Hazardous Materials Commodity Flow Study for California Routes 127 & 178 September 2006 Study and presentation by HOME: Healing Ourselves & Mother Earth Jennifer Olaranna Viereck, Director www.h-o-m-e.org Scope of Study Define risks to the public and Emergency Responders from the transportation of hazardous materials through the Southern Inyo Fire Protection District. 2 main commercial routes: CA 127 & 178 No other railway, pipeline, waterway. Key Findings of the Study Hazardous waste = 65% of all placards documented. For every placarded hazmat truck, at least 3 unplacarded were identified. Together, all hazmat = 30% of all truck traffic combined. 78% of all placarded vehicles traveled north or south on SR 127, 73% north and 5% south. 15% carried fuels and 85% carried hazardous waste. Only 22% of placarded trucks also traveled to or from Pahrump on SR 178 from Shoshone. These carried fuels, carbon dioxide and fireworks. The Southern Inyo Fire Protection District The Study Area Study Methodology There was no opportunity or location to stop vehicles, survey drivers or examine documents. Survey techniques were developed to record 14 different facts from moving vehicles. We collected 175 hours of hard data over a 3 month period, April-June, all times of day, 7 days a week. Initially, we photographed all trucks, to identify truck body types, frequent carriers and convoy buddies, with Internet follow-up to verify hazmat carriers. Known HazMat Origins and Destinations Major HazMat sources or destinations Nevada Nuclear Test Site US Ecology Nevada Pahrump Fireworks Vendors Minor HazMat sources or destinations Pahrump construction, auto, retail businesses Local fuel deliveries: gas, diesel, propane Nevada Nuclear Test Site Nevada Test Site Low Level Radioactive & Transuranic Waste Shipments on CA SR 127, 2000 - Sept. 2006 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 TOTAL 7 Sept YEARS Total shipments 503 906 1675 2422 2499 1227 742 9924 to/from NTS Total NTS shipments 149 293 402 485 296 53 46 1724 on SR 127 % Total NTS 30% 32% 24% 20% 12% 4.3% 6.2% 17.4% shipments on SR 127 US Ecology Nevada HazMat Disposal Chemical Name, based on EPA RCRA Category LEAD COMPOUNDS, ZINC COMPOUNDS CHLORDANE, ALDRIN CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS BARIUM COMPOUNDS CADMIUM COMPOUNDS ASBESTOS (FRIABLE) NICKEL COMPOUNDS, COPPER COMPOUNDS THALLIUM COMPOUNDS POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) METHYL ETHYL KETONE NITROBENZENE, HEXACHLOROBENZENE ARSENIC (ORGANIC OR INORGANIC) URETHANE, TOLUENE NAPHTHALENE, XYLENE (MIXED ISOMERS) DISOCYANATES MERCURY COMPOUNDS 2002 Toxic Release Inventory Data- 6,201,699 Pounds Total (source: EPA) RCRA Subtitle C Landfill – 4,879,573 lb. Treated On-Site – 1,256,496 lb, resulting in Treatment Stack Air Releases – 65,541 lb and solids added to landfill amounts. Treated Off-Site – 527 pounds of PCBs. Fugitive Air Releases – 362 lb. Health Effects from US Ecology Air Pollution Releases from Waste Treatment Recognized & Suspected Carcinogens Suspected Cardiovascular or Blood Toxicants Recognized & Suspected Developmental Toxicants Suspected Endocrine Toxicants Suspected Immunotoxicants Suspected Kidney Toxicants Suspected Gastrointestinal or Liver Toxicants Suspected Neurotoxicants Recognized & Suspected Reproductive Toxicants Suspected Respiratory Toxicants Suspected Skin or Sense Organ Toxicants Illegal Fireworks Shipments In 2006, 46,000 lb were confiscated through July. 90 separate seizures Estimated purchase cost: $200,000 Estimated street value: $1,000,000 25% of response incidents and 75 hours for SIFPD through July, to confiscate and transport fireworks. Additional SIFPD time: transfers to other agencies, storing, or disposing of inventory. Fireworks are shipped from southern California ports placarded as Class C Explosives, 1.4G. SIFPD Disposal of about 1% of 2006 Confiscated Fireworks General Traffic Characteristics % of Total Traffic Sample: 13,356 Vehicles 6% 11% 5% 3% Total Trucks 11% 5% Passenger Vehicles 70% Gov't Vehicles 5% Small Commercial 3% Motorcycles 5% Bus & RVs 6% 70% Semi Truck Survey Categories Placarded: All classes of identified hazardous materials shipments. Identified Hazardous Waste (IHW): All non-placarded shipments by carriers with obvious “hazardous cleanup” names, frequently seen carriers traveling in convoys with placarded vehicles, and all transfer box shipments No overlap with placarded shipments. It is likely that only northbound shipments actually carried waste, but impossible to discern from appearance. Milk Tankers: Jim Aartman Trucking is the single carrier with greatest volume of shipments by far, and runs 24 hours a day, seven days a week. All Other Trucks. Composition of Truck Traffic Composition of Total Trucks: 1,518 All Other Trucks 23% 54% Milk Tankers 16% 7% 54% All Placarded Trucks 7% 16% Other HazMat Waste 23% Placarded Hazardous Materials Traffic 78% of all hazardous placarded vehicles traveled exclusively north or south on SR 127. Only 22% of placarded trucks also traveled to or from Pahrump. Hazardous waste comprised 65% of all placards documented in the study, and almost 90% of all placarded loads traveling north on SR 127. Total numbers of placards will not be identical to total number of placarded trucks reported, due to the fact that some trucks displayed more than one placard at a time. Placarded Vehicles by Route & Direction North on SR 127: 95 of 130 placards recorded, or 73%. 2 propane deliveries to Shoshone, 8 gasoline deliveries to Shoshone and 85 trucks carrying various types of hazardous waste to US Ecology. South on SR 127: 7, or 5%. 5 were returning fuel deliveries, and two were likely returning from US Ecology with liquid tanks that had not yet been cleaned. North on SR 127 and North on SR 178: 18, or 14%. 8 Fireworks, 6 were propane trucks, and 2 were carbon dioxide refrigerated gas tankers. South on SR 178 and South on SR 127: 10, or 8%. 8 were propane trucks. 2 were either diesel or fuel oil tankers. Summary of Placards & Hazmat Classes # of Placards # Class Hazardous Class ERG Guide 8 1 Explosives 114 21 2 Gases 115/120 14 3 Flammable Liquid 127/128 5 4 Flammable or Flammable Solid 134 3 5 Oxidizer 143 2 6 Poison 153 0 7 Radioactive 163 11 8 Corrosive 140, 154, 156 5 PCB Fire, Explosion, Health Hazard 171 63 9 Misc. Dangerous Substances 111, 171 Placarding Problems for First Responders Always Placarded: any quantity of explosives 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3, Poison Gas 2.3, Dangerous When Wet 4.3, Organic Peroxide 5.2, Poison Inhalation Hazard 6.1 or Radioactive Materials III. “Dangerous” Placard- If two or more different hazard classes are on the same truck in amounts each totaling more than 1,000 pounds but less than 5,000 pounds, may be used instead of the specific hazard class placards; also used for Explosives C or Irritants. No placard is required on shipments of radioactive materials, combustible liquids in containers of less than 110 gallons, etiological agents, Otherwise Regulated Materials (ORM) and small hazardous loads which total less than 1,000, excepting those specifically listed above under “Always Placarded”. Problems for First Responders, cont. A majority of the hazardous waste shipments to the US Ecology facility were placarded with a very broad category or not placarded at all. Products to resupply large supermarkets, garden centers and hardware and automotive stores in Pahrump may be on the same truck. Solvents, cleansers, pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals could be dangerous if combined in an accident scenario. Next Steps for the SIFPD A total of fourteen different response protocols, as detailed in the 2004 Emergency Response Guide, are recommended for the placards recorded in the survey or DOE reports. Further study of these response guides may be helpful in evaluating SIFPD response capacity for potential hazardous material accidents in the future. Next Steps for the SIFPD, cont. Documented hazmat materials were primarily wastes being transported to US Ecology Nevada and the Nevada Test Site. The chemical content of US Ecology wastes are on record with the EPA. The more dangerous of these chemicals should be evaluated further to determine what protocols, equipment and training would be required to handle potential accidents. Needs Assessment for the SIFPD Finally, equipment and skills inventories should be completed by the SIFPD agency in a future needs assessment, to address these unusually high levels of hazardous materials transportation in the district. Funding and resource providers should be secured in the future for this assessment, and to secure the needed equipment and training when the assessment is complete.