Cities (PowerPoint) by chenmeixiu

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									Cities
Final Unit
What is a city?
   Field of Urban Geography:
          Urban Geography: how cities function, their
           internal systems and structures, and the external
           influences in them
                 Nearly ½ of world’s population lives in cities
Sub-fields of urban geography:

   The study of systems of cities – focuses on
    where cities are located and why they are
    there
           Distribution across the world, connectivity

   The study of internal cities – focuses on the
    internal workings and structures of cities
           Demographics, ethnic segregation, architecture
What is an Urban Area
   Nucleated (with one or more clear cores)
   No agricultural jobs, service sector,
    secondary and tertiary sector
          Includes a CBD
   Suburbs are economically depended on the
    cities; separate government
             City could described an urbanized area
Where does a city begin/end?
   Across the world cities are so close its
    often referred to as an Urbanized Area.
   Metropolitan Statistical Area: central county
    or counties with atleast one urbanized area
    of 50,000 people or more, plus adjacent
    outlying counties with a large number of
    residents that commute.
URBAN HIERARCHY
   Hamlet – a small cluster of farmers’ houses with
    perhaps a few basic services
          Gas stations, general store, coffee shop
   Village – Likely to offer several dozen service that
    are more specialized than those of a hamlet.
   Town – Structure have more specialized
    functions. Ex. Bank, post office, hospital, schools,
    and libraries. Also has a
          Hinterland: a surrounding area of smaller villages and
           hamlets that are economically dependent on it
URBAN HIERARCHY
   City – Has a larger population, more functional
    specialization, larger hinterlands, greater
    centrality than a town.
          well defined central business districts (CBD: downtown or
           nucleus of a city where retail stores offices, and cultural
           activities are concentrated
   Megalopolis – Multiple cities that have grown
    together from the highest level of urban hierarchy.
          Example: Bosnywash megalopolis Boston to beyond
           Washington D.C
SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
URBAN AREAS

   1930s social scientist Louis Wirth defined a city as
    a permanent settlement that has three
    characteristics:
       Large Size – Because cites are so large, a resident can
        know only a small percentage of the other residents
       High Density – People in cities have highly specialized
        jobs, this allows a large number of people to live in one
        place
       Social Heterogeneity – Include people with diverse
        backgrounds, allow more anonymity
Origins and Evolution of cities
   Neolithic Revolution brought about permanent
    settlements
   Geography plays a big role in determining growth
   Formative Era: civilizations pop up in
       Nile River-North Africa
       Tigris & Euphrates- Mesopotamia
       Indus River- South Asia
       Other rivers- early China
Function & Location of Ancient Cities
   Cities Located near:
       Rivers for farming & transportation
       productive farmlands
       Defensibility
       Travel and trade routes
Function & Location of Ancient Cities
   As cities grew functions increased
       Urbanization:
            Increased job specialization
            Created a need for expanded government
             structures and functions
            Increase in trade with other societies
            Religion and education become focal points
Function & Location of Ancient Cities
   Cities were growing everywhere in the world
       Europe’s Roman Empire fell and cities stopped growing
        for a while (500-1100AD)
   Asian Cities still flourished: 1000AD largest cities
            Baghdad (iraq)
            Constantinople (turkey)
            Kyoto (japan)
            Chang’an (china)
   Cities in preindustrial world often became center
    for culture: Primate Cities:
            Primate Cities: larger than other cities in the area and
             represent a national culture
Function & Location of Ancient Cities
   Mercantile City- the center of trade routes
   Manufacturing City- where factories
    attracted laborers from rural areas and
    other countries to tenements
Today’s Pull of Cities: rural-urban
   Urbanization accelerated in 1800’s in
    countries of Europe and North America
    because of Industrial development
       ¾ of people in MDC live in urban areas
       LDC- see increase in urban movement
            25% in 1950 – to – 50% in 2010
            In search of jobs, education, convinences like
             water and electricity
World Cities & Megacities
   World cities exists around the globe; 3 are the
    largest regional centers:
            London, New York, Tokyo (tier 1 cities)
            Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington, Paris, Zurich, Sao
             Paolo, Singapore, (tier 2 Cities)
            Bangkok, Bombay, Hong Kong, Mexico city, Rio de Janerio
             (tier 3 cities)
   Based on:
       Business services – Corporate directors and support
        staff do much of their work in offices in world cities
World Cities & Megacities
   Based on….
   Consumer services – Many retail
    businesses concentrate their organization
    and efforts in world cities
   Public services – Ambassadors from other
    countries locate here, increasing the
    centralization of political power
World Cities & Megacities
   By 2000- 19                 Tokyo- 34 million
    metropolises in the         Mexico city- 22.8 mil
    world had populations       Seoul- 22.3 mil
    of more than 10million
                                New York- 21.9 mil
   Megacities- UN term
    created in 1970’s for       Sao Paulo- 20.2 mil
    these huge growing
    areas
Cities and specific functions:
   Transportation centers- where major routes
    converge
          Roads, railroads, sea traffic, air transportation
   Special-function centers- engage in mining,
    manufacturing or recreation
          Most large cities are multi-functional
   Central places- cities become place that
    provides goods and services
Economic Base of Cities: people who
work
   Basic Sector: some city workers produce
    goods or services for areas outside the city
   Nonbasic Sector: crucial to the city’s
    business, professional offices, city
    government schools and transit systems
THE CHANGING CITY
    In 1967 John Borchert recognized four
     stages in the evolution of the American
     metropolis:
1)   The Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) trade
     took place by ships across the sea or
     along coastlines, or by wagons overland.
         The technologies determined job opportunities of
          people that came to work in cities.
THE CHANGING CITY
2) The Iron-Horse Epoch (1830-1870):
        railroad technology changed the nature of trade and
         employment.
3)The Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920):
        steel industry transformed urban America and job
         opportunities of workers.
4) The Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920s-1960s):
        internal combustion engine came to dominate life-styles,
         employment opportunities, and the economic base of cities
Models of Urban Land Use
   Rank Size Rule: nth largest city will be 1/nth
    size of the largest city.
          2nd largest city will be ½ size of largest city
          5th largest will be 1/5th size of the largest city
   Largest city is often called the Primate city
    (A)                A             A- 1,000,000
                    B                  C        B- 500,000

                            E                   C- 333,000
                                                D- 250,000
Models of Urban Land Use
   Walter Christaller: Central Place Theory:
    urban settlement for distributions of
    economic goods and services that surround
    nonurban populations
          People gather around areas that offer goods
CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL
   E.W. Burgess
CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL
   Zone 1: CBD- low residents, business,
    property costs are high
          Main focus is business
   Zone 2: zone of transition: light industry,
    housing for poor, mixture of
    business/housing
          Focus is on mixture of housing and movement to
           bigger business, wealthy have moved out
CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL
   Zone 3: working class homes, moderate
    houses on smaller lots with stable working
    class families
          Housing is less expensive then outer rings
          Focus is on housing
   Zone 4: housing of middle class
          Single family homes/ high rent apartments
          These people can afford higher transportation
           costs
CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL
   Zone 5: commuter zone, built up area
          People live in small villages spending leisure and
           sleep hours here and commute into CBD for work
Sector Model: Homer Hoyt
   Hoyt proposed the idea that towns grew as
    sectors or wedges
   Industry grew up in one part of a 19th
    century town, future industries would then
    develop in that sector.
   As the town grew, so would the area of
    industry and therefore would grow out in a
    wedge shape.
Hoyt – His idea.
A –The Central Business District (CBD)
   This area contains shops, offices, banks, etc.
   Land is expensive, and this area has high rents
    and multi story buildings as a consequence.
   There is very little space and competition is high.
   Congestion levels are high.
   Vegetated areas are sparse.
B1- Zone of Transition
   (“Twilight zone”)
   This contains old industries that have been
    positioned in this zone for many years.
   Over the past 20 years, this industry has
    been non-profitable and has closed.
   This has led to high-unemployment.
   This area should be re-developed into
    modern business districts.
B2- Low class residential
   housing
   This group is made up of old 19th century
    buildings. With no gardens.
   Often referred to as ‘slums’. These were the
    buildings that were knocked down in the 1960’s to
    be replaced with high rise flats.
   The poorest people in the settlement live here, but
    is now highly admired and the place to live now.
C- Council Estates
   Semi-detached housing is found here with
    no gardens.
   These houses are built on large estates.
   Less expensive private estates can also be
    found here.
   Often described as ‘medium class
    residential’ or ‘inter-war’ areas.
D- Commuter zone
   This is a high class residential area where private,
    quality housing can be found.
   Detached and semi-detached housing can be built
    on cheaper land.
   Often lots of garages, big gardens, and many out
    buildings can be found here.
   Most people commute to work from this zone as it
    is furthest away from the centre.
E- Countryside Areas
   In the countryside surrounding the urban area,
    those seeking to escape from the urban area can
    live in pleasant surroundings.
   However, they are still close to work.
   Many satellite villages and towns surround major
    urban areas allowing people to live further away
    from the main settlement.
Multiple Nuclei Model
CD Harris & EL Ullman
Multiple Nuclei Model

   Large cities spread
    from several nodes,
    not just one
   Individual nodes have
    special functions
          Ports, neighborhoods,
           business, universities,
           airports, residences
   Shows different nodes
Patterns of Class, Age, Gender, Race
& Ethnicity
   Social Area Analysis- puts together
    information from census tracts to create an
    overall picture of how various types of
    people are distributed within an area
          People want to live near common characteristic
          Live/cluster around areas of similar income and
           tendencies
          Larger the area, more likely people segregate in
           areas together
Patterns of Class, Age, Gender, Race
& Ethnicity
   Social Class
          Often measured by income, people group together
           based on this ( shown in Hoyt Model)
   Age & Marital Status
          Younger families- live further away from city for
           space to raise kids
          Young professionals, unmarried, no children live
           in city
Patterns of Class, Age, Gender, Race
& Ethnicity
   Gender
          28% of US families with children under 18 have only one
           parent
          78% of one parent families are headed by women
          Feminization of poverty- increasing proportion of the poor
           are women
                  Rely on public transportation so they live in central parts
                   of cities
   Race & Ethnicity
          Multi-nuclei shows clustering of people based on ethnic lines
          Little Italy/Little China- group together
          Ghetto’s- dilapidated housing, high crime rates, inadequate
           schools: Undesirable area’s
Ghettoization
   Ethnic groups grow out from core of city.
   Ghettoization: racial minorities confined to older,
    low-cost housing areas typically close to a city
    center
   4 types of Ghetto’s:
       1- Early Southern Ghetto- pre-civil war, African
        Americans confined to small houses in alleys and back
        streets, but worked in near by white communities
             Charleston & New Orleans
Ghettoization
    2- Classic Southern Ghetto- post slavery; free blacks
     lived in small houses or poor quality on undesirable land
           Swampland, near railroads
    3- Early Northern Ghetto- African Americans will
     compete with other groups as they settle in northern cities
           Often live in high-density deteriorating housing near CBD
    4- Classic Northern Ghetto- black ghetto’s grew around
     CBD and nearby low-rent housing.
           White neighborhoods/suburbs strongly resist blacks moving in
            area = large growth & over crowding
Transportation & Infrastructure
   Infrastructure: Facilities that support basic
    economic activities to a degree that a city
    cannot function without them.
          Hotels, banks, post offices, radio stations
          Roads, docks, railways, airports, transit systems
Infrastructure:
 Modern Forms of Transportation
   Motor Vehicles
          Cars permit people to live in suburbs
          Most used mode of transportation in and out of a
           city
          Causes rush hour
   Public Transportation
          More common in cities
          More efficient because each person takes up less
           space
Political Organization & Zoning
   Zoning Ordinances- first developed in
    Europe & US in early 20th century
          Encourage separation by preventing mixing of
           land uses within the same district
          Effect- has made it difficult for poor people to
           escape neighborhoods
          Some believe zoning reinforces ethnic, racial and
           class lines
Political Organization: Government
Fragmentation
   Council of Government- cooperative
    agencies consisting of representatives form
    local governments in the region
    (Fragmentation)
       New trend in urban areas due to expansive
        growth
Urban Planning
   Smart Growth- ways to curb sprawl, limit traffic
    congestion and reverse inner-city decline
          Goal- produce a pattern of controlled development
   Urban Renewal- government can buy properties
    form owners, relocate residents & business, clear
    site and build new roads and utilities
   Gentrification- housing areas that have been
    renovated and attract middle class residents.

								
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