High-Rise Buildings 7- c List the benefits and drawbacks of locating a command post at a high- rise fire in the lobby area, or on the exterior of the fire building. 280 High-Rise Buildings Defining a high-rise building • One that is over 75 feet tall and constructed for human habitation. • Where there is a dependency on the building systems. • Part of the building is beyond the reach of the fire department's longest ladder. • The building would have an unreasonable evacuation time. High-Rise Buildings Defining a high-rise building • High-rises have changed from heavy concrete buildings to lightweight core constructed structures. • The high-rises built in the first half of the 20th century contained large masses of masonry material. • The second half of the century represented a drastic change to lighter-weight core- constructed buildings. High-Rise Buildings Core construction • The core area is the location through which the utilities, shaftways and elevators reach up through the building. • The core may be located in the center, front, rear or side of the building. • A core-constructed building built today can weigh less than 10 pounds per square foot. • Compare that to the Empire State Building in New York City, which completed in 1931 and weighs over 24 pounds per square foot. High-Rise Buildings Core construction • This reduction in weight is due to the changes in the construction material. • Exterior walls in the past were constructed of marble and granite; today, they are comprised of lightweight materials. • These changes in material create problems for firefighters. • The older material absorbed the heat of the fire and the fire tended to be more localized. • The newer construction materials allows a fire to generate much higher temperatures. High-Rise Buildings High-rise considerations • A high-rise fire often has many problems occurring simultaneously. • This presents a tremendous challenge. • The basis for success will depend upon: – Organization. – Preplanning. – Applying experience and training. High-Rise Buildings Operational guideline • The high-rise operational guideline should spell out initial assignments. • Most important is to ensure that a sufficient number of firefighters are sent to the fire area. High-Rise Buildings Operational guideline • The first unit to arrive at the fire area must: – Do a quick size-up and decide on the best way to attack the fire. – Determine the need for specific operations. – Estimate the number of personnel that will be needed. – Decide on the correct stairway from which to attack the fire. – Give a comprehensive report and request additional units if needed. – Initiate an attack on the fire. High-Rise Buildings Operational guideline • An initial status report will permit the Incident Commander to prioritize the situation. • The solution to many problems is often an adequate number of resources. • A high-rise fire will demand a great number of personnel. High-Rise Buildings Operational guideline • Working high-rise fires may show few signs from the exterior. • Upon entering the building, the initial- arriving units must make a determination of the location and scope of the fire. • Information can be gleaned from fire indicator panels in the lobby and verbally from those in the lobby and on the upper floors. High-Rise Buildings Knowledge of the building and its systems • The best way to protect life and control or extinguish high-rise fires is an automatic sprinkler system. • Many high-rise buildings are not protected by sprinkler systems. • Attacking and controlling fires in these buildings demands that firefighters have knowledge of the structure and the systems. High-Rise Buildings Knowledge of the building and its systems • Thorough inspections and familiarization tours are necessary. • Firefighters can identify problem areas and interact with the building engineer and security personnel in non-emergency situations. • No one knows more about a building than the building engineer. • The engineer should await the arrival of the fire department in the lobby area or other pre-assigned location. High-Rise Buildings High-rise stairways • In return-type stairs, entry to and exit from the stair shaft is made from relatively the same location on each floor level. • Scissor-type stairs consist of two sets of stairs in a common stair shaft. • Stairways in high-rises are not designed for total evacuation. High-Rise Buildings High-rise stairways • Firefighters should have a working knowledge of the different types of stairways found in high-rises: – The fire tower is a stairway that has access to outside air. – There are stair shafts that contain a vestibule between the hallway and the stairs that will exhaust any smoke that enters into a vent shaft preventing the contamination of the stairs. – The enclosed stairway. – There may be unprotected open stairs. – Access stairs that connect floors of individual business concerns. – Some stair shafts may be pressurized. High-Rise Buildings Stairwell pressurization • The basic premise is to introduce outside air to create pressure within the stairway. • This pressure will prevent the smoke from entering the stairway. • The outside air can be introduced at various levels throughout the stair shaft. • The system can function in a variety of ways. High-Rise Buildings Stairwell pressurization • Too much pressurization in a stairway would make it difficult to open doors. • If too many doors are propped open to fight the fire or evacuate floors, the stairwell pressurization can be negated. • There has been success in using positive- pressure fans to pressurize stairwells. High-Rise Buildings Use of elevators • The only practical method of movement in a high-rise building is by using elevators. • During a fire in a high-rise building, this can be dangerous. • Many fire departments forbid the use of elevators. High-Rise Buildings Use of elevators • A common rule is that the elevator should not be used by firefighters if the fire is located on the first seven floors. • If a fire is located above the seventh floor the use of the elevators is at the discretion of the Incident Commander. • If using an elevator, the elevator should have firefighter's service. • In taller buildings there are often split banks of elevators. High-Rise Buildings Elevator safety • Requires members to have their self- contained breathing apparatus ready for immediate use. • Ensure that hand tools are carried by firefighters in the elevator cars. • When ascending in an elevator, it should be stopped at random floors to check that the controls are operating properly. High-Rise Buildings Elevator safety • Firefighters should exit the elevator at least two floors below the fire floor. • Portable radio transmissions may affect electronic controls. • In extremely high buildings on windy days the elevator may be programmed with a safety feature of built-in intermittent stops. • If any doubt about the safe use of the elevator exists, climb the stairs. High-Rise Buildings Freight elevator usage • Some fire departments forbid the use of freight elevators. • Many departments, however, rely on the freight elevators. High-Rise Buildings Communication systems • The large amount of concrete and steel can hinder radio communications. • Fire departments can use other communication systems: – Stationary telephones. – Cellular telephones. – Hard-wire systems. – Public address systems. – Elevator intercoms. – Built-in emergency telephone. High-Rise Buildings Communication systems • Some departments automatically set up a secondary phone link. • Cell phones can also be used. • Hardwire systems can be utilized by an exterior command post. • Public address systems keep the occupants informed. • Many elevators have state-of-the-art intercoms. High-Rise Buildings Communication systems • Built-in phone systems, both stationary and plug-in can prove beneficial in a large-scale operation. • The use of multiple means of communications provides versatility, reduces radio communications and facilitates the overall operation. High-Rise Buildings Computer systems • High-rise buildings have a strong dependency on computers. • They control fire-protection systems, security systems, elevators and other building systems. They can: – Identify the locations of alarms. – Indicate doors that are being opened. – Unlock stairway doors. – Pinpoint elevator locations. – Identify the activation of any component in the HVAC. High-Rise Buildings Computer systems • The computer can provide a printout, or history of what has occurred in the building. • Since each detector, fire or security door, etc. must be programmed individually there is the possibility of human error. • To minimize mistakes a process to certify the building's systems must be in place. High-Rise Buildings Sprinklers and standpipes • An adequate and continuous water supply needs to be delivered to the standpipe and sprinkler systems. • The firefighters should know the size and capacity of the building's standpipe systems and the pumps supplying these systems. • The building's fire pumps may directly feed these systems, or water tanks may be used. • A dry-standpipe system may be provided in fire towers. High-Rise Buildings Sprinklers and standpipes • It should be noted whether the dry standpipes are interconnected. • Fire department pumpers can pressurize an interconnected system at any siamese standpipe connection. • If independent risers are installed, then the specific standpipe being used must be known. • The department should preassign units to pressurize these systems. High-Rise Buildings Dedicated water supply • Water tanks supply the domestic and fire- protective systems in some buildings. • These systems may have a dedicated water supply for the standpipes and sprinklers. • High-rise buildings may contain pressure- reducing valves. • They may be adjustable or nonadjustable. • If adjustable, the tool to adjust them must be readily accessible on the premises. • Firefighters need to be familiar with the pressure reducing valves in a high-rise buildings. High-Rise Buildings What procedure does your department utilize to check that standpipe outlets are closed on all floors to ensure an adequate supply of water is provided to the fire area and to prevent unnecessary water damage? High-Rise Buildings Water supply • To gain control of a high-rise fire requires an aggressive interior attack with hose-lines of sufficient size to achieve a quick knockdown. • In non-compartmentalized high-rise buildings 1¾-inch hose may be unable to accomplish this task. • Fire departments should consider utilizing 2½-inch hose with a smooth bore nozzle. High-Rise Buildings Water supply • The use of automatic nozzles that require 100-pound nozzle pressure may be ineffective if reduced standpipe pressures are encountered. • If necessary, supplemental water supplies can be secured by stretching hose-lines via the stairs or attaching to outlets from tower ladders or other elevated devices. • Either of these can present operational problems. High-Rise Buildings Floor separations • The two basic design concepts for horizontal floor separations in high-rise buildings are: compartmentation and open area. • The compartmentation concept divides each floor into small units. • To truly be compartmentalized the walls must extend from concrete floor to concrete floor and not end under the suspended ceiling. High-Rise Buildings Floor separations • The open-space concept is utilized in today's modern high-rise office building. Each floor is basically wide open. • Movable partitions may be-used to separate the floor area into workstations. • Under fire conditions this wide-open concept lets a fire spread rapidly throughout the entire floor. High-Rise Buildings HVAC systems • Air is supplied to high-rise buildings through air intakes that service a bank of floors. • Outside air is brought into the building, filtered and sent to various floors where it is heated or cooled. • The air is then re-circulated back to the HVAC unit. • The finished ceiling is lowered from the concrete above by installing a suspended ceiling. • The space created is called a plenum. High-Rise Buildings HVAC systems • The plenum is used for wiring, ducts and other utilities. • It is often used as an air return to re- circulate air to the HVAC. • No material should be in the plenum that can supply fuel to a fire. • The recirculation of air can spread smoke throughout a building. • The HVAC system may be used to assist in ventilation. • The building engineer's knowledge of the system will be necessary to assist the fire department in the proper use of the system. High-Rise Buildings Fighting the fire • Some normal firefighting procedures may not apply. • There will be a strong reliance on the building's systems. • Time plays a critical role. How long will it take to reach the fire? • What will be the reflex or lag time? • How much additional damage will occur from a free burning fire? • Firefighters should attach their own hose- line to the standpipe on the floor below the fire and stretch up the stairs to the fire floor. High-Rise Buildings Fighting the fire • Hose-lines stretched to back up the initial line can be attached to the standpipe connection at the fire floor. • Firefighters must be prepared for high heat and heavy smoke. • They may experience difficulty in advancing hose-lines. • After the initial hose-lines are in place, other hose-lines can be stretched to check adjacent areas for fire spread. • Whether progress is being made in controlling a fire in a commercial high-rise can be difficult to assess. High-Rise Buildings Fighting the fire • Hose-lines may be unable to advance due to: – An intense fire that has had a long preburn. – Large amounts of combustible material feeding the fire. – Hose-lines too small to cool and extinguish the fire. – Opposing hose-lines. – An insufficient water supply. – Wind blowing into the fire area through failed windows, pushing heat and fire onto the hose- line crews. – Ventilation systems pulling a fire toward the ventilators and onto the firefighters. High-Rise Buildings Fire spread • Predicting fire spread will assist in attempting to control it. • In addition to horizontal extension, fire spreading vertically to the floors above can occur by: – Auto extension via the windows. – Lack of fire-stopping where the curtain walls meet the concrete floor. – Poke-throughs in the concrete floors. • Auto-extension of fire occurs when fire laps out of windows of the fire floor and attacks the windows on the floor above. High-Rise Buildings Fire spread • Fire can extend to the floor above through spaces existing between the concrete floor and the exterior curtain wall. • Fire can also spread vertically through poke-throughs. • Tests performed on poke-throughs have shown that high temperatures in the fire area are quickly equated on the other side. • Fire that has taken control of a floor area in excess of 10,000 square feet is beyond the control of hand-held hose-lines. High-Rise Buildings Fire spread • Most standpipe systems cannot supply multiple appliances even with fire department pumpers supplementing the system. • A fire on a lower floor of the building that is past the point of control by an interior attack may be controllable with an exterior attack. • Through close coordination with interior units, outside streams can be utilized to knock down the fire. High-Rise Buildings Fire spread • After the fire has been knocked down from the exterior, interior hose-lines can move onto the fire floor. • These actions can mean the difference between control of a fire or total loss of the floors above. • If the fire starts to auto-extend and gains control of the floor above, it may be too late to stop the spread to additional floors. • The highest floor on which outside streams will be effective depends on the reach and height of the exterior apparatus. High-Rise Buildings Wind dangers • High-rise buildings are built to withstand high winds. • Wind can be a dangerous component at a high-rise fire. • We must be concerned with how wind will affect a fire on an upper floor. High-Rise Buildings Breaking windows for ventilation • Ventilating a fire by breaking a window in a high-rise must consider the wind. • It will be detrimental to break out a window if the wind is being driven into that opening. • Proceed to the floor below the fire floor and remove a window directly beneath the intended one on the fire floor. • If the wind is blowing into the building, then removal of the window in the fire area will be detrimental to the fire attack. • Falling glass can travel up to 200 feet from a high-rise building. High-Rise Buildings Time factors • The climbing of stairs in a high-rise is a time- consuming task. • Firefighters report that after climbing heights over 15 floors they need an initial rehab before engaging in a firefighting assignment. • Time frames depend on the physical condition of the firefighters. • Company unity is critical for firefighter safety and accountability. High-Rise Buildings Staffing hose-lines for extended periods • To operate a hose-line for an extended period of time requires a sufficient number of units. • The minimum number of crews or companies to accomplish this is three units per hose-line. The units are deployed as follows: – One crew will operate the line. – The second crew will be standing by in the fire tower, waiting to relieve the first crew. – The third crew will restore its SCBA’s and then move up to a standby position. • Other factors could require that the minimum be four or five crews. High-Rise Buildings Air cylinders of longer duration • The use of 45-or 60-minute air cylinders should be considered. • A drawback to the use of these cylinders is the physical effect it can have on firefighters. • It is important to have medical screening adjacent to staging. • When crews are operating on floors above the fire floor each firefighter should carry a spare SCBA. • Consideration should be given to establishing a remote cascade. High-Rise Buildings Life safety • What is the best way of protecting the occupants of a high-rise building when a fire occurs? • Should they be evacuated or protected in place? High-Rise Buildings Life safety • Firefighters should be familiar with the building's evacuation plan. • Evacuation should neither endanger occupants nor interfere with control efforts. • A fire that has control of a large floor area will necessitate some evacuation. • Initial evacuation considerations should target the fire floor and one or two floors above. • Other occupants can be protected in place. • Stairways should be designated for firefighting and for evacuation. High-Rise Buildings Search • Primary and secondary searches consume time and energy. • A list of building occupants is helpful. • Obtaining master keys will facilitate the search. • When performing a search, doors with hinges protruding indicates that the door will open into the hallway. • A marking system must be in place to avoid duplication of effort. High-Rise Buildings Rapid intervention teams • Rapid intervention teams (RIT’s) report to the Operations Officer and will generally operate on the floor below the fire. • Should more than one stairway be used for fire attack, then consideration for more than one RIT should be made. • The RIT’s should study the layout on the floor below the fire. High-Rise Buildings Rapid intervention teams • They should monitor radio messages for information. • Once a team is committed due to a firefighter being down, another team must be immediately put in place. • Crews above the fire floor must maintain communications and keep Operations apprised of their current location. High-Rise Buildings High-rise command structure • High-rise building fires require implementation of specific functions or duties. • The basic system does not change; it includes additional positions or functions. • The main components of Command, Operations and Logistics are always important, but success will also depend heavily upon functions specifically associated with high-rise fires. These include Lobby Control, Stairwell Support, Elevator Control, Base and remote cascade systems. High-Rise Buildings Operations • The position of “Operations Officer” on most assignments is at the discretion of the IC. • A working high-rise fire however, demands the immediate implementation of this position. • Operations will be directing suppression activities in the vicinity of the fire floor. • Operating in the fire tower achieves a measure of control. High-Rise Buildings Operations • It allows Operations to find out exactly what is happening. • To prevent from becoming overloaded delegation must occur. • The implementation of Divisions/Groups/Sectors will enhance control of units operating at a high-rise fire. High-Rise Buildings Staging • The idea is to move personnel and equipment to the staging floor to have them available for immediate deployment. • The staging area in a high-rise building should be a minimum of two floors below the fire floor. • Under conditions where a reverse stack effect occurs, staging will need to be located in a smoke free environment. High-Rise Buildings Staging • Staging is an assembly location for personnel and equipment. • To control these personnel a Staging Officer must be assigned. • When selecting a location for the staging area, it should be large enough to handle the large number of personnel with adjacent areas for rehab, a first aid station, SCBA refilling if a remote cascade is established and changing of air cylinders. High-Rise Buildings Logistics • The movement of resources and equipment up into the building will determine the success of a high-rise operation. • This becomes the responsibility of the Logistics Officer. • It is not unusual to utilize two logistic companies for every company engaged in suppression activities. • Logistics will be responsible for most activities occurring on the exterior of the building. High-Rise Buildings Base • Base is established on the exterior a minimum of 200-feet from the fire building to prevent injury due to falling glass. • Base is an area that is utilized for the marshaling of apparatus, resources and equipment. • Units entering the building need to take equipment with them to the upper floors. High-Rise Buildings Lobby control • The fire department must control the lobby area. • A Lobby Control Officer must be assigned. • An immediate priority of Lobby Control is clearing the area of civilians. • Police and building security can be utilized. • A secure area should be found for relocation. • Keeping those evacuated at one location until a list of names can be secured will assist in finding anyone reported missing. • Lobby Control must determine the status of all elevators. High-Rise Buildings Lobby control • The movement of firefighters and equipment to the upper floors is the responsibility of Lobby Control. • Lobby Control must initially track all units entering the building and note their destination. • This task will become the responsibility of the Safety Officer. • Control of the HVAC will come under Lobby Control. • He/she will need to gather information on people still in the building. High-Rise Buildings Elevator control • Once the safe use of elevators has been established, Elevator Control can be initiated and assigned by the Lobby Control Officer. • This position oversees the movement of all elevators. • A call letter should be assigned to each car. High-Rise Buildings Stairwell support • Stairwell Support enables the movement of equipment from the lobby to the staging area via stairwells selected for firefighting. • This is a very laborious and tiring assignment, • Discipline is needed to maintain this vital link. • Frequent relief will be needed for this function. High-Rise Buildings First aid stations • A first aid station should be established adjacent to staging that can monitor firefighters. • This medical treatment area can attend to occupants removed from the fire floor and those above. • Another first aid station should be established in the vicinity of the lobby to handle building occupants. High-Rise Buildings Safety Officer • The assignment of a Safety Officer is necessary on all working high-rise fires. • There will be a need to assign additional personnel or companies to assist the incident Safety Officer in the tracking of units. High-Rise Buildings Command post • The command post (CP) is the nerve center of every operation. • It can be established in the lobby of the fire building. Some FD’s situate their CP a minimum of 200-feet from the building. • Both locations have benefits and drawbacks. High-Rise Buildings Command post • The lobby CP allows for: – Improved communications. Hand held radios operate better and the IC, Operations, or Sector Officers can use building phone systems. – The IC has first-hand knowledge of the events as they occur. – He or she can have face-to-face contact with the Lobby Control Officer. High-Rise Buildings Command post • The drawback of the lobby CP is that: – A fire on the first floor or basement levels, or one in which smoke migrates downward to the lobby can make this position untenable. – Some high-rise buildings only contain an elevator lobby area, which can be too small to operate a command post. – Access to an interior CP can be impeded if entry into the building is hampered by falling glass. High-Rise Buildings Command post • The benefit of an exterior CP is that: – It may permit a view of the fire building. – The location of the fire will not interfere with CP operations. – Access is easily obtained. High-Rise Buildings Command post • The drawback of the exterior CP is that: – Communications with interior units is often not as good. – Face to face communications must be replaced with radio messages, hard-wired systems or cellular phones instead of the buildings communication systems. – Problems can arise if no feasible locations are available for a CP. The exterior command post can be restrictive in cities that have a high density of high-rise buildings and few locations to set up a functional CP with a good view of the building. – Severe weather conditions can impact on the efficiency of the CP functions. High-Rise Buildings Summary • The need for implementation of a comprehensive command system is critical at a high-rise fire. • Yet there is an urgent need for personnel to quickly respond to the reported fire location and attempt to quickly resolve the problem. • Don’t prioritize implementing command system functions at the expense of a rapid assessment and attack on the fire. High-Rise Buildings Summary • A fast attack on a fire in the early stages permits control and extinguishment with one or two handheld hose-lines. • Implement those parts of the system that are needed, and not the whole system because of the large size of the building. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Water • Dependency on the building’s systems will be needed. • Pressure reducing or pressure regulating valves can reduce water flow and pressure. • If additional water supply is needed on the lower floors of a building, hose-lines can be stretched from the exterior. For fires on higher floors stretching hose-lines via the stairs will be demanding and labor intensive. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Area • Large floor areas can be found in commercial high-rises and places of assembly. • Stationary or movable partitions may be the only separation within some areas. • Residential high-rises often are compartmentalized. Life hazard • The life hazard in an occupied high-rise building fires will most probably be severe. • Buildings are not designed for total evacuation. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Location, extent • Smoke may be spread via the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system. • It is difficult to ascertain the location of the fire floor from the exterior. • Use the building’s fire indicator panels for information on fire location and areas from which alarms have been triggered. • Obtain master keys for access to locked areas. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Apparatus, personnel • High-rise fires are resource intensive. Ensure there is an adequate initial response. • Contact the building engineer and utilize his or her knowledge of the building and its systems. Construction/collapse • Changes in high-rise buildings that removes fire resistant protection from structural steel allows it to be exposed to the high heat of a fire and can lead to failure of structural components. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Exposures • Curtain walls can create a space between the wall and the concrete floor through which fire can spread to the floor above. • Fire can extend to the floor above by lapping out of windows on the floor below. • Poke-throughs can allow a fire to extend to the floor above. Weather • Higher winds will be found as you ascend within a high-rise. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Auxiliary appliances • Sprinklers will exist in newer and some older buildings. Standpipes should exist in all buildings. • Special extinguishing systems may exist in selected areas. Computer rooms, kitchens in restaurants, etc. • The HVAC can spread smoke to uninvolved areas. It can possibly be utilized by the fire department to remove smoke from the building and to pressurize areas to prevent the spread of smoke into those areas. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Special matters • The plenum area in older high-rise buildings can contain combustibles that can add fuel to a fire. A plenum fire can spread to other areas of the fire floor by dropping down through missing ceiling tiles. The plenum can also spread smoke to other areas. Height • The higher the fire is in the building, the longer it will take for firefighters to reach the fire area to assess and mitigate the problem. Size-Up Factors for High- Rise Buildings Occupancy • High-rise buildings contain residential, office, mercantile, places of assembly and other occupancies. • Vacant high-rise buildings can be a problem. A major concern is whether the buildings systems are being maintained. Time • The impact on time can vary depending upon the type of occupancy. The critical time is when the building is occupied. • Reflex time or lag time will impact on the overall operations. Strategic Goals for an Offensive Attack • Obtain an assessment of the fire and fire area as soon as possible. • Ensure that an adequate number of firefighters are sent to control the fire. • Call for a sufficient amount of resources immediately if a working fire is found. • Fire towers should be designated for firefighting and evacuation. • 1½-inch or 1¾-inch hose-lines may be ineffective. 2½-inch hose-line with smooth bore nozzles may be needed. • Floors above the fire floor must be checked. Strategic Goals for an Offensive Attack • Evacuate occupants from necessary areas. Consider protecting other occupants in place. • Perform search and rescue. • Ventilation will be difficult. Opening the fire tower doors at the roof may ventilate the smoke in the stairs. Try and utilize the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning unit to remove the smoke. Breaking of windows can be dangerous. Wind conditions should be considered. Strategic Goals for an Offensive Attack • Positive pressure can be effective under the right conditions. • A high-rise fire will be labor intensive. Logistics will need a sufficient number of resources to move tools, equipment and air cylinders to the staging area. • Overhaul can be extensive and resource intensive. • Salvage can be tremendous in a commercial occupancy especially if a computer room is involved. It may involve water removal from lower floors due to water runoff. IMS Considerations/Solutions for an Offensive Attack • Incident Commander • Safety Officer /Safety company • Rapid Intervention Team/s • Operations Officer • Logistics • Base • Staging Officer • Lobby control IMS Considerations/Solutions for an Offensive Attack • Elevator control • Stairwell support • Ventilation Group/Sector • Search and Rescue/Evacuation Group/Sector • Division/Sector 10, 11, 12, etc. • Medical Group/Sector or Branch • First aid stations Strategic Goals for a Defensive Attack • Complete a primary and secondary search of the entire building. • If changing from an offensive to a defensive attack ensure that a PAR is taken. • Get technical advice from structural engineers and set up a collapse zone. • Utilize master streams. • Supply the sprinkler systems if sprinklers protect the fire floor or any floors above. • Protect exposures if necessary. IMS Considerations/Solutions for a Defensive Attack • Incident Commander • Safety Officer • Operations Officer • Staging Officer • Logistics • Base • Divisions/Sectors on the exterior on Sides A, B, C, D or 1, 2, 3, 4. • Exposure Branch/Divisions/Sectors (if needed) • Medical Group/Sector, or Branch Discussion Question 1 Discuss the importance of ventilation at a cellar fire. Discussion Question 2 Discuss the basic considerations for the first hose-line when descending cellar steps to fight a cellar fire. Discussion Question 3 Discuss the location of garden apartments in your response district. In adjacent mutual aid districts. Discussion Question 4 What access problems can be found at garden apartments in general? What specific problems can occur at garden apartments in your response district? Discussion Question 5 What problems are associated with the newer type of row houses or townhouses that have garages built under the houses? Discussion Question 6 Discuss ladder placement at row house fires. Can some of these methods be used at townhouse or garden apartment fires? Explain. Discussion Question 7 What is the benefit of marking vacant buildings to categorize their structural stability? What are the drawbacks? Discussion Question 8 Discuss why vacant buildings should be searched for occupants. Discussion Question 9 Discuss the pros and cons of an offensive attack in a vacant building. Discussion Question 10 How do large-scale building renovations affect firefighting? Discussion Question 11 What problems are associated with lightweight roofs built over a timber truss roof? Are there any benefits? To whom? Discussion Question 12 What are the signs of a partition fire? Discussion Question 13 What procedures should be followed when shutting down a sprinkler system? Discussion Question 14 What problems do overhanging canopies attached to the front of strip malls create for firefighters? Discussion Question 15 What problems are associated with entry into the rear doors of a strip mall store? Discussion Question 16 Discuss the types of malls in your response district and any unique problems they present. Discussion Question 17 What are the benefits and drawbacks to using a color-coded system for identification purposes at an enclosed mall? Discussion Question 18 What are the most common causes of fires in houses of worship? Discussion Question 19 Why is it so difficult to control and extinguish church fires in gothic style structures? Discussion Question 20 What are the dangers to firefighters associated with fires involving the hanging ceilings in a church? Discussion Question 21 In addition to religious services what programs do the various churches in your community offer? What problems, if any, will these programs create for firefighters responding to a fire in the church? Discussion Question 22 Discuss the lessons learned/lessons reinforced considerations with church fires. How would you attempt to utilize these factors if confronted with a church fire? Discussion Question 23 What initial actions would you take at a lumberyard fire involving a few piles of lumber burning alongside a frame storage building? Discussion Question 24 If operating at a lumberyard fire, what actions would you take if flying brands were starting numerous fires throughout the lumberyard and the surrounding community? Discussion Question 25 What problems would be found in evacuating different public assembly buildings in your response district? Discussion Question 26 Select at least three public assembly buildings in your local community or response district and list the various size-up factors that would apply. Discussion Question 27 Select one of the special occupancies in the preceding chapter and in reviewing the size-up factors add an additional 5 potential problems that could be present. Discussion Question 28 How do the building and fire codes in your jurisdiction define a high-rise building? Be specific and note the exact language used in the codes that apply. Discussion Question 29 Describe a core-constructed high-rise building? Identify one in your jurisdiction. Discussion Question 30 What are the responsibilities of the first arriving unit at the fire area in a high- rise building? Discussion Question 31 List the different types of stairways that can be found in high-rise buildings. Discussion Question 32 List the rules that should be followed for safe operation of elevators. What are the rules of your department pertaining to elevator operation? What changes could be made to improve those guidelines? Discussion Question 33 Discuss the benefits and risks of utilizing freight elevators by firefighters. Discussion Question 34 What are the various types of alternate communications that can be used at a high-rise fire? Discussion Question 35 Describe the difference in floor separations between “compartmentation” and “open area”. Discussion Question 36 Discuss the common ways that fire extends to the floor above in a high-rise building. Discussion Question 37 List the causes that could prevent the advance of hose-lines in a high-rise fire. Discussion Question 38 How would you break a window on an upper floor to effect ventilation in a high- rise building? What factors would negate proper ventilation through these broken windows? Discussion Question 39 Discuss a scenario where a hose-line would be staffed for long period of time at a high-rise fire. How many crews or companies would be required? Discussion Question 40 List the duties and the location of operation of a rapid intervention team at a high-rise fire. Discussion Question 41 What is the ideal location for the Operations Officer when fighting a high- rise fire? Explain. Discussion Question 42 Discuss the many and varied duties that could be assigned to the Logistics Officer at a working high-rise fire. Then decide on the approximate number of personnel needed to accomplish those assignments and how those resources would be obtained. Discussion Question 43 Draw up a high-rise command system to handle a working fire in the highest building in your response district. Assume that the fire involves the third floor below the roof and the building is occupied.