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					 Hazardous Materials
 Commodity Flow Study for
 California Routes 127 & 178

                                            September 2006


Study and presentation by HOME: Healing Ourselves & Mother Earth
       Jennifer Olaranna Viereck, Director www.h-o-m-e.org
Scope of Study

   Define risks to the public and Emergency
    Responders from the transportation of
    hazardous materials through the Southern
    Inyo Fire Protection District.

   2 main commercial routes: CA 127 & 178

   No other railway, pipeline, waterway.
Key Findings of the Study
   Hazardous waste = 65% of all placards documented.

   For every placarded hazmat truck, at least 3
    unplacarded were identified. Together, all hazmat =
    30% of all truck traffic combined.

   78% of all placarded vehicles traveled north or south
    on SR 127, 73% north and 5% south. 15% carried
    fuels and 85% carried hazardous waste.

   Only 22% of placarded trucks also traveled to or from
    Pahrump on SR 178 from Shoshone. These carried
    fuels, carbon dioxide and fireworks.
The Southern
Inyo Fire
Protection District
 The
Study
Area
Study Methodology

   There was no opportunity or location to stop
    vehicles, survey drivers or examine documents.

   Survey techniques were developed to record 14
    different facts from moving vehicles.

   We collected 175 hours of hard data over a 3 month
    period, April-June, all times of day, 7 days a week.

   Initially, we photographed all trucks, to identify truck
    body types, frequent carriers and convoy buddies,
    with Internet follow-up to verify hazmat carriers.
Known HazMat Origins and Destinations
Major HazMat sources or destinations
 Nevada Nuclear Test Site

 US Ecology Nevada

 Pahrump Fireworks Vendors



Minor HazMat sources or destinations
 Pahrump construction, auto, retail businesses

 Local fuel deliveries: gas, diesel, propane
              Nevada Nuclear Test Site

Nevada Test Site Low Level Radioactive & Transuranic
  Waste Shipments on CA SR 127, 2000 - Sept. 2006

                      2000   2001 2002 2003      2004   2005    2006    TOTAL 7
                                                                Sept    YEARS

Total shipments        503    906 1675    2422   2499    1227     742      9924
to/from NTS

Total NTS shipments    149    293   402    485    296      53      46      1724
on SR 127

% Total NTS           30%    32%    24%   20%    12%     4.3%    6.2%     17.4%
shipments on SR 127
US Ecology Nevada HazMat Disposal
   Chemical Name, based on EPA RCRA Category
LEAD COMPOUNDS, ZINC COMPOUNDS       CHLORDANE, ALDRIN

CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS                   BARIUM COMPOUNDS


CADMIUM COMPOUNDS                    ASBESTOS (FRIABLE)


NICKEL COMPOUNDS, COPPER COMPOUNDS   THALLIUM COMPOUNDS


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)     METHYL ETHYL KETONE


NITROBENZENE, HEXACHLOROBENZENE      ARSENIC (ORGANIC OR INORGANIC)


URETHANE, TOLUENE                    NAPHTHALENE, XYLENE (MIXED ISOMERS)


DISOCYANATES                         MERCURY COMPOUNDS
2002 Toxic Release Inventory Data-
6,201,699 Pounds Total (source: EPA)

   RCRA Subtitle C Landfill – 4,879,573 lb.
   Treated On-Site – 1,256,496 lb, resulting in
   Treatment Stack Air Releases – 65,541 lb
    and solids added to landfill amounts.
   Treated Off-Site – 527 pounds of PCBs.
   Fugitive Air Releases – 362 lb.
Health Effects from US Ecology Air
Pollution Releases from Waste Treatment
   Recognized & Suspected Carcinogens
   Suspected Cardiovascular or Blood Toxicants
   Recognized & Suspected Developmental Toxicants
   Suspected Endocrine Toxicants
   Suspected Immunotoxicants
   Suspected Kidney Toxicants
   Suspected Gastrointestinal or Liver Toxicants
   Suspected Neurotoxicants
   Recognized & Suspected Reproductive Toxicants
   Suspected Respiratory Toxicants
   Suspected Skin or Sense Organ Toxicants
         Illegal Fireworks Shipments

   In 2006, 46,000 lb were confiscated through July.
   90 separate seizures
   Estimated purchase cost: $200,000
   Estimated street value: $1,000,000
   25% of response incidents and 75 hours for SIFPD
    through July, to confiscate and transport fireworks.
   Additional SIFPD time: transfers to other agencies,
    storing, or disposing of inventory.
Fireworks are shipped from southern California ports
      placarded as Class C Explosives, 1.4G.
SIFPD Disposal of about 1% of
2006 Confiscated Fireworks
General Traffic Characteristics

     % of Total Traffic Sample: 13,356 Vehicles
            6%       11%
       5%
     3%                         Total Trucks 11%
    5%                          Passenger Vehicles 70%
                                Gov't Vehicles 5%
                                Small Commercial 3%
                                Motorcycles 5%
                                Bus & RVs 6%

                   70%
Semi Truck Survey Categories
   Placarded: All classes of identified hazardous materials
    shipments.

   Identified Hazardous Waste (IHW): All non-placarded shipments
    by carriers with obvious “hazardous cleanup” names, frequently
    seen carriers traveling in convoys with placarded vehicles, and
    all transfer box shipments No overlap with placarded shipments.
    It is likely that only northbound shipments actually carried waste,
    but impossible to discern from appearance.

   Milk Tankers: Jim Aartman Trucking is the single carrier with
    greatest volume of shipments by far, and runs 24 hours a day,
    seven days a week.

   All Other Trucks.
Composition of Truck Traffic
 Composition of Total Trucks: 1,518

                              All Other Trucks
         23%                  54%
                              Milk Tankers
                              16%
    7%                  54%   All Placarded
                              Trucks 7%
         16%                  Other HazMat
                              Waste 23%
Placarded Hazardous Materials Traffic
   78% of all hazardous placarded vehicles traveled exclusively
    north or south on SR 127.

   Only 22% of placarded trucks also traveled to or from Pahrump.

   Hazardous waste comprised 65% of all placards documented in
    the study, and almost 90% of all placarded loads traveling north
    on SR 127.

   Total numbers of placards will not be identical to total number of
    placarded trucks reported, due to the fact that some trucks
    displayed more than one placard at a time.
Placarded Vehicles by Route & Direction
   North on SR 127: 95 of 130 placards recorded, or 73%. 2
    propane deliveries to Shoshone, 8 gasoline deliveries to
    Shoshone and 85 trucks carrying various types of hazardous
    waste to US Ecology.

   South on SR 127: 7, or 5%. 5 were returning fuel deliveries, and
    two were likely returning from US Ecology with liquid tanks that
    had not yet been cleaned.

   North on SR 127 and North on SR 178: 18, or 14%. 8
    Fireworks, 6 were propane trucks, and 2 were carbon dioxide
    refrigerated gas tankers.

   South on SR 178 and South on SR 127: 10, or 8%. 8 were
    propane trucks. 2 were either diesel or fuel oil tankers.
Summary of Placards & Hazmat Classes
# of Placards   # Class   Hazardous Class                  ERG Guide

8               1         Explosives                       114
21              2         Gases                            115/120
14              3         Flammable Liquid                 127/128
5               4         Flammable or Flammable Solid     134
3               5         Oxidizer                         143
2               6         Poison                           153
0               7         Radioactive                      163
11              8         Corrosive                        140, 154, 156
5               PCB       Fire, Explosion, Health Hazard   171
63              9         Misc. Dangerous Substances       111, 171
Placarding Problems for First Responders
   Always Placarded: any quantity of explosives 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3,
    Poison Gas 2.3, Dangerous When Wet 4.3, Organic Peroxide
    5.2, Poison Inhalation Hazard 6.1 or Radioactive Materials III.

   “Dangerous” Placard- If two or more different hazard classes are
    on the same truck in amounts each totaling more than 1,000
    pounds but less than 5,000 pounds, may be used instead of the
    specific hazard class placards; also used for Explosives C or
    Irritants.

   No placard is required on shipments of radioactive materials,
    combustible liquids in containers of less than 110 gallons,
    etiological agents, Otherwise Regulated Materials (ORM) and
    small hazardous loads which total less than 1,000, excepting
    those specifically listed above under “Always Placarded”.
Problems for First Responders, cont.

   A majority of the hazardous waste shipments
    to the US Ecology facility were placarded with
    a very broad category or not placarded at all.

   Products to resupply large supermarkets,
    garden centers and hardware and automotive
    stores in Pahrump may be on the same truck.
    Solvents, cleansers, pesticides, herbicides
    and other chemicals could be dangerous if
    combined in an accident scenario.
Next Steps for the SIFPD

A total of fourteen different response protocols,
  as detailed in the 2004 Emergency Response
  Guide, are recommended for the placards
  recorded in the survey or DOE reports.
Further study of these response guides may be
  helpful in evaluating SIFPD response
  capacity for potential hazardous material
  accidents in the future.
Next Steps for the SIFPD, cont.

Documented hazmat materials were primarily
  wastes being transported to US Ecology
  Nevada and the Nevada Test Site. The
  chemical content of US Ecology wastes are
  on record with the EPA.
The more dangerous of these chemicals should
  be evaluated further to determine what
  protocols, equipment and training would be
  required to handle potential accidents.
Needs Assessment for the SIFPD
Finally, equipment and skills inventories should
  be completed by the SIFPD agency in a
  future needs assessment, to address these
  unusually high levels of hazardous materials
  transportation in the district.
Funding and resource providers should be
  secured in the future for this assessment, and
  to secure the needed equipment and training
  when the assessment is complete.

				
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