Cities Final Unit What is a city? Field of Urban Geography: Urban Geography: how cities function, their internal systems and structures, and the external influences in them Nearly ½ of world’s population lives in cities Sub-fields of urban geography: The study of systems of cities – focuses on where cities are located and why they are there Distribution across the world, connectivity The study of internal cities – focuses on the internal workings and structures of cities Demographics, ethnic segregation, architecture What is an Urban Area Nucleated (with one or more clear cores) No agricultural jobs, service sector, secondary and tertiary sector Includes a CBD Suburbs are economically depended on the cities; separate government City could described an urbanized area Where does a city begin/end? Across the world cities are so close its often referred to as an Urbanized Area. Metropolitan Statistical Area: central county or counties with atleast one urbanized area of 50,000 people or more, plus adjacent outlying counties with a large number of residents that commute. URBAN HIERARCHY Hamlet – a small cluster of farmers’ houses with perhaps a few basic services Gas stations, general store, coffee shop Village – Likely to offer several dozen service that are more specialized than those of a hamlet. Town – Structure have more specialized functions. Ex. Bank, post office, hospital, schools, and libraries. Also has a Hinterland: a surrounding area of smaller villages and hamlets that are economically dependent on it URBAN HIERARCHY City – Has a larger population, more functional specialization, larger hinterlands, greater centrality than a town. well defined central business districts (CBD: downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores offices, and cultural activities are concentrated Megalopolis – Multiple cities that have grown together from the highest level of urban hierarchy. Example: Bosnywash megalopolis Boston to beyond Washington D.C SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN AREAS 1930s social scientist Louis Wirth defined a city as a permanent settlement that has three characteristics: Large Size – Because cites are so large, a resident can know only a small percentage of the other residents High Density – People in cities have highly specialized jobs, this allows a large number of people to live in one place Social Heterogeneity – Include people with diverse backgrounds, allow more anonymity Origins and Evolution of cities Neolithic Revolution brought about permanent settlements Geography plays a big role in determining growth Formative Era: civilizations pop up in Nile River-North Africa Tigris & Euphrates- Mesopotamia Indus River- South Asia Other rivers- early China Function & Location of Ancient Cities Cities Located near: Rivers for farming & transportation productive farmlands Defensibility Travel and trade routes Function & Location of Ancient Cities As cities grew functions increased Urbanization: Increased job specialization Created a need for expanded government structures and functions Increase in trade with other societies Religion and education become focal points Function & Location of Ancient Cities Cities were growing everywhere in the world Europe’s Roman Empire fell and cities stopped growing for a while (500-1100AD) Asian Cities still flourished: 1000AD largest cities Baghdad (iraq) Constantinople (turkey) Kyoto (japan) Chang’an (china) Cities in preindustrial world often became center for culture: Primate Cities: Primate Cities: larger than other cities in the area and represent a national culture Function & Location of Ancient Cities Mercantile City- the center of trade routes Manufacturing City- where factories attracted laborers from rural areas and other countries to tenements Today’s Pull of Cities: rural-urban Urbanization accelerated in 1800’s in countries of Europe and North America because of Industrial development ¾ of people in MDC live in urban areas LDC- see increase in urban movement 25% in 1950 – to – 50% in 2010 In search of jobs, education, convinences like water and electricity World Cities & Megacities World cities exists around the globe; 3 are the largest regional centers: London, New York, Tokyo (tier 1 cities) Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington, Paris, Zurich, Sao Paolo, Singapore, (tier 2 Cities) Bangkok, Bombay, Hong Kong, Mexico city, Rio de Janerio (tier 3 cities) Based on: Business services – Corporate directors and support staff do much of their work in offices in world cities World Cities & Megacities Based on…. Consumer services – Many retail businesses concentrate their organization and efforts in world cities Public services – Ambassadors from other countries locate here, increasing the centralization of political power World Cities & Megacities By 2000- 19 Tokyo- 34 million metropolises in the Mexico city- 22.8 mil world had populations Seoul- 22.3 mil of more than 10million New York- 21.9 mil Megacities- UN term created in 1970’s for Sao Paulo- 20.2 mil these huge growing areas Cities and specific functions: Transportation centers- where major routes converge Roads, railroads, sea traffic, air transportation Special-function centers- engage in mining, manufacturing or recreation Most large cities are multi-functional Central places- cities become place that provides goods and services Economic Base of Cities: people who work Basic Sector: some city workers produce goods or services for areas outside the city Nonbasic Sector: crucial to the city’s business, professional offices, city government schools and transit systems THE CHANGING CITY In 1967 John Borchert recognized four stages in the evolution of the American metropolis: 1) The Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) trade took place by ships across the sea or along coastlines, or by wagons overland. The technologies determined job opportunities of people that came to work in cities. THE CHANGING CITY 2) The Iron-Horse Epoch (1830-1870): railroad technology changed the nature of trade and employment. 3)The Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920): steel industry transformed urban America and job opportunities of workers. 4) The Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920s-1960s): internal combustion engine came to dominate life-styles, employment opportunities, and the economic base of cities Models of Urban Land Use Rank Size Rule: nth largest city will be 1/nth size of the largest city. 2nd largest city will be ½ size of largest city 5th largest will be 1/5th size of the largest city Largest city is often called the Primate city (A) A A- 1,000,000 B C B- 500,000 E C- 333,000 D- 250,000 Models of Urban Land Use Walter Christaller: Central Place Theory: urban settlement for distributions of economic goods and services that surround nonurban populations People gather around areas that offer goods CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL E.W. Burgess CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL Zone 1: CBD- low residents, business, property costs are high Main focus is business Zone 2: zone of transition: light industry, housing for poor, mixture of business/housing Focus is on mixture of housing and movement to bigger business, wealthy have moved out CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL Zone 3: working class homes, moderate houses on smaller lots with stable working class families Housing is less expensive then outer rings Focus is on housing Zone 4: housing of middle class Single family homes/ high rent apartments These people can afford higher transportation costs CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL Zone 5: commuter zone, built up area People live in small villages spending leisure and sleep hours here and commute into CBD for work Sector Model: Homer Hoyt Hoyt proposed the idea that towns grew as sectors or wedges Industry grew up in one part of a 19th century town, future industries would then develop in that sector. As the town grew, so would the area of industry and therefore would grow out in a wedge shape. Hoyt – His idea. A –The Central Business District (CBD) This area contains shops, offices, banks, etc. Land is expensive, and this area has high rents and multi story buildings as a consequence. There is very little space and competition is high. Congestion levels are high. Vegetated areas are sparse. B1- Zone of Transition (“Twilight zone”) This contains old industries that have been positioned in this zone for many years. Over the past 20 years, this industry has been non-profitable and has closed. This has led to high-unemployment. This area should be re-developed into modern business districts. B2- Low class residential housing This group is made up of old 19th century buildings. With no gardens. Often referred to as ‘slums’. These were the buildings that were knocked down in the 1960’s to be replaced with high rise flats. The poorest people in the settlement live here, but is now highly admired and the place to live now. C- Council Estates Semi-detached housing is found here with no gardens. These houses are built on large estates. Less expensive private estates can also be found here. Often described as ‘medium class residential’ or ‘inter-war’ areas. D- Commuter zone This is a high class residential area where private, quality housing can be found. Detached and semi-detached housing can be built on cheaper land. Often lots of garages, big gardens, and many out buildings can be found here. Most people commute to work from this zone as it is furthest away from the centre. E- Countryside Areas In the countryside surrounding the urban area, those seeking to escape from the urban area can live in pleasant surroundings. However, they are still close to work. Many satellite villages and towns surround major urban areas allowing people to live further away from the main settlement. Multiple Nuclei Model CD Harris & EL Ullman Multiple Nuclei Model Large cities spread from several nodes, not just one Individual nodes have special functions Ports, neighborhoods, business, universities, airports, residences Shows different nodes Patterns of Class, Age, Gender, Race & Ethnicity Social Area Analysis- puts together information from census tracts to create an overall picture of how various types of people are distributed within an area People want to live near common characteristic Live/cluster around areas of similar income and tendencies Larger the area, more likely people segregate in areas together Patterns of Class, Age, Gender, Race & Ethnicity Social Class Often measured by income, people group together based on this ( shown in Hoyt Model) Age & Marital Status Younger families- live further away from city for space to raise kids Young professionals, unmarried, no children live in city Patterns of Class, Age, Gender, Race & Ethnicity Gender 28% of US families with children under 18 have only one parent 78% of one parent families are headed by women Feminization of poverty- increasing proportion of the poor are women Rely on public transportation so they live in central parts of cities Race & Ethnicity Multi-nuclei shows clustering of people based on ethnic lines Little Italy/Little China- group together Ghetto’s- dilapidated housing, high crime rates, inadequate schools: Undesirable area’s Ghettoization Ethnic groups grow out from core of city. Ghettoization: racial minorities confined to older, low-cost housing areas typically close to a city center 4 types of Ghetto’s: 1- Early Southern Ghetto- pre-civil war, African Americans confined to small houses in alleys and back streets, but worked in near by white communities Charleston & New Orleans Ghettoization 2- Classic Southern Ghetto- post slavery; free blacks lived in small houses or poor quality on undesirable land Swampland, near railroads 3- Early Northern Ghetto- African Americans will compete with other groups as they settle in northern cities Often live in high-density deteriorating housing near CBD 4- Classic Northern Ghetto- black ghetto’s grew around CBD and nearby low-rent housing. White neighborhoods/suburbs strongly resist blacks moving in area = large growth & over crowding Transportation & Infrastructure Infrastructure: Facilities that support basic economic activities to a degree that a city cannot function without them. Hotels, banks, post offices, radio stations Roads, docks, railways, airports, transit systems Infrastructure: Modern Forms of Transportation Motor Vehicles Cars permit people to live in suburbs Most used mode of transportation in and out of a city Causes rush hour Public Transportation More common in cities More efficient because each person takes up less space Political Organization & Zoning Zoning Ordinances- first developed in Europe & US in early 20th century Encourage separation by preventing mixing of land uses within the same district Effect- has made it difficult for poor people to escape neighborhoods Some believe zoning reinforces ethnic, racial and class lines Political Organization: Government Fragmentation Council of Government- cooperative agencies consisting of representatives form local governments in the region (Fragmentation) New trend in urban areas due to expansive growth Urban Planning Smart Growth- ways to curb sprawl, limit traffic congestion and reverse inner-city decline Goal- produce a pattern of controlled development Urban Renewal- government can buy properties form owners, relocate residents & business, clear site and build new roads and utilities Gentrification- housing areas that have been renovated and attract middle class residents.
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