
   for the current and following year, in accordance with Art. 76, paragraph 3 of the Council
   Regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006.


Furthermore, specific responsibilities of the M.A. include:
 the preparation of guidelines for i.b. concerning detailed manuals and procedures, as well
   as evaluating the said documents,
 the preparation of a report‟s template for i.b. and guidelines concerning templates of
   application forms, agreements and other documents for beneficiaries, as well as the
   verification and approval of the templates prepared by i.b.,
 the preparation, in co-operation with i.b., of a manual/guidelines concerning the eligibility
   of programme expenditures,
 the preparation of general criteria of selecting the programme projects and submitting
   them for approval to the Monitoring Committee,
 the verification of applications concerning major projects submitted by i.b. as to their
   compliance with the requirements of the operational programmes,
 ensuring the supervision of the operational programme, in particular the preparation of a
   plan of a system controls and co-operation with i.b. dealing with the preparation of a
   priority axis control plan and their approval, and conducting system controls of the
   programme,
 evaluating the progress of programme implementation on the basis of annual reports,
 providing the Monitoring Committee with information concerning the Commission‟s
   remarks based on the annual report, as well as informing the European Commission on the
   actions taken in response to its remarks,
 the preparation, in co-operation with i.b., of reports concerning irregularities and
   submitting them to relevant institutions, in accordance with the implementation system of
   the NSRF,
 ensuring proper evaluation of the programme in compliance with EU requirements – in
   particular preparing an evaluation plan for the operational programme and co-operation
   with i.b. dealing with the preparation of an evaluation plan for particular priority axes,
   conducting programme evaluation and supervising the evaluation carried out by i.b.,
 depending on the selected option concerning the electronic monitoring system – the
   participation in implementing and operating the central system and supervising the
   implementation of the tasks by Intermediate Bodies or – determining, together with
   Intermediate Bodies the demand for the systems under the OP and supervising their
   creation and functioning, as well as supervising the co-operation with the central system
   in order to provide proper data submission to the central system,
 the preparation, in co-operation with i.b., of an annual forecast of programme expenses for
   the current and following year and submitting it to the European Commission,
 the preparation, in co-operation with i.b., of a detailed communication plan for the
   operational programme and supervising communication tasks carried out by i.b.

The M.A., on request of the Monitoring Committee of the Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment, upon its own initiative or on request of the IP, may
introduce changes in the operational programme and the criteria for selecting projects,
including those concerned with the support provided by Funds. Introduction of changes is a



                                             125
result of significant social and economic changes or is aimed at a thorough or different
consideration of community priorities, or is connected to difficulties with the implementation
and allocation of reserves. The Monitoring Committee of the Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment gives opinion on the above-mentioned change; however
the final decision is taken by the M.A. The European Commission is informed about the said
decision within a month of its taking. The Commission then decides on the request for
revising the operational programme in the quickest possible time from the date of officially
submitting the request by the M.A.

6.2.2. Intermediate bodies (I.B.)

The M.A. of the OP Infrastructure and the Environment delegates the implementation of part
of its tasks upon 6 I.B. in the meaning of Art. 59 of the Council Regulation No. 1083/2006 in
accordance with the following chart:



                  Priority Axis                                  Intermediate body
Water and sewage management
Waste management and the protection of earth
Resource management and counteracting environmental The Minister of Environment
risks.
Initiatives aimed at adjusting enterprises to the requirements
of environment protection.
Environment protection and the promotion of ecological
habits.
TEN-T road and air transport network.
Environment-friendly transport                       The Minister of Transport
Transport safety and national transport networks
Road infrastructure in Eastern Poland
Environment-friendly energy infrastructure           The Minister of Economy
Energy security
Culture and cultural heritage                       The Minister of Culture and National Heritage
                                                    Protection
Health security and improving the efficiency of the The Minister of Health
healthcare system
Infrastructure of higher education                  The Minister of higher education

For the priority axis XVII appointment of a intermediate institution is not planned, however
the managing institution may delegate some tasks to other institutions. Priority axis XV and
XVI concerning technical assistance will be implemented by the managing authority, which
may delegate some of its tasks.

The delegation of authority will concern tasks related to particular priority axes (or some
priority axes) concerning interventions related to the field of interest of relevant Ministries.
Despite delegating the authority, the M.A. remains entirely responsible for the programme
implementation. The delegation is completed by concluding a relevant agreement which
determines its range and the system of reporting and monitoring the implementation of the
tasks by the IB.

A specific division of tasks between the MA and IB shall be regulated by agreements
concluded between the said Institutions.




                                                   126
The MA plans to delegate the following tasks concerning a particular priority axis or some
priority axes to IB:
    a) Monitoring the preparation of applications for financial support for projects identified
        by the MA/IB by a strategic selection on the basis of relevant strategic and programme
        documents,
    b) Assessing the applications submitted by beneficiaries in accordance with the
        procedure and deciding on co-financing selected projects,
    c) Ensuring that the selection of financed projects is conducted in compliance with the
        criteria applicable for the operational programme, and that the projects fulfil
        Community and national requirements throughout their implementation,
    d) Concluding agreements with beneficiaries on financial support for the projects from
        the European Regional Development Fund or the Cohesion Fund,
    e) Ensuring that all beneficiaries of a given priority axis fulfil the required procedures,
    f) Evaluating the procedures applied by beneficiaries as to their efficiency and
        compliance with legal provisions, by presenting opinions on beneficiary‟s procedures,
        in order to determine whether the established procedures are appropriate and
        conducting system controls of beneficiaries,
    g) The preparation and up-dating of the guidelines for beneficiaries, in co-operation with
        the MA,
    h) Preparing information on irregularities and submitting it to the MA,
    i) Implementing tasks concerning financial management on the level of the priority
        axis/some priority axes – including: the verification of applications for payment
        prepared by beneficiaries, the preparation of collective applications for payment
        concerning relevant priority axes, submitting the applications for payment to the
        certifying authority, handling bank accounts connected with programme
        implementation by IB, making payments for the beneficiaries,
    j) Recovering funds spent in an inappropriate manner from beneficiaries,
    k) Preparing long-term and annual forecasts of payment for particular priority axis,
    l) Supervising the procedure that beneficiaries keep a separate accounting system for
        community funds,
    m) organising information and promotional campaigns concerning the programme in
        accordance with the communication plan on the level of IB,
    n) Ensuring the compliance of priority axis implementation with the requirements of
        information and promotion,
    o) Monitoring the implementation of appropriate priority axes,
    p) Preparing, in co-operation with beneficiaries, annual and final reports concerning the
        implementation of particular priority axes in a given sector and submitting them to the
        MA,
    q) Conducting on-going controls of the projects based on the periodic and final reports,
        that is controlling the documentation and conducting controls in the place of
        implementing the projects in order to verify the supply of co-financed products and
        services, as well as the fact that the expenses declared by beneficiaries have been
        incurred and are in compliance with relevant Community and national rules,
    r) Carrying out tasks related to the ex-ante control of public procurement in accordance
        with the accepted methodology,
    s) The introduction/verification of data submitted/introduced by beneficiaries to the
        Monitoring and Control Information System of structural funds and Cohesion Fund or
        other information systems,




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   t) Gathering financial and statistical data concerning the initiatives and projects included
       in particular priority axes, submitting the data on request of the MA, certifying
       authorities and audit authority,
   u) Guaranteeing the compliance of tasks implemented in a given sector with Community
       policies, as to the application of Community rules of concluding public contracts and
       submitting information concerning the above,
   v) Guaranteeing the compliance of tasks implemented in a given sector with the
       principles of state aid,
   w) opening and handling accounts of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the
       Environment on the level of the IB, as well as opening relevant accounts on the level
       of beneficiaries,
   x) providing an electronic system of registering and storing of detailed accounting
       registers for each project within the priority axis, as well as a system of data gathering
       necessary for financial management, monitoring, verification, auditing and evaluation,
   y) ensuring that beneficiaries and all institutions involved in implementing the priority
       axis apply separate accounting systems or appropriate accounting codes for all
       financial operations concerning the projects,
   z) providing the certifying authority or the Sectoral Certifying Authority with necessary
       information on procedures and verification concerning costs, for certification
       purposes,
   aa) ensuring the application of monitoring and reporting procedures concerning
       irregularities and recovering funds which have been inappropriately paid,
   bb) preparation of evaluation plan for particular priority axes, evaluation of priority axes
       and supervising the evaluation carried out by external contractors.

Un MA approval, IB may delegate implementation of some of its tasks to another institution
with appropriate competences, experience and staff resources. This function may be
performed by an institution whose competences in a given scope result from appropriate legal
regulations or a statute, belonging to public finance sector or competent for implementation of
this function because of its tasks.

Despite delegation of some tasks to another institution IB remains responsible for the
delegated tasks.

6.2.3. Certifying Authorities

6.2.3.1 The Certifying Institution in the Ministry of Regional Development

A separate organisational unit (independent from managing authorities) responsible for
certifying the costs of all operational programmes, will be established within the structure of
the Ministry of Regional Development. In each case the main tasks of the certifying authority
is to certify the declarations of costs incurred by beneficiaries before the European
Commission, as well as the applications for payment submitted by managing/intermediate
authorities. The tasks of the certifying institution include the following:
    a) Preparing and submitting certified cost declarations and payment applications to the
        European Commission,
    b) Certifying that the cost declarations are correct and based on reliable accounting
        systems, and have been prepared on the basis of verifiable source documents,
    c) Certifying that the declared costs have been incurred in compliance with relevant
        community and national rules,


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   d) Certifying that the declared costs have been incurred to implement the projects
      selected for financing in accordance with the criteria applied to a given operational
      programme,
   e) Taking into account, for certification purposes, the results of all audit procedures
      concerning operational programmes, which are conducted by the audit institution,
   f) Electronic storage of accounting documents concerning the costs declared before the
      Commission,
   g) Keeping a register of sums to be recovered and paid back to the European Union
      budget, as well as sums which have been withdrawn as a result of invalidating part of
      or the entire financial contribution for the project.

6.2.4. The Audit Authority

For the purpose of the operational programme, the function of the Audit Authority shall be
performed by the General Inspectorate of Treasury Control. The tasks are implemented by a
separate unit of the Ministry of Finance, namely the Department of Certification of European
Union Funds and fiscal control offices.

The audit authority is responsible for ensuring that the audits of the operational programme‟s
management and control system and project inspections are carried out in accordance with
international auditing standards.

Audits of management and control systems

Audit procedures concerning the management and control systems are conducted as follows:

1) a preliminary review – gathering and analysing the data concerning the audited
   operations;

The results of the preliminary review constitute the basis for a preliminary evaluation of the
control background and identify the risks of areas of audit verified in future phases,

2) tests of control mechanisms – verifying whether the risks identified in the preliminary
   review are accompanied by control mechanisms which would allow for their reduction or
   elimination, and that the said mechanisms have been implemented by the audited unit in
   the areas under revision.

The analysis of the preliminary review and control tests constitutes a basis for the evaluation
of the internal control background.

3) preparing an audit programme – identifying the areas to be checked in compliance tests,
   including a detailed schedule.

4) compliance tests – examining the efficiency of the implemented control mechanisms on
   the basis of the examined documentation sample.

The costs examined in compliance tests will be included in the group of eligible costs, further
checked by project controls (Art. 16 of the draft Commission regulation No. 1083/2006
setting out rules for implementation of Council laying down the general provisions
concerning the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the


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Cohesion Fund), provided that the said costs have been included in the applications for direct
payment prepared by the Paying Authority and directed to the European Commission.

Project controls

Prior to closing the operational programme, the value of controlled costs should not be lower
than 5% of total costs declared by the Beneficiaries and certified to the Commission in the
final costs declaration.

Project controls are conducted on the spot on the basis of the documentation kept by the
Beneficiary. The controls are to verify if the following conditions have been fulfilled:
a) whether the project has been selected in accordance with selection criteria of the
   operational programme and has been implemented in compliance with the decision
   granting support, and whether it fulfils necessary requirements concerning its functioning
   and effectiveness or if it achieves the set objectives,
b) whether the declared expenditures are reflected in the book accounts and supporting
   documents kept by the Beneficiary,
c) whether the expenditures declared by the Beneficiary are in compliance with Community
   and national rules,
d) whether the public contribution has been paid to the beneficiary without deductions or
   ungrounded delays.

Should the identified problems appear systematically and therefore constitute a threat for
other projects included in the operational programme, further examinations shall be conducted
in order to determine the scale of the problems.

The audit authority prepares the audit strategy which indicates the entities conducting the
audit, the methods to be used, the methods of selecting project samples for control, as well as
the indicative audit plan. The audit strategy is submitted to the European Commission for
acceptance.

On the basis of the conducted audit inspections of the management and control systems, as
well as project controls, the audit authority prepares the following:

   An annual control report which includes the results of audits conducted in a given year in
    accordance with the audit strategy and identifies the insufficiencies of the management
    and control system of the operational programme,
   An annual report on whether the management and control system ensures that the cost
    declarations submitted to the European Commission are correct and the related
    transactions comply with legal provisions,
   The declaration of partial support closure concerning projects completed before the end of
    a given year,
   The declaration of support closure which evaluates the validity of the application for final
    payment, and the related transactions, included in the final costs declaration, as to their
    compliance with law.

The audit authority is also responsible for evaluating the compliance of the management and
control systems in units participating in the management and implementation of the
operational programme, with the provisions of Art. 58-62 of the Council regulation (EC) No
1083/2006 laying down the general provisions concerning the European Regional


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Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund. The audit report
concerning the compliance evaluation, including the related opinion, is submitted to the
Commission, together with the description of the management and control system, prior to
submitting the first application for direct payment or within 12 months from approving the
operational programme. The first direct payment is conditioned by the Commission‟s
approval of the report.

6.2.5. The beneficiaries (initiators) of the projects co-financed from the Cohesion Fund and
the European Regional Development Fund.

For projects co-financed from the means of the Cohesion Fund and the European Regional
Development Fund under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment, the
beneficiary shall be one of the parties of the agreement on financial support which is signed
with the IB or another institution to which IB entrusted with the implementation of this task
upon approval of IB.

The beneficiary implements the project. The beneficiary should observe the rules included in
the agreement on financial support and relevant regulations.

The beneficiary is responsible for the following:

   The implementation of the project,
   The organisation of tenders, should this be the requirement of community or national
    laws, as well as concluding agreements with the contractors,
   Monitoring and preparing reports on project implementation, in accordance with the
    guidelines of the MZ and IB,
   Assurance of using separate accounting systems or appropriate accounting codes for all
    financial operations related to the project,
   The preparation and application of manuals of internal procedures,
   Providing access to the required documents,
   Storing documents related to the implementation of the project for at least 3 years
    following the closure of the operational programme, without violating the provisions
    regulating public aid (Art. 90 of the Council regulation (EC) No. 1083/2006).

6.3. Monitoring

Monitoring the operational programme is aimed at providing an adequate quality of
programme implementation. It is conducted by the MA and the Monitoring Committee which
is led by a representative of the MA.

The MA monitors the implementation of the Programme on the basis of reports concerning
the progress of implementing particular priority axes, which are prepared and submitted on a
half year basis by IB responsible for the implementation of particular priority axes. On the
basis of the said reports, the MA prepares the Report on the progress of Programme
implementation, which is then submitted to the Co-ordination Committee of the NSRF.

The monitoring is based on financial indicators and product and result indicators quantifying
the objectives of particular priority axes, which are specified in the operational programme.
Where possible, relevant statistical data will consider the sex of the beneficiaries and the size



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of the implemented projects. Data used for monitoring purposes will be submitted to the
European Commission by e-mail, in accordance with the requirements.

The Monitoring Committee of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the
Environment

The Monitoring Committee (MC) of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the
Environment shall be appointed within 3 months from receiving the European Commission‟s
decision on approving the operational programme, by the Minister of Regional Development.
The work of the MC is led by a representative of the Minister of Regional Development. The
Monitoring Committee holds meetings as frequently as it is deemed necessary, at least once
every 6 months, and it consists of:
    Representatives of the MA,
    Representatives of the NSRF co-ordinator,
    Representatives of relevant ministries as concerns the initiatives of the Operational
       Programme Infrastructure and the Environment,
    Representatives of the Minister of Finances,
    Representatives of the certifying institution,
    Representatives of the institution to which IB has delegated implementation of some
       of its tasks
    Representatives of territorial self-governments,
    Representatives of social and economic partners


Representatives of the European Commission, the European Investment Bank and the
European Investment Fund may participate in the Committee meetings as advisors/observers.

The Monitoring Committee may decide on establishing a sub-committee monitoring
particular groups of priority axes, to which it may delegate part of its tasks concerning the
monitoring of particular priority axes.

The Committee may form permanent working groups, in particular for the evaluation of the
submitted applications and monitoring horizontal actions (equal opportunities, environment
protection, information society), as well as take advantage of the opinions of independent
experts or the services of other institutions. The specific composition of the Committee and
the mode and rules concerning its work will be determined by the MA.

The responsibilities of the Committee include the following:

   a) The examination and approval of the criteria for selecting the projects of the
      operational programme, as well as the approval of possible changes of the criteria,
   b) Periodic review of progress concerning the achieved objectives included in the
      programme, on the basis of the documents submitted by the IB,
   c) The analysis of the results of programme implementation, in particular the achieved
      priority axis objectives and the results of evaluation concerning the monitoring of
      programme implementation, especially if they show significant discrepancies as
      compared to initial objectives, or if suggestions concerning programme alterations are
      made,
   d) The analysis and approval of annual and final implementation reports,



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   e) The examination of annual reports of programme control and the European
      Commission‟s commentary of the said reports,
   f) Providing the MA with the proposals of changes or programme analyses which are to
      facilitate the use of structural funds and means from the Cohesion Fund determined in
      the general regulation concerning the said funds or increase the efficiency of
      programme management, including financial management,
   g) The analysis and approval of all proposed changes of the contents of the
      Commission‟s decision on fund contribution.

6.4. Cash flow

Funds transmitted by the European Commission as pre-financing, interim payments and final
payments to the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment shall be included
in the state budget as its revenues, whereas funds from the state budget will be transmitted for
financing of projects.

IB under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment will plan funds for
expenditures related to financing of a given priority axis according to the principles of state
budget implementation, within annual limits of expenditures specified in the budget act.
These limits will be specified in agreement with the Ministry of Regional Development in the
course of work on the budget act based on table of payment of POIiŚ and multi-year limits of
commitments and expenditures specified in POIiŚ so as to ensure efficient and timely
implementation of POIiŚ.

Under POIiŚ payments will be made by the intermediate body (or other institution to which
IB upon approval of MA delegated implementation of a part of its tasks) to beneficiaries as a
return of expenses borne by them, according to the principles specified in POIiŚ. In justified
cases these funds will be donated as payments used for covering future expenses.

Also, in specified periods the beneficiary will transfer to the IB (or to other institution to
which IB upon approval of MA delegated implementation of this task) documents used for
certification of expenses borne for implementation of the initiative/projects. Transmission of
another payment may be dependent on the implementation of a specified part of the previous
payment.

In agreed periods the IB under the priority axis and based on approved expenses will prepare
a payment application and submit it to the MA.

6.5. Evaluation

Evaluation procedures are aimed at improving the quality, efficiency and cohesion of the
support granted as part of the cohesion policy and the Programme Strategy and
implementation, in relation to particular structural problems, both on the national and
regional level, taking into account the principle of sustainable development and relevant
Community regulations concerning the affect on natural environment and strategic
environment evaluation.

The MA is responsible for evaluating the Programme, and a special evaluation unit will be
created to fulfil the tasks, which include the following:



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a) Providing financial means, as part of technical support, for evaluation purposes, as well
   as gathering data from the monitoring system,
b) Preparing an evaluation plan which would include various phases of programme
   implementation,
c) Ensuring ex ante evaluation – before implementation of the programme,
d) Ensuring the evaluation of the monitoring of programme implementation, in particular
   when monitoring results show significant discrepancies as compared to the initially
   specified objectives, or if suggestions to introduce changes in the programme are made,
e) Submitting the results of evaluating the monitoring of programme implementation to
   relevant monitoring committees and the European Commission,
f) Announcing the results of the evaluation in public,
g) Ensuring, to the 30th June 2011, the evaluation of the progress of implementing the
   operational programme in relation to particular priorities, the results of which will serve
   the allocation of the national implementation reserve,
h) Co-operation with the European Commission when evaluating the monitoring of
   programme implementation, as well as in strategic evaluations initiated by the
   Commission,
i) Co-operation with the European Commission in ex-post evaluation (upon completing the
   programme).

Furthermore, competent ministers will be responsible for commissioning the evaluation of the
operational programme priority axis which are within their range of responsibilities (as i.b.).

6.6. Sharing electronic data in order to fulfil the requirements concerning payments,
monitoring and evaluation.

The Minister of Regional Development is responsible for ensuring functioning of a safe
system of electronic exchange of information with EC and granting access to the system to
institutions involved in implementation of operational programmes. Entering data to the IT
system and introduction of local system is the implementation of the institution managing the
operational programme in cooperation with NSRO coordinator. The Minister of Regional
Development supervises the IT system and specifies standards concerning collection of data
by all participants of the NSRO implementation.

The Minister of Regional Development is responsible for construction and development of IT
system based on standards in the field of data collection specified by the minister of regional
development.

6.7. Information and promotion.

The MA of the operational programme, in co-operation with IB, shall support adequate
information and promotion campaigns concerning the operational programme and its projects,
which shall be addressed to UE citizens and beneficiaries. Information and promotion
campaigns are aimed at emphasising the Community‟s role and will also ensure transparency
of the procedures of granting support from the means of the cohesion policy. Information and
promotion campaigns should fulfil the requirements specified in relevant regulations of the
European Commission. In order to manage properly the process of information and promotion
of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment, MA in cooperation with
IB shall specify the Plan of Communication, which will be the basis for conducting
information and promotion initiatives. The strategic objective of the communication process


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is ensuring appropriate level of knowledge on the possibilities to obtain financial support
from the European Union and creating a good climate for reception of structural assistance.
This objective will be implemented through increasing social awareness of Poles as regards
benefits from implementation of the National Strategic Reference Framework. And indirectly
from integration with the EU as well as promulgation of knowledge on results and progress in
implementation of funds and providing a possibility to exchange experiences among
participants of the process of implementing EU funds in Poland.

6.8 Principle of partnership

Alike during the preparation of the operational programmes, economic and social partners
will be consulted at all stages of the Programme implementation according to the
requirements of art. 11 of the regulation 1083/2006 and the national law. The most important
element of using the partnership principle will be participation of economic and social
partners in the Monitoring Committee, which will ensure participation in the most important
decisions regarding the programme, in particular those concerning selection criteria of
projects for support or monitoring the programme implementation.




7. PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT BEFORE THE IMPLEMENTATION

Pursuant to the provisions of the Council Regulation No.1083/2006 independent experts have
been entrusted with the performance of an estimate assessment. The company Kantor Polska
Sp. z o.o. in the consortium LRDP KANTOR Ltd. was selected by unlimited tendering
procedure. The assessment started on 11 August 2006 and was divided into 5 thematic areas.
Verification of the socio-economic analysis and of the accuracy of the proposed strategy
in relation to the needs identified
According to the evaluating bodies the diagnosis of the socio-economic situation was
prepared correctly for the transport and energy sector, whereas in the case of the other sectors
it needed to be supplemented, corrected or its data needed to be updated. The remarks of the
experts were partially taken into consideration and the programme provisions corrected.
According to the recommendations of one expert a completely new fragment was added,
which described the situation in the sector of public administration responsible for the
programme implementation, whereas the original structure of the SWOT analysis was not
approved by the evaluators – they proposed that a separate thorough analysis should be
prepared for each sector. This recommendation has been used.
Assessment of the programme strategy rationality and its internal cohesion
Despite the gaps in the SWOT analysis and diagnosis the strategy accuracy was generally
positively assessed for some sectors.
However, the evaluating bodies has doubts as to whether it was necessary to finance air and
inland transport, given the limited funds, and to isolate the priority axis which is confined
only to road transport for Eastern Poland. Leaving the above-mentioned support areas
unchanged results from the air sector aimed at development; proecologic character of the


                                              135
inland navigation sector confirmed by the European Transport Policy by 2010 and provision
of other sources of financing for the other sections of inland waterways; as well as the
necessity to include the main centres of Eastern Poland in the national transportation system
(particularly road transport system) by providing a separate allocation of funds.
In the case of the environmental sector the concept of constructing multifunctional retention
containers from EU funds was rejected. In the case the decision on remaining these tasks
should be maintained it was recommended that multi-functional retention containers should
be only built when alternative anti-flood protection is impossible in a given area and also in
the case of other situations regarding allocation of funds for tasks related to renaturalisation
and the so-called small retention. This issue was also raised by experts who were preparing
the environmental impact assessment, which caused the description of the said priority axis to
be changed. Moreover, as the result of the estimate assessment an inaccuracy was eliminated,
which concerned the provision of financing for pipeline investments, with the exclusion of
sewage system infrastructure. It was also noted that reclamation of degraded areas should not
be confined only to reclamation for environmental purposes, as these areas are in most cases
located in city centres. This recommendation was also taken account of.
Also, the concept of financing the priority axis regarding higher education under the
Operational Programme Infrastructure and Development was questioned. It was
recommended that this priority axis should be transferred to the Operational Programme
Innovative Economy. Arguments in favour of this solution included a larger complementarity
of the initiatives with the scope of the Operational Programme Innovative Economy and
possible problems related to the demarcation of initiatives given delegation of these tasks to
the Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment, regional programmes,
programme for the Eastern Poland and the Operational Programme Human Capital. Despite
the evaluating body‟s recommendation it was decided that this priority axis should remain in
the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment. This is justified by the fact
that it is possible to connect educational initiatives with initiatives in the field of transport,
environmental protection, energy sector and health care, whereas according to the evaluating
bodies‟ recommendation the main objective of the axis was formulated anew in order that it
could include all initiatives planned for support and the specific objectives were divided in a
clear way.
In order to ensure a greater cohesion between the diagnostic and strategic part it was proposed
that the programme should be complemented with provisions indicating a necessity to limit
initiatives in situations when the EU support is provided for some issues. In the majority of
cases (an exclusion was the priority axis regarding environment-friendly energy
infrastructure, the scope of which was reduced) the evaluation confirmed the economic
grounds for the support. In the case of technical support the expert proposed that the
provisions of the priority axis supported from the Cohesion Fund should be complemented
with priorities corresponding to those for the axis financed from the ERDF, which should
ensure financing of all initiatives also from the Cohesion Fund.
Also, the allocation of funds was generally assessed positively. The experts‟ analysis, as well
as surveys and interviews confirmed that the allocation of funds was reasonable; however it
was pointed out that the general number of allocations for particular sectors was insufficient
as compared to the identified needs. The expert for environmental issues indicated the
necessity to find the balance between the environmental part and the one related to transport,
which seems ungrounded taking into account the analysis of the socio-economic situation of
the country and the support provided so far, as well as given the large amount of funds for
supporting transport branches that are environment friendly.



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Assessment of the programme coherence with the Community, national and regional
strategic documents and policies
The programme coherence with the Community, national and regional strategic documents
and the policies has been confirmed.
Assessment of expected results and impact along with the assessment of indicator
systems
The assessment of the expected result and the programme impact was based on the results
obtained from the analysis of the macro-economic effect HERMIN and the experts‟ analysis.
The experts confirmed the positive impact of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and
the Environment on the achievement of objectives concerning social, economic and territorial
coherence of EU as well as of Lisbon objectives. As regards the programme impact
assessment, the demand effect was also indicated as well as the leverage effect, which
contribute to the achievement of value added both in the economic and social spheres. None
of the experts indicated significant side-effects of the programme, the mitigation of which
would not be included in the implementation of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and
Environment.

As part of this sphere‟s assessment experts indicated gaps and deficiencies in the indicator
system and these remarks have been partially included in this programme version. In
particular, the horizontal indicator for the whole OPIE was corrected. The indicator proposed
in the previous version, which measured Poland‟s position in the IMD ranking was narrowed
to include Poland‟s position in the above ranking, which however related to the condition of
infrastructure only.
Assessment of the proposed implementation system
The assessment of the implementation system confirmed the many stages and the huge
complexity of the POIiŚ implementation system. It also stressed the necessity to coordinate
the implementation within the 2-4 first years of the new perspective of programmes and
projects from the years 2004-2006 and those from the years 2007-2013. The assessment of the
financing system confirmed the necessity to take account of the experiences of the existing
certifying body located in the Ministry of Finance within the newly created structures in the
Ministry of the Regional Development. The principle of partnership was positively assessed
at the programming period as well as its implementation at the stage of implementation.
Due to the fact that the evaluating bodies have carried out a very thorough analysis and
evaluated the programme itself as well as its national compliment, the work on the
implementation of the recommendation will not be confined to the correction of the
programme provisions only; it will also be continued after the approval of the programme.
Estimate assessment report and the detailed information regarding all the recommendation of
the evaluating bodies along with the position of the managing authority which was developed
in cooperation with the intermediate bodies have been published on the official website of the
Ministry of Regional Development.




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8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Legal basis:

          Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2001/42/EC of 27 June 2001
           (Official Journal L 197 of 21.07.2001) on the assessment of the effects of certain plans
           and programmes on the environment (the so-called SEA - Strategic Environmental
           Assessment Directive)
          Act of 27 April 2001 Act on environmental protection (Official Journal of 2006, No.
           129, item 902, as amended) – art. 40 imposing the obligation to take action as regards
           the environmental impact assessment of plans and programmes implementation
           effects.
Author of the assessment
Consortium Proeko together with Ekokonsult.
The aim of the assessment
According to art., 4 of the preamble to the directive of the European Parliament and of the
Council 2001/42/EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the
environment:
   Environmental assessment is an important tool for integrating environmental
   considerations into the preparation and adoption of certain plans and programmes which
   are likely to have significant effects on the environment in the Member States, because it
   ensures that such effects of implementing plans and programmes are taken into account
   during their preparation and before their adoption.
The objective of the assessment was to examine and assess the degree and way of tasking into
account environmental considerations, in particular parts of the draft operational programme.

Besides, the objective of the environmental impact assessment of the Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment was to analyse whether the operational programme will
positively contribute to sustainable development and whether it is compliant with the national
and international policies concerning environmental protection. It is also meant to identify the
negative environmental effects of the operational programme and include a proposal of
compensation initiatives.
The assessment was carried out pursuant to the provisions of the act of 27 April 2001 Law on
Environmental Protection128, which states that environmental impact assessment is necessary
for draft policies, strategies, plans or projects the preparation of which by central or
voivodeship bodies of public administration is provided for in the acts.
On 2 October 2006 social consultations for the programme started, as well as the
environmental impact assessment under art. 43 (2) of the act of 27 April 2001 the Law of
Environmental Protection129.
The draft Programme along with the environmental impact assessment were placed on the
website        of       the        Ministry         of        Regional         Development
http://www.funduszspojnosci.gov.pl/20072013. It is also available for inspection in reception
of the Ministry of Regional Development building (ul. Wspólna 2/4 Warsaw). The
consultations ended on 23 October 2006.
128
      Polish Journal of Laws of 2006 No. 129, item 902, as amended.
129
      ibidem


                                                       138
Information on the start of the above-mentioned consultations was also published on 2
October 2006 in Rzeczpospolita and Gazeta Wyborcza.
        This document was presented by the author at conferences regarding the sectors of
environment and transport. On 19 October 2006 a conference was held, which was devoted
only to the above-mentioned document.

        In addition, the material was recorded on CDs and distributed at the subsequent
conferences after 10 October. Also, the Ministry of Regional Development sent letters to
leader of NGOs and opinion-forming scientific institutions, inviting them to actively
particulate in the conferences, in particular in the conference regarding the draft version of the
assessment document.
As part of social consultations for the draft OPIE three meetings were planned/held the aim of
which will be/was also a draft Environmental Impact Assessment:
1. Conference on the support for the environment sector under POIiŚ
       on 5 October 2006, Warsaw (Building of the Ministry of Economy, Sala Pod Kopułą at
       Wspólna 2/4);
2. Conference on the support for the transport sector under POIiŚ
       on 10 October 2006, Warsaw (Building of the Ministry of Economy, at Wspólna 2/4);
3. Conference on the support for the environment sector under POIiŚ
   on 12 October 2006, Gdynia (The Pomeranian Science and Technology Park,
Al. Zwycięstwa 96/98)
4. Conference on environmental impact assessment of POIiŚ
       on 19 October 2006, Warsaw (Building of the Ministry of Economy, Sala Pod Kopułą at
       Wspólna 2/4).

After the completion of the social consultations of the draft assessment on 24 October 2006 a
meeting took place with the participation of representatives of ecological NGOs with the
undersecretary of state at the Ministry of Regional Development, which summarised results
of the consultations. On 31 October 2006 the author of the assessment prepared the final
version of the report including the results of the consultations and results of arrangements
with competent bodies.

Results of the consultations concerning the Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment:

Pursuant to art. 44 (1) (2) of the act of 27 April 2001 on the Law of Environmental
Protection130 the adopted programme should include written information on the way of using:
   a) Arrangements included in the Environmental Impact Assessment,
   b) Opinions and arrangements of the environmental protection body and the Chief
        Sanitary Inspector
   c) Results of social participation
   d) Information on the methods and frequency of carrying out the analysis regarding
        implementation of provisions included in this document.


130
      Polish Official Journal of 2006, No. 129, item 902, as amended.


                                                        139
Taking into account the arrangements included in the Environmental Impact Assessment:

The analysis prepared by independent experts showed no inconsistencies in the programme
provisions, which would require a significant modification or elimination of any of the
programme objectives. According to the opinion of the group preparing the assessment
document the main direction of the initiative should be advance identification of possible
environmental and spatial conflicts aimed at their elimination or at least mitigation by means
of land development plans of voivodeships or land development plans of urban areas. Thus,
these initiatives will be undertaken by the administration at regional level.
The other arrangements have been taken into account in the following way:
    The SWOT analysis has been complemented with the provisions proposed by the
       Author and provisions have been deleted that were incompliant with the assessment
       text;
    Data included in the diagnosis have been verified and complemented based on the
       assessment as well as the other documents (including also draft documents in the
       course of interdepartamental arrangements);
    The name o the priority axis II was changed from “ecologic safety” into „Resource
       management and counteracting environmental risks”, which better described the
       planned initiatives. The content of the priority axis was modified. It was clearly
       indicated in it that priority will be given most of all to projects concerning
       renaturisation, restoring natural functions, which reduce water outflow, increase
       natural retention and anti-flood safety in particular in cases when this does not
       negatively affects navigability of rivers, whereas funds for restoration, modernisation
       of hydrotechnical equipment in particular multifunctional one will be allocated in
       justified cases. Also, initiatives will be supported which lead to increase in already-
       available water resources as well as those concerning preventing and counteracting
       serious failures and monitoring of the environment, whereas the construction of new
       hydrotechnical equipment will be supported only in cases when it will be the only
       solution of risks encountered in the given area;
    According to the principles regarding the division of the assessment and concerning
       the potential crossborder impact of the programme provisions implementation in
       initiative 7.5. Improvement of inland waterways will not be implemented (indicated in
       the draft Programme of 1 August 2006) investments on border section of the Oder
       River.

Opinions and arrangements of the environmental protection body and of the Chief Sanitary
Inspector

According to art. 42 (1) and with relation to art.381 (1) (1) of 27 April 2001 the Law of
Environmental Protection131, the Minister of Regional Development applied on 21 April 2006
to the Minister of Environment and the Chief Sanitary Inspector with a request for
specification of the scope and level of detail of information required in the environmental
impact assessment of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment. These
provisions have been included in the Specification of the Essential Terms of the Contract
regarding the contract for carrying out the above-mentioned assessment. A preliminary


131
      Polish Journal of Laws of 2006, No. 129, item 902, as amended.


                                                       140
version of the environmental impact assessment was prepared on the basis of the scope agreed
with the above-mentioned bodies and submitted to the awarding entity on 25 September 2006.
On 2 October 2006 special consultations started as well as the environmental impact
assessment. On 4 October 2006 the Minister of Regional Development pursuant to art. 43 (1)
of the act of 27 April 2001 Law on Environmental Protection132 submitted the assessment
document to the Minister of Environment and the Chief Sanitary Inspector so that they could
give their opinions on them.
The Chief Sanitary Inspector did not submit remarks on the submitted document.
The Minister of Environment submitted remarks to be included in the final version of the
assessment document. The final version of the document was prepared after its verification
and based on the opinions and conclusions obtained from social consultations, including as a
result of arrangements with competent bodies.

Results of social participation

Before the work on the environmental impact assessment started, on 28 February 2006 a
Working Group for Environmental Impact Assessment and ex-ante assessment of the
Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment had been established. The Group
consisted of representatives of particular sectors covered by the programme as well as
representatives of NGOs, including ecologic ones. Then this Group participated in the
consecutive stages of document preparation and had the possibility to submit its remarks at all
stages of its establishment. As part of consultations of the operational programmes and the
environmental impact assessment no remarks have been submitted directly concerning the
assessment text, apart from the remark concerning the issue of taking into account in the
assessment indicative investment plans. However, in this case both the Contractor and the
European Commission claimed unambiguously that such issue should not be the subject of
the above-mentioned document. In the course of consultations a number of remarks were also
submitted concerning the content of the draft programme. The most important document
gathering remarks of ecological NGOs was the Standpoint of the Non-governmental Ecologic
Organisations on the draft Programme Infrastructure and Environment published in June 2006
and constituting a joint standpoint of 50 organisations, issued by Polska Zielona Sieć (Polish
Green Network). The publication was financed from the funds of EU and State Budget. This
document was officially submitted to the Ministry of Regional Development in September
2006 was also submitted officially to the Contractor of the assessment so that it could be
taken into account when preparing the initial version of the document. In the course of social
consultations this document was distributed by the representatives of NGOs. The Ministry of
Regional Development prepared in detail responses to the presented recommendations based
on the opinions presented by particular government departments as well as the opinions
prepared by the assessment author. One of the most important conclusions included in the
final version of the programme and taking into account recommendations of NGOs and the
assessment is modification of the provisions included in the priority axis III Ecological safety
(currently Resource management and counteracting environmental risks) with relation to
initiatives that will be supported as a priority. It was also stated that priority would be given to
initiatives regarding renaturisation of water-courses, restoring natural functions, which reduce
water outflow, increase natural retention and anti-flood safety in particular in cases when this
does not negatively affects navigability of rivers, whereas funds for restoration, modernisation
of hydrotechnical equipment will be designated only in justified cases. As the result of

132
      Polish Official Journal of 2006, No. 129, item 902, as amended.


                                                        141
recommendation regarding Poland‟s fulfilment of obligations resulting from the A provisions
of the Accession Treaty in the field Environment and proposals submitted in the course of
social consultations the amount of funds for priority axis I The water and sewage management
and priority axis II Waste management and the protection of earth.

Information on the methods and frequencies concerning carrying out the analysis of the
provisions contained in the document


Given that under the Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment a number of
objectives will be implemented that are related to environmental protection, the indicators for
monitoring implementation of objectives related to, for example, municipal waste treatment
will be also indicators of environmental impact of programme provisions‟ implementation.
However, apart from the above-mentioned indicators, also indicators proposed by the Author
of the Environmental Impact Assessment of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and
the Environment will be used.

Environmental sector

      % share of municipal waste designed for recycling or reclamation
      % share of waste segregated in the source
      % population in agglomerations >15000 PE connected to the water pipe network,
      % population in agglomerations >15000 PE connected to the water-pipe network,
      % of populations discharging waste water to waste water treatment plants meeting the
       requirements of the framework water directive,
      % of use of the potential of the existing waste water treatment plants,
      capacity of the existing waste water treatment plants.

Energy sector:

     efficiency of energy production,
     power of installations using renewable energy sources,
     use of energy per GDP (calculated according to PSN),
     indicator of emission of CO2/1 MWh of electricity produced,
     indicator of emission of CO2/1 GJ of heat energy produced,
     share of electricity produced in ”combined” systems,
     capacity of underground gas stores (million m3),
     length of main transmission lines as well as power, gas and crude oil supply lines
      (thousand of km),
    area of deforestation in areas designated for the construction of power lines or
      pipelines.
   Transport sector:
    structure of travels in metropolitan areas and large cities with a breakdown into public
      and private transport,
    share of railway transport in commodity and passenger transport,



                                             142
      share of the number of voivodeship‟s inhabitants living in areas with an exceeded
       level of noise,
      spatial range of noise generated by planes within urban areas,
      percent share of mass transport within a city,
      number of zones with a lower aerosanitary standards due to transport pollutions,
      share of marine transport in exports and imports,
      surface of agricultural and forest land excluded from production for the purposed
       concerning the development of transport infrastructure,
      surface of areas included in the system of protected areas, excluded for the needs of
       transport infrastructure (surface of land designated for roadways),
      amount of rain waste water directly discharged to surface waters
      number of passages for animals/ connectors of ecological corridors,
      increase in the surface of permanently developed areas.

Methodology of surveys:

For the purposes of monitoring (according to the provisions of art. 10 of Directive
2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the
assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment) publicly
available data from statistical yearbooks published by the Central statistical Office and the
Main Inspectorate of Environmental Protection.

Frequency of surveys:
In line with the deadlines for publication of the official statistical data, the monitoring of the
programme implementation impact will be dome on annual basis, starting from the end of the
second year, from beginning of operational programme implementation.




                                               143
9. INFORMATION ON SOCIAL CONSULTATIONS

Pursuant to art. 11 concerning “partnership” of the council regulation laying down general
provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund and the
Cohesion Fund of 11 July 2006 the Ministry of Regional Development (MRR) had been
conducting social consultations as of the time of programme preparation beginning. These
consultations concerned the draft Operational Programme Infrastructure and the Environment.
This period was divided into two stages. The first one covered the period from February 2006
till the end of July 2006. During this period a programme version was prepared and this
version was subject to interministerial consultations. This phase ended on 1 August 2006 with
a directional adoption of the document by the Council of Ministers and a decision to subject
the programme to social consultations.
The consultations of the draft document of POIiŚ accepted by the Council of Ministers –
started in September 2006 and ended in October 2006. During this process also the draft
Environmental Impact Assessments was consulted.
It should be stressed that the support areas provided for in the POIiŚ had already been
consulted before, as part of social consultations of operational programmes prepared in 2005
under the draft National Development for the years 2007-2013. The scope of support for the
draft POIiŚ 2007 – 2013 was consulted within the following draft operational programmes:
       Environment,
       Road infrastructure,
       Competitiveness of transport,
       Development of culture and preservation of cultural heritage,
       Territorial cohesion and competitiveness of regions,
       Science, modern technologies and information society,
       Education and competences.

The objective of the consultations was to obtain opinions and remarks of socio-economic
milieux and partners, which allow introduction of changes in the draft project.


The course of consultation process for the draft POIiŚ

   1.   I stage of consultations.
   2.   Statement of remarks gathered during the first stage of consultations.
   3.   Preparation of information materials on the programme.
   4.   II stage of consultations.
   5.   Carrying out consultations concerning the draft Environmental Impact Assessment.
   6.   Statement of remarks for the second stage of consultations.


Process of consultations

Stage I
The social consultation process for the draft POIiŚ and managed by the Ministry of Regional
Development already started from the stage of preparing a draft Programme. This document
was consulted as part of work of the working group specially appointed for these purposes.
The group consisted of 34 persons. These were representatives of government and self-


                                             144
government administration, social and economic partners and NGOs (including ecologic
ones).
The meetings of the working group took place on 28 February 2006, 31 March 2006, 3 April
2006, 6 April 2006, 7 April 2006, 14 June 2006, 28 June 2006 and 29 June 2006. They
concerned the draft programme in the fields devoted to health, culture, environment, transport
and energy as well as scopes of public health, system of implementation and selection of
projects and social consultations for POIiŚ.
Apart from the process of conducting work on the preparation of POIiŚ, the managing
institution archived remarks to the Programmes sent by interested parties. This statement
allowed correction of the Programme at particular stages of its implementation.
Another element allowing getting to know the opinions of circles interested in the Operational
Programme Infrastructure and Development were conferences on social consultations on the
National Strategic Reference Framework – the National Cohesion Strategy for the years 2007-
2013 in areas supported as part of POIiŚ. The meetings were organised with full involvement
of marshals, voivodes and members of voivodeship authorities. The participants, representing
circles of experts, territorial self-government units, social and economic partners and
members of parliament presented their remarks on the draft POIiŚ. On 22 June 2006 during a
conference in Warsaw issues regarding environmental protection infrastructure and energy
sector under the NSRO 2007-2013 were consulted. Another meeting from this group was a
conference on culture, tourism and support of health infrastructure. This conference took
place on 8 September 2006 and attracted social and economic partners, alike the previous
ones.
The he consultation conferences were preceded by publication of the draft document on the
website of the Ministry of Regional Development.
Stage II
The second stage of the social consultations started after the directional adoption of the draft
Programme by the Council of Ministers – on 1 August 2006. The society was informed about
this in nationwide press („Rzeczpospolita”, „Gazeta Wyborcza”; date of publication: 29
August 2006 ), as well as the website of the Ministry of Regional Development. The next
initiative was the creation of a network of electronic subpages in portals of the Ministry of
Regional Development, regarding the general programme issues, ex-ante analysis of the
project, social consultations and the draft Environmental Impact Assessment. Also, FAQ
system was created and this system consisted in activation of the e-mal address
poiis@mrr.gov.pl and publication on the website of the Ministry of Regional Development of
answers to frequently asked questions.
Apart the Internet publication of the electronic version of the draft Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment for the years 2007-2013 a cover version of the programme
was prepared and distributed – edition of 5 000 copies, information leaflets and brochures
8000 copies and a CD containing the electronic version of the Programme. These documents
were distributed during the conferences and submitted to regional European information
points.
The main element of the social consultations for draft POIiŚ was organisation of thematic
conferences:


Conference starting social consultations for draft POIiŚ


                                              145
date: 5 September 2006, room: „Pod Kopułą” Ministry of Economy in Warsaw – number of
participants: 250;
Thematic conference on health sector within the project of POIiŚ
date: 7 September 2006, room: WUW in Poznań– number of participants: 170;
Thematic conference on energy sector under the project of POIiŚ
date: 8 September 2006, Politechnika Poznańska – number of participants: 100;
Thematic conference on culture sector under the project of POIiŚ
date: 18 September 2006, room: MCK in Cracow – number of participants: 120;
Thematic conference on energy sector under the project of POIiŚ
date: 26 September 2006, room: „Pod Kopułą” Ministry of Economy in Warsaw - number of
participants: 200;
Thematic conference on the environment sector under the project of POIiŚ
date: 5 October 2006, room: „Pod Kopułą” Ministry of Economy in Warsaw
– number of participants: 240;
thematic conference on transport sector under the project of POIiŚ
date: 10 October 2006 r. room: „Pod Kopułą” Ministry of Economy in Warsaw
– number of participants: 180;
Thematic conference on environmental sector under the project of POIiŚ
date: 12 October 2006, room: „Morska” PPNT in Gdynia – number of participants: 150;
Thematic conference on the draft Environmental Impact Assessment
date: 19 October 2006, room: „Pod Kopułą” Ministry of Economy in Warsaw
– number of participants: 100;
Conference ending the process of public consultations under POIiŚ
date: 25 October 2006, room: „Pod Kopułą” Ministry of Economy in Warsaw
– number of participants: 150.

The conference programme in general outline consisted of a press conference with the
participation of the management of the Ministry of Regional Development and other
government departments participating in the programme implementation, representatives of
the radio, press and TV, presentation of the draft POIiŚ, presentation of thematic priorities
and a discussion.
The institution managing POIiŚ sent invitations to consultation conferences to over 3000
representatives of institutions interested in the Programme. The meetings enjoyed great
popularity and attracted about 1700 participants representing interested social and economic
bodies, NGOS (also ecologic ones), experts‟ and university circles, scientific units (scientific
units of the Polish Academy of Sciences, higher schools, research and development units),
self-governments of voivodeships and the other stages of territorial self-government
institutions, members of parliaments as well as organisations implementing projects within
the financial perspective for the years 2004-2006.
During the social consultations for the project POIiŚ, the managing authority obtained the
document „Standpoint of the Ecological NGOs on the draft Operational Programme
Infrastructure and the Environment, which constitutes a joint standpoint of 50 ecological
organisations. For more details on the above-mentioned document see Chapter 8
Environmental Impact Assessment.



                                              146
Agendas of meetings, presentations given as well as reports from the held conferences were
placed in electronic versions on the website of the Ministry of Regional Development.
The social consultations for the programme ended with a conference that took place on 25
October 2006.
The issues that were most often raised during the conferences were: insufficient allocation of
funds foe individual areas of support, eligibility of expenditures, types of beneficiaries, types
of investments mentioned as examples, demarcation line and the implementation system
(including the system of project selection and principles of obtaining support).
The most important changes introduced as the result of social consultations for the draft
Operational Programme Infrastructure and environment for the years 2007-2013 have been
given below:

       Allocations for particular priority axes have been enlarged;
       Some provisions from the sectoral diagnosis have been corrected;
       The provisions of SWOT analysis have been verified;
       The programme strategy has been improved, taking into account some remarks of
        ecologic NGOs;
       The objectives and descriptions of individual priority axes have been extended and
        more details on them have been provided, of which:
    -   A new priority axis XIV Infrastructure of higher education has been provided, taking
        into account argumentation of higher education institutions;
    -   The programme has been complemented with priority axis XVII covering key regional
        investments;
    -   Under priority axis II Waste management and the protection of earth implementation
        of projects concerning reclamation not only for environmental purposes have been
        taken into account;
    -   The name of the priority axis III was changed into Resource management and
        counteracting environmental risks taking into account the standpoint of the ecologic
        NGOS and social consultations for the draft Environmental Impact Assessment for the
        Programme;
    -   The description of priority axis III Resource management and counteracting
        environmental risks has been corrected, taking into account arguments of ecologic
        organisations and social consultations for the draft Environmental Impact Assessment
        for the Programme;
    -   As part of priority axis XII Culture and cultural heritage” the significance of art
        schools under the axis was stressed, taking into account the argumentation of art.
        Schools and universities.
       Lists of model types of projects and types of beneficiaries have been verified,
        including:
    -   As part of priority axis III Resource management and counteracting environmental
        risks projects have been added regarding improvement of sanitary safety of coastal
        waters, including those concerning construction and modernisation of systems used
        for carrying rain and snow water to sea basins;
    -   As part of priority axis III Resource management and counteracting environmental
        risks the group o beneficiaries has been extended to include the Institute of
        Meteorology and Water Management and regional water management authorities;
    -   Under priority axis II Waste management and the protection of earth initiatives
        concerning protection of landslides have been provided for support, taking into
        account the arguments of territorial self-government units from the southern Poland;


                                              147
    -   Under priority axis II Waste management and the protection of earth initiatives
        concerning activities in favour of eliminating of risks resulting from the landfill of
        waste according to the national and voivodship waste management plans;
    -   Under priority axis V „Environment protection and the promotion of ecological
        habits” the scope of one of the model type of projects has been extended. The scope
        has currently the following wording: preparation of protection plans for areas of
        special protection of birds and special areas of habitat protection Natura 2000 and
        national parks;
    -   Under priority axes VI and VIII as regards passage through towns with powiat rights
        reduction of the minimal number of projects was taken into account;
    -   Under priority axis VI „TEN-T road and air transport network” the category of
        beneficiaries has been changed and names of airports included in the TEN-T network
        have been omitted;
    -   Under priority axis VII „Environment-friendly transport” voivodeship self-
        governments have been included to the group of beneficiaries;
    -   Under priority axis VII „Environment-friendly transport” the company
        Telekomunikacja Kolejowa has been added to the group of beneficiaries;
    -   Under priority axis VII „Environment-friendly transport” projects regarding
        modernisation of the existing engines for passenger transport have been added;
    -   Under priority axis VIII „Transport safety and national transport networks” NGOs and
        scientific and research institutions have been added to the circle of beneficiaries;
    -   Under priority axis VIII „Transport safety and national transport networks” the
        minimal value of projects in the field of road traffic safety has been decreased;
    -   Under priority axis VIII „Transport safety and national transport networks” units of
        self-governments were included as beneficiaries of projects concerning intelligent
        transport systems. Also, significance of these projects under the axis was stressed;
    -   Under priority axis X „Environment-friendly infrastructure” most remarks on heat
        engineering under the programme has been taken into account;
    -   Under priority axis XI „Energy security” support of projects regarding providing
        access to gas grid in areas not supplied with gas was taken into account;
    -   Under priority axis XIII „Health security and the improvement of the efficiency of the
        healthcare system” support for the rescue system has been extended to include
        emergency notification systems and all types of non-public healthcare establishments
        have been included in the beneficiaries‟ catalogue.
       More details were provided for particular provisions, such as definition of the army;
       Under priority axis XIII Health security and the improvement of the efficiency of the
        healthcare system” the notion „workforce” was changed into „labour resources”;
       The demarcation line from 16 regional operational programmes and PROW was
        verified.


A detailed description of the consultation process, including the submitted remarks and the
standpoint of the managing institution have been placed in the report from social
consultations for the project Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment 2007-
2012 presented on the website of the Ministry of Regional Development:
www.funduszspojnosci.gov.pl/20072013/.




                                             148
A LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED

AGC – a European agreement on the main international railway connections
AGTC – a European agreement on significant combined transport lines and accompanying
facilities
ARE S.A. – the Energy Market Agency, a joint stock company
BAT – Best Available Techniques
CITES – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CSIOZ – Centre of Healthcare Information Systems
DG TREN – the General Management of Transport and Energy
EBI – European Investment Bank (EIB)
EBOR – European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
EFI – European Investment Fund (EIF)
EFR – European Fishery Fund (EFF)
EFRR – European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
EFRROW – European Agricultural Fund for the Development of Rural Areas
EFS – European Social Fund (ESF)
FS – Cohesion Fund (CF)
GDDKiA – the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways
GIOŚ – the Head Inspectorate of Environment Protection
GUS – the Central Statistical Office
IC - certifying institution
ICT – information and communication technologies
IMD – International Institute for Management Development
IP – Intermediate Body
IP II – second stage Intermediate Body
ISPA – Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession
IUCN – World Conservation Union
IZ – Managing Authority
IST – Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
JST – Units of local self-government
KE – European Commission (EC)
KGPSP – the Headquarters of the National Fire Brigade
KM – Monitoring Committee
KOBIDZ – the National Center for Historical Monument Studies and Documentation
KPOŚK – the National Programme for Municipal Sewage Treatment
KPR – National Reform Programme
LNG – liquefied natural gas
MG – Ministry of Economy
MRR – the Ministry of Regional Development
MSP – small and medium enterprises
MŚ – the Ministry of Environment
MZ – the Ministry of Health
NFOŚiGW – the National Environment Protection and Water Management Fund
NSRO – the National Strategic Reference Framework
NSS - National Cohesion Strategy (NCS)
NUTS – the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics
OECD – the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development
OOŚ – environment impact evaluation
OZE – renewable sources of energy (RSE)


                                         149
PAN – Polish Academy of Sciences
PGNiG S.A. – Polish Oil Mining and Gas Industry, a joint stock company
PKB - Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
PKP PLK S.A. – PKP Polish Railway Lines, a joint stock company
PMŚ – National Environment Monitoring
PO – Operational Programme (OP)
PO IiŚ – Operational Programme “Infrastructure and the Environment”
PROW – the Programme for Rural Development
PSN – purchasing power parity
PTTK – Polish Tourist Society
PZH – the National Hygiene Centre
PE – population equivalent
RPO – regional operational programmes
RZGW – regional water management authorities
SAR – the Marine Search and Rescue Service
SGT – Transit Gas Pipelines System
SPO – Sectoral operational programme (SOP)
SPOT – Sectoral Operational Programme Transport 2004-2006
SPO WKP – Sectoral Operational Programme the Growth of Competitiveness of Enterprises
2004-2006
SSP – special purpose companies
SWW – Community Strategic Guidelines (CSG)
TEN-E – trans-European energy networks
TEN-T – trans-European transport networks
Toe – ton of oil equivalent
TWE – Treaty establishing the European Community (ECT)
UCTE – Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity
UD – agreement on financial support
EU-15 – 15 member states of the European Union which were members of the EU before 1st
May 2004
EU-25 – 25 member states of the European Union after the expansion of 1st May 2004
UE – European Union (EU)
UOKiK – the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection
WFOŚiGW – Voivodeship Environment Protection and Water Management Fund
WHO – World Health Organisation
WNP – the Community of Independent States
ZOZ – healthcare centre
ZPORR – the Integrated Operational Programme of Regional Development 2004-2006




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